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Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 24-32, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360124


Resumo Fundamento O paradoxo do fumante tem sido motivo de debate para pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IM) há mais de duas décadas. Embora haja muitas evidências demonstrando que não existe tal paradoxo, publicações defendendo desfechos melhores em fumantes pós-IM ainda são lançadas. Objetivo Explorar o efeito do fumo na mortalidade de longo prazo após infarto do miocárdio por elevação de ST (STEMI). Métodos Este estudo incluiu pacientes com STEMI que foram diagnosticados entre 2004 e 2006 em três centros terciários. Os pacientes foram categorizados de acordo com a exposição ao tabaco (Grupo 1: não-fumantes; Grupo 2: <20 pacotes*anos; Grupo 3: 2-040 pacotes*anos; Grupo 4: >40 pacotes*anos). Um modelo de regressão de Cox foi utilizado para estimar os riscos relativos para mortalidade de longo prazo. O valor de p <0,05 foi considerado como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Trezentos e treze pacientes (201 fumantes e 112 não-fumantes) foram acompanhados por um período médio de 174 meses. Os fumantes eram mais novos (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0,001), e a presença de fatores de risco cardiometabólicos foi mais prevalente entre os não-fumantes. Uma análise univariada do impacto do hábito de fumar na mortalidade revelou uma curva de sobrevivência melhor no Grupo 2 do que no Grupo 1. Porém, após ajustes para fatores de confusão, observou-se que os fumantes tinham um risco de morte significativamente maior. O risco relativo tornou-se maior de acordo com a maior exposição (Grupo 2 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 1,141; IC95%: 0,599 a 2.171; Grupo 3 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,130; IC95%: 1,236 a 3,670; Grupo 4 vs. Grupo 1: RR: 2,602; IC95%: 1,461 a 4,634). Conclusão O hábito de fumar gradualmente aumenta o risco de mortalidade por todas as causas após STEMI.

Abstract Background The smoking paradox has been a matter of debate for acute myocardial infarction patients for more than two decades. Although there is huge evidence claiming that is no real paradox, publications supporting better outcomes in post-MI smokers are still being released. Objective To explore the effect of smoking on very long-term mortality after ST Elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods This study included STEMI patients who were diagnosed between the years of 2004-2006 at three tertiary centers. Patients were categorized according to tobacco exposure (Group 1: non-smokers; Group 2: <20 package*years users, Group 3: 20-40 package*years users, Group 4: >40 package*years users). A Cox regression model was used to estimate the relative risks for very long-term mortality. P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results There were 313 patients (201 smokers, 112 non-smokers) who were followed-up for a median period of 174 months. Smokers were younger (54±9 vs. 62±11, p: <0.001), and the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors were more prevalent in non-smokers. A univariate analysis of the impact of the smoking habit on mortality revealed a better survival curve in Group 2 than in Group 1. However, after adjustment for confounders, it was observed that smokers had a significantly increased risk of death. The relative risk became higher with increased exposure (Group 2 vs. Group 1; HR: 1.141; 95% CI: 0.599 to 2.171, Group 3 vs Group 1; HR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.236 to 3.670, Group 4 vs Group 1; HR: 2.602; 95% CI: 1.461 to 4.634). Conclusion Smoking gradually increases the risk of all-cause mortality after STEMI.

Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Smoking/adverse effects , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928975


