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1.
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331

ABSTRACT

El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary objectives are to (1) examine the effects that low-level environmental chemical exposures have on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders, as well as perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco.@*METHODS@#The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the progress of the Hokkaido Study, summarize recent results, and suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the latest details from questionnaire surveys, face-to-face examinations, and a collection of biological specimens from children and measurements of their chemical exposures.@*RESULTS@#The latest findings indicate different risk factors of parental characteristics on birth outcomes and the mediating effect between socioeconomic status and children that are small for the gestational age. Maternal serum folate was not associated with birth defects. Prenatal chemical exposure and smoking were associated with birth size and growth, as well as cord blood biomarkers, such as adiponectin, leptin, thyroid, and reproductive hormones. We also found significant associations between the chemical levels and neuro development, asthma, and allergies.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Chemical exposure to children can occur both before and after birth. Longer follow-up for children is crucial in birth cohort studies to reinforce the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis. In contrast, considering shifts in the exposure levels due to regulation is also essential, which may also change the association to health outcomes. This study found that individual susceptibility to adverse health effects depends on the genotype. Epigenome modification of DNA methylation was also discovered, indicating the necessity of examining molecular biology perspectives. International collaborations can add a new dimension to the current knowledge and provide novel discoveries in the future.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Health , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Female , Fetal Blood/chemistry , Follow-Up Studies , Growth/drug effects , Humans , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/etiology , Prevalence , Smoking/adverse effects
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1679-1684, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143668

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the prevalence of smoking rates and comorbidities and evaluate the relationship between them and disease severity and mortality in inpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: COVID-19 patients were divided into the following groups: clinic group, intensive care unit (ICU) group, survivors, and non-survivors. Non-COVID-19 patients were included as a control group. The groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no difference between patients with and without COVID-19 in terms of smoking, asthma, diabetes, dementia, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, chronic renal failure and arrhythmia (p>0.05). Older age (Odds ratio (OR), 1.061; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.041-1.082; p< 0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 2.775; 95% CI: 1.128-6.829; p=0.026) and CAD (OR, 2.696; 95% CI: 1.216-5.974; p=0.015) were significantly associated with ICU admission. Current smoking (OR, 5.101; 95% CI: 2.382-10.927; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 3.789; 95% CI: 1.845-7.780; p<0.0001) were risk factors for ICU admission. Older age (OR; 1.082; 95% CI: 1.056-1.109; p<0.0001), COPD (OR, 3.213; 95% CI: 1.224-8.431; p=0.018), CAD (OR, 6.252; 95% CI: 2.171-18.004; p=0.001) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (OR, 5.917; 95% CI 1.069-32.258; p=0.042), were significantly associated with mortality. Current smoking (OR, 13.014; 95% CI: 5.058-33.480; p<0.0001) and former smoking (OR, 6.507; 95% CI 2.731-15.501; p<0.0001) were also risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Smoking, older age, COPD, and CAD were risk factors for ICU admission and mortality in patients with COVID-19. CHF was not a risk factor for ICU admission; however, it was a risk factor for mortality.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Buscamos explorar as taxas de prevalência de tabagismo e de comorbidades e avaliar a relação entre elas e a severidade e mortalidade da doença em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com COVID-19 foram divididos nos seguintes grupos: grupo clínico, grupo da unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), grupo de sobreviventes e não-sobreviventes. Pacientes sem COVID-19 foram incluídos em um grupo de controle. Os grupos foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com e sem COVID-19 em termos de tabagismo, asma, diabetes, demência, doença arterial coronariana (DAC), hipertensão arterial, insuficiência renal crônica e arritmia (p>0,05). Idade mais avançada (odds ratio (OR), 1,061; 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC): 1,041-1,082; p< 0,0001), doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) (OR, 2,775; 95% IC: 1,128-6,829; p=0,026) e DAC (OR, 2,696; 95% IC: 1,216-5,974; p=0,015) estavam significativamente associados com a admissão na UTI. O tabagismo atual (OR, 5,101; 95% IC: 2,382-10,927; p < 0,0001) e tabagismo prévio (OR, 3,789; 95% IC: 1,845-7,780; p< 0,0001) foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI. Idade mais avançada (OR; 1,082; 95% IC: 1,056-1,109;< 0,0001), DPOC (OR, 3,213; 95% IC: 1,224-8,431; p=0,018), DAC (OR, 6,252; 95% IC: 2,171-18,004; p=0,001) e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva (ICC) (OR, 5,917; 95% IC 1,069-32,258; p=0,042) estavam significativamente associados com mortalidade. O tabagismo atual (OR, 13,014; 95% IC: 5,058-33,480; p<0,0001) e o tabagismo prévio (OR, 6,507; 95% IC 2,731-15,501; p<0,0001) também foram fatores de risco para mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: O tabagismo, a idade avançada, DPOC e DAC foram fatores de risco para admissão na UTI e mortalidade em pacientes com COVID-19. ICC não foi um fator de risco para admissão na UTI; no entanto, foi um fator de risco para mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Comorbidity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
6.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 319-323, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879648

