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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684

ABSTRACT

O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.


Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
2.
Braz. dent. sci ; 25(1): 1-6, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1354704

ABSTRACT

Objective: Smoking is among the most destructive habits which have numerous effects on the body.The chemical components of cigarettes destroy the anti-oxidant content of the saliva.In this study, the concentration of albumin and uric acid of healthy non-smokers and smokers was measured based on the frequency of smoking. Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 26 heavy smokers, 27 normal smokers, and 29 non-smokers between the ages of 25 to 40 were selected.The subjects did not suffer from any systemic or periodontal conditions.Unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting. The level of salivary albumin was measured by Bromocresol Green, and the level of salivary uric acid was measured by the uricase method.The selected method of analysis, using SPSS software, was One-Way ANOVA. Results: Mean albumin content of saliva was 33.52 ± 1.52 mg/dl in non-smokers and 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl in heavy smokers.The mean uric acid concentration in non-smokers was 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L and in heavy smokers was 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL.The differences between levels of both salivary uric acid and salivary albumin were significant in heavy smokers and non-smokers(P=0.001). Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, saliva concentrations of both Albumin and Uric Acid change based on the frequency of smoking.Decreased level of salivary albumin and decreased level of salivary uric acid can be considered as markers of the harmful effects of smoking on oral health. (AU)


Objetivo: Tabagismo está entre os hábitos mais deletérios, que causam inúmeros efeitos no organismo. Os componentes químicos do cigarro destroem os compostos anti-oxidantes da saliva. Neste estudo, a concentração de albumina e ácido úrico em pacientes saudáveis fumantes e não-fumantes foi mensurada e correlacionada coma frequência de fumo. Material e Métodos: Neste estudo transversal, 26 fumantes pesados, 27 fumantes moderados, e 29 não fumantes entre 25 e 40 anos foram incluídos. Os participantes não apresentavam nenhuma condição sistêmica ou periodontal. Saliva não estimulada foi coletada. Os níveis salivares de albumina foram avaliados por Verde de bromocresol, e o nível de ácido úrico foi mensurado pelo método de uricase. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se One-way ANOVA no software SPSS. Resultados: A albumina salivar foi de 33.52 ±1.52 mg/dl nos não-fumantes e 23.88 ± 8.93 mg/dl nos fumantes pesados. A concentração média de ácido úrico em não-fumantes foi de 2.98 ± 0.79 µmol/L e em pacientes fumantes pesados de 2.32 ± 0.77 mg/dL. As diferenças entre os níveis de ambos, ácido úrico e albumina, foi significante entre fumantes pesados e não-fumantes (p=0.001). Conclusão: Baseados nos achados deste estudo, concentrações salivares de albumina e ácido úrico baseados na frequência de fumo. A diminuição dos níveis salivares de albumina e ácido úrico podem ser considerados marcadores dos efeitos nocivos do cigarro na saúde oral(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Saliva , Uric Acid , Oxidative Stress , Albumins , Smokers
3.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e24820, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1348511

ABSTRACT

Introdução:O carcinoma de células escamosas de cavidade oral e orofaringe é uma neoplasia epitelial maligna comum, respondendo pela maioria dos casos de tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Ele está relacionado a hábitos comportamentais, como tabagismo e etilismo de longa duração, e à infecção pelo Papilomavírus humano. Objetivos:Esse estudo objetivou descrever o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes diagnosticados com essa neoplasia na Liga Mossoroense de Estudos e Combate ao Câncer. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo observacional com delineamento transversal a partir de dados presentes nos prontuários clínicos e laudos anatomopatológicos e no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade no período entre 2006 a 2018. Os dados foram analisados a partir do Software R, utilizandoo teste de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney para as análises inferenciais e o método de Kaplan-Meier para análise da sobrevida. Resultados:225 prontuários foram analisados, sendo 70,22% de homens, 65,33% na faixa etária entre 46-70 anos e cor branca (51,57%). Destes, 25,78% eram tabagistas e 39,11% tabagistas e etilistas. O principal tratamento identificado foi a associação de cirurgia, quimioterapia e radioterapia. Observou-se que 49,10% dos óbitos foram em decorrência dessa neoplasia. O principal estádio patológico encontrado foi o quatro A (34,22%). Foi identificada maior sobrevida nos pacientes acima de 70 anos, cujo tratamento foi exclusivamente cirúrgico. Menor sobrevida foi identificada em indivíduos que tinham associação de hábitos (etilismo e tabagismo). Conclusões:Nossos resultados sugerem que a evolução à óbito foi o principal desfecho clínico e, isso pode estar relacionado aos hábitos comportamentais que influenciam diretamente o curso e prognóstico da doença. Ademais, destaca-se a importância do diagnóstico precoce a fim de reduzir óbitos e melhorar a qualidade de vida dos indivíduos, assim como a necessidade de implementar políticas educativas sobre os principais fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento dessa neoplasia (AU).


Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx is a common malignant epithelial neoplasm, accounting for most cases of head and neck tumors. It is related to behavioral habits, such as long-standing smoking and alcoholism, as well as to the human Papillomavirus infection. Objectives: This study aimed at describing the epidemiological profile of the patients diagnosed with this neoplasm in the Mossoró League for Studying and Combating Cancer. Methodology:An observational study with a cross-sectional design was carried out based on data present in the medical records and anatomopathological reports and in the Mortality Information System during the 2006-2018 period. The data were analyzed using the R Software, resorting to the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitneytest for the inferential analyses and to the Kaplan-Meier method for survival analysis. Results: 225 medical records were analyzed: 70.22% belonging to men, 65.33% aged between 46 and 70 years old and white-skinned (51.57%). Of these, 25.78% were smokers and 39.11% were smokers and alcoholics. The main treatment identified was the association of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It was observed that 49.10% of the deaths were due to this neoplasm. The main pathological stage found wasfour A(34.22%).Longer survival was identified in patients over 70 years of age, whose treatment was exclusively surgical. Shorter survival was identified in individuals who had associated habits (alcoholism and smoking). Conclusions:Our results suggest that evolution to death was the main clinical outcome; this can be related to the behavioral habits that exert a direct influence on the course and prognosis of the disease. Furthermore, the importance of early diagnosis is highlighted in order to reduce the number of deaths and improve the individuals' quality of life, as well as the need to implement educational policies on the main risk factors associated with the development of this neoplasm (AU).


Introducción: El carcinoma de células escamosas de la cavidad oral y la orofaringe es una neoplasia epitelial maligna común, que representa la mayoría de los casos de tumores de cabeza y cuello. Se relaciona con hábitos de comportamiento, como el tabaquismo y el alcoholismo, y la infección por el virus papiloma humano. Objetivos:Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir el perfil epidemiológico de los pacientes diagnosticados con esta neoplasiaen la Liga Mossoroense de Estudios y Combate al Cáncer. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal a partir de los datos presentes en las historias clínicas e informes patológicos y en el Sistema de Información de Mortalidad en el período 2006-2018. Los datos se analizaron mediante el Software R, con utilización de la Prueba de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney para análisis inferencial y el método de Kaplan-Meier para análisis de supervivencia. Resultados:Se analizaron 225 historias clínicas, 70,22% en hombres, 65,33% con edades entre 46-70 años y blancos (51,57%). De estos, 25,78% eran fumadores y 39,11% eran fumadores y alcohólicos. El principal tratamiento identificado fue la asociación de cirugía, quimioterapia y radioterapia. 49,10% de las muertes se debieron a esta neoplasia. El principal estadio patológico encontrado fue cuatro A (34,22%). Se identificó mayor sobrevida en pacientes mayores de 70 años, cuyo tratamiento fue exclusivamente quirúrgico. Se identificó una menor sobrevida en personas que tenían hábitos asociados. Conclusiones:Nuestros resultados sugieren que la evolución hacia la muerte fue el principal resultado clínico y esto puede estar relacionado con hábitos de comportamiento que influyen directamente en el curso y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Además, se destaca la importancia del diagnóstico precoz para reducir las muertes y mejorar la calidad de vida, así como la necesidad de implementar políticas educativas sobre los principales factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de esta neoplasia (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , Tobacco Use Disorder , Survival Analysis , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Papillomavirus Infections , Research Report , Smokers
4.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 510-516, 01-dic-2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357527

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el estrés es el resultado del desequilibrio entre las exigencias y presiones a las que se enfrenta el individuo. El estrés pone a prueba la capacidad del individuo para afrontar su actividad y esto supone un problema de salud para el trabajador. Objetivo: explorar la asociación entre el estrés laboral y la dependencia a la nicotina en una población de trabajadores de la salud de la Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 92 del IMSS. Material y métodos: estudio transversal que incluyó a 180 trabajadores fumadores activos, el estrés laboral fue evaluado con el cuestionario de Problemas Psicosomáticos para Estrés Ocupacional adaptado por el IMSS y la dependencia a la nicotina con el cuestionario de Fagerström. Se utilizaron pruebas de t de Student y prueba exacta de Fisher, el análisis estadístico fue realizado con el programa Stata 15. Resultados: la prevalencia de estrés laboral fue de 72.2% (leve, 42.8%; moderada, 20.6%, y severa, 8.9%). Las mujeres presentaron mayor estrés laboral en comparación con los hombres (76.1% frente a 56.0%; p = 0.008). La dependencia a la nicotina fue leve, 49.4%; moderada, 35.6%, y severa, 15.0%. El promedio de la prueba de Fagerström fue mayor en mujeres en comparación con hombres (3.75 frente a 2.83; p = 0.025), además se encontró una asociación entre el estrés laboral y la dependencia a la nicotina (p = 0.011). Conclusiones: el 72% de los trabajadores presentaron estrés laboral, de igual modo se encontró la asociación entre el estrés laboral y la dependencia a la nicotina. Identificar las principales causas de estrés laboral junto con el apoyo de programas para dejar de fumar, ayudarían en el bienestar del personal de salud en las UMF.


Background: Stress is the result of the imbalance between the demands and pressures that the individual faces. Stress tests the individual's ability to cope with her activity, and this is a health problem for the worker. Objective: To explore the association between occupational stress and nicotine dependence in healthcare workers from the Family Medicine Unit No. 92 of the IMSS. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study that included 180 active smoking workers, occupational stress was evaluated with the Psychosomatic Problems for Occupational Stress questionnaire adapted by IMSS and nicotine dependence with the Fagerström questionnaire. Student's t tests and Fisher's Exact test were used. The statistical analysis was performed with the Stata 15 program. Results: The prevalence of occupational stress was 72.2% (42.8% mild, 20.6% moderate and 8.9% severe). Women presented greater work stress compared to men (76.1% vs. 56.0%; p = 0.008). Nicotine dependence was 49.4% mild, 35.6% moderate and 15.0% severe, the average of the Fagerström test was higher in women compared to men (3.75 vs. 2.83; p = 0.025), in addition an association was found between the work stress and nicotine dependence (p = 0.011). Conclusions: 72% of the workers presented work stress, in the same way the association between work stress and nicotine dependence was found. Identifying the main causes of work stress, together with the support of smoking cessation programs, would help in the well-being of health personnel in FMUs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Cessation , Health Personnel , Mexico , Working Environment , Occupational Stress , Smokers
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 58(2): e3154, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289406