OBJECTIVES@#Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a clonal disease, characterized by proliferation of Langerhans cells that derived from bone marrow infiltrating the lungs and other organs. Due to the rarity of the disease, the current understanding of the disease is insufficient, often misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis. This study aims to raise clinicians' awareness for this disease via summarizing the clinical characteristics, imaging features, and treatment of PLCH.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed clinical and follow-up data of 15 hospitalized cases of PLCH from September 2012 to June 2021 in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University.@*RESULTS@#The age of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women, with a sex ratio of 3 to 2) was 21-52 (median 33) years. Among them, 8 had a history of smoking and 5 suffered spontaneous pneumothorax during disease course. There were 3 patients with single system PLCH and 12 patients with multi-system PLCH, including 7 patients with pituitary involvement, 7 patients with lymph node involvement, 6 patients with bone involvement, 5 patients with liver involvement, 2 patients with skin involvement, 2 patients with thyroid involvement, and 1 patients with thymus involvement. The clinical manifestations were varied but non-specific. Respiratory symptoms mainly included dry cough, sputum expectoration, chest pain, etc. Constitutional symptoms included fever and weight loss. Patients with multi-system involvement experienced symptoms such as polyuria-polydipsia, bone pain, and skin rash. All patients were confirmed by pathology, including 6 by lung biopsy, 3 by bone biopsy, 2 by lymph node biopsy, and 4 by liver, skin, suprasternal fossa tumor, or pituitary stalk biopsy. The most common CT findings from this cohort of patients were nodules and/or cysts and nodular and cystic shadows were found in 7 patients. Three patients presented simple multiple cystic shadows, 3 patients presented multiple nodules, and 2 patients presented with single nodules and mass shadows. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 4 patients, ventilation dysfunction was showed in 2 patients at the first visit. Pulmonary diffusion function tests were performed in 4 patients and showed a decrease in 3 patients. Smoking cessation was recommended to PLCH patients with smoking history. Ten patients received chemotherapy while 2 patients received oral glucocorticoid therapy. Among the 11 patients with the long-term follow-up, 9 were in stable condition.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PLCH is a neoplastic disease closely related to smoking. The clinical manifestations and laboratory examination are not specific. Pneumothorax could be the first symptom which is very suggestive of the disease. Definitive diagnosis relies on histology. There is no unified treatment plan for PLCH, and individualized treatment should be carried out according to organ involvement. Early smoking cessation is essential. Chemotherapy is the main treatment for rapidly progressing PLCH involved multiple organs. All diagnosed patients can be considered for the detection of BRAFV600E gene and relevant targeted therapies have been implemented recently.

Adult , Cysts , Female , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell/therapy , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 227-233, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935375


Objective: To understand the current status of taking nutrient supplements for residents aged 18 to 79 years old in Beijing and its related factors. Methods: Data were gathered from the 2017 Beijing Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Surveillance Program. Multiple classified cluster sampling method was used, and participants aged 18-79 were sampled from 16 districts. The questionnaire included chronic diseases and related risk factors, health knowledge, and oral nutritional supplements within 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to analyze associated factors that affect the intake of nutrient supplements. Results: The weighted prevalence of supplements use was 13.1% among 12 696 subjects within the past 12 months. The proportions of multivitamins (4.7%), B vitamins (4.5%), and folic acid (3.2%) were higher. The prevalence of supplement use of young people (18-39 years old) and the elderly (60-79 years old) was higher than middle-aged people (40-59 years old) (χ2=54.09, P<0.001). Except for the age group of 70-79 years old, the consumption rate of women was significantly higher than that of men (P<0.05). After adjusting age and sex, among patients with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, the control rates of blood pressure, glucose and lipids of patients who take nutrient supplements were higher than those who do not (P<0.05). And participants who took nutrient supplements had a more heightened awareness rate of health knowledge, such as the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoke, and recommended amount of salt per day (P<0.001). The multi-factor logistic analysis found that nutrient supplement-related factors include women, old age, higher education level, living in urban, insufficient physical activity, sleeping problems, active physical examination, blood pressure control among patients, and health knowledge (P<0.05). Conclusions: The factors of nutrient supplements use were related to sex, age, education level, health status, and health literacy. We should pay attention to key populations and guide them to establish the correct concept of taking nutrient supplements.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Beijing/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements , Female , Folic Acid , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Vitamin B Complex , Young Adult
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(12): 1123-1128, Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355700


ABSTRACT Background: Sleep architecture and sleep hygiene might be disrupted by several pathogenetic mechanisms, and the effect of smoking has not been evaluated. Objective: To investigate the effect of smoking on sleep hygiene behaviors that might be associated with the deterioration of quality-of-life (QoL) parameters. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, smokers (n=114) and nonsmokers (n=119) were included. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality İndex (PSQI), the Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), and the Short Form-36 quality of life scale (SF-36) were applied. Results: We found that none of the components, as well as the PSQI total score were affected in smokers compared with the nonsmoker controls (65.5% of smokers had poor sleep compared to 62.5% of nonsmokers). Although smokers tend to get out of bed at different times from day to day and do important work before bedtime (components of the SHI) more often than non-smokers, no significant differences were detected between groups in any component and SHI total score (27.91±6.72 for smokers and 29.23±8.0 for non-smokers). ESS, depression and anxiety symptoms, and SHI scores in smokers with poor sleep quality were significantly different compared with smokers that had normal sleep quality. Both PSQI and SHI scores were inversely associated with QoL parameters. Conclusions: Our results suggest that smoking by itself is not associated with poor sleep hygiene or sleep quality. It can be concluded that worse SHI and quality of sleep negatively affect QoL, depression, and anxiety in smokers.