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Traffic accidents are one of the major health problems in the world, being the first cause of burden of illness and the second leading cause of death in Iran. The Sistan-Baluchestan province is one of the most accidental provinces of Iran with the highest rate of accidents-caused deaths. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors associated with traffic accidents in Zahedan through 2013 to 2016.@*METHODS@#This analytical cross-sectional study was carried out on 223 drivers from Zahedan who were traumatized by traffic accident and sent to Zahedan hospitals. The data were obtained through interviews taken by the trained interviewers via refereeing to the medical records and collected in the researcher-made checklist. Census was obtained from the study subjects. For data analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square and logistic regression were used with the Stata software version 11.0.@*RESULTS@#In this study, 223 male subjects with the mean age of (32.54 ± 12.95) years, 39.8% single and 60.2% married, entered for investigation. Most accidents (38.8%) occurred between 12:00 to 17:59. While driving, 47.1% of the study subjects were using cell phones, 89.1% had manual use of mobile phones, 21.9% had a habit of sending short message service (SMS) and 23.4% had sent SMS within 10 min before the accident. The one way analysis of variance showed that the mean age of individuals with marital status, driving experience, education and accident with motorcycle were significantly different (p < 0.05). Also, the multivariate logistic regression test indicated a significant relationship of smoking, ethnicity, insurance and SMS typing while driving with motorcycle accident (p < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, SMS and smoking while driving had the highest risk among the variables studied in the motorcycle accidents. Therefore, effective education attempting to enhance people's awareness about the consequences of using cell phone and smoking during driving to reduce traffic accidents seems necessary.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Automobile Driving , Cause of Death , Cell Phone Use/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Education , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Marital Status , Middle Aged , Risk , Smoking/adverse effects , Young Adult
8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(4): 642-648, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134198

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effects of smoking cessation on the sexual functions in men aged 30 to 60 years. Materials and Methods Male patients aged 30 to 60 years that presented to the smoking cessation polyclinic between July 2017 and December 2018 were prospectively included in the study. The amount of exposure to tobacco was evaluated in pack-year. The patients filled the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) form before the cessation and six months after cessation of smoking. Patients were subgrouped according to age, education level and packs/year of smoking and this groups were compared in terms of IIEF total and all of the IIEF domains. Results The evaluations performed by grouping the patients according to age (30-39, 40-49 and 50-60 years) and education level (primary-middle school and high school-university) revealed that the total IIEF scores obtained after smoking cessation were significantly higher compared to the baseline scores in all groups (p=0.007 for the 30-39 years group and p <0.001 for the remaining groups). According to grouping by exposure to smoking (≤25, 26-50, 51-75, 76-100 and 101≥ packs/year), the total IIEF scores significantly increased after smoking cessation in all groups except 101≥ packs/year (p=0.051 for the 101≥ group and p <0.001 for the remaining groups). Conclusions Erectile function is directly proportional to the degree of exposure to smoking, and quitting smoking improves male sexual function in all age groups between 30-60 years of age regardless of pack-year and education level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Smoking Cessation , Prostate , Penile Erection , Smoking/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Middle Aged
9.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(5): 546-550, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039281

