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1.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 436-447, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099319

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivos: Revisar la aplicación del Convenio Marco de la OMS para el Control del Tabaco en las Américas, describir dos estudios de caso nacionales y analizar la evidencia sobre los cigarrillos electrónicos desde la perspectiva de salud pública. Material y métodos: Revisión de la legislación de control de tabaco y la evidencia científica sobre los cigarrillos electrónicos. Resultados: La aplicación de políticas no es homogénea, con avances importantes en ambientes libres de humo, advertencias sanitarias gráficas y vigilancia epidemiológica, pero desafíos pendientes en la prohibición total de la publicidad, incremento de impuestos y cesación tabáquica. La interferencia de la industria tabacalera es uno de los principales obstáculos para avanzar y los nuevos productos crean incertidumbre sobre su regulación. Conclusiones: Se necesita revitalizar la voluntad política para aplicar integralmente el Convenio, tomando decisiones basadas en evidencia ante los nuevos desafíos y defendiendo los logros de la interferencia de la industria.


Abstract: Objectives: To review the implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in the Americas, describe two national case studies and analyze the evidence on electronic cigarettes from a public health perspective. Materials and methods: Revision of the tobacco control legislation and the scientific evidence regarding electronic cigarettes. Results: Implementation of tobacco control policies is not homogeneous, with important advances in smoke-free environments, pictorial health warnings, and epidemiological surveillance, but challenges that remain for the implementation of a total ban of tobacco advertising, increases in tobacco taxes, and tobacco cessation programs. Tobacco industry interference is one of the main obstacles for advancing and novel products create uncertainty about their regulation. Conclusion: There is a need for political will for a comprehensive implementation of the Convention, with evidence-based decisions to confront challenges and to defend the achievements from tobacco industry interference.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Products/legislation & jurisprudence , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking Prevention/legislation & jurisprudence , Panama , Taxes , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , World Health Organization , Advertising , Evidence-Based Practice , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Prevention/trends , Health Plan Implementation , Health Promotion/methods , International Cooperation , Lobbying , Mexico
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 3013-3024, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011867

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Brasil foi um dos primeiros países do mundo a proibir os Dispositivos Eletrônicos de Fumar (DEFs), tal proibição foi motivada pela inexistência de evidências relativas às alegadas propriedades terapêuticas e da inocuidade destes produtos. Por conta de tal proibição, A Anvisa foi criticada, especialmente de grupos de usuários. Estes grupos argumentam que tal ação proibiu um produto que auxiliaria a cessação ao tabagismo e seria menos tóxico que os cigarros comuns. Assim sendo, surge o questionamento se esta decisão foi acertada ou não. Os dados disponíveis mostram que os DEFs possuem formulações diversas e algumas substâncias tóxicas são liberadas durante sua utilização em níveis significativos. Estudos em animais e em humanos demonstraram potencial efeito tóxico. Os DEFs também demostraram que podem afetar a saúde de fumantes passivos. Quanto a seu uso como ferramenta de cessação, os estudos ainda não são conclusivos. Observou-se também um alto grau de uso entre adolescentes em países que seu uso foi autorizado. Desta forma o Brasil ao proibir estes produtos, impediu que a população consumisse um produto sem comprovação que auxiliasse no tratamento do tabagismo, com indícios de significativa toxidade e altamente atrativo aos jovens.


Abstract Brazil was one of the first countries in the world to ban Electronic Smoking Devices (ESDs). This ban was motivated by the lack of evidence regarding the alleged therapeutic properties and harmlessness of these products. Anvisa was criticized for this move, especially by electronic cigarette's users groups. These groups argue that prohibition prevented people's access to a product that would aid smoking cessation and be less toxic than ordinary cigarettes. Thus, the question arises as to whether this decision was successful. Available data show that ESDs have diverse formulations and some toxic substances are released at significant levels during use. Studies in animals and humans have shown a potential toxic effect, also affecting the health of passive smokers. Studies are still inconclusive regarding its use as a cessation tool. A high level of use among adolescents was observed in countries whose use was authorized. Thus, Brazil's ban prevented the population from consuming a product that has not been proven effective toward smoking cessation, with indications of significant toxicity and highly attractive to young people.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adolescent , Smoking Cessation/methods , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Brazil , Vaping/adverse effects , Vaping/prevention & control
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e5, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-985762