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La recesión gingival es uno de los defectos estético-funcionales más comunes en la cavidad oral. Se caracteriza por la exposición de la superficie de la raíz debido a un desplazamiento del margen gingival apical a la unión amelocementaria. La literatura reporta un porcentaje de recubrimiento de la raíz favorable en recesiones gingivales clases I y II de Miller; sin embargo, varios estudios no lograron el recubrimiento total, lo que ha sido asociado a varios factores. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados al recubrimiento total de recesiones gingivales clases I y II de Miller en dientes tratados con colgajo de reposición coronal. Métodos: Se consultaron las bases de datos PubMed SciELO, Redalyc, Lilacs y Scopus. De 105 investigaciones, se analizaron 7 que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Análisis e integración de las informaciones: El metaanálisis dio resultados no concluyentes, debido a la alta heterogeneidad de los estudios. Sin embargo, se detectaron los siguientes factores: el uso de ácido etilendiaminotetraacético (p < 0,0001), la presencia de tejido queratinizado adjunto ≥ 2 mm (p = 0,019), una profundidad de recesión gingival inicial > 3 mm (p = 0,020) y pacientes que fumaban más de 10 cigarrillos diarios (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Se identificaron el uso de ácido etilendiaminotetracético, la presencia de tejido queratinizado, la profundidad de la recesión y pacientes fumadores como posibles factores que intervienen el recubrimiento total de recesiones gingivales clases I y II de Miller en dientes tratados con colgajo de reposición coronal(AU)


Introduction: Gingival recession is one of the most common esthetic-functional defects of the oral cavity. It is characterized by exposure of the root surface due to displacement of the apical gingival margin to the cementoenamel junction. The literature about the topic reports a percentage of favorable root coverage of Miller class I and II gingival recessions. However, several studies do not report complete coverage, which has been associated to a number of factors. Objective: Identify the factors associated to complete coverage of Miller class I and II gingival recessions in teeth treated with coronally repositioned flap. Methods: A search was conducted in the databases PubMed, SciELO, Redalyc, Lilacs and Scopus. Of a total 105 studies retrieved, seven met the inclusion criteria. Data analysis and integration: The meta-analysis did not achieve conclusive results, due to the high heterogeneity of the studies. However, the following factors were identified: use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (p < 0.0001), presence of adjacent keratinized tissue ≥ 2 mm (p = 0.019), initial gingival recession depth > 3 mm (p = 0.020) and patients who smoked more than 10 cigarettes a day (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, presence of keratinized tissue, recession depth and smoker patients were identified as possible factors involved in the complete coverage Miller class I and II gingival recessions in teeth treated with coronally repositioned flap(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Smokers , Gingival Recession/epidemiology , Databases, Bibliographic
6.
Infectio ; 25(2): 79-83, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250071

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the relationship between tobacco use and viral load and CD4+ T cell count in HIV patients. Results: The research conducted was a descriptive study of 317 patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 18 years old and above, who attended the "Unidad de Atención Integral" (UAI) at the Hospital Regional Universitario José María Cabral y Báez, in Santiago, Dominican Republic. Of those 317 patients, 172 were included in the data analysis. It was found that a 77.3% of smokers had a CD4+ T cell count equal to or below 250 cells/mm3. 75% of smokers had a viral load equal to or greater than 400 copies/ml. In addition, 82.9% of nonsmokers presented with a viral load below 400 copies/ml. The smokers were more likely to have a viral load equal to or greater than 400 copies/ml (OR = 6.285, P < 0.001), in comparison with nonsmokers. Patients younger than 45 years old were more likely to have a viral load equal to or above 400 copies/ml compared to older patients (OR = 3.313, P = 0.024).


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el consumo de tabaco, la carga viral y el recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ en pacientes con VIH. Resultados: La investigación fue realizada mediante un estudio descriptivo a 317 pacientes en terapia antirretroviral de alta actividad (TARGA), de 18 años o ma yores, que asistían a la Unidad de Atención Integral (UAI) del Hospital Regional Universitario José María Cabral y Báez, en Santiago, República Dominicana. De esos 317 pacientes, 172 se incluyeron en el análisis de datos. Se encontró que un 77,3% de los fumadores tenían un recuento de células T CD4 + igual o inferior a 250 células / mm3. El 75% de los fumadores tenían una carga viral igual o superior a 400 copias / ml. Además, el 82,9% de los no fumadores presentaba una carga viral inferior a 400 copias / ml. Los fumadores tenían más probabilidades de tener una carga viral igual o superior a 400 copias / ml (OR = 6.285, P <0.001), en comparación con los no fumadores. Los pacientes menores de 45 años tenían más probabilidades de tener una carga viral igual o superior a 400 copias / ml en comparación con los pacientes mayores (OR = 3,313, P = 0,024).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder , CD4 Antigens , HIV , Viral Load , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Dominican Republic , Tobacco Use , Smokers
7.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e528, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280335