RESUMO Antecedentes: A arquitetura e a higiene do sono podem ser interrompidas por vários mecanismos patogenéticos, e o efeito do tabagismo ainda não foi avaliado. Objetivo: Investigar o efeito do tabagismo nos comportamentos de higiene do sono que podem estar associados à deterioração dos parâmetros de qualidade de vida (QV). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal prospectivo, foram incluídos fumantes (n=114) e não fumantes (n=119). Foram aplicados o índice de qualidade do sono de Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality İndex - PSQI), a escala de sonolência diurna de Epworth (ESS), o índice de higiene do sono (Sleep Hygiene Index - SHI) e a escala de qualidade de vida Short Form-36 (SF-36). Resultados: Descobrimos que nenhum dos componentes, assim como o escore total do PSQI, foram afetados em fumantes em comparação com os controles não fumantes (65,5% dos fumantes dormiam mal em comparação com 62,5% dos não fumantes). Embora os fumantes tendam a sair da cama em horários diferentes do dia a dia e fazer trabalhos importantes antes de dormir (componentes do SHI) com mais frequência do que os não fumantes, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos em qualquer componente e pontuação total do SHI (27,91±6,72 para fumantes e 29,23±8,0 para não fumantes). A ESS, os sintomas de depressão e ansiedade e os escores SHI em fumantes com má qualidade de sono foram significativamente diferentes em comparação com fumantes com qualidade de sono normal. Os escores do PSQI e SHI foram inversamente associados aos parâmetros de QV. Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que o tabagismo por si só não está associado à má higiene ou qualidade do sono. Pode-se concluir que o pior SHI e a qualidade do sono afetam negativamente a QV, a depressão e a ansiedade em fumantes.

Humans , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep , Smoking/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sleep Hygiene
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331


El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.

Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(4): 238-244, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347570


Background: The negative impact of tobacco smoking on renal function has been widely studied. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of smoking on pre-operative and post-operative renal function in living kidney donors. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the short- and mid-term impact of smoking on donor renal function. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 308 patients who underwent living donor nephrectomy (LDN) at a tertiary referral hospital. We compared baseline characteristics as well as functional outcomes following LDN according to history of tobacco smoking. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated with the modification of diet in renal disease equation in 6 time periods: pre-operative, 1 week, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after surgery. We performed a Kaplan-Meier analysis for chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcome and binary logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with CKD at 24 months of follow-up. Results: Among donors, 106 (34.4%) reported a smoking history before nephrectomy. Smoking donors had worse pre-operative eGFR than non-smokers (90 ± 26.3 mL/min/1.73m2 vs. 96 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively; p = 0.02) and lower eGFR at 1 week (p = 0.01), 1 month (p ≤ 0.01), 6 months (p = 0.01), and 12 months (p = 0.01) after LDN. Tobacco smoking (OR 3.35, p ≤ 0.01) and age ≥ 40 years at donation (OR 6.59, p ≤ 0.01) were associated with post-operative development of CKD at 24 months after LDN. Conclusions: Living kidney donors with a tobacco smoking history had an increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease following nephrectomy. Smoking-cessation strategies should be implemented.