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Identificar factores asociados al cambio de comportamiento en personas fumadoras mayores de 18 años luego de la implementación de políticas provinciales 100% libre de humo en Argentina. Métodos Se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal. Se utilizó la técnica de modelos multiniveles trabajando con datos de distintas jerarquías. Se utilizaron fuentes de datos secundarios: Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo 2005, 2009 y 2013. Resultados En el análisis individual de las variables explicativas, se obtuvo que los pobladores de las provincias que no tienen legislación tuvieron un 40% más de probabilidad de no pensar en dejar de fumar que las personas que viven en provincias con legislación. En las provincias sin legislación, el sexo masculino y la edad mayor de 65 años son las características que aumentan las chances de las personas a no pensar en dejar de fumar, en comparación con las provincias que tiene legislación. Conclusiones Los resultados sugieren que una legislación basada en el artículo 8 del Convenio Marco resultaría efectiva para estimular la cesación tabáquica en Argentina.


ABSTRACT Objective Identify factors related to behavioral changes in smokers over 18 years of age following implementation of provincial policies for 100% smoke-free spaces in Argentina. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. The multilevel technique was used with data from different hierarchies. Secondary data sources were used: National Risk Factor Surveys 2005, 2009, and 2013. Results The individual analysis of explanatory variables revealed that residents of provinces that do not have smoke-free legislation were 40% less likely to consider quitting smoking than people who live in provinces with such legislation. In provinces without smoke-free spaces, males over 65 years old are even less likely to think about quitting smoking. Conclusions The results suggest that legislation based on Article 8 of the Framework Convention would be effective in promoting tobacco cessation in Argentina.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar os fatores associados à mudança de comportamento nos fumantes maiores de 18 anos após a implementação de políticas provinciais de proibição do fumo na Argentina. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo analítico de corte transversal. Foi usada uma técnica de modelos multiníveis com dados de diferentes hierarquias. As fontes de dados secundários consultadas foram as iterações de 2005, 2009 e 2013 da Pesquisa Nacional de Fatores de Risco. Resultados Na análise individual das variáveis explicativas, verificou-se que os habitantes das províncias sem legislação antifumo tinham uma probabilidade 40% maior de não considerar parar de fumar quando comparados aos moradores das províncias com legislação antifumo. Em comparação às províncias com legislação antifumo, nas províncias sem esta legislação, ser do sexo masculino e ter idade acima de 65 anos foram as características associadas a uma maior chance de não considerar parar de fumar. Conclusões Os resultados do estudo indicam que uma legislação em conformidade com o Artigo 8 da Convenção-Quadro para o Controle do Tabaco da OMS seria efetiva para incentivar as pessoas a pararem de fumar na Argentina.


Subject(s)
Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence
5.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2018; 24 (01): 63-71
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-190322

ABSTRACT

Background: WHO MPOWER aims to help countries prioritize tobacco control measures in line with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Objectives: This paper assessed the progress and challenges in implementing the 6 priority policies of MPOWER in countries of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region since 2011. Methods: A checklist was developed and scores assigned based on the MPOWER indicators [maximum score 37]. MPOWER data for the Region in the 2015 and 2017 tobacco control reports were extracted and scored. Data from similar analyses for 2011 and 2013 were also included. Countries were ranked by scores for each indicator for 2015 and 2017 and for overall scores for 2011 to 2017. Results: The Islamic Republic of Iran, Egypt and Pakistan had the highest scores in 2015 [33, 29 and 27 respectively] and the Islamic Republic of Iran, Pakistan and Yemen had the highest scores in 2017 [34, 31 and 27 respectively]. The indicators with the highest and lowest combined score for all countries were for advertising bans and compliance with smoke-free policies: 67 and 18 respectively in 2015, and 73 and 15 respectively in 2017. Most countries [15/22] had higher total scores in 2017 than 2015: Afghanistan, Bahrain and Syrian Arab Republic had the greatest increases. The total score for the Region increased from 416 out of a maximum score of 814 in 2011 to 471 in 2017. Conclusions: Although notable achievements have been made in the Region, many challenges to policy implementation remain and require urgent action by governments of the countries of the Region


Subject(s)
Smoking , Mass Media , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Cessation , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , World Health Organization
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766493