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Warthin tumors are the second most common benign tumors of the parotid gland. We examined the clinical features of Warthin tumors in our hospital, and analyzed the consistency within the literatures. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical features of Warthin tumors in our 10-year experience of 118 Warthin tumors undergoing surgery at a single institute. Methods: From December 2006 to December 2016, 110 patients who underwent surgical treatment for Warthin tumors were identified based on their medical records. Results: A total of 118 parotid gland operations were performed in 110 patients. Almost 90% of Warthin tumors were found in males, and average patient age was 66.1 ± 6.1 years. The prevalence of smoking history was 89.1% (98/110). Eight patients (7.3%) had bilateral Warthin tumors. Seventy-seven lesions (65.3%) were located in the parotid tail portion, followed by 34 lesions in the superficial lobe (28.8%) and 7 lesions in the deep lobe (5.9%). Conclusion: We determined the appropriate extent of surgery depending on the fine needle aspiration cytology and tumor location by computed tomography scans. Partial facial dysfunction after the operation was detected in 12 cases, and facial nerve function recovered within 3 months. Only one patient experienced a recurrence, and was disease free after the re-operation. We suggest that our treatment algorithm, depending on the location of tumors and the result of fine needle aspiration cytology, can be useful to determine the appropriate extent of surgery for Warthin tumors.


Resumo Introdução: Os tumores de Warthin são os segundos tumores benignos mais comuns da glândula parótida. Avaliamos as características clínicas dos tumores de Warthin em nosso hospital e analisamos a consistência com a literatura. Objetivo: Analisar as características clínicas dos tumores de Warthin em nossa experiência de 10 anos de 118 tumores de Warthin submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico em um único instituto. Método: De dezembro de 2006 a dezembro de 2016, 110 pacientes que receberam tratamento cirúrgico para tumores de Warthin foram identificados com base em seus prontuários médicos. Resultados: Foram feitas 118 cirurgias na glândula parótida em 110 pacientes. Quase 90% dos tumores de Warthin foram encontrados em homens e a média da idade dos pacientes foi de 66,1 ± 6,1 anos. A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 89,1% (98/110). Oito pacientes (7,3%) tinham tumores de Warthin bilaterais na glândula parótida. Das lesões, 77 (65,3%) localizavam-se na porção da cauda da parótida, seguidas por 34 no lobo superficial (28,8%) e 7 no lobo profundo (5,9%). Conclusão: Determinamos a extensão apropriada da cirurgia de acordo com a punção aspirativa com agulha fina e localização do tumor por tomografia computadorizada. Disfunção facial parcial após a cirurgia foi detectada em 12 casos e a função do nervo facial foi recuperada em 3 meses. Apenas um paciente apresentou recidiva e ficou livre da doença após reoperação. Sugerimos que nosso algoritmo de tratamento, a depender da localização dos tumores e do resultado da PAAF, pode ser útil para determinar a extensão apropriada da cirurgia para os tumores de Warthin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Parotid Gland/pathology , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , Adenolymphoma/surgery , Parotid Gland/surgery , Parotid Neoplasms/etiology , Parotid Neoplasms/pathology , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adenolymphoma/etiology , Adenolymphoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Biopsy, Fine-Needle
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 632-637, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cervical arterial dissection accounts for only a small proportion of ischemic stroke but arouses scientific interest due to its wide clinical variability. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate its risk factors, outline its clinical characteristics, compare treatment with antiaggregation or anticoagulation, and explore the prognosis of patients with cervical arterial dissection. Methods: An observational, retrospective study using data from medical records on patients with cervical arterial dissection between January 2010 and August 2015. Results: The total number of patients was 41. The patients' ages ranged from 19 to 75 years, with an average of 44.5 years. The most common risk factor was smoking. Antiaggregation was used in the majority of patients (65.5%); 43% of all patients recanalized in six months, more frequently in patients who had received anticoagulation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The presence of atherosclerotic disease is considered rare in patients with cervical arterial dissection; however, our study found a high frequency of hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. The choice of antithrombotic remains controversial and will depend on the judgment of the medical professional; the clinical results with anticoagulation or antiaggregation were similar but there was more recanalization in the group treated with anticoagulation; its course was favorable in both situations. The recurrence of cervical arterial dissection and stroke is considered a rare event and its course is favorable.


