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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 101-104, feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515409


Background: Smoking is one of the most relevant public health problems worldwide and one of the main causes of preventable premature death. In-hospital treatment and subsequent follow-up are effective in terms of cessation. Aim: To determine the frequency of smoking habits among patients hospitalized at a private clinic in Santiago. Material and Methods: Hospitalized patients were invited to answer a structured and adapted questionnaire on smoking habits. Results: The survey was answered by 294 patients (56% women). Twenty three percent of respondents were smokers. Among smokers, 50% indicated a consumption from 1 to 5 cigarettes per day, 19% smoked during the first hour after waking, and 43% lived with another smoker in their home. Eighty three percent thought about quitting and made unsuccessful attempts to quit using different strategies. Conclusions: The percentage of smokers in this group of patients is lower than that reported in the national health survey. The high proportion of respondent that are attempted to quit and failed, justifies the availability of structured quitting programs at the hospital and follow-up strategies after discharge.

Humans , Male , Female , Smoking/epidemiology , Patients , Health Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Cessation , Age of Onset , Hospitalization
J. Public Health Africa (Online) ; 14(2): 1-6, 2023. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1418685


Background. Healthcare workers (HCWs) can play a significant role in tobacco prevention by delivering smoking cessation (SC) interventions to patients who smoke. Objective: To identify and explore the perceived barriers which prevent healthcare workers from delivering SC counselling to patients in Zambezi region, Namibia. Methods: A regional-based, concurrent mixed-methods study was conducted between March and October 2020 among HCWs of the 8 constituencies of Zambezi region, Namibia. In the study, 129 respondents, who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over 5 years and aged between 17 to 60 years, participated. Results: 129 respondents participated in the study. Majority of respondents were females (62.9% and 68.1%) compared to (37.1% and 31.9%) males. The mean age of respondents was 35.91 (SD=9.3) and 36.61 (SD=8.7) respectively and their ages ranged between 18 and 59 years. Key barriers were identified: (i) HCWs based barriers included lack of time to provide SC, inadequate training and insufficient knowledge on SC interventions; (ii) system-based barriers identified lack of SC guidelines and educational materials for patients, and specialists to refer patients; and (iii) patient/client-based barriers included lack of patient interest in SC information, patients not adhering to advise given on SC. Conclusions: This study showed that SC delivery in Zambezi region is inadequate. Barriers were identified regarding the delivery of SC intervention for the first time. Targeted SC interventions are required to combat these identified specific barriers. There is a crucial need to improve HCWs skills and knowledge in providing SC intervention.

Humans , Male , Female , Smoking , Tobacco Use , Prevalence , Smoking Cessation , Health Personnel , Methods
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 26(4): e007050, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1526396


Introducción. El consumo de tabaco representa un importante desafío para la salud pública debido a su alta incidencia y mortalidad, y es el principal factor de riesgo modificable para desarrollar enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. La Residencia de Medicina General y Familiar del Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez desarrolló un programa de cesación tabáquica en el Centro de Salud y Acción Comunitaria N◦34, que forma parte desde 2012 del Programa de Prevención y Control del Tabaquismo del Ministerio de Salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Objetivo. Documentar los resultados de la eficacia de este programa y explorar las variables relacionadas con la probabilidad de éxito y recaída. Materiales y métodos. Estudio cuantitativo, de corte transversal analítico, con datos obtenidos de historias clínicas electrónicas entre 2017 y 2020. Fueron incluidos los pacientes que consultaron al menos en dos ocasiones al programa de cesación tabáquica y establecieron un día D al menos 30 días antes del abandono del consumo de tabaco. La eficacia terapéutica fue definida como haber permanecido al menos seis meses sin fumar, y la recaída, como el reinicio de consumo del tabaco luego de haber logrado 24 horas de abstinencia con fecha posterior al día D.Resultados.De 59 pacientes, 24 (40,7 %) lograron la eficacia terapéutica, de los cuales 5 (20,8 %) presentaron recaídas.De los 35 pacientes que no lograron alcanzar la etapa de mantenimiento, 30 (85,7 %) recayeron durante las primeras ocho semanas. El sexo masculino y el consumo de tabaco superior a 20 paquetes-año mostraron una mayor correlación con las recaídas. Conclusiones. El programa presentó una eficacia terapéutica del 40,7 % en el periodo evaluado. Se encontraron asociaciones entre una mayor eficacia terapéutica y ciertas características de los pacientes, pero se requieren más estudios para confirmar esta hipótesis. (AU)

Background. Tobacco consumption represents an important challenge for public health due to its high incidence and mortality and is the main modifiable risk factor for developing chronic non-communicable diseases. The General and Family Medicine Residence of the Hospital General de Agudos Dr. Teodoro Álvarez developed a smoking cessation program in Health and Community Action Centre N◦34. Since 2012 it has been part of the Program for the Prevention and Control of Smoking of the Ministry of Health of the Government of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Objective. To document the results of the effectiveness of the program and explore the variables related to the probability of success and relapse. Materials and methods. Quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study, with data obtained from electronic medical records between 2017 and 2020. Patients who consulted the smoking cessation program at least twice and established a D-day 30 days before quitting tobacco consumption were included. Therapeutic efficacy was defined as having remained at least six months without smoking, and relapse, as the resumption of tobacco consumption after having achieved 24 hours of abstinence with a date after day D. Results. Of 59 patients, 24 (40.7 %) achieved therapeutic efficacy, of which 5 (20.8 %) presented relapses. Among the35 patients who failed to reach the maintenance stage, 30 (85.7 %) relapsed during the first eight weeks. Male sex and tobacco consumption of more than 20 pack per year showed a greater correlation with relapses. Conclusions.The program presented a therapeutic efficacy of 40.7 % in the evaluated period. Associations were found between greater therapeutic efficacy and certain patient characteristics but more studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Smoking Cessation/methods , Tobacco Use Cessation/methods , Recurrence , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Use Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Control
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 850-861, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007858


OBJECTIVE@#No consensus exists on the relative risk ( RR) of lung cancer (LC) attributable to active smoking in China. This study aimed to evaluate the unified RR of LC attributable to active smoking among the Chinese population.@*METHODS@#A systematic literature search of seven databases was conducted to identify studies reporting active smoking among smokers versus nonsmokers in China. Primary articles on LC providing risk estimates with their 95% confidence intervals ( CIs) for "ever" "former" or "current" smokers from China were selected. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled RR of active smoking.@*RESULTS@#Forty-four unique studies were included. Compared with that of nonsmokers, the pooled RR (95% CI) for "ever" "former" and "current" smokers were 3.26 (2.79-3.82), 2.95 (1.71-5.08), and 5.16 (2.58-10.34) among men, 3.18 (2.78-3.63), 2.70 (2.08-3.51), and 4.27 (3.61-5.06) among women, and 2.71 (2.12-3.46), 2.66 (2.45-2.88), and 4.21 (3.25-5.45) in both sexes combined, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The RR of LC has remained relatively stable (range, 2-6) over the past four decades in China. Early quitting of smoking could reduce the RR to some extent; however, completely refraining from smoking is the best way to avoid its adverse effects.