Humans , Adult , Smoking/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tobacco Smoking , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Nephrectomy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 228-233, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346421


Objectives: To evaluate the serrated lesion detection rate in colonoscopy at a specialized clinic and its role as quality criteria for endoscopic examination. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study with all patients that underwent colonoscopy between October 2018 and May 2019, performed by an experimented physician. A questionnaire was answered before the examination by the patient, and another questionnaire after the colonoscopy was answered by themedical team. All polyps identified were removed and sent to the same pathologist for analysis. Results: A total of 1,000 colonoscopies were evaluated. The average age of the patients was 58.9 years old, and most of them were female (60.6%). In 62.5% of the procedures, polyps were removed, obtaining a total of 1,730 polyps, of which 529 were serrated lesions, being 272 sessile serrated lesions (SSL). This data resulted in a serrated lesion detection rate (SDR) of 29.2%, and of 14% when considering only the SSL detection rate (SSLDR). The right colon had higher rates, with 22.3% SDR and 15.3% SSLDR. Screening colonoscopies also presented a higher serrated detection rate, of 20%, followed by diagnostics and follow-up exams. Smoking was the only risk factor associated with higher serrated detection rate. Conclusions: The serrated lesion detection rate is higher than the ones already previously suggested and the have the higher rates were stablished in the right colon and on screening exams. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Colonoscopy , Colon/injuries , Colorectal Neoplasms/etiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Colonic Polyps/diagnosis , Endoscopy
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 223-230, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154557


Abstract Background: Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) responds to autonomic activity through exercise. However, there is a gap in the literature on how NMC responds to resistance exercise. Objective: To evaluate the acute effects of resistance tube exercise on NMC and the autonomic nervous system in smokers. Methods: Clinical trial was performed with 18 individuals. Personal, anthropometric, and smoking history data were collected, and a pulmonary function test was performed by spirometry. The fatigue resistance test was performed in order to obtain the number of repetitions for the prescription of exercise. Heart rate variability was captured using a monitor. Subsequently, the exhaled carbon monoxide (exCO) was measured and a saccharin transit test (STT) was performed for NMC. Results: The non-smoking group presented a significant decrease of 4.0±3.2 minutes in STT after P1 (p=0.021). Regarding HRV, the smoking group presented a significant decrease of mean RR (−90.3±53.0; p=0.011), SDNN (−560.0±1333.2; p=0.008), RMSSD (−13.6±10.5; p=0.011), LFms² (−567.3±836.1; p=0.008), HFms² (−223.8±231.8; p=0.008), SD1 (−9.7±7.4; p=0.011) and SD2 (−20.7±17.0; p=0.008), and an increase of mean HR (10.2±5.9; p=0.011) after P2. In the non-smoking group, a significant decrease was observed in the mean RR (−67.1±70.7; p=0.038), SDNN (−16.8±15.0; p=0.015), RMSSD (−12.3±14.7; p=0.011), LFms² (−831.2±1347.5; p=0.015), SD1 (−8.7±10.4; p=0.011), and SD2 (−22.0±19.1; p=0.015), while an increase in HR (7.1±7.3; p=0.028) was found after P1. Conclusions: The intensity of the resistance exercise applied to the patient was not enough to promote changes in smokers. By contrast, in non-smokers, the same intensity of exercise was effective in promoting alterations in the NMC and autonomic activity. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2021; 34(2):223-230)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Mucociliary Clearance , Smokers , Endurance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests , Exercise , Smoking/adverse effects
Motriz (Online) ; 27: e10200138, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154896


Abstract Aim: To evaluate the functional and morphological cardiac variables of rats exposed to chronic cigarette smoke (ECS) and to analyze the influence of exercise training on any cardiac remodeling. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: control animals (C, n=10); control trained rats (CT, n=10), that underwent swimming physical training; ECS rats (E, n=10), that received the smoke of 40 cigarettes/day; and ECS plus trained rats (TE, n=10), that received the cigarette smoke plus the swimming training protocol, for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals underwent hemodynamic measurements of the right ventricle (RV) and morphological examination. Results: There was a decrease in the body weight of E, TE and CT groups (p<0.05). RV pressure (maximum systolic, diastolic initial and end-diastolic) was increased in the E and ET groups (p <0.05), while there was a decrease in RV maximum derivative pressure, RV minimum derivative pressure (+dP/dt and -dP/dt) and systolic duration in the TE group (p <0.05). Heart rate increased in the E group (p<0.05). The lung weight/body weight ratio was higher in the TE group (p=0.008). Fluid retention was increased in the RV, left ventricle (LV) and lung of the E group (p<0.001). Conclusion: ECS caused right ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac remodeling. Physical training attenuated the effects of ECS for heart rate responses and the morphological variables of the RV, LV, and the lung.

