Introducción: la meningoencefalitis eosinofílica es una enfermedad inflamatoria infecciosa reportada en Cuba desde la década de los ochenta del siglo pasado y actualmente extendida al continente americano. Es producida por el parásito Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Objetivo: determinar si existen diferencias entre los pacientes que sufrieron meningoencefalitis eosinofílica antes y después de la introducción del caracol gigante africano. Métodos: se estudiaron un total de 19 muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo y suero tomadas simultáneamente a cada paciente diagnosticados con meningoencefalitis eosinofílica, perteneciente a la seroraquioteca del Laboratorio Central del Líquido Cefalorraquídeo (LABCEL). Para la determinación de las proteínas albúmina e IgG se empleó como método de laboratorio la inmunodifusión radial. Resultados: el 14 por ciento de los pacientes fueron adultos antes de la aparición de este molusco, en contraste con el momento actual, donde el 50 por ciento son pacientes con edades superiores a 18 años. El porcentaje de síntesis de IgG intratecal media fue mayor en los enfermos actuales, aunque no de manera significativa. Conclusiones: . existen diferencias antes y después de la aparición del caracol gigante africano dado por la respuesta de síntesis intratecal en los pacientes asociados con el molusco que denota una mayor agresividad del parásito. La edad promedio mayor de los enfermos confirma que estos son los que más manipulan y dispersan el molusco(AU)
Introduction: eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is an infectious inflammatory disease reported in Cuba since the 1980s and currently extended to the American continent. This condition is caused by the parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Objective: determine whether there are differences between the patients suffering from eosinophilic meningoencephalitis before and after the introduction of the giant African snail. Methods: a study was conducted of a total 19 cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples taken simultaneously from each of the patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis and kept at the sample collection of the Central Cerebrospinal Fluid Laboratory (LABCEL). Radial immunodiffusion was the laboratory method used for determination of the proteins albumin and IgG. Results: of the patients studied, 14 percent were adults before the appearance of this mollusc, in contrast with the present moment, when 50 percent are patients aged over 18 years. The percentage of mean intrathecal synthesis of IgG was higher in the current sufferers, though not significantly. Conclusions: there are differences before and after the appearance of the giant African snail, given the intrathecal synthesis response of patients associated to the mollusc, which denotes greater aggressiveness by the parasite. The higher mean age of sufferers confirms that these are the ones who most often handle and disperse the mollusc(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Strongylida Infections/complications , Meningoencephalitis/cerebrospinal fluid , Snails/parasitology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/pathogenicity , Laboratories
Angiostrongylus cantonensis e Angiostrongylus costaricensis são nematoides parasitas que residem em roedores e usam gastrópodes como hospedeiros intermediários. Achatina fulica, conhecida como caramujo-gigante-africano, é um hospedeiro intermediário que desempenha importante papel na dispersão de A. cantonensis e A. costaricensis, patógenos zoonóticos que causam, respectivamente, meningoencefalite eosinofílica e angiostrongilíase abdominal em humanos. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de coletar caramujos (A. fulica, n=90) de oito regiões diferentes (Rudge Ramos, Baeta Neves, Planalto, Demarchi, Dos Alvarengas, Batistini, Montanhão, Rio Grande) da cidade de São Bernardo do Campo (SP) para detecção molecular de A. cantonensis ou A. costaricensis pela técnica de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). As amostras foram processadas em pools (n=25) segundo a região de coleta. Com exceção da região de Baeta Neves, as demais apresentaram caramujos infectados com larvas de nematoides. Seis regiões apresentaram amostras positivas para A. cantonensis. Quatorze (56%) das 25 amostras em pool apresentaram larvas de nematoides, e 52% delas (13/25) foram positivas para A. cantonensis. Nenhuma amostra positiva para A. costaricensis foi encontrada. A presença de A. fulica naturalmente infectada por A. cantonensis deve servir como um alerta para as autoridades de saúde pública sobre o risco potencial de infecção para humanos.(AU)
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Brazil
In January and February 2019, a malacological survey was conducted in the area surrounding the residence of a 12-year-old child that had contracted cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the municipality of Macapá, capital of the Amapá State, northern Brazil. The serological examination was positive for Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, the principal etiological agent of this parasitosis. A sample of 54 molluscs was artificially and individually digested for parasitological analysis, containing 38 specimens of Achatina fulica, nine specimens of Bulimulus tenuissimus and seven specimens of Sarasinula linguaeformis. A. fulica was the most abundant mollusc, and the only species infected with A. cantonensis, as well as presenting co-infections with other nematodes. This is the first report of cerebral angiostrongyliasis in the Amazon Region, and the first record of A. fulica infected with A. cantonensis in Amapá. These findings highlight the potential risks of human angiostrongyliasis, and the need to implement public health measures to control the spread of the disease.