Male , Humans , Female , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation , Smokers , Risk , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Risk Factors
Philippine Journal of Neurology ; : 31-41, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005182


Abstract@#Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a non-invasive brain stimulation process popularly used to treat psychiatric disorders. Multiple evidence shows effectiveness of rTMS in treating addiction, particularly in tobacco or cigarette users. This study consisted of review of current published literatures on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation following predefined eligibility criteria. The studies included evaluated at least one of the epidemiological parameters: (i) the meaning of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (ii) Effectiveness of the Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Simulation Over Behavioral therapy (iii) rTMS-associated adverse events among tobacco users@*Methodology@#We included published studies discussing rTMS in smoking cessation which examined if these interventions were effective and identified whether it has a severe negative effect on the patients. A total of 104 related studies were identified through database searches (Pubmed, Elsevier, Cochrane). Of which, 53 duplicate studies were removed. Five studies were then excluded with more than 10 years in publication. A total of 28 papers were then included in the study.@*Conclusion@#We conclude that rTMS is more effective in treating addiction in terms of smoking compared to behavioral therapy and rTMS affects triggered desired circuit which may be crucial among tobacco users. Individual neuronal excitability in the specific region’s subsequent induction may impact the therapeutic outcomes. With this, the high-frequency rTMS sequentially applied to the left superior medial frontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be an effective tool for improving the cessation rate.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Smoking Cessation
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1063-1067, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985633


Objective: To evaluate the performance of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation clinics and its influence on patients' willingness and behavior for smoking cessation in China. Methods: Data of 41 566 patients who visited 257 smoking cessation clinics equipped with exhaled carbon monoxide detectors from 2019 to 2021 were selected to study the relationship between exhaled carbon monoxide measurement and patients' willingness to quit smoking as well as smoking cessation rate in those who completed follow up. Results: Only 21 470 (51.7%) of the patients received exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in the first visit. Patients who had exhaled carbon monoxide measurement were 1.87 (95%CI: 1.78-1.96) times more likely to have stronger willingness to quit smoking. The follow up results indicated that the patients with exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in the first visit were 1.10 (95%CI: 1.05-1.16) times more likely to quit smoking one month later than those without the measurement, and 1.22 (95%CI: 1.17-1.29) times more likely to quit smoking three months later than those without measurement. Conclusions: Exhaled carbon monoxide measurement can improve patients' willingness to quit smoking and increase smoking cessation rate. However, the testing rate is low in smoking cessation clinics at present. It's important to promote the equipment and utilization of exhaled carbon monoxide detector in smoking cessation clinics.

Humans , Smoking Cessation , Carbon Monoxide/analysis , Smoking , Tobacco Smoking , China
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 650-656, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985541


Objective: based on summarizing the simulation and prediction of tobacco control measures across the globe and sorting out the various scenarios of tobacco control measures, the potential short-term effects of seven tobacco control measures in different scenarios were systematically analyzed. Methods: Until April 2022, PubMed, Embase, EconLit, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases were used to retrieve literature about tobacco control measures simulation and prediction models across the globe. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly followed. Meta-analysis for the potential short-term effects of seven tobacco control measures in different scenarios was performed using the R software. Results: A total of 22 papers covering 16 countries were selected. Five studies were conducted in the United States, three in Mexico, and two in Italy. There were all papers with the measures to tax increases, smoke-free air laws, and mass media campaigns, 21 papers with youth access restrictions, 20 with marketing restrictions, and 19 with cessation treatment programs and health warnings. The tax increases had diverse influences on the price elasticity of different age groups. The price elasticity in the age group 15-17 years was the highest, which was 0.044 (95%CI: 0.038-0.051). The potential short-term effects of smoke-free air laws in workplaces were higher than in restaurants and other indoor public places. The effects of youth access restrictions were greater in the age group <16 years than in the age group 16-17. The stronger the implementation of other measures, the greater the potential short-term effects. A comparison of seven tobacco control measures showed that the cessation treatment programs increase in cessation rate was the highest, 0.404 (95%CI: 0.357-0.456). The reduction in smoking rate and reduction in initiation rate of youth access restrictions strongly enforced and publicized was the highest in the age group <16 years, 0.292 (95%CI: 0.269-0.315), and 0.292 (95%CI: 0.270-0.316). Conclusions: The potential short-term effects of seven tobacco control measures in different scenarios were evaluated more accurately and objectively through Meta-analysis. In the short term, cessation treatment programs will substantially increase smoking cessation rates, and strong youth access enforcement will sharply reduce smoking and initiation rates among adolescents under 16. These results also offer strong data-related support for the simulation and prediction of tobacco control measures in China and other countries.

Adolescent , Humans , United States , Tobacco Control , Prevalence , Computer Simulation , Smoking Cessation , Health Behavior , Smoking Prevention
MedUNAB ; 25(1): 42-51, 202205.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372552


Introducción. La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica es un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial y el cese del consumo de tabaco es la medida más efectiva para disminuir la incidencia y su progresión. Esta medida es especialmente eficaz en personas envejecidas, en quienes las consecuencias son más agudas a causa de los cambios biopsicosociales, cambios que aumentan la probabilidad de infecciones, dependencia funcional y fragilidad. El objetivo de este reporte es describir los cambios en el hábito tabáquico de una persona mayor con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, tras ser incluida en un plan de cuidado organizado y según las etapas del proceso de Enfermería dirigido al cese del hábito tabáquico. Metodología. Reporte de caso de Enfermería bajo el Modelo de Promoción de la Salud de Nola Pender y el proceso de Enfermería, articulado con la taxonomía diagnóstica North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, la Clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería (Nursing Outcomes Classification) y la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería (Nursing Interventions Classification). Resultados. Tras el proceso de Enfermería se evidencia la cesación del hábito tabáquico en la persona mayor y se destaca en el proceso la participación del núcleo familiar y el reconocimiento de los riesgos en salud asociados. Conclusiones. Se reconoce el rol de Enfermería como preponderante en la prevención y el abandono del hábito tabáquico que, orientado por un proceso de cuidado organizado, con respaldo disciplinar y científico, ayuda a mejorar el estado de salud y manejo de los factores de riesgo.

Introduction. Quitting tobacco consumption is the most effective measure for reducing the incidence and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is a global public health issue. This measure is especially effective in seniors, in whom the consequences are more acute due to biopsychosocial changes, changes that increase the probability of infection, functional dependence and fragility. The objective of this report is to describe the changes in the tobacco habits of a senior with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after being included in an organized health care plan according to the Nursing process' stages for quitting tobacco habits. Methodology. A nursing case report under Nola Pender's Health Promotion Model and the Nursing process, articulated with the diagnostic taxonomy North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, Nursing Outcomes Classification and Nursing Interventions Classification. Results. It was evident the senior quit their tobacco habits after the Nursing process was carried out, and participation from family members and recognition of the associated health risks stood out in the process. Conclusions. The role of Nursing is pivotal in preventing and quitting tobacco habits, which, guided by an organized health care process with disciplinary and scientific support, helps improve health conditions and manage risk factors.