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La histoplasmosis es una micosis causada por Histoplasma capsulatum. Este hongo se encuentra en las excretas de algunos animales (murciélagos y aves) y su reservorio es el suelo. Es una enfermedad endémica en el continente americano. La inhalación de esporas causa infección pulmonar primaria que puede diseminarse. Objetivo: Describir un caso de histoplasmosis bucal en un paciente seronegativo al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Caso clínico: Paciente diabético, fumador y alcohólico con cuadro febril de varios meses acompañado de manifestaciones respiratorias. Además, se constataron úlceras en encías y lengua, lesiones nodulares en mucosas del carrillo, fondo del surco vestibular y reborde alveolar. Se informó anemia, leucopenia y aumento de la velocidad de sedimentación globular. El diagnóstico se confirmó mediante citología e histopatología. La terapéutica empleada fue itraconazol 200 mg tres veces al día, luego 200 mg dos veces al día por dos meses y una tableta diaria hasta seis meses después del segundo mes. El paciente se encuentra asintomático y las lesiones bucales desaparecieron. Conclusiones: La histoplasmosis se diagnostica fundamentalmente por la epidemiología, la clínica y el cultivo. Los estudios citopatológicos e histopatológicos de la úlcera confirman el diagnóstico. Este caso representa una forma no habitual de presentación de la enfermedad, que aunque no se sospecha usualmente, puede ocurrir. Este trabajo es una alerta a los estomatólogos, maxilofaciales y a todo aquel personal de la salud que asiste a pacientes con manifestaciones sistémicas(AU)


Introduction: Histoplasmosis is a mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. This fungus is found in the feces of some animals (bats and birds) and its reservoir is the soil. Histoplasmosis is an endemic disease in the American continent. Inhalation of spores causes primary pulmonary infection, which may in turn be disseminated. Objective: Describe a case of oral histoplasmosis in a patient seronegative to the human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical case: A case is presented of a diabetic, smoker and alcoholic patient with fever of several months' evolution and respiratory manifestations. Examination revealed ulcers in the patient's gums and tongue, as well as nodular lesions in the mouth mucosa, the bottom of the vestibular sulcus and the alveolar ridge. Laboratory testing found anemia, leucopenia and an increased globular sedimentation rate. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology and histopathology. The treatment indicated was 200 mg itraconazole three times a day and then 200 mg twice a day for two months, and a daily tablet for six months after the second month. The patient is now asymptomatic and the oral lesions have disappeared. Conclusions: Histoplasmosis is mainly diagnosed by epidemiological testing, clinical examination and culture. Cytopathologic and histopathological analysis of the ulcer confirm the diagnosis. The case illustrates an infrequent form of presentation of the disease, not usually suspected but possible. The study is a warning to dentists, maxillofacial specialists and all the health personnel caring for patients with systemic manifestations(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Ulcer , Itraconazole , Alcoholics , Smokers , Histoplasmosis , Leukopenia , Mouth Mucosa
8.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 22(1): e214, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251680

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El pie diabético se considera un problema de salud a escala mundial, debido al alto número de ingresos en los servicios hospitalarios. Objetivo: Caracterizar a los pacientes con pie diabético isquémico sometidos a cirugía revascularizadora en el Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo en 24 pacientes que ingresaron en el Servicio de Angiopatía Diabética del Instituto Nacional de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular con el diagnóstico de pie diabético isquémico, a los cuales se les realizó cualquier tipo de cirugía revascularizadora durante el período comprendido entre abril de 2018 y abril de 2019. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, factores de riesgo ateroscleróticos y enfermedades asociadas, patrón topográfico, clasificación de Fontaine, clasificación hemodinámica según la American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) y técnicas quirúrgicas utilizadas. Se calcularon las frecuencias absolutas y relativas para las variables cualitativas. Resultados: Más del 95 por ciento de los pacientes eran mayores de 50 años. Hubo un predominó del sexo masculino (79,2 por ciento). La hipertensión arterial y el hábito de fumar resultaron los factores de riesgo de mayor frecuencia con igual porcentaje (79,8 por ciento). El patrón oclusivo predominante fue el fémoro-poplíteo (75 por ciento) y la técnica quirúrgica más utilizada resultó el bypass fémoro-poplíteo con prótesis sintética en la primera porción de la poplítea (54,1 por ciento). No se necesitó la amputación después de la cirugía en el 83 por ciento de los enfermos. Conclusiones: Los pacientes se caracterizaron por ser en su mayoría adultos mayores, fumadores e hipertensos. A estos se les realizaron, preferentemente, técnicas quirúrgicas convencionales sobre los procederes endovasculares(AU)


Introduction: Diabetic foot is considered a global health problem, due to the high number of hospital admissions. Objective: Characterize patients with ischemic diabetic foot undergoing revascularization surgery at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 24 patients who were admitted in the Diabetic Angiopathy Service of the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery with the diagnosis of ischemic diabetic foot, whom underwent any kind of revascularization surgery during the period from April 2018 to April 2019. The variables studied were: age, sex, atherosclerotic risk factors and associated diseases, topographic pattern, Fontaine classification, hemodynamic classification according to the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and surgical techniques used. Absolute and relative frequencies for qualitative variables were calculated. Results: More than 95 percent of patients were over 50 years of age. There was a predominance of the male sex (79.2 percent). High blood pressure and smoking habit resulted in the most common risk factors with the same percentage (79.8 percent). The predominant occlusive pattern was the femoro-popliteal (75 percent) and the most commonly used surgical technique was the femoro-popliteal bypass with synthetic prosthetics in the first portion of the popliteal (54.1 percent). No amputation was needed after surgery in 83 percent of patients. Conclusions: Patients were characterized by being mostly older adults, smokers and hypertensive ones. Preferably conventional surgical techniques on endovascular proceedings were performed to these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prostheses and Implants , Risk Factors , Diabetic Foot , Diabetic Angiopathies , Amputation , Smokers
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 26-35, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152974

