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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Pakistan , Snails
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246934, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; o filo Mollusca possui importante posição na teia alimentar e atua como bioindicador, praga e hospedeiro intermediário. Por serem resistentes, são chamadas baratas de malacologia. Os caramujos físidos foram coletados em diferentes corpos d'água de Faisalabad (Punjab) e identificados até as espécies por meio de marcadores morfológicos. A morfometria dos corpos de prova foi realizada com auxílio de paquímetro digital Vernier em milímetros (mm) por meio de medida linear dos caracteres da casca. A análise de regressão linear da razão AL / SW vs. AL e razão SL / SW vs. AL indicou que o crescimento alométrico existe apenas em Physa acuta quando comparado com P. gyrina e P. fontinalis. Este estudo levará a avaliar a situação das espécies de físido no Punjab Central. A análise do componente principal mostra que o componente 1 (comprimento da casca) e o componente 2 (largura da casca) são os componentes mais prolíficos e quase 80% da identificação. A distância entre P. acuta e P. fontinalis é 5,4699, P. acuta e P. gyrina é 7,6411, P. fontinalis e P. gyrina é 16,6080, mostrando que P. acuta se assemelha a P. fontinalis, e ambos os espécimes não se parecem com P. gyrina. P. acuta é uma espécie invasora e apresenta bioatividade, tornando-se uma candidata potente para substâncias bioativas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Introduced Species
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243801, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278545

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study presents a four-year follow-up of an introduced population of Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, from initial stages to an established population. This introduction occurred on a small impacted stream of Vila do Abraão, the main village of Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The population size increased during the study, and presented a relationship to environmental factors, especially with rainfall. On the initial stages of introduction prevailed the smaller specimens, but on the overall, predominated the intermediate size classes. After less than a year, P. acuta becomes established on this stream and was possibly affecting the other species found on the stream. The information presented here is useful to understand the invasion process of invasive snails, as well as directing conservation efforts.


Resumo Neste estudo é apresentado um acompanhamento de quatro anos de uma população de Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805, desde os estágios iniciais da introdução até seu pleno estabelecimento. Esta introdução ocorreu em um pequeno riacho impactado da Vila do Abraão, o principal vilarejo da Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil). A população cresceu durante o estudo, e apresentou uma relação com os fatores ambientais, especialmente a pluviosidade. Nos estágios iniciais de introdução prevaleceram os exemplares menores, contudo no panorama geral, predominaram as classes de tamanho intermediárias. Em menos de um ano de introdução, P. acuta se estabeleceu neste riacho, e possivelmente está afetando as demais espécies encontradas no rio. A informação apresentada aqui é importante para a compreensão do processo de invasão de moluscos invasores no Brasil, assim como no direcionamento de esforços de conservação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Brazil , Population Density
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 999-1006, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Snails infected by trematodes may increase or decrease their reproductive activity in response to the presence of infection. Our aim was to verify the reproductive alterations in Subulina octona after infection by Paratanaisia bragai. The infected snails were individually exposed for 24 hours to 20 parasite eggs and four groups were formed (10, 20, 30 and 40 d.p.i.- days after infection), along with control groups. Every 10 days, the number of eggs in the reproductive tract, number of eggs hatched, galactogen content and histopathological changes were evaluated. The reproductive in the control and infected snails presented an alternating pattern, where periods of high production of eggs and newly hatched were followed by periods of low production. However, in relation to the amount of galactogen, both control and infected groups followed the same pattern of variation. In the histology, we observed the presence of male and female gametes with marked reduction in the number of oocytes. The results indicate that the intra-snail development of the parasite affects the reproductive biology of the host.


Resumo Moluscos infectados por trematódeos podem aumentar ou diminuir sua atividade reprodutiva em resposta à presença da infecção. Nosso objetivo foi verificar as alterações reprodutivas de Subulina octona após a infecção por Paratanaisia bragai. Os moluscos infectados foram individualmente expostos durante 24 horas a 20 ovos do parasito e quatro grupos foram formados (10, 20, 30 e 40 d.p.i. - dias pós infecção), com respectivos grupos controle. A cada 10 dias, o número de ovos no trato reprodutivo, o número de ovos eclodidos, o conteúdo de galactogênio e alterações histopatológicas eram avaliadas. O padrão reprodutivo nos moluscos controle e infectados evidenciou um comportamento alternante, nos quais períodos de alta produção de ovos e filhotes foram seguidos por períodos de baixa produção. No entanto, em relação ao conteúdo de galactogênio, moluscos controle e infectados seguiram o mesmo padrão de variação. Na histologia, observamos a presença de gametas masculinos e femininos com acentuada redução no número de óocitos. Os resultados indicam que o desenvolvimento intramolusco do parasito afeta a biologia reprodutiva do hospedeiro.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Trematoda , Reproduction , Snails , Host-Parasite Interactions
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200574, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278437

ABSTRACT

Abstract The reproductive system has a fundamental role in population dynamics and several reproduction strategies have been shaped by the environment over time. Many environmental pressures are generated by releasing pollutants, as endocrine disruptors, that can affect the reproductive system of individuals, among them invertebrates. The freshwater snails Biomphalaria spp. are used as biomonitor in several ecotoxicological studies; however, there are few studies about gametogenesis and morphology of reproductive snail cells, which could be used as a new biomarker. In this sense, the current study aims to characterize Biomphalaria glabrata gametogenesis, bringing new histomorphometric parameters for germinative cells. Results showed that the hermaphrodite tissue is formed by several acini with simple pavement epithelium with germinative and somatic cells. Oogenesis was classified into five developmental stages (OI to OV) according to diameter, nucleus area, total area, and follicular cell development, and then classified into previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes. The spermatogenesis was classified into spermatogonia (Spg), spermatocytes (Spc) and spermatids that were subdivided into five stages (Spt I to Spt V) according to cytoplasm losing, and nucleus spiralization along with Sertoli cells development. Thus, the present study highlights the gametogenesis of B. glabrata with new histomorphometric parameters, which can be an important tool for ecotoxicological and molluscicidal developmental further studies.


Subject(s)
Oogenesis , Snails , Spermatogenesis , Hermaphroditic Organisms , Techniques, Measures, Measurement Equipment , Ecotoxicology/methods
6.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(3)2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292385

ABSTRACT

Information on areas colonized by snails that transmit Schistosoma mansoni is essential for planning schistosomiasis control measures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to map the natural breeding sites of Biomphalaria spp. in the municipality of Peri Mirim, Maranhão, Brazil. The snails were manually collected and the breeding sites were geo-referenced (seven in the urban area and five in flooded fields), from November 2017 to March 2018. In the laboratory, the snails were examined for the presence of larval stages of S. mansoni identified by morphology and internal anatomy analysis. While no snails were found in the urban area, sixteen B. glabrata were collected in the flooded fields. No S. mansoni or other trematode infections were detected. Wild rodents, most likely Holochilus sciureus that could act as S. mansoni reservoirs, were also found in the flooded fields. These data indicate possible risk areas for further outbreaks of schistosomiasis transmission in the municipality of Peri Mirim.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Schistosoma mansoni , Snails , Biomphalaria , Spatial Analysis
8.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(2): 81-89, mayo-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340776

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar el estado actual de Melongena melongena en la bahía de Cispatá, Caribe Colombiano a través de los aspectos poblacionales de la especie. Materiales y métodos. Se establecieron tres sectores de muestreo, conforme con la zonificación de los manglares en la bahía. Para la recolección del material biológico se ubicó un transecto lineal de 4 x 20 m perpendicular al área del manglar con dos replicas a una distancia de 50 m. Para la determinación del sexo, se tomó una submuestra de 10 individuos con tallas superiores a la estimada para la madurez sexual de la especie. A las conchas se les midió la longitud total, con el fin de diferenciar las tallas de hembras y machos. En cada sector, la temperatura del agua y salinidad fueron registradas in situ, empleando un medidor multiparámetro Extech EC170, mientras la trasparencia del agua se calculó mediante el disco Secchi. Resultados. Se registraron un total de 1.149 individuos de M. melongena, obteniendo la mayor abundancia el sector Caño Salado (522), seguido de Las Cagás (458) y finalmente Amaya (169). El 63% de los individuos se encontraron en un intervalo de talla entre 41-61 mm. La proporción sexual fue 1:1.2 (H:M). Las tallas registradas en hembras fueron de 55 a 92 mm y en machos de 54 a 77 mm. Conclusiones. M. melongena en la bahía de Cispatá está presentando signos evidentes de recuperación en la última década, debido a que la mayoría de los individuos registrados han alcanzado la talla media de madurez sexual.


ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the current status of Melongena melongena in Cispata Bay, Colombian Caribbean through the population aspects of the species. Materials and methods. Three sampling sectors were established, according to the zoning of the mangrove in the bay. For the collection of the biological material a linear transect of 4 x 20 m was located perpendicular to the area of the mangrove with two replicas at a distance of 50 m. For the determination of sex, a subsample of 10 individuals with sizes greater than that estimated for the sexual maturity of the species was taken. The shells were measured in total length, in order to differentiate the sizes of females and males. In each sector, the water temperature and salinity were measured in situ using an Extech EC170 multiparameter while water transparency is calculated using the Secchi disk. Results. A total of 1,149 individuals of M. melongena were recorded, obtaining the highest abundance in the Caño Salado sector (522), followed by Las Cagás (458) and finally Amaya (169). 63% of the individuals were in a size range between 41-61 mm. The sex ratio was 1:1.2 (H:M). The sizes recorded in females were from 55 to 92 mm and in males from 54 to 77 mm. Conclusions. M. melongena in Cispatá Bay is showing evident signs of recovery in the last decade, because most of the registered individuals have reached the average size of sexual maturity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails , Wetlands , Mollusca , Estuaries
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 368-372, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melanoides tuberculata is a freshwater gastropod native to Africa and Asia, and currently presents distributed worldwide. The first record of Melanoides tuberculata in South America occurred in Brazil, in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo, in 1967. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to report the occurrence of Melanoides tuberculata for Banana Lagoon and to characterize the current population situation. The gastropods were collected through direct visualization of shells, morphometric measurements of Melanoides tuberculata shells were determined using a digital caliper. After identifying the gastropod and its first distribution in the area, a preliminary descriptive analysis of the population was carried out. The gastropods were classified by grouping the individuals into four classes according to the shell width (mm). This is the first record of the occurrence of Melanoides tuberculata, in Banana Lagoon, Caucaia municipality, Ceará state, Northeast Brazil, being the largest specimen cited in the literature (33.77 mm) and 92.65% of the gastropods present in sizes above the first reproduction stages.


Resumo Melanoides tuberculata é um gastrópode de água doce nativo da África e da Ásia e atualmente apresenta-se distribuído mundialmente. O primeiro registro de Melanoides tuberculata na América do Sul ocorreu no Brasil, na cidade de Santos, estado de São Paulo, em 1967. Portanto, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar a ocorrência de Melanoides tuberculata para Lagoa do Banana, caracterizando a situação atual da população no local. Os gastrópodes foram coletados através da visualização direta de conchas, e as medidas morfométricas das conchas de Melanoides tuberculata foram determinadas por meio de um paquímetro digital. Após identificar o gastrópode e constando sua primeira distribuição na área, realizou-se uma análise preliminar descritiva da população. Os gastrópodes foram classificados agrupando os indivíduos em quatro classes de acordo com a largura da concha (mm). Este é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de Melanoides tuberculata, na Lagoa da Banana, município de Caucaia, estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, sendo o maior exemplar citado na literatura (33,77 mm) já registrado e 92,65% dos gastrópodes apresentam-se em tamanhos acima do primeiro estágios de reprodução.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Gastropoda , Snails , Brazil , Fresh Water
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 245-254, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132370

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to identify the occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Great Aracaju-SE Territory. This research was developed during the months of June 2016 to May 2017. The plots methodology was used for the monthly collections, following the collection time of 20 minutes per area. The mollusks were measured and soon afterwards the parasitological analysis of the mucus and faeces was performed. Molecular identification was performed to evaluate the possible presence of Angiostrongylus sp. We observed that the occurrence of A. fulica was more representative in urban areas, especially in vacant lots with the presence of litter and decomposing materials. In the specimens of A. fulica examined were male and female nematodes of the genus Rhabditis, in the research municipalities, except in Barra dos Coqueiros. No parasites of the genus Angiostrongylus were found in the mollusks examined. The influence of the presence of litter on the plots associated with the frequency of A. fulica was statistically significant. There was a correlation between the influence of rainfall and the frequency of A. fulica. A significant relationship between moisture and frequency and nematode positivity was identified. It was also observed that the larger the mollusk, the greater the chances of being infected by nematodes. Scientific knowledge about the biology of the A. fulica species associated with human intervention such as the maintenance of land and adequate sanitary measures may be important factors for a better control of this invasive mollusk.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência de A. fulica no território da Grande Aracaju, Sergipe, avaliando a infecção destes moluscos por nematódeos, a influência das condições climáticas e das características do ambiente. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida durante os meses de junho de 2016 a maio de 2017. Foi utilizada a metodologia de parcelas para as coletas mensais de 20 min por área, um total de 15 parcelas distribuídas em 5 municípios. Os moluscos foram mensurados e logo em seguida realizada a análise parasitológica do muco e fezes. Foi realizada a identificação molecular para avaliar a possível presença de Angiostrongylus sp. Observamos que a ocorrência de A. fulica foi mais representativa em áreas urbanas, sobretudo em terrenos baldios com a presença de lixo e materiais em decomposição. Nos exemplares de A. fulica examinados foram encontrados nematódeos do gênero Rhabditis, nos municípios da pesquisa, exceto em Barra dos Coqueiros. Não foram encontrados parasitos do gênero Angiostrongylus nos moluscos examinados. A influência da presença de lixo nas parcelas associado à frequência da A. fulica mostrou-se estatisticamente significativa. Houve correlação entre a influência da chuva e a frequência de A. fulica. Foi identificada uma relação significativa entre a umidade e a frequência e a positividade para nematódeos. Foi também observado que quanto maior o molusco, maiores são as chances deste apresentar nematódeos. O conhecimento científico a respeito da biologia da espécie A. fulica associado à intervenção humana como, a manutenção de terrenos e medidas sanitárias adequadas podem ser fatores importantes para um controle malacológico mais adequado para esta espécie invasora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Gastropoda , Angiostrongylus , Snails , Brazil , Feces , Mollusca
11.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(2): e578, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126601

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica es una enfermedad inflamatoria infecciosa reportada en Cuba desde la década de los ochenta del siglo pasado y actualmente extendida al continente americano. Es producida por el parásito Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Objetivo: determinar si existen diferencias entre los pacientes que sufrieron meningoencefalitis eosinofílica antes y después de la introducción del caracol gigante africano. Métodos: se estudiaron un total de 19 muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo y suero tomadas simultáneamente a cada paciente diagnosticados con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica, perteneciente a la seroraquioteca del Laboratorio Central del Líquido Cefalorraquídeo (LABCEL). Para la determinación de las proteínas albúmina e IgG se empleó como método de laboratorio la inmunodifusión radial. Resultados: el 14 por ciento de los pacientes fueron adultos antes de la aparición de este molusco, en contraste con el momento actual, donde el 50 por ciento son pacientes con edades superiores a 18 años. El porcentaje de síntesis de IgG intratecal media fue mayor en los enfermos actuales, aunque no de manera significativa. Conclusiones: . existen diferencias antes y después de la aparición del caracol gigante africano dado por la respuesta de síntesis intratecal en los pacientes asociados con el molusco que denota una mayor agresividad del parásito. La edad promedio mayor de los enfermos confirma que estos son los que más manipulan y dispersan el molusco(AU)


Introduction: eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is an infectious inflammatory disease reported in Cuba since the 1980s and currently extended to the American continent. This condition is caused by the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Objective: determine whether there are differences between the patients suffering from eosinophilic meningoencephalitis before and after the introduction of the giant African snail. Methods: a study was conducted of a total 19 cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples taken simultaneously from each of the patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and kept at the sample collection of the Central Cerebrospinal Fluid Laboratory (LABCEL). Radial immunodiffusion was the laboratory method used for determination of the proteins albumin and IgG. Results: of the patients studied, 14 percent were adults before the appearance of this mollusc, in contrast with the present moment, when 50 percent are patients aged over 18 years. The percentage of mean intrathecal synthesis of IgG was higher in the current sufferers, though not significantly. Conclusions: there are differences before and after the appearance of the giant African snail, given the intrathecal synthesis response of patients associated to the mollusc, which denotes greater aggressiveness by the parasite. The higher mean age of sufferers confirms that these are the ones who most often handle and disperse the mollusc(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Strongylida Infections/complications , Meningoencephalitis/cerebrospinal fluid , Snails/parasitology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/pathogenicity , Laboratories
12.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(1): 94-97, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279659

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar la infección natural de caracoles de agua dulce con Fasciola hepatica en una localidad del altiplano de Guatemala. Materiales y métodos. Se colectaron caracoles de agua dulce en una aldea endémica de fascioliasis, en la localidad de Paquix, en el departamento de Huehuetenango, ubicado a ~3.300 msnm. La identificación de la especie de caracol se basó en las características morfológicas observadas por estereoscopio usando una clave de identificación. La búsqueda de fases del trematodo se realizó mediante la inspección visual externa con fuente de luz y la disección e inspección visual dentro del molusco bajo estereoscopio y microscopio. Resultados. 260 caracoles fueron encontrados e identificados como Pseudosuccinea columella. Se examinaron los especímenes colectados y se encontraron dos caracoles infectados de forma natural con fases larvarias de F. hepatica. Conclusiones . Este es el primer reporte de este hospedero intermediario portando formas de F. hepatica en Guatemala. Es necesario aumentar los reportes de este parásito y de sus interacciones ecológicas en otras áreas no estudiadas de Guatemala y Centro América, debido al riesgo latente de infección para poblaciones de animales herbívoros y humanos.


ABSTRACT Objective. Identify the natural infection of freshwater snails as an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Guatemala. Materials and methods. Freshwater snails were collected in a high-altitude village (3.000 mamsl) from Huehuetenango department, where fasciolasis is endemic. The identification of the snail species was based on the morphological characteristics observed under the stereoscope using an identification key. The trematode phases were searched externally by visual inspection using a light source, and internally by dissection and visual inspection of the tissues under a stereoscope and microscope. Results. 260 snails were found and identified as Pseudosuccinea columella. Two were found naturally infected with larval phases of F. hepatica. Conclusions. This is the first report of P. columella carrying phases of F. hepatica in the highlands of Guatemala. It is necessary to increase the research of the ecology of this parasite in other understudied areas in Guatemala and Central America, due to the latent risk of infection for populations of herbivorous animals and humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trematode Infections , Snails , Trematoda , Zoonoses
13.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(1): e475, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126701

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El parásito Angiostrongylus cantonensis es el principal causante de meningitis eosinofílica. En el 2008 se reportó el primer caso en Ecuador y un estudio reciente en la Ciudad de Chone, Manabí, Ecuador determinó una alta prevalencia del parásito en el caracol africano (Achatina fulica). Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a la meningitis eosinofílica causada por A. cantonensis en la ciudad de Chone. Métodos: Se entrevistaron a 500 personas residentes en la ciudad de Chone y se revisaron las historias clínicas del Hospital General de Chone. Resultados: Se observó que la población de Chone, está expuesta a los siguientes factores de riesgos: consumo de caracoles crudos (7,40 por ciento), el frecuente contacto de las personas con el caracol africano en la casa (67 por ciento), como en el trabajo (51,20 por ciento), el contacto que tienen los niños con caracoles, al jugar en el jardín (76,80 por ciento) y la incorrecta limpieza de los alimentos (54,40 por ciento). En el entorno de la población, se evidenció la presencia del caracol africano cerca de las casas en el 35,20 por ciento y las ratas, en el 50,80 por ciento. Además, el 34 por ciento de la muestra de estudio presentó sintomatología relacionada con meningitis eosinofílica. Se encontró que existía asociación entre la presencia de vectores cerca de las casas y la cantidad de síntomas manifestados por las personas. Conclusiones: Se evidenció que la población de Chone, manifiesta hábitos que exponen a la gente de esta localidad a un alto riesgo de contagio de meningitis eosinofílica(AU)


Introduction: The parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the main causative agent of eosinophilic meningitis. The first case in Ecuador was reported in 2008, and a recent study conducted in the city of Chone, Manabí, Ecuador, determined a high prevalence of the parasite in the African snail (Achatina fulica). Objective: Identify the risk factors associated to eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis in the city of Chone. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 500 residents from the city of Chone and a review was carried out of the medical records at Chone General Hospital. Results: It was found that the population of Chone is exposed to the following risk factors: eating raw snails (7.40 percent), frequent contact between people and African snails both at home (67 percent) and at work (51.20 percent), contact between children and snails while playing in gardens (76.80 percent) and washing food items incorrectly (54.40 percent). In the areas surrounding people's households the African snail was found in 35.20 percent and rats in 50.80 percent . Additionally, 34 percent of the study sample had symptoms of eosinophilic meningitis. An association was found between the presence of vectors near the houses and the number of symptoms occurring in people. Conclusions: It was evident that the population of Chone has habits which expose them to a high risk for eosinophilic meningitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Snails , Strongylida Infections/complications , Eosinophilia/chemically induced , Meninges/physiopathology
15.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(1): e590, ene.-mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126580

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El helminto Angiostrongylus cantonensis es un parásito habitual en los pulmones de la rata y puede ocasionar meningoencefalitis eosinofílica en el hombre cuando se pone en contacto con las larvas por ingestión accidental. En Cuba es endémico y el riesgo de contraerlo aumenta con la entrada del caracol gigante africano en el país. Objetivo: Describir las acciones desarrolladas por las autoridades sanitarias locales para el control del caracol gigante africano entre 2016 y 2018 y la aparición de un paciente en 2018 con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica causada por Angiostrongylus cantonensis vinculado epidemiológicamente con la presencia de este caracol. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo a partir de un grupo focal con el que se trabajó ante la aparición del caracol gigante africano en un área de salud del municipio San Miguel del Padrón. Se realiza una encuesta semi-estructurada. Resultados: Se trazaron las estrategias para la erradicación de la especie invasora a partir de un trabajo comunitario. Dos años después, se observa nuevamente el caracol gigante africano y un paciente con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica epidemiológicamente asociado a Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Conclusiones: Las acciones realizadas entre 2016 y 2018 resultaron ser insuficientes por el nuevo avistamiento del caracol en el área, con el agravante de encontrar un paciente con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica epidemiológicamente asociado con el molusco(AU)


Introduction: Helmint Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a natural parasite in the lungs of ratas. Ocassionally it can produced an eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in men by larvae accidental ingestion. Methods: A qualitative study was performed from a focal group by a semi-structural survey in a health area from San Miguel del Padrón municipality. Objectives: To describe the actions developed by the local sanitarian authorities for the control of African giant snails between 2016 and 2018 and the appearance of a patient suffering from eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis linked to the presence of this snail. Results: It has been established an eradication strategy for the elimination of this invasive species based on a community work. Two years later, it was observed again the giant African snail in the area with a patient suffering from Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningoencephalitis epidemiologically associated. Conclusions: The 2016 actions were not efficient due to the emerging vector and the further finding of a patient linked with the parasite(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Snails , Introduced Species , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/pathogenicity , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Disease Eradication/methods , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/prevention & control
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 273-276, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088934

ABSTRACT

Angiostrongylus cantonensis e Angiostrongylus costaricensis são nematoides parasitas que residem em roedores e usam gastrópodes como hospedeiros intermediários. Achatina fulica, conhecida como caramujo-gigante-africano, é um hospedeiro intermediário que desempenha importante papel na dispersão de A. cantonensis e A. costaricensis, patógenos zoonóticos que causam, respectivamente, meningoencefalite eosinofílica e angiostrongilíase abdominal em humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de coletar caramujos (A. fulica, n=90) de oito regiões diferentes (Rudge Ramos, Baeta Neves, Planalto, Demarchi, Dos Alvarengas, Batistini, Montanhão, Rio Grande) da cidade de São Bernardo do Campo (SP) para detecção molecular de A. cantonensis ou A. costaricensis pela técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). As amostras foram processadas em pools (n=25) segundo a região de coleta. Com exceção da região de Baeta Neves, as demais apresentaram caramujos infectados com larvas de nematoides. Seis regiões apresentaram amostras positivas para A. cantonensis. Quatorze (56%) das 25 amostras em pool apresentaram larvas de nematoides, e 52% delas (13/25) foram positivas para A. cantonensis. Nenhuma amostra positiva para A. costaricensis foi encontrada. A presença de A. fulica naturalmente infectada por A. cantonensis deve servir como um alerta para as autoridades de saúde pública sobre o risco potencial de infecção para humanos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Brazil
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2622-2634, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878516

ABSTRACT

Freshwater snail is an important biological group in aquatic ecosystem and an intermediate host of many parasites. Intestinal flora plays an important role in animal energy metabolism and resistance to pathogens. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota diversity of Radix auricularia (RA) and Planorbella trivolvis (PL) by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. At the phylum level, RA had 23 phyla, including Proteobacteria (33.63%), Cyanobacteria (15.33%), Chloroflexi (13.95%), and Actinomycetes (12.99%). PL had 13 phyla, including Proteobacteria (54.88%), Bacteroidetes (28.49%), and Actinomycetes (7.65%). At the genus level, there were 445 genera in RA, including Pleurocapsa, Thiodictyon, Leptotrichia, and Nocardioides. There were 238 genera in PL, including Cloacibacterium, OM60NOR5_clade, Pseudomonas, and Rhodobacter. Ninety-three genera were the common core flora of the two snail species (all the samples were present), and 27 genera had an abundance greater than 0.5%. The structure of intestinal microbiota was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.027). We performed the functional prediction of intestinal microbiota using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and the results show that the KEGG functional composition of the intestinal flora of the two snails was similar, and the abundance of the amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport were large. In summary, the intestinal microbiota of the two snails was high in diversity and significantly different, but there were a large number of common core flora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Auricularia , Ecosystem , Fresh Water , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Snails
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effect of iridoid glycoside of radix scrophulariae (IGRS) on endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion @*METHODS@#Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were pretreated with IGRS (50, 100, 200 μg/mL) for 24h, and the @*RESULTS@#The damage caused by OGD/R to PC12 cells was significantly reduced by IGRS, with significant effect on increasing survival rate and reducing LDH release (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#IGRS has neuroprotective effect, which may alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating SERCA2, maintaining calcium balance, and inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Glucose , In Vitro Techniques , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Oxygen , PC12 Cells , Rats , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Snails/chemistry
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200115, 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135228

ABSTRACT

In January and February 2019, a malacological survey was conducted in the area surrounding the residence of a 12-year-old child that had contracted cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the municipality of Macapá, capital of the Amapá State, northern Brazil. The serological examination was positive for Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, the principal etiological agent of this parasitosis. A sample of 54 molluscs was artificially and individually digested for parasitological analysis, containing 38 specimens of Achatina fulica, nine specimens of Bulimulus tenuissimus and seven specimens of Sarasinula linguaeformis. A. fulica was the most abundant mollusc, and the only species infected with A. cantonensis, as well as presenting co-infections with other nematodes. This is the first report of cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the Amazon Region, and the first record of A. fulica infected with A. cantonensis in Amapá. These findings highlight the potential risks of human angiostrongyliasis, and the need to implement public health measures to control the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Strongylida Infections/veterinary , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolation & purification , Brazil , Antibodies, Helminth , Cities , Strongylida Infections/parasitology , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200236, 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
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