ABSTRACT

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) entered into effect in 2005 and has been ratified by 181 parties. The major tobacco control policies included in the FCTC are increased tobacco taxes; smoke-free public places; bans on tobacco advertisements, promotion, and sponsorship; regulations of tobacco packaging and labeling; regulations and disclosure of tobacco component and emissions; public awareness campaigns about the adverse health effects of tobacco use; treatment of tobacco use and dependence; and bans on tobacco sales to minors. Since the FCTC was ratified, tobacco control policies have been strengthened worldwide, but with different effects for different policies. A high level of performance was achieved in 55% of the signatory countries for warnings about the hazards of tobacco and in 30% for monitoring tobacco control policies, but tobacco tax increases, smoke-free polices, and bans on tobacco advertisement, promotion, and sponsorship achieved high levels of success in only about 10% of the countries. Korea recently strengthened some tobacco control policies, including tobacco tax increases, mass media campaigns, pictorial warnings on tobacco packs, smoke-free bars and restaurants, and reimbursement for smoking cessation services provided by health care facilities. However, the price of cigarettes remains very low considering the nation's income level, and tobacco advertisements, promotion, and sponsorship are only partially restricted. Workplace smoke-free policies are limited to large companies. Only monitoring of tobacco control policies and smoking cessation services are at a high level in Korea. Comprehensive tobacco control polices need to be strengthened, and physicians should play a leading role.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Delivery of Health Care , Disclosure , International Cooperation , Korea , Mass Media , Product Packaging , Restaurants , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Cessation , Social Control, Formal , Taxes , Tobacco Products , Tobacco Use , Tobacco
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(2): 128-136, mar.-abr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846072

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation in Colombia, a middle income country. Materials and methods: Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed. Results: Colombia’s Ministry of Health coordinated local implementation practices, which were strongest in larger cities with supportive leadership. Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts. The bar owners’ association provided concerted education campaigns. Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Conclusions: Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could be cultivated in other low and middle income countries.


Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la implementación exitosa de políticas nacionales de ambientes libres de humo en Colombia, un país de ingresos medios. Material y métodos: Entrevistas con informantes claves a nivel nacional y local, y revisión de artículos en las noticias y resoluciones ministeriales nacionales. Resultados: El Ministerio de Salud de Colombia coordinó las prácticas locales para la implementación, que fueron más fuertes en las ciudades grandes y en las ciudades con líderes políticos que la apoyaron. Organizaciones no gubernamentales proporcionaron asistencia técnica y destacaron el incumplimiento. Organizaciones fuera de Colombia financiaron algunos de estos esfuerzos. La asociación de propietarios de bares proporcionó campañas de educación concertadas. Intereses tabacaleros no desafiaron abiertamente la implementación. Conclusiones. La vigilancia de las organizaciones no gubernamentales, la financiación externa y el apoyo de la industria de la hospitalidad contribuyeron a una implementación eficaz. Tales factores pueden ser cultivados en países de ingresos bajos y medios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Public Policy , Restaurants/legislation & jurisprudence , Restaurants/organization & administration , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Universities , Organizations , Colombia , Tobacco Industry , Guideline Adherence , Financing, Organized , Government Agencies , Health Promotion
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(supl.1): 22-29, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846091

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To use evidence from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to inform tobacco-control policy in Suriname. Materials and methods: The GYTS was conducted in 2000, 2004 and 2009 among secondary school students (13 to 15 years) in a two-stage cluster sample design. Results: 2744 students, age 13 to 15, participated. From 2000 to 2009, results showed an increased prevalence of “current use of cigarettes” and “other tobacco products” in females (31 and 98%). Additionally, students reported high exposure to second-hand smoking at home (56.6 to 46.6%) and in public places (67.8 to 53.3%). Less than half of all respondents were taught about the dangers of smoking in school. Conclusion: National smoking prevalence coincides with regional trends. The results of the GYTS provided the evidence-base towards developing comprehensive tobacco control legislation. Tobacco legislation was passed in 2013. Future GYTS will monitor legislation implementation and progress made in achieving WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) goals.


Resumen: Objetivo: Utilizar evidencia de la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes (EMTJ) para comunicar las políticas de control del tabaco en Surinam. Material y métodos: Las EMTJ se desarrollaron en los años 2000, 2004 y 2009 entre estudiantes de secundaria (de entre 13 y 15 años de edad) mediante diseño muestral en dos etapas. Resultados: Participaron en total 2744 estudiantes. De 2000 a 2009, los resultados mostraron una mayor prevalencia de “uso actual de cigarrillos” y “otros productos de tabaco” en mujeres (31 y 98%). Asimismo, se evidenció un alto grado de exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco en hogares (56.6 a 46.6%) y en lugares públicos (67.8 a 53.3%), además de la exposición a publicidad protabaco (periódicos/revistas: 76.3 a 54.0%; vallas publicitarias: 77.4 a 52.6%). Menos de la mitad de los estudiantes que participaron fueron instruidos sobre los peligros de fumar en las escuelas. Conclusión: La prevalencia nacional de tabaquismo coincide con la tendencia regional. Los resultados de la EMTJ proporcionan evidencia exhaustivas sobre la legislación del control de tabaquismo aprobada en 2013. Futuras EMTJ pueden promover y monitorear la implementación de la norma y su progreso en la consecución de los objetivos de OMS y el Convenio Marco para el Control de Tabaco.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Prevention , Suriname/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(supl.1): 117-125, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-846089