Animals , Rats , Exercise , Smoking/adverse effects , Ventricular Dysfunction , Swimming , Rats, Wistar
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(supl.1): 22-25, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287837


Despite substantial evidence on the negative effect of active smoking to Covid-19, the impact of passive smoking in the course of disease remains largely unclear. Our aim was to reflect passive smoking as a risk factor in the current pandemic. Studies are needed to increase our knowledge on passive smoking and Covid-19 implications. The reflections current findings strongly support interventions and policies to curb the tobacco epidemic.

Humans , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Products , COVID-19 , Smoking/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377


BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.

Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6000, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345968


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze whether passive inhalation of cigarette smoke causes morphological, structural, and functional changes in kidneys of rats. Methods Wistar rats, aged eight weeks, weighing on average 260g, were divided into Control Group and Smoking Group. Each group was subdivided into four groups of ten animals for morphofunctional analysis, in a period of seven and 28 days. The Smoking Group was exposed to smoke of 40 cigarettes per day, at certain times and in automated equipment for cigarette burning, called smoking machine (SM-MC-01). After the exposure period, urine and blood samples were collected for the functional analyses, and the kidneys were dissected and submitted to histological procedures for morphoquantitative analyses. Results After exposure of animals of the Smoking Group, the following were observed: lower weight gain; lower water and feed intake; decreased renal weight, diameter, and volume; reduction in cortical thickness and glomerular volume density; decrease in glomerular and capsular diameter; increase in mesangial density; decreased urine volume; increased levels of glucose, serum creatinine and microalbuminuria; decreased urinary creatinine levels and creatinine clearance rate. Conclusion Passive smoking negatively influences renal morphology and glomerular filtration rate, with effects similar to those described in the literature regarding active smoking.

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar se a inalação passiva da fumaça do cigarro proporciona alterações morfológicas, estruturais e funcionais nos rins de ratos. Métodos Ratos Wistar, com oito semanas de idade, pesando, em média, 260g, foram divididos em Grupo Controle e Grupo Tabagista. Cada grupo foi subdividido em quatro grupos de dez animais para análise morfofuncional, em um período de sete e 28 dias. O Grupo Tabagista foi exposto à fumaça de 40 cigarros por dia, em horários determinados e equipamento automatizado de queima de cigarros, denominado smoking machine (SM-MC-01). Após o período de exposição, foram coletadas amostras de urina e sangue para as análises funcionais, e os rins foram dissecados e submetidos a procedimentos histológicos para análises morfoquantitativas. Resultados Após a exposição dos animais do Grupo Tabagista, observou-se menor ganho de peso; menor consumo de água e ração; menor peso, diâmetro e volume renal; redução em espessura cortical e densidade de volume glomerular; diminuição no diâmetro glomerular e capsular; aumento na densidade mesangial; volume urinário diminuído; níveis aumentados de glicose, creatinina sérica e microalbuminúria; níveis reduzidos de creatinina urinária e redução da taxa de depuração da creatinina. Conclusão O tabagismo passivo influencia negativamente na morfologia renal e na taxa de filtração glomerular, com efeitos semelhantes aos descritos na literatura em relação ao tabagismo ativo.

Animals , Rats , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Smoking/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5849, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339837


ABSTRACT Objective To characterize adolescents referred to medical consultation based on the screening tool "Perfil de Saúde do Utente Adolescente", and to compare to information gathered from a questionnaire and data assessed during the visit. Methods A retrospective and descriptive study, with analysis of the questionnaires filled out by adolescents and their respective medical records, in the period from January 2013 to June 2016. Results A total of 54 adolescents were seen, 57% male and mean age of 12±1.7 years. In the questionnaire, 37% stated that they had some kind of health problem; 35% would like to change the relationship with their parents; 18% had some concern about safety at school; and 39% made dietary mistakes. Approximately 31% had consumed alcohol, 13% had tried smoking, and 4% had used other drugs. At the first medical appointment, 38% stated they had chronic disease, 11% reported poor family environment, 39% had school problems and 39% made dietary mistakes. About 13% had tried smoking, 24% had tried to consume alcohol, and 2% had tried other drugs. Thirty seven percent of adolescents were referred to adolescent medicine consultation, and 39% to another hospital consultation. Conclusion Many of the biopsychosocial risk items identified through the questionnaire were confirmed during consultation, indicating that it could be a useful screening method for problems linked to the adolescence period.