Introdução. A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica é um problema de saúde pública global e a cessação do consumo de tabaco é a medida mais eficaz para reduzir sua incidência e progressão. Essa medida é especialmente eficaz em idosos, nos quais as consequências são mais agudas devido a alterações biopsicossociais, alterações que aumentam a probabilidade de infecções, dependência funcional e fragilidade. O objetivo deste relato é descrever as mudanças no hábito de fumar de um idoso com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, após a inclusão em um plano de cuidados organizado e de acordo com as etapas do processo de Enfermagem visando a cessação do tabagismo. Metodologia. Relato de caso de Enfermagem sob o Modelo de Promoção da Saúde de Nola Pender e o processo de Enfermagem, articulado com a taxonomia diagnóstica North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, a Classificação de Resultados de Enfermagem Nursing Outcomes Classification e a Classificação de Intervenções de Enfermagem Nursing Interventions Classification. Resultados. Após o processo de Enfermagem, evidencia-se a cessação do tabagismo no idoso e destaca-se a participação do núcleo familiar e o reconhecimento dos riscos à saúde associados no processo. Conclusões. O papel da Enfermagem é reconhecido como preponderante na prevenção e cessação do tabagismo, o que, pautado por um processo assistencial organizado, com respaldo disciplinar e científico, auxilia na melhoria do estado de saúde e no manejo dos fatores de risco.

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Aged , Smoking Cessation , Evidence-Based Nursing , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Nursing Process
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 77 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1410986


INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer de cabeça e pescoço representa o sexto câncer mais comum no mundo. É mais frequente em homens entre 40 e 65 anos de idade. Evidências apontam que a cessação do tabagismo promove a redução do risco dessa neoplasia. Contudo, a redução na prevalência do tabagismo na população não tem sido associada à redução das taxas de incidência dos cânceres de cabeça e pescoço em vários países. Observa-se crescimento proporcional do número de casos, principalmente entre homens acima de 60 anos de idade. OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores associados ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço em ex-fumantes e em homens de 60 anos ou mais em Goiânia (GO), São Paulo (SP) e Vitória (ES). MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso-controle multicêntrico, parte do InterCHANGE (International Consortium of Head and Neck Cancer and Genetic Epidemiology), coordenado pela IARC (Internacional Agency for Research on Cancer), que investigou a relação entre fatores sociodemográficos, estilo de vida, hábitos alimentares e características nutricionais com os cânceres de cabeça e pescoço em ex fumantes e em homens de 60 anos ou mais. Os dados foram coletados no Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia; A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo; e Hospital Santa Rita de Cássia, Vitória entre julho de 2011 a julho de 2018. Análises de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla foram realizadas para estimar odds ratios (ORs) e seu intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%). RESULTADOS: Entre ex-fumantes, a cessação do tabagismo teve um impacto significativo após 11-20 anos (OR 0,22, IC 95%, 0,12-0,39) com uma redução de até 82% (IC 95%, 0,09-0,35) no risco para aqueles que pararam de fumar há mais de 20 anos em comparação com o grupo de até 5 anos de cessação. Uma história de tabagismo de alta intensidade (>40 maços-ano) aumentou o risco de câncer de cabeça e pescoço em 2,09 vezes (IC 95% 1,13­3,89), comparativamente ao grupo que fumou até 20 maços-ano. O consumo passado de bebida alcoólica (OR 1,99, IC 95%, 1,06­3,82) comparado a "nunca beber" foi associado ao risco de câncer de cabeça e pescoço em ex-fumantes. Houve uma diminuição do risco de câncer de cabeça e pescoço em ex-fumantes com escolaridade em nível de ensino médio (OR 0,38, IC 95%, 0,16­0,91) quando comparados aos analfabetos. Ex-fumantes com consumo moderado de vegetais (OR 0,49, IC 95%, 0,28­0,85) e frutas (OR 0,43, IC 95%, 0,25­0,73) tiveram menor risco de câncer de cabeça e pescoço do que aqueles com baixo consumo. Entre homens de 60 anos ou mais, o risco de câncer foi 6 vezes maior para cavidade oral (OR 6,03, 8 IC 95% 1,91-19,22) e orofaringe (OR 6,86, IC 95% 1,15-45,69) após 6-10 anos de cessação do tabagismo em comparação a não fumantes. Somente após a cessação por 11 anos para cavidade oral e mais de 20 anos para orofaringe o risco de câncer foi semelhante ao de nunca fumantes. O consumo de 15-60g de etanol/dia aumentou em mais de 5 vezes o risco de câncer de orofaringe (OR 5,49, IC 95% 1,57-23,32) em comparação à abstêmios. O consumo frequente de tomate (cavidade oral e laringe), brócolis (orofaringe), vegetais (laringe), bananas e sucos de frutas (laringe) foi associado a reduções no risco de câncer de cabeça e pescoço em comparação com baixo consumo. CONCLUSÃO: A cessação do tabagismo leva a uma redução no risco de câncer de cabeça e pescoço, no entanto, o benefício não é imediato. Quanto mais cedo o hábito do tabagismo for abandonado maior será a redução do risco. Os fatores associados ao câncer de cabeça e pescoço em homens, acima dos 60 anos, são principalmente relacionados ao tabagismo e etilismo com risco persistente mesmo após a cessação do hábito de fumar.

INTRODUCTION: Head and neck cancers (HNC) are the sixth most common cancer in the world. It is more frequent among men aged 40 to 65. There is evidence that smoking cessation helps to reduce the risk of head and neck cancer. However reduced prevalence of tobacco consumption in the population has not been associated with reduced incidence rates of head and neck cancer in several countries. A proportional increase in head and neck cancer rates has been observed, particularly among men aged 60 and over. PURPOSE: To investigate associated factors with head and neck cancer in former smokers and in men aged 60 and over, from Goiânia (GO), São Paulo (SP) e Vitória (ES). MATERIAL AND METHODS: It's a multicenter case-control study integrating InterCHANGE (International Consortium on Head and Neck Cancer and Genetic Epidemiology), coordinated by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), which investigated the relation between sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, eating habits and nutritional status with head and neck cancer among former smokers and men aged 60 and over. Data collected at three Brazilian health centers (Araújo Jorge Hospital, Goiânia; A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo; and Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital, Vitória) from July 2011 to July 2018 were analyzed by bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: 11-20 years after smoking cessation showed significant impact on HNC reduction (OR 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.39), which reached 82% (95% CI, 0.09-0.35) among 20+ former smokers when compared to individuals who had stopped smoking for up to 5 years. A history of high-intensity smoking (>40 pack-years) increased HNC risk by 2.09 times (95% CI 1.13­3.89) when compared to subjects who smoked up to 20 pack-years. Past alcoholic beverage consumption (OR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.06­3.82) was also associated with head and neck cancer risk in former smokers when compared to no alcohol consumption. There was a decreased head and neck cancer risk in former smokers who had high school level of education (OR 0.38, 95% CI, 0.16­0.91) compared to illiterate former smokers. Former smokers with moderate intake of vegetables (OR 0.49, 95% CI, 0.28­0.85) and fruits (OR 0.43, 95% CI, 0.25­0.73), compared to those with low intake, had lower head and neck cancer risk. Among men aged 60 years and over, the risk of head and neck cancer was 6 times higher for oral cavity (OR 6.03, 95% CI, 1.91-19.22) and oropharynx (OR 6.86, 95% CI, 1.15-45.69) after 6-10 years of smoking 10 cessation, comparing with never smokers. The risk was similar to never smokers after 11 (oral cavity) and 20+ years (oropharynx) of smoking cessation. Drinking 15-60 g ethanol/day increased the risk of oropharyngeal cancer more than 5 times (OR 5.49, 95% CI, 1.57-23.32) compared to those who never drank. High intake of tomatoes (oral cavity and larynx), broccoli (oropharynx), vegetables (larynx), bananas and fruit juices (larynx) were associated with reduced cancer risk compared to low intake. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation reduces the risk of head and neck cancer; however, the benefit is not immediate. The sooner the smoking cessation takes place, the greater the reduction in the risk of head and neck cancer. The associated factors with head and neck cancer among men aged 60 and over are related to smoking and alcohol beverage drinking. Even after smoking cessation men aged 60 and over had a high and persistent risk of head and neck cancer