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los avances ocurridos en las Américas en la aplicación del Convenio Marco de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT), tras cumplirse el décimo aniversario de su entrada en vigencia internacional. Al momento del análisis, 30 de los 35 países de las Américas son Parte en el CMCT, y si bien se ha avanzado en la aplicación de las medidas contenidas en el CMCT, el nivel de aplicación no ha sido homogéneo ni entre las medidas ni entre los países; a su vez, 40% de los Estados Parte no han aplicado aún ninguna de las medidas consideradas en su nivel más alto de aplicación según la clasificación de la OMS. Es importante que los países sigan avanzando hacia la aplicación integral del CMCT en forma progresiva, pero teniendo en cuenta que las medidas básicas de salud pública que están dentro de las competencias de los ministerios de salud -como los ambientes libres de humo de tabaco y las advertencias sanitarias- deberían pronto cubrir toda la región.


Abstract: The objective of this article is to analyze the progress made in the Americas in the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) after its tenth anniversary of entry into force. At the time of the analysis, 30 of the 35 countries of the Americas are Parties to the FCTC. While progress has been made in implementing the measures contained in the FCTC, the level of implementation has not been homogeneous either across mandates or across countries. Forty percent of Parties to the Convention in the Americas are yet to implement any of the measures at their highest level of implementation according to the WHO classification. It is crucial that the countries of the Americas continue to progress towards the full implementation of the FCTC progressively. In these efforts, it is important to take into account that FCTC measures such as those related to smoke-free environments and adoption of effective health warnings are basic public health measures, which are almost entirely within the competence of health authorities and therefore susceptible to be implemented in a prompt fashion in all countries of the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , World Health Organization , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Prevention , Time Factors , Americas
10.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(supl.1): 40-44, 2017. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-846081

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la evolución de la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco, comparando los datos obtenidos en la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes en sus ediciones 2007 y 2014. Material y métodos: Se compararon los datos de la Encuesta Mundial de Tabaquismo en Jóvenes 2007 y 2014. También se analizaron las medidas de control de tabaco adoptadas en el periodo considerado. Resultados: Los datos muestran un descenso en el consumo de cigarrillos a 30 días en población de 13 a 15 años: de 20.2% en 2007 a 8.2% en 2014. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los sexos. La susceptibilidad de convertirse en fumador en el próximo año se redujo de 25.8% en 2007 a 16.6% en 2014. Conclusiones: La implementación, en forma simultánea, de medidas contenidas en el Convenio Marco de la OMS para el Control del Tabaco es una estrategia eficaz para alcanzar los objetivos de reducción de la prevalencia del consumo.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Materials and methods: Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Results: Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. Conclusions: The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Prevention , Uruguay/epidemiology , Prevalence
11.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2017; 23 (9): 598-603
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188184

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to quantify the implementation of the MPOWER policies and to assess any possible changes across Eastern Mediterranean Region [EMR] countries. In this comparative cross-sectional study based on 10 categories mentioned in MPOWER report 2015 a checklist was designed. Seven questions were scored from 0-4 and three from 0-3. The 22 EMR countries were ranked and compared by their total score on a scale of 0-37. The highest scores were achieved by Egypt and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Pakistan, Sudan and Yemen showed progress, while Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, and the Syrian Arab Republic had decreased scores. The total score of the EMR countries had decreased compared to 2013. Thus, there remains a need for greater focus on tobacco taxation and smoke-free policies to address this retrograde step


