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1.
FEMINA ; 51(4): 233-239, 20230430. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512399

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o índice de sucesso do tratamento da gravidez ectópica com o protocolo de dose única do metotrexato e verificar sua correlação com variáveis clínicas e dados dos exames complementares. Métodos: É um estudo epidemiológico observacional, analítico, retrospectivo, de delineamento transversal. Foi realizado de janeiro de 2014 a agosto de 2020 em um hospital público, de ensino, em nível terciário, do Sul do Brasil. Em 73 casos com diagnóstico de gestação ectópica íntegra, foi utilizado o protocolo de dose única de metotrexato intramuscular, com a dose de 50 mg/m2 de superfície corporal. As variáveis do estudo foram relacionadas ao sucesso do tratamento e abordaram as características clínicas na admissão, dos exames complementares e do tratamento realizado. As variáveis foram comparadas por análise de regressão de Poisson. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de p < 0,05. Resultados: O índice de sucesso foi de 83,6%, e em nove casos foi necessária uma segunda dose da medicação. Nível de ß-hCG inicial superior a 5.000 mUI/mL foi relacionado a menor chance de sucesso (odds ratio ajustado de 0,20 [0,05-0,95]). Tamanho da imagem anexial, presença de líquido livre na cavidade abdominal e demais variáveis estudadas não afetaram a chance de sucesso do tratamento. Conclusão: O protocolo de dose única de metotrexato mostrou-se uma opção válida para o tratamento da gestação ectópica íntegra, notadamente quando o nível de ß-hCG inicial é inferior 5.000 mUI/mL.


Objective: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success rate of treatment of ectopic pregnancy with the single-dose methotrexate protocol and to verify its correlation with clinical variables and complementary exam data. Methods: This is a retrospective epidemiological observational analytical cross-sectional study. It was carried out from January 2014 to August 2020 in a tertiary level teaching hospital in southern Brazil. In 73 cases with a diagnosis of intact ectopic pregnancy, the intramuscular methotrexate single-dose protocol was applied with a dose of 50 mg/m2 of body surface. The study variables were related to the success of the treatment and addressed the clinical characteristics on admission, the complementary exams and the treatment performed. The variables were compared by Poisson regression analysis. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The success rate was 83.6%, and in nine cases a second dose of the medication was necessary. An initial ß-hCG level greater than 5,000 mIU/mL was related to a lower chance of success (adjusted odds ratio of 0.20 [0.05- 0.95]). The size of the adnexal image, the presence of free fluid in the abdominal cavity and other variables studied did not affect the chance of a successful treatment. Conclusion: The methotrexate single-dose protocol proved to be a valid option for the treatment of intact ectopic pregnancy, notably when the initial ß-hCG level is below 5,000 mIU/mL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Ascitic Fluid , Salpingostomy , Smoking/adverse effects , Abdominal Pain/complications , Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Hospitals, Public , Infertility, Female/complications , Injections, Intramuscular/methods , Intrauterine Devices/adverse effects
2.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 24(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1530168

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Porphyromonas gingivalis es un microorganismo presente en las periodontitis, productor de la enzima peptidil arginina desminasa, inductora de la citrulinación de proteínas que convierte en antígenos, y que son reconocidos por los anticuerpos antipéptido cíclico citrulinados, marcadores específicos de la artritis reumatoide. Estudios clínicos y epidemiológicos relacionan el hábito de fumar con la periodontitis y la artritis reumatoide. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre el hábito de fumar, la periodontitis crónica y la artritis reumatoide. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, de corte transversal, de casos y controles de pacientes con diagnóstico de artritis reumatoide tratados en el Centro de Reumatología y pacientes atendidos por medicina interna en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico 10 de octubre de La Habana, en el periodo entre septiembre del 2017 y mayo del 2019. Se estudiaron las variables edad, sexo, hábito de fumar y estado periodontal evaluado a través del índice de enfermedad periodontal de Russell y el nivel de inserción clínica. Para identificar la asociación entre variables se empleó la prueba de ji al cuadrado y el odds ratio. Se respetaron las legislaciones éticas. Resultados: En el estudio prevaleció el grupo de 35 a 44 años y el sexo femenino. El hábito de fumar predominó en los pacientes artríticos, con manifiesto incremento de la prevalencia y gravedad de la enfermedad periodontal. Conclusiones: El hábito de fumar incrementó el riesgo de periodontitis crónica en ambos grupos, y con menos intensidad de riesgo en la artritis reumatoide.