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Poucos estudos já examinaram a relação do nível habitual de atividade física e a modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo (SNA) na qualidade do sono de fumantes. Objetivos O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar alterações na qualidade do sono de fumantes e sua relação com nível habitual de atividade física e modulação do SNA. Métodos Um total de 42 fumantes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o 50º percentil de atividade física de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV). A qualidade do sono foi avaliada utilizando-se o Mini-Sleep Questionnaire (mini questionário do sono), e a modulação do SNA foi avaliada por índices de variabilidade de frequência cardíaca (VFC). Para a análise de possíveis diferenças de média, foi utilizada a análise de covariância (ANCOVA) para ajuste de idade, gênero, composição corporal, maços-ano, betabloqueadores, ansiedade, e depressão, em log base 10, exceto por dados qualitativos, tais como gênero e betabloqueadores. Foram estabelecidas correlações utilizando-se a correlação de postos de Spearman. A significância estatística foi definida em 5%. Resultados Os fumantes que eram menos ativos demonstraram pior qualidade do sono (p=0,048) e insônia (p=0,045). Além disso, o grupo menos ativo apresentou redução na modulação parassimpática [HF (un; p=0,049); RMSSD (ms; p=0,047) e SD1 (ms; p=0,047)] e aumento do índice de LF (un) index (p=0,033) e razão LF/HF (p=0,040). Houve correlação positiva entre a pontuação total no Mini-sleep com o índice de LF (un) (r=0,317, p=0,041) e razão LF/HF (r=0,318, p=0,040) e correlação negativa com o índice de HF (un) (r= -0,322, p=0,038). Conclusões Fumantes com baixo nível de atividade física habitual apresentaram baixa qualidade do sono e alterações na modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Few studies have examined the relationship of one's habitual physical activity level and autonomic nervous system (ANS) modulation on sleep quality in smokers. Objective The aim of this study was to identify changes in the sleep quality of smokers and its relation with their habitual physical activity level and ANS modulation. Methods Forty-two smokers were divided into two groups according to the 50th percentile of the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sleep quality was assessed using the Mini-sleep Questionnaire, and ANS modulation was assessed by indices of heart rate variability (HRV). To examine the possible mean differences, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used, adjusted for age, sex, body composition, pack-years, beta-blockers, anxiety, and depression in log base 10, not including qualitative data, such as sex and beta-blockers. Correlations were made by using the Spearman rank correlation. The statistical significance was set at 5% Results The smokers who were less active showed poor sleep quality (p=0.048) and insomnia (p=0.045). Furthermore, the less active group presented decreased parasympathetic modulation [HF (un; p=0.049); RMSSD (ms; p=0.047) and SD1 (ms; p=0.047)] and an increased LF (un) index (p=0.033) and LF/HF ratio (p=0.040). A positive correlation between the total Mini-sleep score with LF (un) index (r=0.317, p=0.041) and LF/HF ratio (r=0.318, p=0.040) and negative correlation with HF (un) index (r= -0.322, p=0.038). Conclusions Smokers with lower levels of habitual physical activity showed poor sleep quality and alterations in autonomic nervous system modulation; (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autonomic Nervous System , Smokers , Sleep , Exercise , Heart Rate
11.
Rev. estomatol. Hered ; 31(1): 28-36, ene-mar 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251764

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Discutir los efectos sobre la salud causados por el uso de cigarrillos electrónicos. Material y métodos: Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PubMed/Medline de artículos completos publicados en los últimos 10 años. Se utilizaron un total de 21 artículos, según los criterios de inclusión establecidos, con mayor prevalencia de estudios transversales. Resultados: Se encontró que los cigarrillos electrónicos pueden incluso ayudar en el cese del tabaquismo convencional, sin embargo, sus usuarios no están exentos de sufrir complicaciones de salud sistémicas. Estos contienen sustancias tóxicas y no deben considerarse completamente seguros e inofensivos. Conclusiones: se necesitan más estudios para determinar las implicaciones para la salud a largo plazo del uso de este deben considerarse completamente seguros e inofensivos.


SUMMARY Objective: to discuss the health effects caused by the use of electronic cigarettes. Material and Methods : A search was performed in the PubMed/Medline database of complete articles published in the last 10 years. A total of 21 articles were used, according to the established inclusion criteria, with a higher prevalence of cross-sectional studies. Results: It was verified that electronic cigarettes may even help in the cessation of conventional smoking, however, their users are not exempt from suffering systemic health complications. They present toxic substances and should not be considered totally safe and harmless. Conclusions : Further studies are still needed to determine the implications of the use of this electronic device on the health of its users in the long term.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Use Disorder , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Oral Health , Smokers , Nicotine/adverse effects
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1354602