Subject(s)
World Health Organization , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoke-Free Policy , Taxes
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to predict the 10-year impacts of the introduction of pictorial warning labels (PWLs) on cigarette packaging in 2016 in Korea for adults using DYNAMO-HIA. METHODS: In total, four scenarios were constructed to better understand the potential health impacts of PWLs: two for PWLs and the other two for a hypothetical cigarette tax increase. In both policies, an optimistic and a conservative scenario were constructed. The reference scenario assumed the 2015 smoking rate would remain the same. Demographic data and epidemiological data were obtained from various sources. Differences in the predicted smoking prevalence and prevalence, incidence, and mortality from diseases were compared between the reference scenario and the four policy scenarios. RESULTS: It was predicted that the optimistic PWLs scenario (PWO) would lower the smoking rate by 4.79% in males and 0.66% in females compared to the reference scenario in 2017. However, the impact on the reduction of the smoking rate was expected to diminish over time. PWO will prevent 85 238 cases of diabetes, 67 948 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 31 526 of ischemic heart disease, 21 036 of lung cancer, and 3972 prevalent cases of oral cancer in total over the 10-year span due to the reductions in smoking prevalence. The impacts of PWO are expected to be between the impact of the optimistic and the conservative cigarette tax increase scenarios. The results were sensitive to the transition probability of smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of PWLs in 2016 in Korea is expected reduce smoking prevalence and disease cases for the next 10 years, but regular replacements of PWLs are needed for persistent impacts.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Mortality , Mouth Neoplasms , Myocardial Ischemia , Prevalence , Product Packaging , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Republic of Korea , Smoke , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Taxes , Tobacco Products
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-26777

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to measure secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in personal computer (PC) rooms with the purpose of determining the strength of scientific evidence supporting the legislative ban on smoking in PC rooms located in the Republic of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June to September 2012, particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine concentration (ANC) were measured in the smoking and non-smoking areas of PC rooms in Goyang City, Korea. In 28 randomly sampled PC rooms, field investigators completed an observational questionnaire on building characteristics, smoking policies, and evidence of smoking. The geometric means (GM) of PM2.5 and ANC in smoking and non-smoking areas were compared. RESULTS: Evidence of smoking was identified in both the smoking and non-smoking areas of all PC rooms. The GMs of PM2.5 and ANC in both areas were high and did not differ significantly (174.77 μg/m3 and 48.95 μg/m3 in smoking areas; 93.38 μg/m3 and 41.30 μg/m3 in non-smoking areas). Overall PM2.5 concentrations were 5.5-fold higher than those listed in the World Health Organization guidelines. CONCLUSION: This study supported previous reports that a partial smoking ban did not protect individuals from SHS exposure. Furthermore, the results from our study suggest how research can support policy. Countries in which smoke-free policies are not yet comprehensive may find our results useful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Korea , Microcomputers , Nicotine , Particulate Matter , Republic of Korea , Research Personnel , Smoke , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , World Health Organization
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 41(6): 523-529, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769776

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0  0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001). The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores que afetam os hábitos de fumar de estudantes do ensino médio, seus pensamentos sobre as mudanças resultantes das leis antifumo e como eles são afetados por essas leis. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo transversal, alunos do 11º ano de oito escolas de ensino médio em Ancara, Turquia, foram convidados para preencher um questionário. RESULTADOS: Preencheram o questionário 1.199 estudantes de forma satisfatória. A média de idade dos participantes foi de 17,0  0,6 anos; 56,1% eram mulheres; das quais 15,3% eram fumantes; e 43,9% eram homens, dos quais 43,7% eram fumantes (p < 0,001). Os fatores de risco independentes para o tabagismo foram ser homem, frequentar escola técnica, ter um irmão/irmã que fuma, ter um amigo que fuma e ter baixo desempenho acadêmico. Dos participantes, 74,7% conheciam o conteúdo das leis antifumo; 8,1% aprovavam as restrições e multas, e 8,1% haviam cessado o tabagismo devido a essas leis. Na opinião dos participantes, as intervenções mais efetivas foram a exibição de curtas na TV sobre os malefícios do tabagismo e a proibição da venda de cigarros a menores. A prevalência do tabagismo foi maior (31,5%) nos estudantes de escolas técnicas, mas menor (7,5%) nos estudantes de escolas técnicas médicas. Embora 57,1% dos fumantes soubessem da existência de um serviço telefônico de ajuda para a cessação tabágica, somente 3,7% haviam ligado para esse serviço, mas nenhum tentou parar de fumar. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a maioria dos alunos avaliados conhecesse os efeitos deletérios do tabagismo e aprovasse as leis antifumo, apenas uma minoria dos fumantes procurou ajuda profissional para a cessação tabágica.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking Cessation/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/epidemiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Disorder , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 36(3): 63-71, July-Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-763249