Subject(s)Humans , Animals , Child , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Strongylida Infections/veterinary , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolation & purification , Brazil , Antibodies, Helminth , Cities , Strongylida Infections/parasitology , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry
BACKGROUND Intermediate hosts are key organisms in maintaining parasite life cycles, because they can act as amplifiers in the transmission from natural reservoirs to humans. One of the most important groups of intermediate hosts for zoonotic nematode infections are gastropods,slugs and snails. These are essential organisms in the larval development of Angiostrongylus species. OBJECTIVES The objective of this paper is to review reports of Angiostrongylus spp. in naturally infected gastropods from the Americas, taking into account the diagnostic methods used in their identification, to be able to provide more accurate list of their intermediate hosts. We also discuss the factors that aid the dispersion of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas. METHODS This study reviews scientific publications and book sections on Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas, including original works assessing larvae of Angiostrongylus in intermediate hosts. The eligible reports were classified accordingly to their geographical location, year of first record, and the larvae identification methodologies used. Digital repositories were used for the search. The bioecological characteristics of the main intermediate hosts are summarised. FINDINGS A total of 29 gastropod species that are naturally infected with Angiostrongylus spp. have been reported as intermediate hosts, 16 of which are land snails, two are freshwater snails, and 11 land slugs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region.
Subject(s)Humans , Animals , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Gastropoda/parasitology , Angiostrongylus/isolation & purification , Americas , Zoonoses , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Disease Vectors , Gastropoda/physiology
Abstract Snails are essential to complete the life cycle of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of infections in domestic and wild animals, mainly rodents, and also of neural angiostrongyliasis or eosinophilic meningitis in humans. There are many reports of mollusks that can act as intermediate hosts of this parasite, especially freshwater snails and the African giant Achatina fulica. The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widely distributed in Brazil and other species of the same genus occur in Brazil and other countries, overlapping regions in which there are reports of the occurrence of A. cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis. In spite of this, there are no records in the literature of this species performing the role of intermediate host to A. cantonensis. The present study analyzed the experimental infection with first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis, under laboratory conditions, of B. tenuissimus, by using histology and electron microscopy techniques. Three weeks after exposure to L1 larvae, it was possible to recover L3 larvae in small numbers from the infected snails. Developing larvae were observed in the cephalopedal mass (foot), ovotestis, and mantle tissues, being located inside a granulomatous structure composed of hemocyte infiltration, but there was no calcium or collagen deposition in these structures in significant amounts. In the third week post exposure, it was possible observe a sheath around the developing larvae. The infected snails presented reduction in the fibrous muscular tissue in the foot region, loss of the acinar organization in the digestive gland, with increase of amorphous material inside the acini and loss of epithelial pattern of nuclear organization in the acinar cells. However, the ovotestis seemed unaffected by the infection, since there was a large number of developing oocytes and spermatozoa in different stages of formation. The digestion of infected snails allows us the third-stage recovery rate of 17.25%, at 14 days post exposure to the L1. These L3 recovered from B. tenuissimus were used to infect rats experimentally, and 43 days post infection first-stage (L1) larvae of A. cantonensis were recovered from fresh feces. The results presented constituted the first report of the role of B. tenuissimus as an experimental intermediate host to A. cantonensis and shed some light on a possible problem, since the overlapping distribution of B. tenuissimus and A. cantonensis in Brazil and other countries where different species of Bulimulus occur enables the establishment and maintenance of the life cycle of this parasite in nature, with wild rodents as reservoirs, acting as a source of infection to humans, causing neural angiostrongyliasis.