RESUMO As dissecções arterais cervicais correspondem somente a uma pequena proporção dos casos de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico, mas despertam interesse científico devido à sua alta variabilidade clínica. Objetivos: Este estudo destina-se a avaliar os fatores de risco, desfechos clínicos, comparar o tratamento com anticoagulação e antiagregação, e avaliar o prognóstico desses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo utilizando dados de prontuários de pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical entre os períodos de janeiro de 2010 e agosto de 2015. Resultados: O número de pacientes foi 41. A idade foi de 19 a 75 anos, com idade média de 44,5 anos. O fator de risco mais comum encontrado foi o tabagismo. Antiagregação foi utilizada na maioria dos pacientes (65,5%); 43% dos pacientes apresentaram recanalização em seis meses, sendo esta mais frequentemente observada nos pacientes que receberam anticoagulação (p = 0,04). Conclusão: A presença de doença aterosclerótica é considerada rara em pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical. Entretanto, nosso estudo encontrou alta frequência de hipertensão arterial, tabagismo e dislipidemia. A escolha pela terapia antitrombótica permanece controversa e dependerá do julgamento clínico do médico; os resultados clínicos com anticoagulação ou antiagregação foram similares, mas houve maior taxa de recanalização no grupo tratado com anticoagulação. A recorrência de dissecação arterial cervical e AVC foi considerada rara e o curso, favorável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Prognosis , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/drug therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(5): 538-544, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040362

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between smoking and asthma, and possible associated factors in Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents aged 12-17 years, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes - ERICA). A total of 66,394 participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with questions about asthma, smoking, lifestyle and sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analysis between Current Asthma (CA) and Severe Asthma (SA) and the other study variables were performed using Chi-squared. Then, the crude and adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR), and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) of current asthma/severe asthma and smoking variables, corrected for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, were estimated using generalized linear models with Poisson regression, logit link, and robust variance. Results: The prevalence of current asthma and severe asthma were significantly higher in adolescents who were exposed to: experimentation (current asthma: PR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.51-2.09; severe asthma: PR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.35-2.98); current smoking (current asthma: PR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.65-2.64; severe asthma: PR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.38-3.82); regular smoking (current asthma: PR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.64-3.07; severe asthma: PR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.23-4.73); and passive smoking (current asthma: PR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.27-1.67; severe asthma: PR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.19-2.32); these associations remained significant after adjustment. Conclusions: Asthma and smoking were significantly associated in Brazilian adolescents, regardless of the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, notably in those with more severe disease.


Resumo: Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre asma, tabagismo e possíveis fatores associados em adolescentes brasileiros. Métodos: Estudo transversal, nacional, de base escolar, envolveu adolescentes com 12 a 17 anos, participantes do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (ERICA). Os 66.394 participantes responderam questionários autopreenchíveis com questões sobre asma, tabagismo, estilo de vida e dados sociodemográficos. Foram realizadas análises bivariadas entre asma ativa e asma grave e demais variáveis do estudo, com o uso de χ2. Em seguida, foram estimadas as razões de prevalência (RP) brutas e ajustadas e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC 95%), entre asma ativa/asma grave e variáveis de tabagismo, corrigidas pelas variáveis sociodemográficas e de estilo de vida, através de modelos lineares generalizados com regressão de Poisson, função de ligação logarítmica e variância robusta. Resultados: A prevalência de asma ativa e asma grave foi significativamente mais elevada naqueles expostos a experimentação (asma ativa: RP = 1,78; IC 95%: 1,51-2,09; asma grave: RP = 2,01; IC 95%: 1,35-2,98); tabagismo atual (asma ativa: RP = 2,08; IC 95%: 1,65-2,64; asma grave: RP = 2,29; IC 95%: 1,38-3,82); tabagismo frequente (asma ativa: RP = 2,25; IC 95%: 1,64-3,07; AG = 2,41; IC 95%: 1,23-4,73) e tabagismo passivo (asma ativa: RP = 1,47; IC 95%: 1,27-1,67; asma grave: RP = 1,66; IC 95%: 1,19-2,32). As associações permaneceram significativas após ajuste. Conclusão: A asma e o tabagismo se associaram de modo significativo em adolescentes brasileiros independente de fatores sociodemográficos e estilo de vida, especialmente naqueles com doença mais grave.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Family Characteristics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Life Style
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 733-740, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020722

ABSTRACT

Background: In people with asthma, adiposity is associated with more symptoms and less control of the disease whereas on those without asthma adiposity is associated with a higher risk of developing the disease. Aim: To investigate the association between asthma and adiposity markers in Chilean adults. Material and Methods: Data from 5,499 adults older than 15-years-old from the Chilean National Health Survey 20162017 were analyzed. Quintiles of body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used as a proxy of adiposity. The association between asthma and quintiles of BMI and WC was determined by logistic regression. Results: A higher BMI and WC was associated with a higher odds for asthma. This trend remained significant even after adjusting the models for socio-demographic factors, physical activity and smoking (Odds Ratio [OR] BMI: 1.13 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04; 1.22], p < 0.01 and OR WC: 1.15 [95% IC: 1.06; 1.25], p < 0.01). Conclusions: A higher BMI and WC were positively associated with asthma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Asthma/etiology , Obesity/complications , Reference Values , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Smoking , Smoking/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Adiposity/physiology , Waist Circumference , Life Style , Obesity/epidemiology
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(2): 266-274, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Refractory hypertension (RfH) is an extreme phenotype of resistant hypertension (RH), being considered an uncontrolled blood pressure besides the use of 5 or more antihypertensive medications, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid antagonist. RH is common, with 10-20% of the general hypertensives, and its associated with renin angiotensin aldosterone system hyperactivity and excess fluid retention. RfH comprises 5-8% of the RH and seems to be influenced by increased sympathetic activity. RH patients are older and more obese than general hypertensives. It is strongly associated with diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and hyperaldosteronism status. RfH is more frequent in women, younger patients and Afro-americans compared to RFs. Both are associated with increased albuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic kidney diseases, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases. The magnitude of the white-coat effect seems to be higher among RH patients. Intensification of diuretic therapy is indicated in RH, while in RfH, therapy failure imposes new treatment alternatives such as the use of sympatholytic therapies. In conclusion, both RH and RfH constitute challenges in clinical practice and should be addressed as distinct clinical entities by trained professionals who are capable to identify comorbidities and provide specific, diversified, and individualized treatment.


Resumo A Hipertensão Arterial Refratária (HARf) representa um fenótipo extremo da hipertensão arterial resistente (HAR), sendo considerada a falência ao tratamento apesar do uso de 5 ou mais classes de anti-hipertensivos, incluindo um diurético tiazídico de longa ação e um antagonista mineralocorticoide. A HAR é comum (10-20%) entre os hipertensos em geral, sendo decorrente de hiperatividade do Sistema Renina Angiotensina Aldosterona e retenção hidrossalina. Aqueles com HARf correspondem a 5-8% dos resistentes e parecem sofrer maior influência catecolaminérgica. Os resistentes tendem a ter maior idade, ao sobrepeso e à obesidade. Comorbidades incluem diabetes, apneia obstrutiva do sono e status de hiperaldosteronismo. Refratários são afro-americanos em maior proporção, mais jovens e, predominantemente, mulheres. Ambos são fortemente associados à elevada albuminúria, HVE, doenças cardio e cerebrovasculares, além da doença renal crônica. O fenômeno do jaleco branco parece ser mais evidente nos resistentes. Quanto ao tratamento, a intensificação da terapia diurética está indicada nos resistentes, enquanto na HARf, a falência à terapia impôs novas alternativas de tratamento ("simpaticolíticas"). Em conclusão, tanto a HAR quanto a HARf constituem-se desafios na prática clínica e devem ser abordadas como entidades clínicas distintas por profissionais especialistas que identifiquem comorbidades e venham a prover um tratamento específico, diversificado e individualizado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Phenotype , Sympatholytics/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Complementary Therapies , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Exercise , Smoking/adverse effects , Prevalence , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Diuretics/pharmacology , Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology
14.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 86, jan. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the co-occurrence of the major risk factors for chronic diseases in adults (18-59 years old) and older people (≥ 60 years old) living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. METHODS Cross-sectional study with population-based data from 35,448 adults and 18,726 older people collected in the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (System of Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey - Vigitel) in 2015. The prevalence of each of the five risk factors (smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol and unhealthy diet) was estimated, as well as their co-occurrence for the different possible combinations, according to socioeconomic and health self-assessment variables. The independent associations were verified via multinomial logistic regression to obtain the estimates of the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS At least two risk factors were present in 38.5% of the adults and 37.0% of the older participants. The male adults and older participants who did not have private health insurance and classified their health as average or poor/very poor were more likely to have two or more concurrent risk behaviors. The greater chance of co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol abuse in adults (adjusted OR = 3.52) and older people (adjusted OR = 2.94) stands out. CONCLUSIONS The subgroups with increased risk of developing multiple unhealthy behaviors and the most prevalent behaviors were identified. These findings are expected to contribute to the better targeting of health promotion and preventive care. It is worth noting that, for the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, macro-social and inter-sectoral policies are more effective.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Estimar a coocorrência dos principais fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adultos (18 a 59 anos) e idosos (≥ 60 anos) residentes nas capitais dos estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional com dados de 35.448 adultos e 18.726 idosos coletados no Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) em 2015. Estimaram-se as prevalências de cada um dos cinco fatores de risco (tabagismo, excesso de peso, inatividade física, uso de álcool e alimentação não saudável), assim como sua coocorrência para as diferentes combinações possíveis, segundo variáveis socioeconômicas e autoavaliação da saúde. As associações independentes foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística multinomial para obter as estimativas do odds ratio (OR) e respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS Ao menos dois fatores de risco estavam presentes em 38,5% dos adultos e 37,0% dos idosos. Adultos e idosos do sexo masculino, que não possuíam plano de saúde privado e que avaliaram sua saúde como regular ou ruim/muito ruim apresentaram maiores chances de ter dois ou mais comportamentos de risco simultâneos. Destaca-se a maior chance de coocorrência de tabagismo e uso abusivo de álcool em adultos (OR ajustado = 3,52) e idosos (OR ajustado = 2,94). CONCLUSÕES Foram identificados subgrupos com maior risco de desenvolver múltiplos comportamentos não saudáveis e os comportamentos mais prevalentes. Almeja-se que esses resultados contribuam para o melhor direcionamento de ações de promoção de saúde e assistência preventiva. Destaca-se que, para a adoção de hábitos de vida saudáveis, as políticas macrossociais e intersetoriais são mais efetivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Socioeconomic Factors , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Overweight/complications , Overweight/epidemiology , Sedentary Behavior , Health Risk Behaviors , Middle Aged
16.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20180359, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002442

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the association between smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure. Methods: This was a case-control study conducted at the Brazilian Institute for Tuberculosis Research in the city of Salvador, Brazil, between 2007 and 2015. We evaluated 284 patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis, comparing 50 cases of treatment failure with 234 control cases in which the final outcome was cure. Results: Treatment failure was attributed to smoking and age rather than to gender, income, level of education, alcohol consumption, or marital status. Therefore, even after adjustment for age, the risk of treatment failure was 2.1 times (95% CI: 1.1-4.1) higher among the patients with a history of smoking. In addition, being over 50 years of age was found to increase the likelihood of treatment failure by 2.8 times (95% CI: 1.4-6.0). Conclusions: Smoking and aging are both associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure. Therefore, as part of a tuberculosis control program, health personnel should be prepared to offer strategies to promote smoking cessation and should be more careful with older patients.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre el tabaquismo y el fracaso del tratamiento de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Metodología: Este es un estudio caso - control, realizado en el Instituto Brasilero para la Investigación de la Tuberculosis en Salvador, Brasil entre 2007 y 2015. Se compararon 50 casos de fracaso en el tratamiento con 234 controles de pacientes con diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar y con resultado final de cura. Resultados: Se atribuyó el fracaso del tratamiento al tabaquismo y a la edad, y no al sexo, salario, escolaridad, consumo de alcohol o estado civil. Así, aun después del ajuste por edad, los pacientes con antecedentes de tabaquismo tienen 2,1 (IC95% 1,1-4,1) veces más chance de fracaso en el tratamiento de la tuberculosis. Además, tener una edad mayor de 50 años mostró que la posibilidad de fracaso aumenta 2,8 (IC95% 1,4-6,0) veces más. Conclusiones: El tabaquismo está relacionado con el fracaso del tratamiento de la tuberculosis pulmonar, así como también el envejecimiento. Por tal motivo, como parte del control de la tuberculosis, el personal de salud debe estar preparado para ofrecer estrategias que promuevan la cesación tabáquica y tener un mayor cuidado con pacientes de grupos etarios superiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Treatment Failure , Risk Assessment
17.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e036, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001607

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus and their predictors in a population of adults in Brazil. A representative sample of 758 adults from 35 to 59 years of age from Porto Alegre city was examined. A structured questionnaire was applied. The Gingival Bleeding Index and the presence of calculus were measured at 4 sites/tooth. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to determine the predictors for gingival bleeding at >20% of sites. Overall, 96.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=95.1-98.0) of individuals had ≥ 1 bleeding site. The mean percentages of sites with gingivitis and calculus were 26.1% and 44.6%, respectively. The odds of gingivitis decreased by ∼45% for individuals ≥40 years old compared to younger adults. Individuals that never performed interproximal cleaning and non-whites had an approximately two times higher chance of gingivitis. Smokers had lower chances of gingivitis than never-smokers (odds ratio=0.40; 95% CI=0.24-0.68). Higher numbers of missing teeth were associated with higher chances of gingivitis. The percentage of calculus was significantly associated with skin color, education, proximal cleaning, smoking exposure, dental visits, and tooth loss. It can be concluded that the occurrence of gingivitis and calculus was high in this Brazilian population, and it was associated with age, skin color, education, self-reported proximal cleaning, smoking, dental care, and tooth loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dental Calculus/etiology , Dental Calculus/epidemiology , Gingivitis/etiology , Gingivitis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Toothbrushing/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Linear Models , Periodontal Index , Gingival Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180205, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002408

ABSTRACT

Abstract Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the most important Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an arsenal of specialized virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Among them, fimbriae play a role in the initial attachment and organization of biofilms. Different genotypes of fimA have been related to length of fimbriae and pathogenicity of the bacterium. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify 5 types of fimA genotype strains in smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis, before and after periodontal therapy. Material and Methods Thirty-one patients with periodontitis harboring P. gingivalis were selected: 16 nonsmokers (NS) and 15 smokers (SM). Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment, namely: plaque index, bleeding on probe, probing depth, gingival recession and clinical attachment level. The frequency of P. gingivalis and fimA genotype strains were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results Type I fimA was detected in the majority of SM and NS at baseline, and the frequency did not diminish after 3 months of treatment. The frequency of type II genotype was higher in SM than NS at baseline. After 3 months, statistical reduction was observed only for types II and V fimA genotypes in SM. The highest association was found between types I and II at baseline for NS (37.5%) and SM (53.3%). Conclusion The most prevalent P. gingivalis fimA genotypes detected in periodontal and smoker patients were genotypes I and II. However, the presence of fimA genotype II was higher in SM. Periodontal treatment was effective in controlling periodontal disease and reducing type II and V P. gingivalis fimA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Periodontitis/microbiology , Periodontitis/therapy , Smoking/adverse effects , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Fimbriae Proteins/isolation & purification , Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , DNA, Bacterial , Periodontal Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fimbriae Proteins/genetics , Genotype , Middle Aged
19.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e090, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039308

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on gingival inflammation in a representative sample of 1,650 adults from Santiago (Chile), Porto Alegre (Brazil), and Tucumán (Argentina). A questionnaire was administered to participants to gather demographic and behavioral characteristics, including smoking habits. The participants were clinically examined to obtain gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), visible plaque index (VPI), and calculus presence values. Gingival inflammation was defined as a mean GI > 0.5. Heavy smokers presented significantly lower levels of gingival inflammation, as reflected by both GI and GBI, than both light and moderate smokers, despite their having increased amounts of plaque and calculus. Being 50 years old or older [odds ratio (OR), 1.93], a VPI ≥ 30% (OR, 28.1), and self-reported diabetes (OR, 2.79) were positively associated with detection of gingival inflammation. In conclusion, the occurrence of clinically detectable gingival inflammation was lower in heavy smokers than light and moderate smokers. Older age, diabetes, and visible plaque emerged as risk indicators of gingivitis. Plaque and gingival indices are significantly associated regardless of the smoking status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Gingivitis/etiology , Gingivitis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , South America/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Periodontal Index , Dental Plaque Index , Gingival Hemorrhage/etiology , Gingival Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190015, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003486

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Comparar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular na população de Vitória (ES) em pesquisa autorreferida por contato telefônico (VIGITEL) ou por exames clínicos e laboratoriais realizados na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Método: Os inquéritos foram realizados na população adulta de Vitória (≥18anos). No VIGITEL foram entrevistados 1996 indivíduos (homens = 38%). Na PNS foi feita visita domiciliar seguida de exames clínicos e laboratoriais em 318 indivíduos (homens = 48%) selecionados em 20setores censitários da cidade. Nos dois inquéritos, as prevalências foram ajustadas para a estrutura populacional estimada para o ano de 2013. Os dados são fornecidos como porcentagens e intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Resultados: Foram encontradas prevalências similares no VIGITEL e na PNS, respectivamente, para tabagismo (8,2%; IC95% 6,7 - 9,7% versus 10,0; IC95% 6,4 - 13,6%) e hipertensão (24,8%; IC95% 22,6- 27,0% versus 27,2%; IC95% 21,8 - 32,5%). Houve diferença estatística (p < 0,01) entre o VIGITEL e a PNS, respectivamente, para as prevalências de obesidade (16,8%; IC95% 14,1 - 18,1% versus 25,7%; IC95% 20,4- 30,9%) e colesterol elevado (≥ 200mg/dL) no sangue (20,6%; IC95% 18,6 - 22,6% versus 42,3%; IC95% 36,9- 47,7%). A prevalência de diabetes também foi maior (p < 0,05) na PNS (6,7 versus 10,7%). Conclusão: A prevalência populacional de hipertensão e tabagismo foi estimada adequadamente no VIGITEL. Isso não ocorreu com a obesidade por provável viés de informação do peso corporal no VIGITEL. Os dados mostram a necessidade de melhorar a cobertura diagnóstica das dislipidemias em vista da importância do controle desse fator de risco na prevenção primária das doenças cardiovasculares.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population of Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in two surveys conducted by telephone interview (VIGITEL) or by clinic and laboratory exams during the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Method: Data were collected from adults (≥ 18 years). In VIGITEL, 1,996 subjects (males = 38%) were interviewed. In NHIS, home visit followed by clinical and laboratory tests was made with 318 individuals (males = 48%) selected in 20 census tracts of the city. The prevalence of risk factors was adjusted to the estimated population of the city in 2013. Data are shown as prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: Similar values of prevalence were found in VIGITEL and NHIS, respectively, for smoking (8.2%; 95%CI 6.7-9.7% vs 10.0; 95%CI 6.4 - 13.6%) and hypertension (24.8%; 95%CI 22.6 - 27.0% vs 27.2%; 95%CI 21.8 - 32.5%). Statistical differences between surveys (p < 0.01) were found for diabetes (6.7%; 95%CI 5.6 - 7.9% vs 10.7%; 95%CI 7.1 - 14.5%), obesity (16.8%; 95%CI 14.1 - 18.1% vs 25.7%; 95%CI 20.4 - 30.9%) and high cholesterol (≥ 200mg/dL) (20.6%; 95%CI 18.6- 22.6% vs 42.3%; 95%CI 36.9 - 47.7%). The prevalence of diabetes was also higher (p < 0.01) in NHIS (6.7 vs 10.7%). Conclusion: Prevalence of smoking and hypertension, but not obesity, was adequately detected in VIGITEL, because there might have been information bias related to body weight during telephone interviews. Datashow the necessity to improve the diagnosis of dyslipidemias in primary care services, as the control of this risk factor is of utmost importance to prevent cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypercholesterolemia/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Prevalence , Interviews as Topic , Risk Factors , Health Surveys , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Diabetes Complications , Self Report , Hypercholesterolemia/complications , Hypertension/complications , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications
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