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the actions taken by the Commission of Tobacco Control (CTC) to control smoking in the hospital environment.Methods: Descriptive and exploratory retrospective documentary research conducted at a university hospital in southern Brazil, in 2014. The content of the minutes of CTC meetings was used to create a database, and the rounds reports were descriptively analyzed. We sought to identify the most relevant actions from 2005 to 2014.Results: The CTC implemented the Tobacco-Free Environment programme restricted cigarette smoking to designated areas and subsequently deactivated these areas. The only remaining outdoor smoking area in 2014 was deactivated.Conclusion: CTC actions have contributed to tobacco control in the hospital environment. This study will hopefully serve as a model to encourage other institutions to implement similar actions.


Objetivo: Identificar las medidas adoptadas por la Comisión de Control del Tabaco (CCT) para controlar el tabaquismo del entorno hospitalario.Métodos: Investigación documental retrospectiva descriptiva y exploratoria, realizada en hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil, en 2014. Construyó una base de datos con el contenido de las actas de las reuniones del CCT y la notificación de las rondas realizadas, que se analizó descriptivamente. Se buscó identificar las acciones más relevantes, en el periodo 2005-2014.Resultados: El CCT implementó el Programa de Ambiente Libre de Tabaco, restringió el consumo de cigarrillos a las instalaciones designadas, y luego los convirtió. Sólo quedaba un área externa de la tolerancia al consumo de tabaco en 2014, que fue desactivado.Conclusiones: Las acciones del CCT ayudaron a controlar el tabaquismo del hospital. Se espera que este estudio sirva de estímulo y modelo para otras instituciones.


Objetivo: Identificar as ações desenvolvidas por uma Comissão de Controle do Tabagismo (CCT) para controlar o fumo do ambiente hospitalar.Métodos: Pesquisa documental descritivo-exploratória retrospectiva, realizada em hospital universitário do sul do Brasil, em 2014. Construiu-se um banco de dados com o conteúdo das atas de reuniões da CCT e relatório das rondas realizadas, o qual foi analisado de forma descritiva. Buscou-se identificar as ações mais relevantes no período de 2005 a 2014.Resultados: A CCT implementou o Programa Ambiente Livre do Tabaco, restringiu o consumo do cigarro aos fumódromos e posteriormente desativou os mesmos. Permaneceu somente uma área externa de tolerância ao fumo até 2014, a qual foi desativada.Conclusões: As ações da CCT contribuíram para controlar o fumo do ambiente hospitalar. Espera-se que este estudo sirva de incentivo e modelo para outras instituições.


Subject(s)
Hospitals, University , Smoke-Free Policy , Retrospective Studies
16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(1): 76-83, Jan-Feb/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-744600

ABSTRACT

A restrição do fumo durante internação psiquiátrica provoca mudanças pessoais e institucionais. Objetivo: Identificar a percepção dos portadores de transtorno mental, fumantes, sobre a redução do número de cigarros durante a internação psiquiátrica. Método: Estudo exploratório com 96 portadores de transtorno mental, fumantes, internados em hospital geral: G1 (34 sujeitos quando permitido um cigarro/hora) e G2 (62 sujeitos quando reduzido para oito cigarros/dia). Questionário semiestruturado. Análise temática do conteúdo. Resultados: O G1 declarou-se satisfeito com a restrição – fumo na internação como direito. O G2 resiste à mudança da restrição que ocorreu sem diálogo ou apoio. Apesar das dificuldades, constataram-se algumas mudanças de atitudes sobre o cigarro tais como aumento responsabilidade, descoberta de capacidade em reduzir o fumo e ressignificação do seu papel. Conclusão: Alguns sujeitos entendem a mudança na política de saúde do tabagismo como punição, enquanto outros como oportunidade de repensar o papel do cigarro em sua vida. .


La restricción al tabaquismo durante la hospitalización psiquiátrica promueve cambios personales e institucionales. Objetivo: Identificar la percepción de portadores de trastorno mental, fumadores, sobre la reducción del número de cigarrillos durante la internación psiquiátrica. Método: Estudio exploratorio con 96 portadores de trastorno mental, tabaquistas, internados en hospital general: GI (34 sujetos cuando permitido un cigarrillo/hora) y G2 (62 sujetos cuando reducido para ocho cigarrillo/día). Cuestionario semi-estructurado. Análisis temática del contenido. Resultados: El GI se declaró satisfecho con la restricción – tabaco en la hospitalización como directo. El G2 resiste al cambio de la restricción que ocurrió sin dialogo o ayuda. Aunque las dificultades, se constató algunos cambios de actitudes sobre el tabaco como el aumento de responsabilidad, descubierta de la capacidad de reducir el fumo y re-significación de su papel. Conclusión: Algunos de los sujetos comprenden el cambio en la política de salud del tabaquismo como sanción, mientras otros como una oportunidad de replantear el papel del cigarrillo en su vida. .