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Smoking Cessation , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Risk Factors
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 31(spe1): e2021388, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384905


Objetivo: Descrever os indicadores de abandono do uso de tabaco, em 2013 e 2019, para o Brasil e as Unidades da Federação, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, coletadas na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Métodos: Estudo transversal, populacional e descritivo realizado com dados da PNS 2013 e 2019, uma pesquisa domiciliar coletada por entrevistadores treinados. Foram calculadas a prevalência de ex-fumantes e a proporção de fumantes que tentaram parar de fumar nos últimos 12 meses imediatamente anteriores à data da entrevista, e os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC95%), segundo as variáveis sociodemográficas. Ademais, calculou-se a variação percentual entre os anos estudados. Resultados: Em 2013, a prevalência de ex-fumantes foi 17,5% (IC95% 16,9;18,0) e, em 2019, 26,6% (IC95% 26,1;27,2). Tentaram parar de fumar 51,1% (IC95% 49,3;52,9), em 2013, e 46,6% (IC95% 45,0;48,3) em 2019. Conclusão: É importante o fortalecimento e manutenção de estratégias para enfrentamento do uso de tabaco no país, de forma a aumentar a disposição e a capacidade do fumante atual de parar de fumar.

Objetivo: Describir los indicadores de abandono del hábito tabáquico en 2013 y 2019 para Brasil y Unidades Federadas, según variables sociodemográficas, recogidas en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS). Métodos: Estudio transversal, poblacional y descriptivo con datos de las PNS, 2013 y 2019, una encuesta de hogares recolectada por entrevistadores capacitados. Se calculó la prevalencia de exfumadores y proporción de fumadores que intentaron dejar de fumar en los últimos 12 meses y respectivos intervalos de confianza (IC95%), según variables sociodemográficas. Además, se calculó la variación porcentual entre los años. Resultados: En 2013, la prevalencia de exfumadores fue de 17,5% (IC95% 16,9;18,0), en 2019, 26,6% (IC95% 26,1;27,2). En 2013, el 51,1% intentó dejar de fumar (IC95% 49,3;52,9), y, en 2019, el 46,6% (IC95% 45,0;48,3). Conclusión: Es importante fortalecer y mantener las estrategias de afrontamiento del tabaquismo, para incrementar la disposición y capacidad del fumador actual para dejar de fumar.

Objective: To describe the indicators of smoking cessation in 2013 and 2019 for Brazil and federative units, according to sociodemographic variables, collected in the National Health Survey (PNS). Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based and descriptive study with data from the 2013 and 2019 PNS, a household survey collected by trained interviewers. The prevalence of ex-smokers and the proportion of smokers who tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the interview, and respective confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated, according to sociodemographic variables. Additionally, the percentage variation between the years was calculated. Results: In 2013, the prevalence of ex-smokers was 17.5% (95%CI 16.9;18.0) and, in 2019, 26.6% (95%CI 26.1;27.2). In 2013, 51.1% tried to quit smoking (95%CI 49.3;52.9) and, in 2019, 46.6% (95%CI 45.0;48.3). Conclusion: It is important to strengthen and maintain strategies for coping with tobacco use in Brazil, to increase the current smoker's willingness and ability to quit smoking.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Ex-Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Surveys
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2022. 55 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1433809


Introdução: A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) conceitua o tabagismo como problema de saúde pública por estar entre as principais causas de morte evitável no mundo. A cessação do tabagismo é mensurada por meio do índice de cessação do tabagismo, que é calculado mediante a razão entre o número de pessoas que pararam de fumar e o número de pessoas que já fumaram algum dia (ex-fumantes e fumantes). Diversos são os fatores relacionados a cessação, podendo-se destacar aspectos sociodemográficos como ter idade relativamente avançada, renda mensal mais alta e um nível educacional mais alto; fatores ambientais tais como: restrições ao fumo em casa, bem como políticas antifumo em locais públicos e locais de trabalho. Para além dos fatores individuais, sabe-se que o ambiente social e físico no qual o indivíduo está inserido influencia diretamente a saúde e o comportamento, podendo também ser um preditor da cessação ao tabagismo. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivo calcular o índice de cessação do tabagismo no Brasil, bem como, avaliar os fatores associados individuais e contextual. Metodologia: Trata-se de estudo observacional do tipo transversal utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) realizada no ano de 2019. Inicialmente, foi realizada análise descritiva de cada variável estudada por meio do cálculo das frequências relativas. Posteriormente, foi realizada análise uni e multivariada, utilizando modelo de Poisson com variâncias robustas multinível para avaliar os fatores associados à cessação do hábito de fumar. No primeiro nível foram considerados os fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de saúde, e no segundo a variável contextual Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano (IDH) mensurada por Unidade Federativa (UF). As ponderações pertinentes ao delineamento amostral foram consideradas e todas as análises foram realizadas com o uso do programa STATA 14.0. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a taxa de cessação do tabagismo no Brasil em 2019, foi de 68%, com média de 17 anos sem fumar (±12,9). No que se refere aos fatores sociodemográficos e econômicos associados a uma maior probabilidade de cessação foram: ser do sexo feminino (RP=1,10; IC95% 1,07-1,13), ter parceiro (RP=1,11; IC95% 1,08-1,15), ter escolaridade nível médio (RP=1,04; IC95% 1,01-1,08) ou superior (RP=1,07; IC95% 1,03-1,12), não possuir trabalho formal (RP=1,06; IC95% 1,03-1,09), frequentar atividade religiosa (RP= 1,08; IC95% 1,05-1,12), assistir propaganda sobre os malefícios do cigarro (RP=1,07; IC95% 1,02-1,11), ter hipertensão arterial (RP=1,10; IC95% 1,07­ 1,14), ter diabetes (RP= 1,07; IC95% 1,02­1,12), não presenciar fumo no domicílio (RP 1,43; IC95% 1,41-1,45), praticar exercício físico (RP=1,07; IC95% 1,03­1,10) e consumir bebida alcoólica menos de uma vez ao mês (RP 1,03; IC95% 0,99-1,07). Além disso, quanto maior o quartil de IDH da UF menor a probabilidade de cessação do tabagismo. Conclusão: Os achados do presente estudo afirmam que as desigualdades do índice de cessação têm um padrão diferente para algumas regiões do país. Dessa forma, é importante manter o monitoramento a fim de identificar possíveis localidades que precisem de intervenções mais direcionadas. O presente estudo poderá contribuir para melhoria dos processos e políticas públicas cujo foco seja a promoção da cessação do hábito de fumar.