Resumo Os moluscos são um requisito essencial para a conclusão do ciclo de vida pelo nematoide metastrogilídeo Angiostrongylus cantonensis, o agente causador de infecções em animais domésticos e selvagens, principalmente roedores, e também de angiostrongilíase neural ou meningite eosinofílica em humanos. Há muitos relatos de moluscos que podem atuar como hospedeiro para este parasito, sendo o foco dado aos moluscos de água doce e no gigante africano Achatina fulica. O gastrópode terrestre Bulimulus tenuissimus é amplamente distribuído no território brasileiro e há outras espécies do mesmo gênero que ocorrem no Brasil e outros países, sobrepondo-se às regiões em que há relatos à ocorrência de A. cantonensis e angiostornigilíase. Apesar disso, não há registro na literatura, acerca desta espécie como hospedeiro intermediário para A. cantonensis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar a possibilidade de infectar experimentalmente, utilizando larvas L1 de A. cantonensis, em condições laboratoriais, o molusco B. tenuissimus, utilizando técnicas de histologia e microscopia eletrônica. Três semanas após a exposição às larvas L1, foi possível recuperar larvas L3 dos moluscos infectados, em pequena quantidade. As larvas em desenvolvimento foram observadas na massa cefalopediosa (pé), ovotestis e nos tecidos do manto, sendo localizadas dentro de uma estrutura granulomatosa constituída por infiltração hemocitária, mas não houve deposição de cálcio ou colágeno nessas estruturas em quantidade significativa. Na terceira semana pós exposição, foi possível observar uma bainha ao redor das larvas em desenvolvimento. Os caracóis infectados apresentaram redução no tecido muscular fibroso na região do pé, perda da organização acinar na glândula digestiva, com aumento de material amorfo dentro dos ácinos e perda do padrão epitelial da organização nuclear nas células acinares. No entanto, o ovotestis, pareceu não ser afetado pela infecção, uma vez que houve um grande número de oócitos em desenvolvimento e espermatozóides em diferentes estágios de formação. A digestão dos moluscos infectados nos permitiu a recuperação de larvas de terceiro estágio (17,25%), aos 14 dias após a exposição à L1 de A. cantonensis . Estas L3 recuperadas de B. tenuissimus foram utilizados para infectar ratos experimentalmente, e 43 dias após a infecção, as larvas do primeiro estágio (L1) foram recuperadas de fezes frescas. Os resultados apresentados representam o primeiro registro do papel de B. tenuissimus como hospedeiro intermediário experimental de A. cantonensis e trazem alguma luz a um problema, até então silencioso, uma vez que a sobreposição da distribuição de B. tenuissimus e A. cantonensis no Brasil, e outros países, onde as diferentes espécies de Bulimulus ocorrem, torna possível o estabelecimento e manutenção do ciclo de vida deste parasito na natureza, com roedores selvagens como reservatório, agindo como fonte de infecção para humanos e causando a angiostrongilíase neural.
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/growth & development , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages , Models, Theoretical
Resumen Introducción. Angiostrongylus cantonensis es un serio problema de salud pública y está ampliamente distribuido en el país. Cuando el parásito infecta a los caracoles terrestres Achatina, se enquista en su interior y puede infectar accidentalmente a las personas y otros mamíferos. Objetivo. Establecer la distribución geográfica de A. cantonensis en huéspedes intermediarios (Achatina fulica) y definitivos (Rattus spp.) en Ecuador entre el 2014 y el 2017. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 2.908 ejemplares de A. fulica en 16 provincias utilizando el método de captura por unidad de esfuerzo durante 30 minutos. Se capturaron 211 ejemplares de las especies huéspedes, de los cuales 20 eran Rattus rattus y 191 R. norvegicus. Los ejemplares fueron transportados para su análisis al Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública e Investigación en Guayaquil. En los tejidos del caracol se identificaron y se contabilizaron larvas L3 que luego se inocularon en ratas de laboratorio para reproducir el ciclo de vida. En los roedores se disecaron los cerebros, los corazones, las arterias pulmonares y los pulmones, y se identificaron los parásitos por morfología taxonómica. Resultados. De los caracoles recolectados se encontraron 441 positivos para A. cantonensis (15,2 %) y un total de 6.166 larvas L3. En los ejemplaresRattus spp. capturados (211), 77 (36,5 %) estaban infectados con A. cantonensis, con un total de 220 parásitos (larvas L4-L5 y adultos). Conclusiones. Se constató la presencia de A. cantonensis en varias provincias, lo que confirma el carácter endémico de esta zoonosis en el territorio nacional. La presencia de Rattus spp., huésped definitivo del parásito, y de huéspedes intermediarios, indica el potencial zoonótico de esta infección parasitaria.
Abstract Introduction: Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a serious public health problem and is widely distributed in the country. When the parasite infects the snails, it becomes deeply embedded in their interior and accidentally, it can infect people and other mammals. Objective: To establish the geographical distribution of A. cantonensis intermediate hosts (Achatina fulica) and definitive hosts (Rattus spp.) in Ecuador from 2014 to 2017. Materials and methods: We collected 2,908 A. fulica specimens in 16 provinces using the capture method per unit of effort for 30 minutes. We captured 211 hosts of which 20 were Rattus rattus and 191 R. norvegicus. The specimens were transported to the Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública e Investigación in Guayaquil where the larvae L3 were identified and counted in the tissues of the snail, which were then inoculated in laboratory rats to reproduce the life cycle. In the rodents, the brains, hearts, lung arteries and lungs were dissected, and the parasites were identified by taxonomic morphology. Results: Of the snails harvested, 441 were positive for A. cantonensis (15.2%) and a total of 6,166 L3 larvae were found; 77 (36.5%) specimens of Rattus spp., were infected with A. cantonensis and a total of 220 parasites (L4-L5 larvae and adult worms) were collected. Conclusions: We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis in several provinces, which ratifies the endemic nature of this zoonosis in the national territory. Rattus spp. specimens constitute the definitive hosts of the parasite, which together with the presence of intermediate hosts, indicates the zoonotic potential of this parasitic infection.
Subject(s)Animals , Female , Rats/parasitology , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Snails/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/transmission , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolation & purification , Disease Vectors , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Species Specificity , Zoonoses , Strongylida Infections/veterinary , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/growth & development , Ecuador/epidemiology , Introduced Species , Geography, Medical , Larva , Life Cycle Stages , Animals, Wild/parasitology
Abstract This work aimed to assessing Strongyluris sp. cysts distribution pattern in the several inner organs from pallial system of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. Also we verified if there is a relationship between the mollusk size and the number of specimens from parasites collected from two touristic villages in Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state): Vila Dois Rios (VDR) and Vila do Abraão (ABR). The samples were obtained through a field work conducted bimonthly during 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011, at both locations. Height and width were measured from shells collected, and the all specimens were classified in different classes: class 1 - <4.0 cm, class 2 - 4.1-9.0 cm and class 3 - < 9.0 cm. After the specimens were dissected in order to find and count the number cysts in the pallial system. In specimens from both locations, the pulmonary and secondary veins showed a high number of cysts. No significance difference was found both in the abundance of cysts among the specimens in ABR (p=0.138) and VDR (p=0.181). Achatina fulica showed different intensities of cyst infection based on the size classes: the class-3 specimens, at both locations, showed the greatest cyst average (ABR Anova F= 3.8; p=0.02); (VDR T of Student T= -2.04; p=0.04). The results suggested that the highest number of cysts in the vascularized area in pallial system of A. fulica was a consequence of a greater hemolymph circulation in that area, delivering more nutrients for larvae development. We think that bigger individuals host a higher number of cysts, as they usually present a larger biomass and a larger area of the pallial system, allowing an efficient parasite colonization. Other possible explanation could be the long exposure of the molluscs of class 3 to the parasites, which allowed a longer time to the larvae to allocate themselves.
Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o padrão de distribuição dos cistos de Strongyluris sp. nos diversos órgãos do complexo pallial de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 e verificar se existe relação entre o tamanho do molusco e o número de parasitos em espécimes procedentes de dois vilarejos da Ilha Grande, Vila Dois Rios (VDR) e Vila do Abraão (ABR), município de Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas bimestralmente nos anos de 2007, 2008, 2010 e 2011 nas duas localidades. A altura e largura das conchas foram medidas, os espécimes classificados em classe 1 - <4,0 cm; classe 2 - 4,1-9,0 cm e classe 3 - < 9,0 cm e posteriormente dissecados sob estereomicroscópio para a busca e contagem dos cistos no complexo pallial. Em ambas localidades, VDR e ABR, as veias pulmonares e secundárias apresentaram predominância de alocação dos cistos. Não foi encontrada diferença na abundância de cistos entre os espécimes de ABR (p=0,138) e VDR (p=0,181). Achatina fulica apresentou intensidades diferentes de infecção de acordo com as classes de tamanho: os espécimes pertencentes a classe 3, nas duas localidades, apresentaram a maior média de cistos visíveis (ABR Anova F= 3,8; p=0,02); (VDR T de Student T= -2,04; p=0,04). Os resultados sugerem que o maior número de cistos na região vascularizada de A. fulica foi decorrente do maior aporte de hemolinfa nesta área, proporcionando mais nutrientes para o desenvolvimento das larvas. Acreditamos que indivíduos maiores albergam um elevado número de cistos, pois, geralmente, apresentam maior biomassa e maior área da cavidade pallial, possibilitando uma eficiente colonização dos parasitos, outra causa pode ser explicada pelo maior tempo de exposição dos moluscos da classe 3 aos parasitas, que possibilitou um período maior para as larvas se alocarem.
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Ascaridida/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Brazil , Spirurina/growth & development , Spirurina/physiology , Ascaridida/growth & development , Introduced Species , Larva/growth & development , Larva/physiology
Abstract INTRODUCTION This paper presents the results of an extensive survey of freshwater mollusks in the Simplício Queda Única Hydroelectric Development area, Southeast Brazil. METHODS Mollusks were collected between 2008 and 2013. All specimens were examined for the presence of larval trematodes. RESULTS In total, 12,507 specimens classified into 16 genera were obtained. Known snail vectors of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis and exotic species were identified, and new records are reported. CONCLUSIONS No specimens parasitized by larval trematodes of medical interest were detected. However, the results reinforce the importance of surveillance in study areas vulnerable to the occurrence of schistosomiasis transmission.
Subject(s)Animals , Power Plants , Snails/classification , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , Disease Vectors/classification , Fresh Water/parasitology , Snails/parasitology , Brazil , Population Density
Abstract The lymnaeids are important in the epidemiology of Fasciola hepatica, a neglected and endemic zoonosis. The interaction between the internal defense system of Pseudosuccinea columella and F. hepatica has been little studied. In the present study the effect of infection by F. hepatica on P. columella circulating haemocytes was investigated. Changes in the average number of total circulating haemocytes have been observed at 30 minutes post-infection and 1, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 50 days post-infection (dpi). Miracidia were observed head-foot and mantle at 30 minutes post-infection. Miracidia/Sporocysts in the mantle skirt 1 dpi, and fully formed sporocysts were observed in the head-foot at 7 dpi. Rediae became evident at 10 dpi and were located between the haemocoel and the muscles from 14 dpi; 50 dpi, the rediae in the digestive gland contained cercariae. The statistical analysis of the total haemocytes of P. columella infected by F. hepatica showed significant differences on the 30 minutes post-infection and 1, 14, 21, and 28 dpi in comparison to uninfected molluscs (0 dpi). Therefore, the interference observed on the internal defence system of P. columella may have direct association with the development of F. hepatica.
Resumo Os limnaeideos são importantes na epidemiologia de Fasciola hepatica, uma zoonose negligenciada e endêmica. A interação entre o sistema interno de defesa de Pseudosuccinea columella e F. hepatica tem sido pouco estudada. No presente estudo, investigou-se o efeito da infecção por F. hepatica nos hemócitos circulantes de P. columella. Alterações no número médio de hemócitos circulantes foram observadas aos 30 minutos e 1, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 e 50 dias após a infecção (dpi). Miracídios foram observados na região cefalopodal e manto aos 30 minutos após a infecção. Miracídio/esporocistos foram observados no colar do manto ao 1 dpi, e esporocistos totalmente formados na região cefalopodal aos 7 dpi. Rédias tornam-se evidentes aos 10 dpi entre a hemocele e músculos a partir de 14 dpi; e rédias com cercárias próximas a glândula digestiva aos 50 dpi. A análise estatística dos hemócitos totais de P. columella infectados por F. hepatica demonstrou diferenças significativas nos 30 minutos pós-infecção e 1, 14, 21 e 28 dpi em comparação aos moluscos não infectados (0 dpi). Portanto, a interferência observada no sistema de defesa interna de P. columella pode ter associação direta com o desenvolvimento de F. hepatica.