The smoking ban during psychiatric hospitalization provokes personal and institutional changes. Objective: To identify the mental disorders carriers’ perception, the smokers ones, about the decreasing number of cigarettes during psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Exploratory study with 96 hospitalized carriers of mental disorders who are smokers: G1 (34 subjects hospitalized when was allowed one cigarette by hour) and G2 (62 subjects hospitalized when it was reduced to eight cigarette by day). Semi-structured questionnaire. Thematic content analysis. Results: The G1 admitted satisfaction with the restriction – smoking during hospitalization as entitlement. The G2 resists the restriction change occurred without dialogue or support. In spite of the difficulties, some attitude changes about the cigarette were noticed such as increase of the responsibility, discovery of the ability to reduce smoking and the meaning of its role. Conclusion: Some subjects understand the smoking health policy change as punishment, while others as opportunity to think about the role of cigarette in their life. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Attitude to Health , Hospitalization , Mental Disorders , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking Prevention , Tobacco Products/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/therapy , Punishment
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61912

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between working conditions and smoking among Korean employees using nationally representative data. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey to identify associations between various working conditions and smoking. We calculated the smoking prevalence depending on individual characteristics and working conditions. Also, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between working conditions and smoking. RESULTS: Company size, occupation type, employment type, working hours, working-time flexibility, and smoking-area policy were related to smoking among male employees, while company size, occupation type, employment type, and smoking-area policy were associated with smoking prevalence among females. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that working conditions influence smoking prevalence, and the implementation of smoke-free policies is needed to target specific working conditions, including a strict no-smoking-area policy.


Subject(s)
Employment , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Occupations , Pliability , Prevalence , Smoke , Smoke-Free Policy , Smoking
18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Jul-Sep; 51(3): 330-334
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154401

ABSTRACT

Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district".


Subject(s)
Humans , India , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoke-Free Policy/trends , Smoking/prevention & control
19.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 48(3): 500-506, 06/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-715724

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition during psychiatric hospitalization. Method: An exploratory study with 96 patients smokers with mental disorders hospitalized in a psychiatric ward of a general hospital. The interviews were conducted individually, using an instrument designed for this study. The content from the interviews was recorded, transcribed and submitted to a thematic content analysis. Results: The patients with mental disorder were identified as perceiving smoking during the psychiatric hospitalization as a help to support the difficulties in socialization and in the lack of activities. The permission for smoking is seen as a signal of respect to their needs. The subjects mentioned to not accept the total smoking prohibition. Conclusion: Tobacco helps to face difficulties and conflicts in the psychiatric hospitalization. There is resistance regarding the possibility to totally withdraw the smoking permission during hospitalization.

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Objetivo:Construir un modelo teórico que configure la vivencia del apoyo de la red social por las personas en cuidado domiciliario. Método: Estudio de abordaje cualitativa, con la utilización del método Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos. La recopilación y el análisis concomitante de los datos hizo viable la interpretación del significado del fenómeno La vivencia del apoyo de la red social por las personas implicadas en el cuidado domiciliario. Resultados: Se destacó la postura pasiva de la población en la construcción de su bienestar. Reconociendo que debe existir una responsabilidad compartida entre las partes implicadas, población y Estado. Conclusión: Se sugiere que los enfermeros sean estimulados a ampliar el cuidado que realizan en el domicilio para atender las demandas de los cuidadores; y que sean elaborados nuevos estudios con distintas poblaciones, con el fin de validar o complementar el modelo teórico propuesto.
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Objetivo: Identificar a opinião dos portadores de transtorno mental sobre o fumo e sua proibição durante a internação psiquiátrica. Método: Estudo exploratório com 96 portadores de transtorno mental, tabagistas, internados em enfermaria psiquiátrica de hospital geral. As entrevistas foram realizadas individualmente, utilizando-se o instrumento elaborado para este estudo. O conteúdo verbalizado nas entrevistas foi gravado, transcrito e submetido à análise de conteúdo temático. Resultados: Identificou-se que os portadores de transtorno mental veem o tabagismo na internação psiquiátrica como ajuda para suportar a dificuldade de convívio e a falta de atividades. A permissão do tabagismo é vista como sinal de respeito às suas necessidades. Os sujeitos relatam não aceitar a proibição total do tabagismo. Conclusão: O tabagismo ajuda a enfrentar dificuldades e conflitos na internação psiquiátrica. Existe resistência quanto à possibilidade de retirar totalmente a permissão para fumar na internação.


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Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Attitude to Health , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Mental Disorders , Smoke-Free Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Smoking/legislation & jurisprudence , Qualitative Research
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 35(1): 30-37, ene. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704772

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze household smoking-ban prevalence over time and predictors among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. METHODS: Baseline (2004) and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007) (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households) conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural) assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities, with overall rates increasing from 23.9% (2004) to 45.3% (2007). Households with smokers adopted smoking bans at lower rates (6%-17%) versus those without smokers (which had an adoption rate of 35%-58%). Logistic regression models demonstrated that the associations between allowing smoking in households with no members who smoked and being located in a tobacco-growing community, being a Catholic household, and having a member with a cardiovascular problem were statistically significant. The association between having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition and prohibiting smoking in the home was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those in early stages of tobacco control, basic awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities) may lead to statistically significant increases in household smoking-ban adoption, particularly among households with no smokers. An increase in household smoking-ban prevalence may result in changes in community norms that can lead to a further increase in the adoption of smoking bans. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may mitigate the establishment of household bans. Increasing individuals’ knowledge about the far-reaching health effects of secondhand smoke exposure on children and nonsmoking adults (healthy or unhealthy) may help overcome these obstacles.


OBJETIVO: Analizar la evolución de las prohibiciones de fumar en los hogares con el transcurso del tiempo, y los factores predictivos de estas prohibiciones en las comunidades de la República Dominicana, un país que históricamente ha sido un importante productor de tabaco con pocas regulaciones en cuanto a su control. MÉTODOS: Se llevaron a cabo un estudio inicial (2004) y estudios de vigilancia posterior (2006 y 2007) (cada uno de ellos con un tamaño de muestra n superior a 1 000 hogares seleccionados aleatoriamente) en seis comunidades económicamente desfavorecidas (tres productoras de tabaco, y dos de cada uno de los entornos urbano, periurbano y rural), y se evaluaron los datos demográficos de los miembros de los hogares, su estado de salud y las características de los hogares, incluidas las restricciones al consumo de tabaco. RESULTADOS: Entre el 2004 y el 2007, la prevalencia de la prohibición de fumar en los hogares aumentó en todas la comunidades, con un incremento general de las tasas de 23,9 (2004) a 45,3% (2007). Las tasas de adopción de prohibiciones de fumar en los hogares con fumadores fueron inferiores (de 6 a 17%) a las de los hogares sin fumadores (de 35 a 58%). Los modelos de regresión logística demostraron una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la permisividad con el tabaco en los hogares sin miembros fumadores y la pertenencia a una comunidad productora de tabaco, profesar la religión católica y la presencia de un miembro afectado por una enfermedad cardiovascular. La asociación entre la presencia de un niño menor de cinco años o de un miembro afectado por una enfermedad respiratoria y la prohibición de fumar en el hogar no fue estadísticamente significativa. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de hogares en los que se prohibía fumar aumentó en todas las comunidades pero se mantuvo bastante por debajo de las tasas de los países industrializados. En los países con ingresos bajos y medianos, o que se encuentran en fases iniciales del control del tabaco, las medidas básicas de sensibilización (incluidas las actividades de vigilancia) pueden conducir a incrementos estadísticamente significativos de la adopción de la prohibición de fumar, en particular en los hogares sin fumadores. Un aumento de la prevalencia de hogares en los que se prohíba fumar puede dar lugar a cambios en las normas de la comunidad que a su vez comporten un aumento adicional de la adopción de prohibiciones de fumar. La presencia en el hogar de miembros fumadores y la pertenencia a una comunidad productora de tabaco pueden mitigar el establecimiento de prohibiciones en los hogares. El incremento de la información proporcionada a las personas sobre los importantes efectos sobre la salud de la exposición pasiva al humo de tabaco de los niños y los adultos no fumadores (sanos o enfermos) puede ayudar a superar estos obstáculos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Family Characteristics , Smoke-Free Policy , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Dominican Republic , Smoke , Vulnerable Populations
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