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers smoking as a public health problem as it is among the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Thousands of people die annually from tobacco-related diseases. Smoking cessation is measured using the smoking cessation index, which is calculated as the ratio between the number of people who have stopped smoking and the number of people who have ever smoked (ex-smokers and smokers). There are several factors related to cessation, among which are sociodemographic aspects such as being relatively advanced age, higher monthly income and a higher educational level can be highlighted; environmental factors such as attempts to quit smoking, restrictions on smoking at home, as well as anti- smoking policies in public places and workplaces, in addition to individual factors, it is known that the social and physical environment directly influences health and behavior in which a person is inserted, and may also be a predictor of smoking cessation. Objectives: This study aimed to calculate the smoking cessation rate in Brazil, as well as to evaluate individual and contextual associated factors. Methodology: This is a cross- sectional observational study using data from the National Health Survey (PNS) carried out in 2019. Initially, a descriptive analysis of each variance studied was performed by calculating the relative frequencies. Subsequently, a univariate and multivariate analysis was performed, using a Poisson model with robust multilevel variances to assess the factors associated with smoking cessation. In the first level, sociodemographic, behavioral and health factors were considered, and in the second one, the contextual variance Human Development Index, (HDI) measured by Federative Unit (FU). Weightings relevant to the sample design were considered and all analyzes were performed using the STATA 14.0 program. Results: The results showed that the smoking cessation rate in Brazil in 2019 was 68%, with an average of 17 years without smoking (±12.9). With regard to sociodemographic and economic factors associated with a greater probability of cessation, they were: being female (RP=1.10; CI95% 1.07-1.13), having a partner (RP=1.11; CI95 % 1.08-1.15), have secondary education (RP=1.04; 95%CI 1.01- 1.08) or higher education (RP=1.07; 95%CI 1.03-1.12) , not having a formal job (PR=1.06; 95%CI 1.03-1.09), attending religious activity (RP= 1.08; 95%CI 1.05-1.12), watching advertisements about the harmful effects of cigarette (PR=1.07; 95%CI 1.02- 1.11), having high blood pressure (PR=1.10; 95%CI 1.07­1.14), having diabetes (PR=1.07; 95%CI % 1.02­1.12), not witnessing smoking at home (PR 1.43; 95%CI 1.41- 1.45), practicing physical exercise (PR=1.07; 95%CI 1.03­1, 10) and consume alcohol less than once a month (PR 1.03; 95%CI 0.99-1.07). In addition, the higher the HDI quartile of FU, the lower the probability of smoking cessation. Conclusion: The findings of the present study state that the cessation rate inequalities have different pattern for some regions in the country. Thus, it is important to maintain monitoring in order to identify possible locations that need more targeted interventions. The present study will be able to contribute to the improvement of processes and public policies whose focus is on promoting smoking cessation.

Humans , Male , Female , Smoking , Public Health , Cause of Death , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Use Cessation , Sociodemographic Factors , Public Policy , Nicotiana , World Health Organization , Health Surveys , Tobacco Products , Economic Factors , Tobacco Control , Hypertension
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 271-276, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927372


OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy of different acupuncture frequencies in tobacco-dependent patients and explore the impact of nicotine metabolite rate (NMR) on smoking cessation in the intervention with acupuncture.@*METHODS@#A total of 120 cases of tobacco-dependent patients were randomly divided into a high-frequency group (60 cases, 12 cases dropped off) and a low-frequency group (60 cases, 6 cases dropped off). In the two groups, smoking cessation counseling was provided prior to acupuncture. Acupuncture was applied to Baihui (GV 20), Lieque (LU 7), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. Additionally, electric stimulation was added at Lieque (LU 7) and Zusanli (ST 36), with continuous wave, 15 Hz in frequency. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks in either group. In the high-frequency group, the treatment was given 5 times weekly from week 1 to week 4, and was 3 times weekly from week 5 to week 8. In the low-frequency group, the treatment was given 3 times weekly from week 1 to week 4, and was twice a week from week 5 to week 8. The immediate withdrawal rate, persistent withdrawal rate, the score of Fagerstrőm test for nicotine dependence (FTND) before and after treatment, as well as the score of Minnesota nicotine withdrawal scale (MNWS) in 1 and 8 weeks of treatment were compared among the patients with high and low NMR between the two groups separately. The Logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influencing factors of smoking cessation in the intervention with acupuncture.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, there was no statistical significance of the differences in the immediate withdrawal rate (35.4% [17/48] vs 29.6% [16/54]) and the persistent withdrawal rate (33.3% [16/48] vs 25.9% [14/54]) between the high-frequency group and the low-frequency group (P>0.05). The difference in withdrawal rate had no statistical significance between high and low NMR patients (P>0.05). FTND scores after treatment were lower than those before treatment (P<0.01) and MNWS scores were lower than those in 1 week of treatment (P<0.01) in the two groups. However, the differences had no statistical significance between the two groups and between the patients with high NMR and low NMR (P>0.05). Age, education level and NMR were the influencing factors of smoking cessation in the intervention with acupuncture (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Acupuncture with different frequencies has no obvious impact on the efficacy in tobacco-dependent patients. The lower nicotine metabolite rate in individuals, the better efficacy of acupuncture. The smokers with high nicotine metabolite rate may obtain a better effect of cessation in the high-frequency intervention with acupuncture.

Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Nicotine , Smoking Cessation/psychology
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 334-343, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928975


OBJECTIVES@#Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a clonal disease, characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cells that derived from bone marrow infiltrating the lungs and other organs. Due to the rarity of the disease, the current understanding of the disease is insufficient, often misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis. This study aims to raise clinicians' awareness for this disease via summarizing the clinical characteristics, imaging features, and treatment of PLCH.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed clinical and follow-up data of 15 hospitalized cases of PLCH from September 2012 to June 2021 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.@*RESULTS@#The age of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women, with a sex ratio of 3 to 2) was 21-52 (median 33) years. Among them, 8 had a history of smoking and 5 suffered spontaneous pneumothorax during disease course. There were 3 patients with single system PLCH and 12 patients with multi-system PLCH, including 7 patients with pituitary involvement, 7 patients with lymph node involvement, 6 patients with bone involvement, 5 patients with liver involvement, 2 patients with skin involvement, 2 patients with thyroid involvement, and 1 patients with thymus involvement. The clinical manifestations were varied but non-specific. Respiratory symptoms mainly included dry cough, sputum expectoration, chest pain, etc. Constitutional symptoms included fever and weight loss. Patients with multi-system involvement experienced symptoms such as polyuria-polydipsia, bone pain, and skin rash. All patients were confirmed by pathology, including 6 by lung biopsy, 3 by bone biopsy, 2 by lymph node biopsy, and 4 by liver, skin, suprasternal fossa tumor, or pituitary stalk biopsy. The most common CT findings from this cohort of patients were nodules and/or cysts and nodular and cystic shadows were found in 7 patients. Three patients presented simple multiple cystic shadows, 3 patients presented multiple nodules, and 2 patients presented with single nodules and mass shadows. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 4 patients, ventilation dysfunction was showed in 2 patients at the first visit. Pulmonary diffusion function tests were performed in 4 patients and showed a decrease in 3 patients. Smoking cessation was recommended to PLCH patients with smoking history. Ten patients received chemotherapy while 2 patients received oral glucocorticoid therapy. Among the 11 patients with the long-term follow-up, 9 were in stable condition.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PLCH is a neoplastic disease closely related to smoking. The clinical manifestations and laboratory examination are not specific. Pneumothorax could be the first symptom which is very suggestive of the disease. Definitive diagnosis relies on histology. There is no unified treatment plan for PLCH, and individualized treatment should be carried out according to organ involvement. Early smoking cessation is essential. Chemotherapy is the main treatment for rapidly progressing PLCH involved multiple organs. All diagnosed patients can be considered for the detection of BRAFV600E gene and relevant targeted therapies have been implemented recently.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Cysts , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/therapy , Lung/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(12): 6089-6103, Dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350496