RESUMO Objetivo Caracterizar adolescentes referenciados à consulta médica a partir do instrumento de triagem Perfil de Saúde do Utente Adolescente e comparar as informações obtidas do questionário e os dados avaliados na consulta. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo e descritivo, com análise dos questionários preenchidos por adolescentes e respectivos processos clínicos da consulta realizada no período de janeiro de 2013 a junho de 2016. Resultados Foram consultados 54 adolescentes, 57% do sexo masculino, com média de idade 12±1,7 anos. No questionário, 37% responderam ter algum problema de saúde; 35% gostariam de mudar a relação com os pais; 18% tinham algum tipo de preocupação com a segurança na escola; e 39% cometiam erros alimentares. Aproximadamente 31% já tinham consumido álcool, 13% já tinham experimentado fumar, e 4% tinham experimentado outras drogas. Na primeira consulta, 38% dos respondentes responderam ter doença crônica, 11% referiram mau ambiente familiar, 39% apresentaram problemas escolares e 39% revelaram erros alimentares. Cerca de 13% experimentaram fumar, 24% consumiram álcool, e 2% experimentaram outras drogas. Foram referenciados à consulta de medicina do adolescente 37% dos adolescentes, e 39% foram direcionados a outra consulta hospitalar. Conclusão Em consulta, confirmaram-se muitos dos itens de risco biopsicossocial identificados por meio do questionário aplicado, o que pode indicar que este é um método útil no rastreio de problemática ligada à adolescência.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Schools , Smoking/adverse effects , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1679-1684, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143668


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the prevalence of smoking rates and comorbidities and evaluate the relationship between them and disease severity and mortality in inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were divided into the following groups: clinic group, intensive care unit (ICU) group, survivors, and non-survivors. Non-COVID-19 patients were included as a control group. The groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Current smoking (OR, 5.101; 95% CI: 2.382-10.927; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 3.789; 95% CI: 1.845-7.780; p<0.0001) were risk factors for ICU admission. Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. Current smoking (OR, 13.014; 95% CI: 5.058-33.480; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 6.507; 95% CI 2.731-15.501; p<0.0001) were also risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19. CHF was not a risk factor for ICU admission; however, it was a risk factor for mortality.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Buscamos explorar as taxas de prevalência de tabagismo e de comorbidades e avaliar a relação entre elas e a severidade e mortalidade da doença em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com COVID-19 foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: grupo clínico, grupo da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), grupo de sobreviventes e não-sobreviventes. Pacientes sem COVID-19 foram incluídos em um grupo de controle. Os grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com e sem COVID-19 em termos de tabagismo, asma, diabetes, demência, doença arterial coronariana (DAC), hipertensão arterial, insuficiência renal crônica e arritmia (p>0,05). Idade mais avançada (odds ratio (OR), 1,061; 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC): 1,041-1,082; p< 0,0001), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) (OR, 2,775; 95% IC: 1,128-6,829; p=0,026) e DAC (OR, 2,696; 95% IC: 1,216-5,974; p=0,015) estavam significativamente associados com a admissão na UTI. O tabagismo atual (OR, 5,101; 95% IC: 2,382-10,927; p < 0,0001) e tabagismo prévio (OR, 3,789; 95% IC: 1,845-7,780; p< 0,0001) foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI. Idade mais avançada (OR; 1,082; 95% IC: 1,056-1,109;< 0,0001), DPOC (OR, 3,213; 95% IC: 1,224-8,431; p=0,018), DAC (OR, 6,252; 95% IC: 2,171-18,004; p=0,001) e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) (OR, 5,917; 95% IC 1,069-32,258; p=0,042) estavam significativamente associados com mortalidade. O tabagismo atual (OR, 13,014; 95% IC: 5,058-33,480; p<0,0001) e o tabagismo prévio (OR, 6,507; 95% IC 2,731-15,501; p<0,0001) também foram fatores de risco para mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo, a idade avançada, DPOC e DAC foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. ICC não foi um fator de risco para admissão na UTI; no entanto, foi um fator de risco para mortalidade.

Humans , Adult , Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged