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Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 101-104, feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515409


Background: Smoking is one of the most relevant public health problems worldwide and one of the main causes of preventable premature death. In-hospital treatment and subsequent follow-up are effective in terms of cessation. Aim: To determine the frequency of smoking habits among patients hospitalized at a private clinic in Santiago. Material and Methods: Hospitalized patients were invited to answer a structured and adapted questionnaire on smoking habits. Results: The survey was answered by 294 patients (56% women). Twenty three percent of respondents were smokers. Among smokers, 50% indicated a consumption from 1 to 5 cigarettes per day, 19% smoked during the first hour after waking, and 43% lived with another smoker in their home. Eighty three percent thought about quitting and made unsuccessful attempts to quit using different strategies. Conclusions: The percentage of smokers in this group of patients is lower than that reported in the national health survey. The high proportion of respondent that are attempted to quit and failed, justifies the availability of structured quitting programs at the hospital and follow-up strategies after discharge.

Humans , Male , Female , Smoking/epidemiology , Patients , Health Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Cessation , Age of Onset , Hospitalization
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 11-11, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971201


BACKGROUND@#Sex- and age-specific impacts of cardiovascular risk factors on the development of dementia have not been well evaluated. We investigated these impacts of smoking, overweight/obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus on the risk of disabling dementia.@*METHODS@#The study participants were 25,029 (10,134 men and 14,895 women) Japanese aged 40-74 years without disabling dementia at baseline (2008-2013). They were assessed on smoking status (non-current or current), overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or any antihypertensive medication use), and diabetes mellitus (a fasting serum glucose ≥126 mg/dL, non-fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program or glucose-lowering medication use) at baseline. Disabling dementia was identified as the level of care required ≥1 and cognitive disability grade ≥IIa according to the National Long-term Care Insurance Database. We used a Cox proportional regression model to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of disabling dementia according to the cardiovascular risk factors and calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs).@*RESULTS@#During a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 1,322 (606 men and 716 women) developed disabling dementia. Current smoking and hypertension were associated with a higher risk of disabling dementia in both sexes, whereas overweight or obesity was not associated with the risk in either sex. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher risk only in women (p for sex interaction = 0.04). The significant PAFs were 13% for smoking and 14% for hypertension in men and 3% for smoking, 12% for hypertension, and 5% for diabetes mellitus in women. The total PAFs of the significant risk factors were 28% in men and 20% in women. When stratified by age, hypertension in midlife (40-64 years) was associated with the increased risk in men, while diabetes mellitus in later-life (65-74 years) was so in women.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A substantial burden of disabling dementia was attributable to smoking, and hypertension in both sexes and diabetes mellitus in women, which may require the management of these cardiovascular risk factors to prevent dementia.

Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Overweight/complications , East Asian People , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Dementia/etiology
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1021-1026, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985628


Objective: To describe the epidemiological distribution characteristics of peripheral blood mosaic chromosomal alteration (mCA) in community adults aged 30-79 years in 10 regions of China. Methods: A total of 100 297 participants with complete baseline information (demographic characteristics, lifestyle, physical examination, etc.) and genotyping data of blood-derived DNA in ten regions of the China Kadoorie Biobank study were included. The mCAs were detected with the Mosaic Chromosomal Alterations pipeline, and logistic regression models were used to compare the differences in the detection rate of mCAs in different regions and populations. Results: A total of 5 810 mCA carriers were detected, with the detection rate of 5.8%. The standardized detection rate was 5.1%. The baseline detection rate of mCA increased with age, which were 3.4%, 5.0%, and 9.4% in those aged 30-, 51-, and >60 years, respectively (trend test P<0.001). A more significant proportion of mCAs were found in men (8.0%) than women (4.0%), as well as in urban areas (6.4%) than in rural areas (5.3%), the difference was significant (P<0.001). After adjusting for age and gender, the detection rate of mCA was higher in current smokers or people quitting smoking due to illness and people with low physical activity level, and the mCA detection rate was lower in obesy people (5.3%) than that in people with normal body weight (5.9%) (P=0.006). Conclusions: The detection rate of mCAs varied with region and population in community adults aged 30-79 years in 10 regions of China. The study results might contribute to the molecular identification of aging populations and guide precision prevention of age-related diseases such as cancers.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , China/epidemiology , Life Style , Risk Factors , Smoking/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 931-936, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985615


Objective: To understand the prevalence and influencing factors of tobacco dependence among the population aged 15-69 in Tianjin to provide the basis for formulating targeted smoking control intervention policies and carrying out scientific smoking cessation intervention services. Methods: The data of this study comes from the 2018 Tianjin residents' health literacy monitoring survey. Probability-proportional-to-size sampling is adopted for sampling. SPSS 26.0 software was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis, and χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors. Results: A total of 14 641 subjects aged 15-69 were included in this study. After standardized, with a smoking rate of 25.5%, including 45.5% for men and 5.2% for women. Among the population aged 15-69, the prevalence of tobacco dependence was 10.7%; among current smokers, the prevalence rate of tobacco dependence is 40.1%, of which the prevalence rate of male tobacco dependence is 40.0%, and the prevalence rate of female tobacco dependence is 40.6%. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, people who live in rural areas, have an education level of primary school or below, smoke every day, smoke the first cigarette ≤15 years old, smoke ≥21 cigarettes per day, and smoke for more than 20 packet years, people who report poor physical health are more likely to suffer from tobacco dependence (all P<0.05); age and smoking age did not affect the possibility of tobacco dependence (all P>0.05). Among current smokers, there was no significant difference in their willingness to quit smoking whether they had tobacco dependence (P>0.05). The proportion of people with tobacco dependence who have tried to quit smoking and failed is higher (P<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco dependence among smokers aged 15-69 in Tianjin is high, and the demand for quitting smoking is great. Therefore, smoking cessation publicity should be carried out for key groups, and smoking cessation intervention work in Tianjin should be continuously promoted.

Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Smokers , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985606


Objective: To understand the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Suzhou cohort, and explore the risk factors for the development of COPD in Suzhou, and provide a scientific basis for COPD prevention. Methods: This study was based on the China Kadoorie Biobank project in Wuzhong District, Suzhou. After excluding individuals with airflow obstruction and self-reported chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or pulmonary heart disease at baseline, 45 484 individuals were finally included in the analysis. Cox proportional risk models were used to analyze risk factors of COPD and calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) in the Suzhou cohort. The effect modifications of smoking on the association between other risk factors and COPD were evaluated. Results: Complete follow-up was available through December 31, 2017. Participants were followed up for a median of 11.12 years, and 524 individuals were diagnosed with COPD during the follow-up period; the incidence was 105.54 per 100 000 person-years. Multivariate Cox proportional risk regression models showed that age (HR=3.78, 95%CI:3.32-4.30), former smoking (HR=2.00, 95%CI:1.24-3.22), current smoking (<10 cigarettes/day, HR=2.14, 95%CI:1.36-3.35;≥10 cigarettes/day, HR=2.69, 95%CI:1.60-4.54), history of respiratory disease (HR=2.08, 95%CI:1.33-3.26), daily sleep duration ≥10 hours (HR=1.41, 95%CI:1.02-1.95) were associated with increased risk of COPD. However, education level of primary school and above (primary or junior high school, HR=0.65, 95%CI:0.52-0.81; high school and above, HR=0.54, 95%CI:0.33-0.87), consuming fresh fruit daily (HR=0.59, 95%CI:0.42-0.83) and consuming spicy food weekly (HR=0.71, 95%CI:0.53-0.94) were associated with reduced risk of COPD. Conclusions: The incidence of COPD is low in Suzhou. Older age, smoking, history of respiratory disease, and long sleep duration were risk factors for the development of COPD in the Suzhou cohort.

Humans , Incidence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684


Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.

A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-14, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518667


La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad constituye una de las afecciones respiratorias que provoca más demanda de asistencia médica, y es responsable del mayor número de fallecidos por enfermedades infecciosas en Cuba. El objetivo del estudio ha sido determinar el comportamiento de características seleccionadas en pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía y precisar la existencia de asociaciones entre algunas de estas características.Se realizó un estudio observacional, con diseño descriptivo, que incluyó 1,809 pacientes hospitalizados por neumonía entre enero de 2012 y febrero de 2020. Fueron analizadas características relacionadas con las condiciones de base, clínico-radiológicas, y relativas al manejo y la evolución, mediante análisis bivariante y multivariante (regresión logística). La serie estuvo constituida fundamentalmente por pacientes ancianos (79%), mientras que el 20% presentaba la condición de encamamiento. Esta condición se asoció significativamente con el estado de demencia avanzada (OR 7,6[5,5;10,4]), y fue determinante en la presentación "solapada" del proceso (OR 1,5[1,09;2]). La presentación "solapada" de la neumonía estuvo significativamente asociada al ingreso tardío (OR 1,6[1,2;2,2]). Como conclusiones se ratifica el lugar que ocupan varios elementos en las características de la morbilidad por neumonía: edad avanzada, presencia de comorbilidades, y presentación no clásica del proceso. Fueron constatadas interrelaciones de importancia práctica entre la presencia de comorbilidades particulares, las formas clínicas de presentación, el momento del ingreso, y la utilización de antimicrobianos durante la atención prehospitalaria del paciente. Se destaca el papel del encamamiento en la extensión radiológica del proceso neumónico y en la presencia de derrame pleural de mediana o gran cuantía al momento del ingreso.

Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the respiratory conditions that causes the greatest demand for medical care, and is responsible for the largest number of deaths from infectious diseases in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the behavior of selected characteristics in patients hospitalized for pneumonia and to specify the existence of associations between some of these characteristics. An observational study, with a descriptive design, was carried out, which included 1,809 patients hospitalized for pneumonia between January 2012 and February 2020. Characteristics related to the basic, clinical-radiological conditions, and relative to management and evolution were analyzed, through analysis bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression). The series consisted mainly of elderly patients (79%), while 20% were bedridden. This condition was significantly associated with the state of advanced dementia (OR 7.6[5.5;10.4]) and was decisive in the "overlapping" presentation of the process (OR 1.5[1.09;2]). The "overlapping" presentation of pneumonia was significantly associated with late admission (OR 1.6[1.2;2.2]). As conclusions, the place occupied by several elements in the characteristics of pneumonia morbidity is ratified: advanced age, presence of comorbidities, and non-classical presentation of the process. Interrelationships of practical importance were found between the presence of comorbidities, the clinical forms of presentation, the time of admission, and the use of antimicrobials during the patient's prehospital care. The role of bed rest in the radiological extension of the pneumonic process and in the presence of medium or large pleural effusion at the time of admission is highlighted.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Patient Admission , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Time Factors , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Analysis of Variance , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Dementia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Bedridden Persons , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(1): 1-12, Mar. 2022. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512541


Depression is considered the most frequent mental illness; it is a cause of disability and constitutes a modifiable risk factor for the future development of dementia. The objective of tis study was to determine the frequency of major depression in elderly aged 85 and over and its possible association with dementia and with sociodemographic and clinical aspects. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 202 elderly who were treated in the protocolized consultation ¨The care of cognitive disorders in the elderly ¨, of the Hermanos Ameijeiras hospital, during the period between February 2016 and May 2016. 2020. 55.9% of the elderly were women and 64.9% were between 85 and 89 years old. A significant association was found between major depression and having comorbidity (p = 0.001), being a smoker (p = 0.003) and being a drinker (p <0.001). Major depression and dementia were diagnosed in 12.9% of the elderly, with no significant relationship (p = 0.731). The frequency of major depression in elderly aged 85 and over who were treated in a care consultation for cognitive disorders in the elderly is considered high. An association was identified between factors that deteriorated health and the presence of major depression, but not between it and dementia.

La depresión es considerada la enfermedad mental más frecuente, es causa de discapacidad y constituye un factor de riesgo modificable para el futuro desarrollo de demencia. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de depresión mayor en ancianos de 85 y más años de edad y su posible asociación con demencia, con aspectos sociodemográficos y clínicos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en 202 ancianos que fueron atendidos en la consulta protocolizada para la atención de los trastornos cognitivos en el anciano, del hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras, durante el periodo comprendido entre febrero de 2016 y mayo de 2020. El 26% de los ancianos estudiados presentaba depresión mayor. Se encontró asociación significativa entre la depresión mayor y tener comorbilidad (p = 0,001), ser fumador (p = 0,003) y ser bebedor (p < 0,001). En el 12,9% de los ancianos se diagnosticó depresión mayor y demencia, sin relación significativa (p = 0,731). La frecuencia de depresión mayor en ancianos de 85 y más años que fueron atendidos en consulta de atención a los trastornos cognitivos en el anciano se considera alta. Se identificó asociación entre factores que deterioraron la salud y presencia de depresión mayor, no así entre esta y demencia.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Educational Status , Sociodemographic Factors
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 483-489, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940991


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the relation of smoking status to family health and personality traits in residents aged over 18 years in China by binary Logistic regression analysis, to identify the psychosocial factors that influence tobacco use, and to provide evidence to predict smoking susceptibility based on personality traits and prevent smoking at individual and family levels.@*METHODS@#Residents aged over 18 years in China were selected from "the Survey of Chinese Family Health Index (2021)". General characteristic questionnaire, short-form of family health scale, 10-item big five inventory were used to collect sociodemographic information, family health function and personality traits. And the relation of smoking status to family health and personality traits were analyzed by binary Logistic regression analysis.@*RESULTS@#Totally 10 315 adults were collected, of whom there were 2 171 smokers. The smoking rate was 21.05%, 41.76% of the residents were male, 3.69% female, 20.03% urban, 23.77% rural, 12.60% aged between 18 and 35 years, 27.11% aged between 36 and 59 years, 34.35% aged over 60 years, and the smoking rate varied in gender, location, age, education, marital status, family types, and average household monthly income (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the scores of family health, family social and emotional health processes, family healthy lifestyle, family health resources, family external social support, agreeableness, openness, and neuroticism among smokers were lower than those of the non-smokers (P < 0.05). The results of binary Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents over 35 years old, with low educational level and divorced were the risk factors to smoking (P < 0.05), while female, unmarried, nuclear family, high scores of family social and emotional health processes and family health resources, openness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were the protective factors to smoking (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Besides gender, age, location, education, marital status, family types and average household monthly income, family health, and personality traits were also important factors influencing smoking status. Tobacco control based on personality traits and family health is essential, and more convincing research is necessary to determine the relation of tobacco use, tobacco dependence and smoking cessation to family health and personality traits.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , China/epidemiology , Family Health , Personality , Smoking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(4): 275-284, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388162


Diversos estudios advierten de la relación a corto plazo entre el uso de los cigarrillos electrónicos y enfermedades pulmonares, cardiovasculares, además de su potencial adictivo. No existen estudios al respecto en estudiantes universitarios chilenos. MÉTODOS: Este estudio descriptivo transversal, mide la prevalencia de consumo, percepción de riesgo, motivaciones y actitudes del uso de cigarrillos electrónicos en estudiantes de Medicina, mediante un cuestionario online. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 354 sujetos, 32,9% han utilizado cigarrillos electrónicos alguna vez en la vida, 6,8% en el último año y 1,1% en el último mes. La edad media de inicio fue 18,0 ± 2,2 años. Respecto a las percepciones positivas hacia los cigarrillos electrónicos: 37,1% cree que ayudan a la gente a dejar de fumar; 39,7% que son menos peligrosos que los cigarrillos y 19,0% que son menos adictivos. El consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos alguna vez en la vida se asoció al consumo de tabaco y percepciones positivas hacia cigarrillos electrónicos (efectivo para dejar de fumar y menos adictivos que los cigarrillos). Las principales motivaciones al consumo fueron "simplemente porque sí", "porque me gusta el sabor", "me lo recomendó un amigo/familiar" y "porque me relaja". CONCLUSIÓN: Se sugiere prohibir la promoción de los cigarrillos electrónicos como una opción menos dañina y adictiva que el cigarrillo, tampoco como alternativa para dejar de fumar, puesto que la evidencia científica no es suficiente para respaldar tales afirmaciones. Este estudio puede contribuir a la prevención de consumo de cigarrillos electrónicos en poblaciones jóvenes.

INTRODUCTION: Several studies warn of the short-term relationship between the use of electronic cigarettes and lung and cardiovascular diseases, in addition to their addictive potential. There are no studies in this regard in Chilean university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study measures the prevalence of consumption, risk perception, motivations and attitudes of e-cigarette use in medical students, using an online questionnaire. RESULTS: We analyzed 354 subjects, 32.9% have used electronic cigarettes once in their lives, 6.8% in the last year and 1.1% in the last month. The mean age of onset was 18.0 ± 2.2 years. Regarding positive perceptions towards e-cigarettes: 37.1% believe they help people quit smoking; 39.7% that they are less dangerous than cigarettes and 19.0% that they are less addictive. E-cigarette use was once in a lifetime associated with tobacco use and positive perceptions toward e-cigarettes (effective for quitting smoking and less addictive than cigarettes). The main motivations for consumption were "simply because I do", "because I like the taste", "it was recommended to me by a friend/family member" and "because it relaxes me". CONCLUSION: It is suggested to ban the promotion of e-cigarettes as a less harmful and addictive option than cigarettes, nor as an alternative to quitting smoking, since scientific evidence is not sufficient to support such claims. This study may contribute to the prevention of e-cigarette use in young populations.

Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Perception , Students, Medical/psychology , Smoking/epidemiology , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Risk , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smoking Cessation , Vaping/epidemiology , Motivation
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(12): 6089-6103, Dez. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350496


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação entre uso de cigarros eletrônicos e iniciação ao tabagismo, por meio de uma revisão sistemática com meta-análise de estudos longitudinais. Busca bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS e PsycInfo. As etapas de seleção de referências, extração dos dados e avaliação do risco de viés dos estudos foi realizada em dupla, de forma independente e as divergências discutidas com um terceiro pesquisador para obtenção de consenso. Meta-análise foi realizada por meio do modelo Mantel-Haenszel de efeitos aleatórios. Dentre os 25 estudos incluídos, 22 avaliaram o desfecho de experimentação de cigarro convencional e nove avaliaram o desfecho de tabagismo atual (nos últimos 30 dias). A meta-análise demonstrou que o uso de cigarro eletrônico aumentou em quase três vezes e meia o risco de experimentação de cigarro convencional (RR=3,42; IC95% 2,81-4,15) e em mais de quatro vezes o risco de tabagismo atual (RR=4,32; IC95% 3,13-5,94). O risco de iniciação ao tabagismo é significativamente maior entre usuários de cigarro eletrônico. A liberação da comercialização desses dispositivos pode representar uma ameaça para as políticas de saúde pública no Brasil.

Abstract This article aims to evaluate the association between the use of electronic cigarettes and initiation to smoking, through a systematic review with meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. A bibliographic search was performed on the MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and PsycInfo databases. Reference selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment of the studies were independently carried out in pairs, and the disagreements were discussed with a third researcher to reach a consensus. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects model. Among the 25 studies included, 22 evaluated the outcome of conventional cigarette experimentation and nine assessed the outcome of current smoking (in the last 30 days). The meta-analysis showed that the use of electronic cigarettes increased the risk of conventional cigarette experimentation by almost three and a half times (RR=3.42; 95%CI 2.81-4.15), and by more than four times the risk of current smoking (RR=4.32; 95%CI 3.13-5.94). The risk of smoking initiation is significantly higher among electronic cigarette users. The marketing authorization of such devices may represent a threat to public health policies in Brazil.

Humans , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking Prevention
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 26(8): 3065-3076, ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285965


Abstract Cigarette consumption is a worldwide epidemic and its reduction is one of the major public health concerns. In Brazil, although there is a wide literature on smoking cessation it is restricted to experimental studies. Based on data from the 2013 National Health Survey (PNS), this study uses the survival methodology and use population data and consumer's profile to investigate which characteristics will affect smoking cessation hazard. The results showed that the people who are less likely to quit smoking are older, single men, with low income and fewer education years. They also do not practice physical exercise. The findings of cigarette cessation hazard to Brazilian population are similar of experimental studies with smokers and ex-smokers in country. Therefore, in order to decrease public health spending, Brazilian health policies regarding tobacco cessation could focus on those groups who will likely smoke for a long time.

Resumo O consumo de cigarro é uma epidemia mundial e sua redução é uma das principais preocupações de saúde pública. No Brasil, embora exista uma ampla literatura sobre a cessação do tabagismo, ela se restringe a estudos experimentais. Com base nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2013 (PNS), este estudo usa a metodologia de sobrevivência e usa dados da população e os perfis dos consumidores para investigar quais características afetarão as chances de cessação do tabagismo. Os resultados mostraram que as pessoas com menor probabilidade de parar de fumar são homens mais velhos e solteiros, com baixa renda e menos anos de estudo, que não praticam exercícios físicos. Os achados do risco de cessação do cigarro para a população brasileira são semelhantes a estudos experimentais com fumantes e ex-fumantes no país. Portanto, para diminuir os gastos em saúde pública, as políticas de saúde brasileiras em relação à cessação do tabaco poderiam se concentrar nos grupos que fumarão por mais tempo.

Humans , Male , Smoking Cessation , Tobacco Products , Brazil/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 17-22, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156992


Abstract Introduction The university period is often characterized as a critical period of vulnerability for smoking habit initiation. Objective The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between religiosity and smoking among undergraduate students on health sciences courses. Methods A total of 336 students on four health sciences courses (occupational therapy, speech therapy, nutrition, and physiotherapy) completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire along with the Duke University Religion Index. Results Smoking prevalence was 8.3% among females and 12.7% among males. Prevalence among students who do not have a religion, but do believe in God, was higher than among those who do have a religion (16.3 and 6.3%, respectively). Organizational religious activity has a significant effect on smoking status. Conclusion The students have health habits that are not only motivated by the technical knowledge acquired on their undergraduate courses, since there was a possible influence of social norms stimulated by religious institutions on their attitudes, knowledge and practices in health.

Humans , Male , Female , Religion , Students , Universities , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(1): 75-82, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153285


Although smoking rates have declined in most of the countries in the world, there are population groups within these countries whose smoking rates remain significantly higher than the general population. These "forgotten groups" who have not been receiving the needed attention in tobacco control policies and tobacco cessation efforts include people with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, tuberculosis, people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-queer people, and pregnant women. A number of steps are needed at the national level in countries where these disparities exist, including modifications to national smoking cessation treatment guidelines that address the special needs of these populations, as well as targeted smoking cessation research, since these populations are often not included in clinical trials. Because of the higher smoking prevalence in these populations, as well as their lower smoking cessation treatment success rates than the general population, more resources are needed if we are to reduce health disparities in these vulnerable populations. Additionally, we believe that more effort should be focused on integrating smoking cessation treatment in the specialized care settings frequented by these subpopulations.

Tobacco Use Disorder/therapy , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Smoking Cessation , Homosexuality, Female , Bisexuality , Smoking/epidemiology
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 102-102, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922196


BACKGROUND@#Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for progression to an end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. We investigated the association of lifestyle behaviors with the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) among CKD patients using an employment-based health insurance claims database linked with specific health checkup (SHC) data.@*METHODS@#This retrospective cohort study included 149,620 CKD patients aged 40-74 years who underwent a SHC between April 2008 and March 2016. CKD patients were identified using ICD-10 diagnostic codes and SHC results. We investigated lifestyle behaviors recorded at SHC. Initiation of RRT was defined by medical procedure claims. Lifestyle behaviors related to the initiation of RRT were identified using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with recency-weighted cumulative exposure as a time-dependent covariate.@*RESULTS@#During 384,042 patient-years of follow-up by the end of March 2016, 295 dialysis and no kidney transplantation cases were identified. Current smoking (hazard ratio: 1.87, 95% confidence interval, 1.04─3.36), skipping breakfast (4.80, 1.98─11.62), and taking sufficient rest along with sleep (2.09, 1.14─3.85) were associated with the initiation of RRT.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Among CKD patients, the lifestyle behaviors of smoking, skipping breakfast, and sufficient rest along with sleep were independently associated with the initiation of RRT. Our study strengthens the importance of monitoring lifestyle behaviors to delay the progression of mild CKD to RRT in the Japanese working generation. A substantial portion of subjects had missing data for eGFR and drinking frequency, warranting verification of these results in prospective studies.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Disease Progression , Health Benefit Plans, Employee , Japan/epidemiology , Life Style , Meals , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sleep , Smoking/epidemiology
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(4): e00050120, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285834


Resumo Estudo de tendência temporal com o objetivo de avaliar as desigualdades no tabagismo e no consumo abusivo de álcool, considerando a escolaridade como proxy de nível socioeconômico, de acordo com sexo e regiões brasileiras. Foram utilizados dados do Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados entre 2006 e 2017. Os desfechos foram o consumo abusivo de bebidas alcoólicas e o fumo. As desigualdades foram avaliadas com base na escolaridade, com dupla estratificação por sexo e regiões brasileiras. Para avaliar a tendência das prevalências dos desfechos e suas desigualdades foi usada a regressão linear ponderada pelos quadrados mínimos da variância. A prevalência de consumo abusivo de álcool aumentou em mulheres, de 7,8% (2006) para 12,2% (2017), e foi maior sempre entre os mais escolarizados. A prevalência de tabagismo diminuiu para homens e mulheres e foi maior sempre entre os menos escolarizados. A desigualdade no consumo de álcool entre os grupos de escolaridade parece ter aumentado ao longo do tempo, com maior magnitude entre as mulheres, mas a desigualdade no tabagismo parece estar diminuindo. Em algumas regiões do país, as medidas de desigualdade sugerem estabilidade e em outras um aumento da desigualdade para o consumo de álcool (Sudeste, Sul e Centro-oeste, entre as mulheres) e diminuição para o tabagismo (todas as regiões, exceto Sudeste, entre os homens; Nordeste e Centro-oeste, entre as mulheres). Apesar dos avanços na redução do tabagismo, as desigualdades na escolaridade persistem e estão presentes também em relação ao álcool. Os desfechos têm comportamentos opostos, portanto, estratégias devem ser focadas em cada um dos problemas, a fim de reduzir as desigualdades existentes.

Abstract: This was a time trend study aimed at assessing inequalities in smoking and abusive alcohol consumption, considering schooling as a proxy for socioeconomic status, according to sex and region of Brazil. The study used data from the Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Non-Comunicable Diseases Through Telephone Interview (Vigitel) survey collected from 2006 to 2017. The outcomes were abusive alcohol consumption and smoking. The inequalities were assessed based on schooling, with double stratification by sex and major geographic region. Weighted linear least squares regression was used to assess the trend in prevalence of outcomes and their inequalities. Prevalence of abusive alcohol consumption increased in women, from 7.8% in 2006 to 12.2% in 2017 and was consistently higher among individuals with more schooling. Prevalence of smoking decreased in both men and women and was consistently higher among those with less schooling. Inequality in alcohol consumption between schooling groups appears to have increased over time, higher in women, but inequality in smoking appears to have decreased. In some regions of Brazil, the measures of inequality suggest stability and in others an increase in inequality in alcohol consumption (Southeast, South, and Central regions in women) and a decrease in smoking (all regions except the Southeast in men; Northeast and Central in women). Despite the strides in smoking reduction, inequalities persist in schooling and are also present in alcohol consumption. The outcomes show opposite trends, so strategies should focus on each of the problems in order to reduce existing inequalities.

Resumen: Estudio de tendencia temporal, con el objetivo de evaluar las desigualdades en el tabaquismo y consumo abusivo de alcohol, considerando la escolaridad como proxy de nivel socioeconómico, de acuerdo con el sexo y regiones brasileñas. Se utilizaron datos de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas No Transmisibles por Entrevista Telefónica (Vigitel), recogidos entre 2006 y 2017. Los resultados fueron el consumo abusivo de bebidas alcohólicas y tabaco. Las desigualdades se evaluaron a partir de la escolaridad, con doble estratificación por sexo y regiones brasileñas. Para evaluar la tendencia de las prevalencias de los resultados y sus desigualdades se utilizó la regresión lineal por mínimos cuadrados ponderados de la variancia. La prevalencia de consumo abusivo de alcohol aumentó en mujeres de 7,8% (2006) a 12,2% (2017) y fue siempre mayor entre los más escolarizados. La prevalencia de tabaquismo disminuyó en hombres y mujeres, y siempre fue mayor entre los menos escolarizados. La desigualdad en el consumo de alcohol entre los grupos de escolaridad parece que ha aumentado a lo largo del tiempo, con mayor magnitud entre las mujeres, pero la desigualdad en el tabaquismo parece estar disminuyendo. En algunas regiones del país, las medidas de desigualdad sugieren estabilidad y en otras un aumento de la desigualdad en el consumo de alcohol (Sudeste, Sur y Centro-oeste, entre las mujeres) y disminución en el tabaquismo (todas las regiones, excepto la Sudeste, entre los hombres; Nordeste y Centro-oeste, entre las mujeres). A pesar de los avances en la reducción del tabaquismo, las desigualdades en la escolaridad persisten y están presentes también en relación con el alcohol. Los resultados tienen comportamientos opuestos, por lo tanto, las estrategias deben centrarse en cada uno de los problemas, a fin de reducir las desigualdades existentes.

Humans , Male , Female , Telephone , Smoking/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Prevalence , Educational Status
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 55: 3, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1156857


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of the 2015-2018 economic crisis on tobacco consumption in Brazil. METHODS This is an interrupted time series analysis conducted with data from 27 cities collected by VIGITEL, using linear regression models to account for first-order autocorrelation. Analyses were conducted based on gender, age group, and education level. RESULTS Smoking rates decreased between 2006 and 2018, decelerating after the crisis onset. Differently than women, men showed an immediate but transient increase in smoking, followed by a decelerated decrease. Those over 65 also showed increased smoking rates immediately after the economic crisis onset, but decline accelerated later on. In turn, we found a trend reversal among those aged 31-44. Rates also decreased among those with lower education levels, but decelerated among those with more years of schooling. CONCLUSION An economic crisis have varied impacts on the smoking habits of different population groups. Tobacco control policies should entail a detailed understanding of smoking epidemiology, especially during an economic crisis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Smoking/epidemiology , Economic Recession , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cities/epidemiology
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(11): e00224220, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350390


Abstract: This study aims to investigate whether the intersectional identities defined by race/skin color and gender are associated with smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol in a representative sample of Brazilian adults. This is a cross-sectional study with 48,234 participants in the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS) - 2013. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to estimate the associations of intersectional categories of race/skin color and gender (white woman, brown woman, black woman, white man, brown man, black man) with smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol, based on the combination of weekly "days" and "servings". The prevalence of smoking varied from 10.6% for white women to 23.1% for black men, while the prevalence of elevated consumption of alcohol ranged from 3.3% to 14%, respectively. In comparison to white women, only white, brown, and black men presented greater chances of smoking, reaching the OR of 2.04 (95%CI: 1.66-2.51) in black men. As to excessive consumption of alcohol, all intersectional categories showed greater chances of consumption than white women, with the greatest magnitude in black men (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: 3.66-6.23). These associations maintained statistical significance after adjustments made for sociodemographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. Results demonstrated differences in smoking habit and excessive consumption of alcohol when the intersectional categories were compared to traditional analyses. These findings reinforce the significance of including intersectionality of race/skin color and gender in epidemiological studies.

Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo investigar se as interseções de identidades definidas por raça/cor e gênero estão associadas ao tabagismo e ao consumo excessivo de álcool em uma amostra representativa de adultos brasileiros. Este foi um estudo transversal com 48.234 participantes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2013. Foram usadas odds ratio (OR) brutas e ajustadas com os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) para estimar as associações entre interseções de categorias de raça/cor e gênero (mulher branca, mulher parda, mulher preta, homem branco, homem pardo, homem preto) com tabagismo e consumo excessivo de álcool, derivados da combinação de "dias" e "doses" semanais. A prevalência de tabagismo variou de 10,6% em mulheres brancas a 23,1% em homens pretos, enquanto a prevalência de consumo elevado de álcool variou de 3,3% a 14%, respectivamente. Em comparação com mulheres brancas, apenas homens brancos, pardos e pretos apresentaram risco maior de tabagismo, chegando a um OR de 2,04 (IC95%: 1,66-2,51) em homens pretos. Quanto ao consumo excessivo de álcool, todas as categorias mostraram maior risco de consumo em comparação com as mulheres brancas, com a maior magnitude em homens pretos (OR = 4,78; IC95%: 3,66-6,23). As associações mantiveram a significância estatística depois de ajustar para fatores sociodemográficos, comportamentais e de saúde. Os resultados revelam diferenças no hábito de fumar e no consumo excessivo de álcool quando as categorias de interseções foram comparadas a análises tradicionais. Os achados reforçam a importância da inclusão de raça/cor e gênero em estudos epidemiológicos.

Resumen: El objetivo fue investigar si las identidades interseccionales, definidas por raza/color de piel y género, están asociadas con el consumo de tabaco y excesivo consumo de alcohol en una muestra representativa de adultos brasileños. Se trata de un estudio trasversal con 48.234 participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud Brasileña (PNS) - 2013. Las odds ratio (OR) crudas y ajustadas y los respectivos intervalos de 95% confianza (IC95%) fueron usados para estimar las asociaciones de categorías interseccionales de raza/color de piel y género (mujer blanca, mujer mestiza, mujer negra, hombre blanco, hombre mestizo, hombre negro) con el consumo de tabaco y el excesivo consumo de alcohol, derivado de la combinación semanal de "días" y "cantidades consumidas". La prevalencia de consumo de tabaco varió de 10.6% en mujeres blancas al 23,1% en hombres negros, mientras que la prevalencia de consumo elevado de alcohol fue de un 3,3% al 14%, respectivamente. En comparación con las mujeres blancas, solo blancos, mestizos, y hombres negros presentaron oportunidades mayores de fumar, alcanzando la OR de 2,04 (95%CI: 1,66-2,51) en hombres negros. Así como que, para el excesivo consumo de alcohol, todas las categorías interseccionales mostraron oportunidades mayores de consumo que las mujeres blancas, con una magnitud más grande en hombres negros (OR = 4,78; 95%CI: 3,66-6,23). Estas asociaciones mantuvieron significancia estadística, tras los ajustes realizados para características sociodemográficas, comportamentales, y características de salud. Los resultados demostraron que el hábito de fumar y el excesivo consumo de alcohol mostraron diferencias cuando se compararon las categorías interseccionales con los análisis tradicionales. Estos resultados refuerzan la importancia de incluir la interseccionalidad de raza/color de piel y género en estudios epidemiológicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Skin Pigmentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(11): 4347-4350, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133029


Abstract On 31st May of every year, in honour of the 'World No Tobacco Day (WNTD),' the international community does organise various events and encourages avoiding all forms of Tobacco consumption. To commemorate WNTD-2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) has promoted awareness to highlight the link between Tobacco and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because, Tobacco use is the second leading cause of CVD, after high blood pressure. In addition to CVD, Tobacco use is also known to cause many non-communicable diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and other complicated disorders caused by smoking. In fact, non-communicable diseases are now emerging as the primary disease burden. Globally, Tobacco use kills about 7 million people each year, and if the trend remains the same, then it will kill more than 8 million people per year by 2030. On the contrary, despite promoting awareness, the Tobacco industry is growing with little or no regulation. However, in the long run, the global community will not be able to afford business as usual as Tobacco has a direct impact on human health, environmental health and sustainable development.

Resumo No dia 31 de maio de cada ano, em homenagem ao Dia Mundial Sem Tabaco (WNTD), a comunidade internacional organiza vários eventos e incentiva a evitar todas as formas de consumo de tabaco. Para comemorar o WNTD-2018, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) promoveu a conscientização para destacar a ligação entre o tabaco e as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). Porque, o uso do tabaco é a segunda principal causa de DCV, após a hipertensão arterial. Além do DCV, o uso de tabaco também é conhecido por causar muitas doenças não transmissíveis, incluindo doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC), câncer de pulmão e outros transtornos complicados. De fato, as doenças não transmissíveis estão emergindo como a carga primária da doença. Globalmente, o consumo de tabaco mata cerca de 7 milhões de pessoas a cada ano, e se a tendência permanecer a mesma, matará mais de 8 milhões de pessoas por ano até 2030. Pelo contrário, apesar de promover a conscientização, a indústria do tabaco está crescendo com pouco ou sem regulamentação. No entanto, a longo prazo, a comunidade global não poderá se dar bem, pois o tabaco tem um impacto direto na saúde humana, na saúde ambiental e no desenvolvimento sustentável.

Humans , Tobacco Industry , One Health , Tobacco , Smoking/epidemiology , Global Health , Tobacco Use/epidemiology