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação entre uso de cigarros eletrônicos e iniciação ao tabagismo, por meio de uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise de estudos longitudinais. Busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS e PsycInfo. As etapas de seleção de referências, extração dos dados e avaliação do risco de viés dos estudos foi realizada em dupla, de forma independente e as divergências discutidas com um terceiro pesquisador para obtenção de consenso. Meta-análise foi realizada por meio do modelo Mantel-Haenszel de efeitos aleatórios. Dentre os 25 estudos incluídos, 22 avaliaram o desfecho de experimentação de cigarro convencional e nove avaliaram o desfecho de tabagismo atual (nos últimos 30 dias). A meta-análise demonstrou que o uso de cigarro eletrônico aumentou em quase três vezes e meia o risco de experimentação de cigarro convencional (RR=3,42; IC95% 2,81-4,15) e em mais de quatro vezes o risco de tabagismo atual (RR=4,32; IC95% 3,13-5,94). O risco de iniciação ao tabagismo é significativamente maior entre usuários de cigarro eletrônico. A liberação da comercialização desses dispositivos pode representar uma ameaça para as políticas de saúde pública no Brasil.

Abstract This article aims to evaluate the association between the use of electronic cigarettes and initiation to smoking, through a systematic review with meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. A bibliographic search was performed on the MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and PsycInfo databases. Reference selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment of the studies were independently carried out in pairs, and the disagreements were discussed with a third researcher to reach a consensus. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model. Among the 25 studies included, 22 evaluated the outcome of conventional cigarette experimentation and nine assessed the outcome of current smoking (in the last 30 days). The meta-analysis showed that the use of electronic cigarettes increased the risk of conventional cigarette experimentation by almost three and a half times (RR=3.42; 95%CI 2.81-4.15), and by more than four times the risk of current smoking (RR=4.32; 95%CI 3.13-5.94). The risk of smoking initiation is significantly higher among electronic cigarette users. The marketing authorization of such devices may represent a threat to public health policies in Brazil.

Humans , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Prevention
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(6): 510-516, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357527


Introducción: el estrés es el resultado del desequilibrio entre las exigencias y presiones a las que se enfrenta el individuo. El estrés pone a prueba la capacidad del individuo para afrontar su actividad y esto supone un problema de salud para el trabajador. Objetivo: explorar la asociación entre el estrés laboral y la dependencia a la nicotina en una población de trabajadores de la salud de la Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 92 del IMSS. Material y métodos: estudio transversal que incluyó a 180 trabajadores fumadores activos, el estrés laboral fue evaluado con el cuestionario de Problemas Psicosomáticos para Estrés Ocupacional adaptado por el IMSS y la dependencia a la nicotina con el cuestionario de Fagerström. Se utilizaron pruebas de t de Student y prueba exacta de Fisher, el análisis estadístico fue realizado con el programa Stata 15. Resultados: la prevalencia de estrés laboral fue de 72.2% (leve, 42.8%; moderada, 20.6%, y severa, 8.9%). Las mujeres presentaron mayor estrés laboral en comparación con los hombres (76.1% frente a 56.0%; p = 0.008). La dependencia a la nicotina fue leve, 49.4%; moderada, 35.6%, y severa, 15.0%. El promedio de la prueba de Fagerström fue mayor en mujeres en comparación con hombres (3.75 frente a 2.83; p = 0.025), además se encontró una asociación entre el estrés laboral y la dependencia a la nicotina (p = 0.011). Conclusiones: el 72% de los trabajadores presentaron estrés laboral, de igual modo se encontró la asociación entre el estrés laboral y la dependencia a la nicotina. Identificar las principales causas de estrés laboral junto con el apoyo de programas para dejar de fumar, ayudarían en el bienestar del personal de salud en las UMF.

Background: Stress is the result of the imbalance between the demands and pressures that the individual faces. Stress tests the individual's ability to cope with her activity, and this is a health problem for the worker. Objective: To explore the association between occupational stress and nicotine dependence in healthcare workers from the Family Medicine Unit No. 92 of the IMSS. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study that included 180 active smoking workers, occupational stress was evaluated with the Psychosomatic Problems for Occupational Stress questionnaire adapted by IMSS and nicotine dependence with the Fagerström questionnaire. Student's t tests and Fisher's Exact test were used. The statistical analysis was performed with the Stata 15 program. Results: The prevalence of occupational stress was 72.2% (42.8% mild, 20.6% moderate and 8.9% severe). Women presented greater work stress compared to men (76.1% vs. 56.0%; p = 0.008). Nicotine dependence was 49.4% mild, 35.6% moderate and 15.0% severe, the average of the Fagerström test was higher in women compared to men (3.75 vs. 2.83; p = 0.025), in addition an association was found between the work stress and nicotine dependence (p = 0.011). Conclusions: 72% of the workers presented work stress, in the same way the association between work stress and nicotine dependence was found. Identifying the main causes of work stress, together with the support of smoking cessation programs, would help in the well-being of health personnel in FMUs.

Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Cross-Sectional Studies , Smoking Cessation , Health Personnel , Mexico , Occupational Stress , Smokers
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(4): 275-284, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388162


Diversos estudios advierten de la relación a corto plazo entre el uso de los cigarrillos electrónicos y enfermedades pulmonares, cardiovasculares, además de su potencial adictivo. No existen estudios al respecto en estudiantes universitarios chilenos. MÉTODOS: Este estudio descriptivo transversal, mide la prevalencia de consumo, percepción de riesgo, motivaciones y actitudes del uso de cigarrillos electrónicos en estudiantes de Medicina, mediante un cuestionario online. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 354 sujetos, 32,9% han utilizado cigarrillos electrónicos alguna vez en la vida, 6,8% en el último año y 1,1% en el último mes. La edad media de inicio fue 18,0 ± 2,2 años. Respecto a las percepciones positivas hacia los cigarrillos electrónicos: 37,1% cree que ayudan a la gente a dejar de fumar; 39,7% que son menos peligrosos que los cigarrillos y 19,0% que son menos adictivos. El consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos alguna vez en la vida se asoció al consumo de tabaco y percepciones positivas hacia cigarrillos electrónicos (efectivo para dejar de fumar y menos adictivos que los cigarrillos). Las principales motivaciones al consumo fueron "simplemente porque sí", "porque me gusta el sabor", "me lo recomendó un amigo/familiar" y "porque me relaja". CONCLUSIÓN: Se sugiere prohibir la promoción de los cigarrillos electrónicos como una opción menos dañina y adictiva que el cigarrillo, tampoco como alternativa para dejar de fumar, puesto que la evidencia científica no es suficiente para respaldar tales afirmaciones. Este estudio puede contribuir a la prevención de consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos en poblaciones jóvenes.

INTRODUCTION: Several studies warn of the short-term relationship between the use of electronic cigarettes and lung and cardiovascular diseases, in addition to their addictive potential. There are no studies in this regard in Chilean university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study measures the prevalence of consumption, risk perception, motivations and attitudes of e-cigarette use in medical students, using an online questionnaire. RESULTS: We analyzed 354 subjects, 32.9% have used electronic cigarettes once in their lives, 6.8% in the last year and 1.1% in the last month. The mean age of onset was 18.0 ± 2.2 years. Regarding positive perceptions towards e-cigarettes: 37.1% believe they help people quit smoking; 39.7% that they are less dangerous than cigarettes and 19.0% that they are less addictive. E-cigarette use was once in a lifetime associated with tobacco use and positive perceptions toward e-cigarettes (effective for quitting smoking and less addictive than cigarettes). The main motivations for consumption were "simply because I do", "because I like the taste", "it was recommended to me by a friend/family member" and "because it relaxes me". CONCLUSION: It is suggested to ban the promotion of e-cigarettes as a less harmful and addictive option than cigarettes, nor as an alternative to quitting smoking, since scientific evidence is not sufficient to support such claims. This study may contribute to the prevention of e-cigarette use in young populations.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Perception , Students, Medical/psychology , Smoking/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Risk , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Cessation , Vaping/epidemiology , Motivation
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; 29 set. 2021. 43 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, PIE | ID: biblio-1358561


Esta síntese rápida de evidências foi comissionada e subsidiada pelo Ministério da Saúde, no âmbito do projeto GEREB-010-FIO-20 e faz parte da Coleção "Rapid response for health promotion". PROBLEMA: O uso contínuo do tabaco, por exposição direta ou indireta, é considerado um problema global de saúde pública, responsável por oito milhões de mortes ao ano. Cerca de 80% dos usuários da substância residem em países de baixa e média renda, como o Brasil. O principal problema de saúde decorrente do uso dos derivados de tabaco é o câncer de pulmão, terceiro tipo de câncer mais comum na população e o mais letal. Neste cenário é importante que equipes e serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) estejam preparados para fornecer ações de prevenção e controle do fumo. Opções para enfrentar o problema: De 234 registros recuperados das bases de dados, após processo de seleção e elegibilidade, treze Revisões Sistemáticas (RS) foram incluídas nesta síntese narrativa. Os resultados foram organizados em quatro opções para políticas em contextos de APS. Efeitos positivos foram relatados nas RS para uma variedade de intervenções, no entanto, algumas incertezas também foram apontadas. Com relação à qualidade metodológica, uma RS foi classificada como de confiança moderada, duas de confiança baixa e dez de confiança criticamente baixa. Opção 1. Intervenções de aconselhamento conduzidas por profissionais de saúde: Seis RS apresentaram efeitos das intervenções de aconselhamento para cessação do uso do tabaco, conduzidas por profissionais farmacêuticos, enfermeiros, profissionais com treinamento específico para lidar com o tabagismo e profissionais não especificados. Uma variedade de modalidades de aconselhamento mostrou-se efetiva na comparação com nenhuma intervenção, cuidado habitual ou intervenções menos intensivas. Incertezas foram apontadas com relação aos efeitos da entrevista motivacional e na comparação do aconselhamento com intervenções mistas. Opção 2. Intervenções comportamentais únicas ou combinadas: Duas RS relataram que intervenções comportamentais se mostraram efetivas para lidar com o tabagismo em comparação a cuidados habituais, materiais educativos e aconselhamento breve. Incertezas foram relatadas em relação ao reforço contingente e com relação ao apoio comportamental para fumantes com sofrimento psíquico e jovens em diferentes situações de risco, sendo: adolescentes grávidas, adolescentes com doença mental, adolescentes em tratamento por uso abusivo de substâncias e estudantes residentes de comunidades socioeconomicamente vulneráveis (o risco e faixa etária não foi especificado em um estudo). Opção 3. Apoio de registro médico e feedback motivacional personalizado sobre riscos biomédicos: Duas RS investigaram os efeitos do apoio de registro médico nas consultas, e o feedback dos riscos biomédicos. As evidências são escassas para afirmar se essas intervenções são ou não efetivas na cessação do tabagismo. O uso de registro médico tem como base apenas dois estudos primários, um dos quais sem grupo controle. O uso de resultados de exames mostrou-se efetivo com o feedback sobre danos relacionados ao fumo, mas não teve o mesmo efeito quando esse feedback se referia à exposição ao fumo e ao risco de doenças relacionadas ao fumo. Opção 4. Intervenções multicomponentes: Oito RS apresentaram efeitos de diversas intervenções combinadas para redução ou cessação do uso do tabaco. Algumas intervenções foram realizadas por profissionais de farmácia, enfermagem, médicos ou equipe clínica. As intervenções multicomponentes mostraram-se efetivas para a cessação do tabagismo, particularmente nos estudos em que foram comparadas a nenhuma intervenção, cuidados habituais ou intervenções mais comumente utilizadas. No entanto, é importante considerar algumas incertezas de maior magnitude apontadas nos estudos, como a adição do aconselhamento por entrevista motivacional ou apoio por telefone

This rapid synthesis of evidence was commissioned and subsidized by the Ministry of Health, under the project GEREB-010-FIO-20 and is part of the "Rapid response for health promotion" Collection. PROBLEM: The continuous use of tobacco, through direct or indirect exposure, is considered a global public health problem, responsible for eight million deaths a year. About 80% of substance users reside in low- and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. The main health problem resulting from the use of tobacco derivatives is lung cancer, the third most common type of cancer in the population and the most lethal. In this scenario, it is important that Primary Health Care (PHC) teams and services are prepared to provide tobacco prevention and control actions. Options to tackle the problem: From 234 records retrieved from the databases, after a selection and eligibility process, thirteen Systematic Reviews (SR) were included in this narrative synthesis. The results were organized into four options for policies in PHC contexts. Positive effects were reported in the SRs for a variety of interventions, however, some uncertainties were also pointed out. Regarding methodological quality, one SR was classified as moderately confident, two as low confidence and ten as critically low confidence. Option 1. Counseling interventions conducted by health professionals: Six SRs showed effects of counseling interventions for tobacco use, conducted by pharmacists, nurses, professionals with specific training to deal with tobacco and unspecified professionals. A variety of counseling modalities have been shown to be effective in comparison with no intervention, usual care, or less intensive interventions. Uncertainties were pointed out regarding the effects of motivational interviewing and the comparison of counseling with mixed interventions. Option 2. Single or Combined Behavioral Interventions: Two SRs reported that behavioral interventions were effective in dealing with smoking compared to usual care, educational materials, and brief counseling. Uncertainties were reported in relation to contingent reinforcement and in relation to behavioral support for smokers with psychological distress and young people in different risk situations, namely: pregnant adolescents, adolescents with mental illness, adolescents undergoing treatment for substance abuse and students residing in communities socioeconomically vulnerable (risk and age group were not specified in one study). Option 3. Medical record support and personalized motivational feedback on biomedical risks: Two SRs investigated the effects of medical record support on appointments, and biomedical risk feedback. Evidence is scarce to state whether or not these interventions are effective in smoking cessation. The use of medical records is based on only two primary studies, one of which without a control group. The use of test results was effective with feedback on smoking-related harm, but did not have the same effect when that feedback referred to smoking exposure and risk of smoking-related illness. Option 4. Multicomponent Interventions: Eight SRs showed effects of several combined interventions to reduce or stop tobacco use. Some interventions were performed by pharmacy, nursing, medical or clinical staff professionals. Multicomponent interventions were shown to be effective for smoking cessation, particularly in studies where they were compared to no intervention, usual care, or more commonly used interventions. However, it is important to consider some uncertainties of greater magnitude pointed out in the studies, such as the addition of motivational interviewing counseling or telephone support

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Primary Health Care/standards , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Patient Care Bundles , Smoking Prevention , Tobacco Products
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(8): 3065-3076, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285965


Abstract Cigarette consumption is a worldwide epidemic and its reduction is one of the major public health concerns. In Brazil, although there is a wide literature on smoking cessation it is restricted to experimental studies. Based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS), this study uses the survival methodology and use population data and consumer's profile to investigate which characteristics will affect smoking cessation hazard. The results showed that the people who are less likely to quit smoking are older, single men, with low income and fewer education years. They also do not practice physical exercise. The findings of cigarette cessation hazard to Brazilian population are similar of experimental studies with smokers and ex-smokers in country. Therefore, in order to decrease public health spending, Brazilian health policies regarding tobacco cessation could focus on those groups who will likely smoke for a long time.

Resumo O consumo de cigarro é uma epidemia mundial e sua redução é uma das principais preocupações de saúde pública. No Brasil, embora exista uma ampla literatura sobre a cessação do tabagismo, ela se restringe a estudos experimentais. Com base nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013 (PNS), este estudo usa a metodologia de sobrevivência e usa dados da população e os perfis dos consumidores para investigar quais características afetarão as chances de cessação do tabagismo. Os resultados mostraram que as pessoas com menor probabilidade de parar de fumar são homens mais velhos e solteiros, com baixa renda e menos anos de estudo, que não praticam exercícios físicos. Os achados do risco de cessação do cigarro para a população brasileira são semelhantes a estudos experimentais com fumantes e ex-fumantes no país. Portanto, para diminuir os gastos em saúde pública, as políticas de saúde brasileiras em relação à cessação do tabaco poderiam se concentrar nos grupos que fumarão por mais tempo.

Humans , Male , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 48-57, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | INDEXPSI, LILACS | ID: biblio-1280640


OBJETIVO: identificar o grau de dependência à nicotina e dados sociodemográficos segundo o gênero dos pacientes atendidos pelo projeto de extensão Educando e Tratando o Tabagismo promovido por uma universidade pública. MÉTODO: estudo transversal, com dados provenientes de 361 prontuários de pacientes que participantes do projeto no período de 2014 a 2018. Realizou-se o teste de Fagerström, por meio do qual classificou-se os pacientes com grau de dependência: muito baixo, baixo, médio, elevado e muito elevado de acordo com a soma dos pontos obtidos nas questões aplicadas. RESULTADOS: a predominância no grau de dependência a nicotina foi observada no sexo feminino com maiores percentuais de classificação para dependência elevada e muito elevada, 33,5% e 25,3% respectivamente. Entre os homens verificou-se grau de dependência elevado 28,1% e baixo 21,9%. Contatou-se que o grau de dependência química a nicotina esteve associada a dependência física (valor-p=0,002) e psicológica (valor-p=0,003). CONCLUSÃO: a evidência de maior frequência de indivíduos com alto grau de dependência química à nicotina demonstra a importância da associação de terapias medicamentosas com abordagens cognitivas comportamentais por meio de intervenções de enfermagem, relacionadas ao controle e cessação do tabagismo por meio da educação em saúde.

OBJECTIVE: to identify the nicotine dependence degree and sociodemographic data according to the gender of the patients assisted by the Educating and Treating Smoking extension project promoted by a public university. METHOD: a cross-sectional study, with data from 361 medical records of patients participating in the project from 2014 to 2018. The Fagerström test was performed, through which patients with a degree of dependence were classified as follows: very low, low, medium, high, and very high, according to the sum of the points obtained in the applied questions. RESULTS: predominance in the nicotine dependence degree was observed in women with higher percentages of classification for high and very high dependence, 33.5% and 25.3% respectively. Among men, a high degree of dependence was found to be 28.1% and low, 21.9%. It was found that the degree of chemical dependence on nicotine was associated with physical (p-value = 0.002) and psychological (p-value = 0.003) dependence. CONCLUSION: the evidence for a higher frequency of individuals with a high chemical dependence degree for nicotine demonstrates the importance of combining drug therapies with cognitive behavioral approaches through Nursing interventions, related to controlling and quitting the smoking addiction through health education.

OBJETIVO: identificar el grado de dependencia a la nicotina y los datos sociodemográficos según el género de los pacientes atendidos por el proyecto de extensión Educar y tratar el tabaquismo promovido por una universidad pública. MÉTODO: estudio transversal, con datos de 361 registros médicos de pacientes que participaron en el proyecto de 2014 a 2018. Se realizó la prueba de Fagerström, a través de la cual se clasificaron los pacientes con un grado de dependencia: muy bajo, bajo, medio, alto y muy alto de acuerdo con la suma de los puntos obtenidos en las preguntas aplicadas. RESULTADOS: el predominio en el grado de dependencia a la nicotina se observó en mujeres con porcentajes más altos de clasificación de dependencia alta y muy alta, 33.5% y 25.3% respectivamente. Entre los hombres, se encontró un alto grado de dependencia del 28,1% y bajo del 21,9%. Se encontró que el grado de dependencia química de la nicotina se asoció con el físico (valor p = 0.002) y psicológico (valor p = 0.003). CONCLUSIÓN: la evidencia de una mayor frecuencia de individuos con un alto grado de dependencia química de la nicotina demuestra la importancia de combinar las terapias farmacológicas con enfoques cognitivos conductuales a través de intervenciones de enfermería, relacionadas con el control del tabaquismo y la cesación a través de la educación sanitaria.

Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/prevention & control , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Smoking , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gender Identity , Nicotine , Smoking Cessation