ABSTRACT

El propósito de este estudio fue determinar las diferencias en el rendimiento de las habilidades cognitivas entre 25 consumidores de cigarrillo y 25 consumidores de cannabis de 18 a 30 años (ambos grupos corresponden a estudiantes universitarios) y correlacionar su desempeño con el tiempo y frecuencia de consumo. Este estudio de tipo cuantitativo, no experimental- transversal, cuyo alcance fue descriptivo, comparativo y correlacional, evidenció que los consumidores de cannabis presentaron resultados significativamente menores en cada una de las habilidades cognitivas, especialmente en las funciones ejecutivas, siendo la habilidad que presentó peor desempeño en ambos grupos. Por otro lado, la habilidad que presenta una menor brecha entre los grupos es el lenguaje, habilidad que mostró tener un mejor rendimiento en los consumidores de marihuana en comparación con las demás habilidades. A pesar de los hallazgos, no fue posible establecer la relación entre el déficit de dichas habilidades y el tiempo y la frecuencia de consumo en ningún grupo debido a que la muestra estaba constituida por consumidores recientes. Se concluye que ambos tipos de consumo influyen en el déficit de las habilidades cognitivas a corto plazo, por lo cual es importante que equipos multidisciplinarios de profesionales especializados en el área de la salud consideren acciones de prevención e intervención en aquellos pacientes jóvenes que abusan del consumo tanto de sustancias lícitas como ilícitas con el fin de minimizar los efectos tanto en la salud física como en la cognitiva en la edad adulta.


The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the performance of cognitive abilities between 25 cigarette and 25 cannabis smokers who were 18 to 30 years old (both groups correspond to university students) and to correlate their cognitive performance with time and frequency of consumption. This quantitative, non-experimental-transversal study, whose scope was descriptive, comparative and correlational, evidenced that cannabis smokers had significantly lower results in each cognitive ability, especially in executive functions, being the skill that presented the worst performance in both groups. On the other hand, the skill that presents the smallest gap between the groups is language, a skill that showed better performance in marijuana users, compared to the other skills. Despite the finding, it was not possible to establish the relationship between the deficit of these skills and the time and frequency of use in any group because the sample consisted of recent users. It is concluded that both types of consumption influence the deficit of cognitive skills in the short term, and for that reason is very important that multidisciplinary teams of professionals specialized in health area consider prevention and intervention actions in those young patients who abuse consumption of licit or illicit substances in order to minimize the effects on physical and cognitive health in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Students , Cannabis , Smokers , Aptitude , Physics , Societies , Time , Universities , Health , Executive Function , Tobacco Products
14.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 1309-1315, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1291346

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar diagnósticos e intervenções de enfermagem estabelecidos para pacientes tabagistas hospitalizados. Métodos: estudo transversal realizado em hospital universitário brasileiro entre agosto e setembro/2017 com entrevistas à beira do leito, consultas ao prontuário e query extraída do sistema informatizado da instituição. Resultados: participaram69 pacientes tabagistas, para os quais identificaram-se 41 diagnósticos de enfermagem distintos, com mediana de quatro (intervalo interquartil: 3;6) por paciente. As intervenções prescritas totalizaram 237, com mediana de 18,5 (intervalo interquartil: 10,5;28,25) por prescrição. Quatro pacientes possuíam diagnóstico com etiologia relacionada ao abuso de substância e para esses foram prescritas 17 intervenções de enfermagem. Em 33(48%) anamneses constava que o paciente era tabagista e, destes, nove(27%) havia o tempo de fumo e número de cigarros consumidos diariamente. Conclusão: a prevalência de tabagistas hospitalizados é expressiva, entretanto, as anamneses, os diagnósticos e intervenções de enfermagem não retratam esta realidade, havendo necessidade de sensibilizar e capacitar a equipe


Objetivo: Identificar diagnósticos e intervenciones de enfermería establecidos para los pacientes que fuman hospitalizados. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado em hospital universitario brasileño entre agosto y septiembre/2017 con entrevistas de cabecera e consultas em registros médicos del sistema computarizado de institución. Resultados: participaron 69 pacientes fumadores, para quienes se identificaron 41 diagnósticos de enfermería diferentes, con mediana de cuatro(rango intercuartil: 3;6) por paciente. Las intervenciones prescritas totalizaron 237, con mediana de 18.5(rango intercuartil: 10.5;28.25) por receta. Cuatro pacientes tuvieron diagnóstico con etiología relacionada con abuso de sustancias y se prescribieron 17 intervenciones de enfermería para estos. En 33(48%) anamnesas se informó que el paciente era fumador, de estos, nueve(13%) tenían el tiempo de fumar y cantidad de cigarrillos consumidos diariamente. Conclusión: la prevalencia de fumadores hospitalizados es significativa, sin embargo, las anamnesias, diagnósticos y intervenciones de enfermería no reflejan esta realidad, con la necesidad de crear conciencia y capacitar al equipo


Objective:To identify nursing diagnoses and interventions established for hospitalized smoking patients. Methods: cross-sectional study carried out in a Brazilian university hospital between August and September/2017 bybedside interviews, consultations on medical records and queries extracted from the institution's computerized system. Results: 69 smoking patients participated and 41 different nursing diagnoses were identified, with a median of four (interquartile range: 3;6) per patient. The prescribed interventions totaled 237, with a median of 18.5 (interquartile range: 10.5;28.25) per prescription. Four patients' diagnosis had etiology related to substance abuse and 17 nursing interventions were prescribed for these. In 33(48%) anamneses it was reported that the patient was a smoker and, of these, nine(13%) had the smoking time and number of cigarettes consumed daily. Conclusion: the prevalence of hospitalized smokers is significant, however, anamneses, diagnoses and nursing interventions don't portray this reality, with the need to raise awareness and train the team


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Nursing Diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Awareness , Nursing Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Cessation , Smoking Prevention
15.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 20: e51054, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1339637

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a dependência física do tabaco e o nível de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado (status tabágico) em trabalhadores terceirizados de uma universidade pública. Método: estudo descritivo-analítico, transversal, quantitativo, desenvolvido com 316 trabalhadores terceirizados de uma universidade pública. Os dados foram coletados por meio do instrumento de caracterização dos participantes, do Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence e do aparelho monoxímetro. Resultados: dos 316 trabalhadores terceirizados, apenas 41 relataram o uso de tabaco ou derivados e 39% destes possuíam grau de dependência física do tabaco elevado/muito elevado. A maioria (90,2%) deles possuía status tabágico considerados fumantes. As variáveis dependência física do tabaco e nível de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado apresentaram associação estatística (p=0,038). Conclusão: alguns trabalhadores possuíam dependência física ao tabaco; por isso, torna-se importante a criação e adoção de políticas públicas que atendam a este tipo de população, assim como, a presença de um enfermeiro nas empresas, com vistas para a promoção da saúde dos trabalhadores.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la dependencia física del tabaco yel nivel de monóxido de carbono en el aire exhalado (status de tabaquismo) enempleados tercerizados de una universidad pública. Método: estudio descriptivo-analítico, transversal, cuantitativo, desarrollado con 316 empleados tercerizados de una universidad pública. Los datos fueronrecolectados por medio del instrumento de caracterización de los participantes, delFagerström Test forNicotineDependencey delmonitor de monóxido de carbono. Resultados: de los 316 empleados tercerizados, solo 41 relataron el uso de tabaco o derivados yel 39% de estos poseía grado de dependencia física del tabaco elevado/muy elevado. La mayor partede ellos (90,2%) poseía statusde tabaquismo considerados fumadores. Las variables dependencia física del tabaco y nivel de monóxido de carbono en el aire exhalado presentaron asociación estadística (p=0,038). Conclusión: algunos empleados poseían dependencia física al tabaco; por ello, es importante la creacióny adopción de políticas públicas que respondan a este tipo de población, así como la presencia de un enfermero en las empresas, a fin de promover la salud de los empleados.


ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the physical dependence to tobacco and carbon monoxide levels in the exhaled air (smoking status) in outsourced workers at a public university. Method: descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study developed with 316 outsourced workers from a public university. Data were collected using an instrument for characterization of the participants, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and measurements with a monoximeter. Results: of the 316 outsourced workers, only 41 reported the use of tobacco or tobacco products and 39% of them had a high/very high degree of physical dependence to tobacco. The majority (90.2%) had smoking status considered of smokers. The variables physical dependence to tobacco and level of carbon monoxide in exhaled air showed a statistical association (p= 0.038). Conclusion: some workers had physical dependence to tobacco; therefore, the creation and adoption of public policies aimed at this type of population and the presence of nurses in companies are important to promote the health of workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco , Carbon Monoxide , Substance-Related Disorders , Outsourced Services , Tobacco Use , Occupational Groups , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Occupational Health , Nursing , Tobacco Products , Smokers , Nicotine , Nurses
16.
Clinics ; 76: e2315, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) represent one-third of the hospitalizations for aortic diseases. The prevalence rate depends on the definition of the normal size of the aorta, which is quite variable, depending on the population studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of the thoracic aorta of Brazilian smokers, identifying the normal size of the aorta, presence of anatomical variations, and prevalence of TAA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 711 patients underwent radiological evaluation with low-dose computed tomography (CT) from January 2013 to July 2014 with the initial objective of lung nodule tracking. Two examiners evaluated these images, and measurements of maximum and serial diameters were performed manually in true orthogonal planes. Serial diameter measurements were taken every 2 cm in the ascending aorta and 5 cm in the descending segment. We searched for anatomical variations, aortic arch type, and correlations between anatomical characteristics, sex, body mass index, and body surface area (BSA). RESULTS: The maximum diameters were 33.61 (standard deviation [SD] 3.88), 28.66 (SD 2.89), and 28.36 mm (SD 3.09) for the ascending segment, aortic arch, and descending segment, respectively. A positive correlation was found between male sex, age, and BSA and aorta diameter. The bovine arch was the most common variation of the aortic arch type, and we found one (0.14%) case of TAA. CONCLUSIONS: This study with low-dose CT allowed the determination of the mean diameters of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta in Brazilian smokers and TAA prevalence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/epidemiology , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Smokers
17.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(1): 1-6, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1145527

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Antioxidants play an important role in neutralizing of destructive effects of free oxygen and nitrogen radicals. There are contradictory results regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and total antioxidant capacity of saliva. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity of saliva has been compared in normal smokers, heavy smokers and non-smokers. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 28 heavy male smokers (more than one pack of cigarettes per day), 28 normal male smokers (less than one pack of cigarettes per day), and 28 male non-smokers aged 25 to 40 years old entered the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected by Spitting method. The total antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Tukey tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean total antioxidant capacity of saliva in male non-smokers was 0.0598 ± 0.08 µmol / L, in normal male smokers was 0.049 ± 0.04 µmol / L, and in heavy male smokers was 0.0388 ± 0.035 µmol / L, which did not show any significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that smoking does not have a significant effect on total antioxidant capacity of saliva in smokers (AU)


Objetivos: Os antioxidantes desempenham um papel importante na neutralização dos efeitos destrutivos do oxigênio livre e dos radicais de nitrogênio. Existem resultados contraditórios entre a relação do tabagismo e a capacidade antioxidante total da saliva. Neste estudo, a capacidade antioxidante total da saliva foi comparada em fumantes normais, fumantes pesados e não fumantes. Material e métodos: Neste estudo transversal, 28 fumantes pesados (mais de um maço de cigarros por dia), 28 fumantes normais (menos de um maço de cigarros por dia) e 28 homens não fumantes com idade entre 25 e 40 anos de idade foram incluídos no estudo. A saliva não estimulada foi coletada pelo método Spitting. A capacidade antioxidante total da saliva foi medida usando o ensaio de poder antioxidante redutor férrico. Estatística descritiva, ANOVA e testes de Tukey foram usados para analise dos dados.Resultados: A capacidade antioxidante total média da saliva em não fumantes do sexo masculino foi de 0,0598 ± 0,08 µmol / L, em fumantes normais do sexo masculino foi de 0,049 ± 0,04 µmol / L, e em fumantes pesados do sexo masculino foi de 0,0388 ± 0,035 µmol / L, e não foi observada diferença significativa entre os grupos (P> 0,05). Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo indicaram que o tabagismo não tem efeito significativo na capacidade antioxidante total da saliva em fumantes (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva , Smokers , Antioxidants
18.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 285-287, dic 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150703

ABSTRACT

Antes del EPOC.AR, conocíamos limitadamente la realidad de la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) en Argentina. Con su realización, se pudo establecer tanto su frecuencia como estimar el subdiagnóstico y el error diagnóstico. La prevalencia de fumadores es un buen medidor de exposición al tabaco en una población. Mientras que las prevalencias en el mundo y en América decaen, la cantidad de personas que fuman continúan comprendiendo a más de 800 millones de hombres y de 200 millones de mujeres a nivel mundial y la tendencia es a trasladar esta epidemia a los sectores de menores ingresos. Unestimación de carga de enfermedad por consumo de tabaco en Argentina, colocó a la EPOC como segunda en mortalidad atribuible al tabaco, luego de las enfermedades cardíacas, y la más notoria para el número de personas que anualmente enferman por tabaco . Este tipo de modelizaciones se realizaron en varios países de la Región en el cual destaca el daño económico que el cigarrillo ejerce a los países latinoamericanos a través de la EPOC


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tobacco Use Disorder , Mortality , Smokers
19.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 305-320, dic 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150708

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Entre 2014 y 2016, se realizó en Argentina el estudio EPOC.AR, a fin de determinar la prevalencia de EPOC en el país. El presente trabajo se realizó para comparar las características de tabaquismo en fumadores con y sin EPOC de dicho estudio, conocer cuántos recibieron Consejo Médico, las características de sus intentos previos de abandono y la exposición a humo de tabaco de segunda mano. Material y Métodos: La asociación entre tabaquismo y sus características y EPOC se evaluó por Odds Ratio, su intervalo de confianza del 95% y valor p correspondiente al test de hipótesis, utilizando la técnica de chi cuadrado. Resultados: Se incluyeron 3469 encuestas en mayores de 39 años, 42.2% hombres. Fueron fumadores actuales o anteriores 70.7% y el 53.3% de ellos tenía características espirométricas de EPOC. El 34.7% es fumador actual, de los que 73,4% piensa en dejar de fumar, 64% recibió consejo y sólo 7.3% refiere haber utilizado algún tratamiento. El 40.2% de los encuestados refirió exposición a humo ambiental y el 56.1% refirió exposición laboral a humo de tabaco: Entre los fumadores del EPOC.AR, la mayoría fuman menos de 20 cigarrillos por día, hay mayor prevalencia de EPOC en hombres y mayor porcentaje de nunca fumadores con EPOC en mujeres. Alto porcentaje piensa dejar de fumar, algo menor en los que tienen EPOC, que tuvieron más intentos previos de dejar. Casi la mitad no recibió consejo médico y muy bajo porcentaje utilizó fármacos para dejar. Existe alta exposición a humo de segunda mano en casas y trabajo. Conclusiones: los fumadores del EPOC.AR fuman menos de 20 cigarrillos/día, hay más hombres, una alto porcentaje quiere dejar y muy pocos reciben consejo médico o fármacos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Smokers
20.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(4): 321-336, dic 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150710

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COPD.AR Study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in Argentina to determine the prevalence of COPD in the country. This work was carried out to compare the smoking characteristics of smokers with and without COPD of said study, to know how many of them received medical advice, the characteristics of their previous attempts to quit and their exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Materials and Methods: The association between smoking characteristics and COPD was evaluated by Odds Ratio, its 95% confidence interval and p value corresponding to the hypothesis test, using the chi square technique. Results: We included 3469 surveys of subjects older than 39 years, 42.2% men. 70.7% were current or former smokers and 53.3% had spirometric characteristics of COPD. 34.7% are current smokers, 73.4% out of which think about quitting; 64% received advice about it and only 7.3% reported having used some treatment. 40.2% of the respondents reported exposure to environmental smoke, and 56.1% reported occupational exposure to tobacco smoke. The majority of COPD.AR smokers smoke less than 20 cigarettes per day; there is a higher prevalence of COPD in men and a higher percentage of never smokers with COPD in women. A high percentage thinks of quitting smoking, a little lower among patients with COPD, who had more previous attempts to quit. Almost half of the subjects did not receive any medical advice and a very low percentage used drugs to quit. There is high exposure to secondhand smoke in homes and workplaces. Conclusions: COPD.AR smokers smoke less than 20 cigarettes a day; there are more men, a high percentage want to quit and very few receive medical advice or drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Smoking Cessation , Smokers
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