Introduction: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a microorganism present in periodontitis, producer of the enzyme peptidyl arginine deminase that induces citrullination of proteins, turning them into antigens, which are recognized by anti-citrullinated cyclic peptide antibodies, specific markers of rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and epidemiological studies link smoking with periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: To evaluate the association between smoking, the presence of chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study of cases and controls of patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis treated at the Rheumatology Center and patients treated by Internal Medicine in 10 de Octubre Surgical- Clinic Hospital in Havana, between September 2017 and May 2019. The variables were: age, sex, smoking habit and periodontal status evaluated through the Russell Periodontal Disease Index and Level of Clinical Insertion. For the association and relationship between variables, the chi square and the odds ratio were used. Ethical legislation was respected. Results: In the study the group of 35 to 44 years old and the female sex prevailed. Smoking prevailed in arthritic patients with a remarkable increase in the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. Conclusions: Smoking increased the risk of chronic periodontitis in both groups with less intensity of risk in rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Female , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Smoking/adverse effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis/pathogenicity , Chronic Periodontitis/complications
3.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.


A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
4.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 26(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405610

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El hábito de fumar está asociado a una gran variedad de cambios perjudiciales en la cavidad bucal, pues altera su microambiente y lo predispone para que se presenten diversas afecciones. Objetivo: Determinar la posible relación del hábito de fumar con las afecciones bucales en adolescentes. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional en adolescentes del Centro Mixto «Pepito Tey» de San Diego del Valle, Cifuentes, en el período comprendido entre septiembre de 2016 y octubre de 2018. La población de estudio, conformada por 208 adolescentes, se organizó en dos estratos: grupo estudio y grupo control. Se seleccionaron dos muestras probabilísticas por muestreo aleatorio simple (60 adolescentes en cada grupo). Resultados: Predominaron adolescentes de 12 años, fumadores leves, del sexo masculino, con inicio del hábito entre 14-15 años y práctica de este hábito de menos de 6 meses. Se asociaron al hábito de fumar: la caries dental, la enfermedad periodontal, las manchas dentales, las lesiones de la mucosa bucal y la halitosis. Conclusiones: Predominaron adolescentes fumadores masculinos de 12 años. La gran mayoría de los fumadores fueron clasificados como leves, con inicio del hábito entre los 14-15 años de edad, y con práctica desde hace menos de seis meses. Existió asociación significativa entre el hábito de fumar y las afecciones bucales (enfermedad periodontal, caries dental, mancha dental, halitosis y lesión de la mucosa bucal).


ABSTRACT Introduction: smoking is associated with a wide variety of harmful changes in the oral cavity, since it alters its microenvironment and predisposes it to the occurrence of various conditions. Objective: to determine the possible relationship between smoking and oral conditions in adolescents. Method: an observational study was carried out in adolescents from "Pepito Tey" Mixed Center, in San Diego del Valle, Cifuentes between September 2016 and October 2018. The study population, made up of 208 adolescents, was organized into two strata: study group and control ones. Two probabilistic samples were selected by simple random sampling (60 adolescents in each group). Results: 12-year-old male light smokers, who started smoking between 14 and 15 years of age and practiced this habit for less than 6 months, predominated. Dental caries, periodontal disease, dental stains, oral mucosal lesions and halitosis were associated with smoking. Conclusions: 12-year-old male adolescent smokers predominated. Most smokers were classified as light, started smoking between 14 and 15 years of age and practiced this habit for less than 6 months. There was a significant association between smoking and oral conditions (periodontal disease, dental caries, dental stains, halitosis and oral mucosal lesions).


Subject(s)
Smoking/adverse effects , Periodontal Diseases , Tobacco Use Disorder , Adolescent , Halitosis , Mouth Mucosa/injuries
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 24-32, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360124

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O paradoxo do fumante tem sido motivo de debate para pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IM) há mais de duas décadas. Embora haja muitas evidências demonstrando que não existe tal paradoxo, publicações defendendo desfechos melhores em fumantes pós-IM ainda são lançadas. Objetivo Explorar o efeito do fumo na mortalidade de longo prazo após infarto do miocárdio por elevação de ST (STEMI). Métodos Este estudo incluiu pacientes com STEMI que foram diagnosticados entre 2004 e 2006 em três centros terciários. Os pacientes foram categorizados de acordo com a exposição ao tabaco (Grupo 1: não-fumantes; Grupo 2: <20 pacotes*anos; Grupo 3: 2-040 pacotes*anos; Grupo 4: >40 pacotes*anos). Um modelo de regressão de Cox foi utilizado para estimar os riscos relativos para mortalidade de longo prazo. O valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Trezentos e treze pacientes (201 fumantes e 112 não-fumantes) foram acompanhados por um período médio de 174 meses. Os fumantes eram mais novos (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0,001), e a presença de fatores de risco cardiometabólicos foi mais prevalente entre os não-fumantes. Uma análise univariada do impacto do hábito de fumar na mortalidade revelou uma curva de sobrevivência melhor no Grupo 2 do que no Grupo 1. Porém, após ajustes para fatores de confusão, observou-se que os fumantes tinham um risco de morte significativamente maior. O risco relativo tornou-se maior de acordo com a maior exposição (Grupo 2 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 1,141; IC95%: 0,599 a 2.171; Grupo 3 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,130; IC95%: 1,236 a 3,670; Grupo 4 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,602; IC95%: 1,461 a 4,634). Conclusão O hábito de fumar gradualmente aumenta o risco de mortalidade por todas as causas após STEMI.


Abstract Background The smoking paradox has been a matter of debate for acute myocardial infarction patients for more than two decades. Although there is huge evidence claiming that is no real paradox, publications supporting better outcomes in post-MI smokers are still being released. Objective To explore the effect of smoking on very long-term mortality after ST Elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods This study included STEMI patients who were diagnosed between the years of 2004-2006 at three tertiary centers. Patients were categorized according to tobacco exposure (Group 1: non-smokers; Group 2: <20 package*years users, Group 3: 20-40 package*years users, Group 4: >40 package*years users). A Cox regression model was used to estimate the relative risks for very long-term mortality. P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results There were 313 patients (201 smokers, 112 non-smokers) who were followed-up for a median period of 174 months. Smokers were younger (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0.001), and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors were more prevalent in non-smokers. A univariate analysis of the impact of the smoking habit on mortality revealed a better survival curve in Group 2 than in Group 1. However, after adjustment for confounders, it was observed that smokers had a significantly increased risk of death. The relative risk became higher with increased exposure (Group 2 vs. Group 1; HR: 1.141; 95% CI: 0.599 to 2.171, Group 3 vs Group 1; HR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.236 to 3.670, Group 4 vs Group 1; HR: 2.602; 95% CI: 1.461 to 4.634). Conclusion Smoking gradually increases the risk of all-cause mortality after STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Smoking/adverse effects , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Araçatuba; s.n; 2022. 42 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1444796

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a severidade da periodontite apical (PA) em ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro, por meio da análise histológica do perfil inflamatório e imunomarcação macrofágica. Material e Métodos: Foram utilizados trinta e dois ratos machos Wistar distribuídos em quatro grupos (n=8): PA (ratos com PA induzida); F (ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro); FPA (ratos com PA induzida expostos à fumaça do cigarro); C (ratos sem PA e sem exposição ao cigarro). Para inalação da fumaça do cigarro, os animais permaneceram em câmara de tabagismo por oito minutos, três vezes ao dia por vinte dias antes da indução da PA. Em seguida, os animais tiveram as polpas coronárias expostas ao meio oral por 30 dias para a indução da PA e continuaram inalando fumaça até completarem 50 dias. No momento da eutanásia, as hemi-maxilas do lado direito foram removidas para avaliar o perfil inflamatório por coloração em hematoxilina e eosina e imuno-histoquímica para marcação macrofágica F4/80 (macrófago), CD206 (M2) e iNOS (M1). Dados não paramétricos foram analisados por Kruskal-Wallis, seguido de post-hoc Dunn e Mann- Whitney (P<.05). Resultados: O infiltrado inflamatório foi moderado no grupo PA e intenso no grupo FPA (P>.05). Na imunomarcação de macrófagos M1, os grupos C e F apresentaram diferenças significantes quando comparado aos grupos PA e FPA (P<0,05). No anticorpo F4/80 não houve diferença entre os grupos (P>.05). Conclusão: A inalação da fumaça do cigarro em ratos contribuiu para uma reação inflamatória periapical mais intensa, com presença predominante de macrófagos pró-inflamatórios M1, agravando a severidade da periodontite apical(AU)


Objective: To evaluate the severity of apical periodontitis (AP) in rats exposed to cigarette smoke, through histological analysis of the inflammatory profile and macrophage immunostaining. Material and Methods: thirty-two male Wistar rats were used, distributed into four groups (n=8): PA (rats with induced AP); F (rats exposed to cigarette smoke); FPA (AP-induced rats exposed to cigarette smoke); C (rats without AP and without exposure to cigarettes). For cigarette smoke inhalation, animals remained in a smoking chamber for eight minutes, three times daily for twenty days before AP induction. Then, animals had the coronary pulp exposed to oral environment for 30 days to induce AP while continued inhaling smoke until completing 50 days of experimental period. During euthanasia process, the right hemimaxillas were removed to assess inflammatory profile by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for macrophage immulabeling: F4/80 (macrophage), CD206 (M2) and iNOS (M1). Nonparametric data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, followed by post-hoc Dunn and Mann-Whitney (P<.05). Results: The inflammatory infiltrate was moderate in the PA group and intense in the FPA group (P<.05). Histomorphometric analysis of M2 macrophages revealed statistical differences between groups C and PA, and F and FPA (P>.05). In the immunostaining of M1 macrophages, groups C and F showed significant differences when compared to groups PA and FPA (P<0.05). While the PA and FPA groups presented a large amount of immunoreactive cells, being higher for the FPA group (P<0.05). In the F4/80 antibody there was no difference between the groups (P>.05)Conclusion: Inhalation of cigarette smoke in rats contributed to a more intense periapical inflammatory reaction, with a predominant presence of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, aggravating the severity of apical periodontitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Smokers , Smoking , Smoking/adverse effects , Inflammation , Macrophages
7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 227-233, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935375

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the current status of taking nutrient supplements for residents aged 18 to 79 years old in Beijing and its related factors. Methods: Data were gathered from the 2017 Beijing Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Surveillance Program. Multiple classified cluster sampling method was used, and participants aged 18-79 were sampled from 16 districts. The questionnaire included chronic diseases and related risk factors, health knowledge, and oral nutritional supplements within 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to analyze associated factors that affect the intake of nutrient supplements. Results: The weighted prevalence of supplements use was 13.1% among 12 696 subjects within the past 12 months. The proportions of multivitamins (4.7%), B vitamins (4.5%), and folic acid (3.2%) were higher. The prevalence of supplement use of young people (18-39 years old) and the elderly (60-79 years old) was higher than middle-aged people (40-59 years old) (χ2=54.09, P<0.001). Except for the age group of 70-79 years old, the consumption rate of women was significantly higher than that of men (P<0.05). After adjusting age and sex, among patients with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, the control rates of blood pressure, glucose and lipids of patients who take nutrient supplements were higher than those who do not (P<0.05). And participants who took nutrient supplements had a more heightened awareness rate of health knowledge, such as the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoke, and recommended amount of salt per day (P<0.001). The multi-factor logistic analysis found that nutrient supplement-related factors include women, old age, higher education level, living in urban, insufficient physical activity, sleeping problems, active physical examination, blood pressure control among patients, and health knowledge (P<0.05). Conclusions: The factors of nutrient supplements use were related to sex, age, education level, health status, and health literacy. We should pay attention to key populations and guide them to establish the correct concept of taking nutrient supplements.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements , Folic Acid , Smoking/adverse effects , Vitamin B Complex
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 334-343, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a clonal disease, characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cells that derived from bone marrow infiltrating the lungs and other organs. Due to the rarity of the disease, the current understanding of the disease is insufficient, often misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis. This study aims to raise clinicians' awareness for this disease via summarizing the clinical characteristics, imaging features, and treatment of PLCH.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed clinical and follow-up data of 15 hospitalized cases of PLCH from September 2012 to June 2021 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.@*RESULTS@#The age of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women, with a sex ratio of 3 to 2) was 21-52 (median 33) years. Among them, 8 had a history of smoking and 5 suffered spontaneous pneumothorax during disease course. There were 3 patients with single system PLCH and 12 patients with multi-system PLCH, including 7 patients with pituitary involvement, 7 patients with lymph node involvement, 6 patients with bone involvement, 5 patients with liver involvement, 2 patients with skin involvement, 2 patients with thyroid involvement, and 1 patients with thymus involvement. The clinical manifestations were varied but non-specific. Respiratory symptoms mainly included dry cough, sputum expectoration, chest pain, etc. Constitutional symptoms included fever and weight loss. Patients with multi-system involvement experienced symptoms such as polyuria-polydipsia, bone pain, and skin rash. All patients were confirmed by pathology, including 6 by lung biopsy, 3 by bone biopsy, 2 by lymph node biopsy, and 4 by liver, skin, suprasternal fossa tumor, or pituitary stalk biopsy. The most common CT findings from this cohort of patients were nodules and/or cysts and nodular and cystic shadows were found in 7 patients. Three patients presented simple multiple cystic shadows, 3 patients presented multiple nodules, and 2 patients presented with single nodules and mass shadows. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 4 patients, ventilation dysfunction was showed in 2 patients at the first visit. Pulmonary diffusion function tests were performed in 4 patients and showed a decrease in 3 patients. Smoking cessation was recommended to PLCH patients with smoking history. Ten patients received chemotherapy while 2 patients received oral glucocorticoid therapy. Among the 11 patients with the long-term follow-up, 9 were in stable condition.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PLCH is a neoplastic disease closely related to smoking. The clinical manifestations and laboratory examination are not specific. Pneumothorax could be the first symptom which is very suggestive of the disease. Definitive diagnosis relies on histology. There is no unified treatment plan for PLCH, and individualized treatment should be carried out according to organ involvement. Early smoking cessation is essential. Chemotherapy is the main treatment for rapidly progressing PLCH involved multiple organs. All diagnosed patients can be considered for the detection of BRAFV600E gene and relevant targeted therapies have been implemented recently.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Cysts , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/therapy , Lung/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1123-1128, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355700

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Sleep architecture and sleep hygiene might be disrupted by several pathogenetic mechanisms, and the effect of smoking has not been evaluated. Objective: To investigate the effect of smoking on sleep hygiene behaviors that might be associated with the deterioration of quality-of-life (QoL) parameters. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, smokers (n=114) and nonsmokers (n=119) were included. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality İndex (PSQI), the Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), and the Short Form-36 quality of life scale (SF-36) were applied. Results: We found that none of the components, as well as the PSQI total score were affected in smokers compared with the nonsmoker controls (65.5% of smokers had poor sleep compared to 62.5% of nonsmokers). Although smokers tend to get out of bed at different times from day to day and do important work before bedtime (components of the SHI) more often than non-smokers, no significant differences were detected between groups in any component and SHI total score (27.91±6.72 for smokers and 29.23±8.0 for non-smokers). ESS, depression and anxiety symptoms, and SHI scores in smokers with poor sleep quality were significantly different compared with smokers that had normal sleep quality. Both PSQI and SHI scores were inversely associated with QoL parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that smoking by itself is not associated with poor sleep hygiene or sleep quality. It can be concluded that worse SHI and quality of sleep negatively affect QoL, depression, and anxiety in smokers.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A arquitetura e a higiene do sono podem ser interrompidas por vários mecanismos patogenéticos, e o efeito do tabagismo ainda não foi avaliado. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito do tabagismo nos comportamentos de higiene do sono que podem estar associados à deterioração dos parâmetros de qualidade de vida (QV). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal prospectivo, foram incluídos fumantes (n=114) e não fumantes (n=119). Foram aplicados o índice de qualidade do sono de Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality İndex - PSQI), a escala de sonolência diurna de Epworth (ESS), o índice de higiene do sono (Sleep Hygiene Index - SHI) e a escala de qualidade de vida Short Form-36 (SF-36). Resultados: Descobrimos que nenhum dos componentes, assim como o escore total do PSQI, foram afetados em fumantes em comparação com os controles não fumantes (65,5% dos fumantes dormiam mal em comparação com 62,5% dos não fumantes). Embora os fumantes tendam a sair da cama em horários diferentes do dia a dia e fazer trabalhos importantes antes de dormir (componentes do SHI) com mais frequência do que os não fumantes, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos em qualquer componente e pontuação total do SHI (27,91±6,72 para fumantes e 29,23±8,0 para não fumantes). A ESS, os sintomas de depressão e ansiedade e os escores SHI em fumantes com má qualidade de sono foram significativamente diferentes em comparação com fumantes com qualidade de sono normal. Os escores do PSQI e SHI foram inversamente associados aos parâmetros de QV. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo por si só não está associado à má higiene ou qualidade do sono. Pode-se concluir que o pior SHI e a qualidade do sono afetam negativamente a QV, a depressão e a ansiedade em fumantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Smoking/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sleep Hygiene
11.
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331

ABSTRACT

El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
12.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(4): 238-244, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347570

ABSTRACT

Background: The negative impact of tobacco smoking on renal function has been widely studied. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of smoking on pre-operative and post-operative renal function in living kidney donors. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the short- and mid-term impact of smoking on donor renal function. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 308 patients who underwent living donor nephrectomy (LDN) at a tertiary referral hospital. We compared baseline characteristics as well as functional outcomes following LDN according to history of tobacco smoking. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease equation in 6 time periods: pre-operative, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery. We performed a Kaplan-Meier analysis for chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcome and binary logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with CKD at 24 months of follow-up. Results: Among donors, 106 (34.4%) reported a smoking history before nephrectomy. Smoking donors had worse pre-operative eGFR than non-smokers (90 ± 26.3 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. 96 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively; p = 0.02) and lower eGFR at 1 week (p = 0.01), 1 month (p ≤ 0.01), 6 months (p = 0.01), and 12 months (p = 0.01) after LDN. Tobacco smoking (OR 3.35, p ≤ 0.01) and age ≥ 40 years at donation (OR 6.59, p ≤ 0.01) were associated with post-operative development of CKD at 24 months after LDN. Conclusions: Living kidney donors with a tobacco smoking history had an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease following nephrectomy. Smoking-cessation strategies should be implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Smoking/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tobacco Smoking , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Nephrectomy
13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 228-233, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346421

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the serrated lesion detection rate in colonoscopy at a specialized clinic and its role as quality criteria for endoscopic examination. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study with all patients that underwent colonoscopy between October 2018 and May 2019, performed by an experimented physician. A questionnaire was answered before the examination by the patient, and another questionnaire after the colonoscopy was answered by themedical team. All polyps identified were removed and sent to the same pathologist for analysis. Results: A total of 1,000 colonoscopies were evaluated. The average age of the patients was 58.9 years old, and most of them were female (60.6%). In 62.5% of the procedures, polyps were removed, obtaining a total of 1,730 polyps, of which 529 were serrated lesions, being 272 sessile serrated lesions (SSL). This data resulted in a serrated lesion detection rate (SDR) of 29.2%, and of 14% when considering only the SSL detection rate (SSLDR). The right colon had higher rates, with 22.3% SDR and 15.3% SSLDR. Screening colonoscopies also presented a higher serrated detection rate, of 20%, followed by diagnostics and follow-up exams. Smoking was the only risk factor associated with higher serrated detection rate. Conclusions: The serrated lesion detection rate is higher than the ones already previously suggested and the have the higher rates were stablished in the right colon and on screening exams. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colonoscopy , Colon/injuries , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Endoscopy
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 223-230, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) responds to autonomic activity through exercise. However, there is a gap in the literature on how NMC responds to resistance exercise. Objective: To evaluate the acute effects of resistance tube exercise on NMC and the autonomic nervous system in smokers. Methods: Clinical trial was performed with 18 individuals. Personal, anthropometric, and smoking history data were collected, and a pulmonary function test was performed by spirometry. The fatigue resistance test was performed in order to obtain the number of repetitions for the prescription of exercise. Heart rate variability was captured using a monitor. Subsequently, the exhaled carbon monoxide (exCO) was measured and a saccharin transit test (STT) was performed for NMC. Results: The non-smoking group presented a significant decrease of 4.0±3.2 minutes in STT after P1 (p=0.021). Regarding HRV, the smoking group presented a significant decrease of mean RR (−90.3±53.0; p=0.011), SDNN (−560.0±1333.2; p=0.008), RMSSD (−13.6±10.5; p=0.011), LFms² (−567.3±836.1; p=0.008), HFms² (−223.8±231.8; p=0.008), SD1 (−9.7±7.4; p=0.011) and SD2 (−20.7±17.0; p=0.008), and an increase of mean HR (10.2±5.9; p=0.011) after P2. In the non-smoking group, a significant decrease was observed in the mean RR (−67.1±70.7; p=0.038), SDNN (−16.8±15.0; p=0.015), RMSSD (−12.3±14.7; p=0.011), LFms² (−831.2±1347.5; p=0.015), SD1 (−8.7±10.4; p=0.011), and SD2 (−22.0±19.1; p=0.015), while an increase in HR (7.1±7.3; p=0.028) was found after P1. Conclusions: The intensity of the resistance exercise applied to the patient was not enough to promote changes in smokers. By contrast, in non-smokers, the same intensity of exercise was effective in promoting alterations in the NMC and autonomic activity. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; 34(2):223-230)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Mucociliary Clearance , Smokers , Endurance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , Exercise , Smoking/adverse effects
17.
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e10200138, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154896

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To evaluate the functional and morphological cardiac variables of rats exposed to chronic cigarette smoke (ECS) and to analyze the influence of exercise training on any cardiac remodeling. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: control animals (C, n=10); control trained rats (CT, n=10), that underwent swimming physical training; ECS rats (E, n=10), that received the smoke of 40 cigarettes/day; and ECS plus trained rats (TE, n=10), that received the cigarette smoke plus the swimming training protocol, for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals underwent hemodynamic measurements of the right ventricle (RV) and morphological examination. Results: There was a decrease in the body weight of E, TE and CT groups (p<0.05). RV pressure (maximum systolic, diastolic initial and end-diastolic) was increased in the E and ET groups (p <0.05), while there was a decrease in RV maximum derivative pressure, RV minimum derivative pressure (+dP/dt and -dP/dt) and systolic duration in the TE group (p <0.05). Heart rate increased in the E group (p<0.05). The lung weight/body weight ratio was higher in the TE group (p=0.008). Fluid retention was increased in the RV, left ventricle (LV) and lung of the E group (p<0.001). Conclusion: ECS caused right ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac remodeling. Physical training attenuated the effects of ECS for heart rate responses and the morphological variables of the RV, LV, and the lung.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Exercise , Smoking/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction , Swimming , Rats, Wistar
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5849, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339837

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To characterize adolescents referred to medical consultation based on the screening tool "Perfil de Saúde do Utente Adolescente", and to compare to information gathered from a questionnaire and data assessed during the visit. Methods A retrospective and descriptive study, with analysis of the questionnaires filled out by adolescents and their respective medical records, in the period from January 2013 to June 2016. Results A total of 54 adolescents were seen, 57% male and mean age of 12±1.7 years. In the questionnaire, 37% stated that they had some kind of health problem; 35% would like to change the relationship with their parents; 18% had some concern about safety at school; and 39% made dietary mistakes. Approximately 31% had consumed alcohol, 13% had tried smoking, and 4% had used other drugs. At the first medical appointment, 38% stated they had chronic disease, 11% reported poor family environment, 39% had school problems and 39% made dietary mistakes. About 13% had tried smoking, 24% had tried to consume alcohol, and 2% had tried other drugs. Thirty seven percent of adolescents were referred to adolescent medicine consultation, and 39% to another hospital consultation. Conclusion Many of the biopsychosocial risk items identified through the questionnaire were confirmed during consultation, indicating that it could be a useful screening method for problems linked to the adolescence period.


RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar adolescentes referenciados à consulta médica a partir do instrumento de triagem Perfil de Saúde do Utente Adolescente e comparar as informações obtidas do questionário e os dados avaliados na consulta. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo, com análise dos questionários preenchidos por adolescentes e respectivos processos clínicos da consulta realizada no período de janeiro de 2013 a junho de 2016. Resultados Foram consultados 54 adolescentes, 57% do sexo masculino, com média de idade 12±1,7 anos. No questionário, 37% responderam ter algum problema de saúde; 35% gostariam de mudar a relação com os pais; 18% tinham algum tipo de preocupação com a segurança na escola; e 39% cometiam erros alimentares. Aproximadamente 31% já tinham consumido álcool, 13% já tinham experimentado fumar, e 4% tinham experimentado outras drogas. Na primeira consulta, 38% dos respondentes responderam ter doença crônica, 11% referiram mau ambiente familiar, 39% apresentaram problemas escolares e 39% revelaram erros alimentares. Cerca de 13% experimentaram fumar, 24% consumiram álcool, e 2% experimentaram outras drogas. Foram referenciados à consulta de medicina do adolescente 37% dos adolescentes, e 39% foram direcionados a outra consulta hospitalar. Conclusão Em consulta, confirmaram-se muitos dos itens de risco biopsicossocial identificados por meio do questionário aplicado, o que pode indicar que este é um método útil no rastreio de problemática ligada à adolescência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools , Smoking/adverse effects , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6000, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345968

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze whether passive inhalation of cigarette smoke causes morphological, structural, and functional changes in kidneys of rats. Methods Wistar rats, aged eight weeks, weighing on average 260g, were divided into Control Group and Smoking Group. Each group was subdivided into four groups of ten animals for morphofunctional analysis, in a period of seven and 28 days. The Smoking Group was exposed to smoke of 40 cigarettes per day, at certain times and in automated equipment for cigarette burning, called smoking machine (SM-MC-01). After the exposure period, urine and blood samples were collected for the functional analyses, and the kidneys were dissected and submitted to histological procedures for morphoquantitative analyses. Results After exposure of animals of the Smoking Group, the following were observed: lower weight gain; lower water and feed intake; decreased renal weight, diameter, and volume; reduction in cortical thickness and glomerular volume density; decrease in glomerular and capsular diameter; increase in mesangial density; decreased urine volume; increased levels of glucose, serum creatinine and microalbuminuria; decreased urinary creatinine levels and creatinine clearance rate. Conclusion Passive smoking negatively influences renal morphology and glomerular filtration rate, with effects similar to those described in the literature regarding active smoking.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar se a inalação passiva da fumaça do cigarro proporciona alterações morfológicas, estruturais e funcionais nos rins de ratos. Métodos Ratos Wistar, com oito semanas de idade, pesando, em média, 260g, foram divididos em Grupo Controle e Grupo Tabagista. Cada grupo foi subdividido em quatro grupos de dez animais para análise morfofuncional, em um período de sete e 28 dias. O Grupo Tabagista foi exposto à fumaça de 40 cigarros por dia, em horários determinados e equipamento automatizado de queima de cigarros, denominado smoking machine (SM-MC-01). Após o período de exposição, foram coletadas amostras de urina e sangue para as análises funcionais, e os rins foram dissecados e submetidos a procedimentos histológicos para análises morfoquantitativas. Resultados Após a exposição dos animais do Grupo Tabagista, observou-se menor ganho de peso; menor consumo de água e ração; menor peso, diâmetro e volume renal; redução em espessura cortical e densidade de volume glomerular; diminuição no diâmetro glomerular e capsular; aumento na densidade mesangial; volume urinário diminuído; níveis aumentados de glicose, creatinina sérica e microalbuminúria; níveis reduzidos de creatinina urinária e redução da taxa de depuração da creatinina. Conclusão O tabagismo passivo influencia negativamente na morfologia renal e na taxa de filtração glomerular, com efeitos semelhantes aos descritos na literatura em relação ao tabagismo ativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Smoking/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 22-25, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287837

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial evidence on the negative effect of active smoking to Covid-19, the impact of passive smoking in the course of disease remains largely unclear. Our aim was to reflect passive smoking as a risk factor in the current pandemic. Studies are needed to increase our knowledge on passive smoking and Covid-19 implications. The reflections current findings strongly support interventions and policies to curb the tobacco epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Products , COVID-19 , Smoking/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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