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Hemocytes/parasitology , Fascioliasis/blood
Abstract Pleurolophocercous cercariae found in the invasive gastropod Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) collected in a stream of the Vila do Abraão, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were used for experimental infection that enabled the identification of the heterophyid trematode Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924). The parasite has been found in the locality since 2007, after two years of the introduction of M. tuberculata. Recently, from a sample of 483 specimens collected in June 2013, 101 (21%) were found infected with parasite. The potential environmental impacts caused by the parasite occurrence could be underestimated in the country, and actions to monitor and control both the parasite and the mollusk are necessary.
Resumo Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca encontradas no gastrópode invasor Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) coletados em um riacho da Vila do Abraão em Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil foram utilizadas em estudos de infecção experimental que possibilitaram a identificação do trematódeo heterofiídeo Centrocestus formosanus (Nishigori, 1924). O parasito vem sendo encontrado na localidade desde 2007, dois anos após a introdução do molusco. Recentemente, de uma amostra de 483 espécimes coletados em junho de 2013, 101 (21%) apresentavam-se infectados pelo parasito. Os potenciais impactos ambientais ocasionados pela ocorrência deste parasito podem estar sendo subestimados no país, sendo necessárias ações visando o monitoramento e controle tanto do parasito quanto do molusco.
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Heterophyidae/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Brazil , Introduced Species , Metacercariae/growth & development , Metacercariae/physiology , Heterophyidae/growth & development
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolation & purification , Disease Vectors , Snails/classification , Brazil , Population Dynamics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Density , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/anatomy & histology , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/genetics
Se estudió el rol prospectivo de Rumina decollata como potencial hospedador paraténico de Toxocara cati para los gatos domésticos. Se recolectaron caracoles R. decollata y heces de gatos de un hospital de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Se procesaron las heces y los caracoles fueron digeridos para identificar estadios de T. cati por análisis morfológico y molecular. El 23,5% (4/17) de las muestras de heces resultaron positivas a huevos larvados de T. cati. El 20% (5/25) de los pooles de caracoles fue positivo a larvas de tercer estadío (L3) de Toxocara spp. por PCR. El promedio de larvas totales recuperadas por gramo de caracol en todos los pooles positivos fue de 5.1, con un máximo de 33 L3/pool. Se trata del primer reporte de R. decollata como hospedador paraténico de T. cati, puesto que ha sido demostrada la infección en caracoles y gatos en un ambiente común
The prospective role of the land snail Rumina decollata as a potential paratenic host of Toxocara cati for domestic cats was studied. R. decollata specimens and cats' feces were collected from the open spaces of a Buenos Aires city hospital. Cats' feces were analyzed and snails were digested to identify T. cati stages, by morphological and molecular analyses. T. cati larval eggs were recovered from 23.5% (4/17) of the sampled feces. Twenty percent of snail pools (5/25) were confirmed to be positive for Toxocara spp. third larval stage (L3) by PCR. The mean value of total larvae recovered per gram of snail in all positive pools was 5.1, with a maximum 33 L3/pool. This is the first report of T. cati infective larvae in R. decollata domestic snail as a paratenic host, since the relationship between infection in snails and in cats' feces could be demonstrated in a common environment
Subject(s)Animals , Cats , Snails/parasitology , Snails/pathogenicity , Toxocara/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Feces/parasitology , Host Adaptation/physiology
Fasciolosis is a widespread parasitosis of farm live-stock in many developing countries. For this reason, it is necessary to search for new substances against parasitic diseases caused by flukes. Indeed, a wide variety of terrestrial plants have been subjected to chemical and pharmacological screening in order to discover their potential for human medicinal use. The molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Atriplex inflata were tested on Galba truncatula and Fasciola hepatica larval stages infecting this snail in Tunisia. Phytochemical tests were conducted on extracts in order to establish a meaningful relationship with molluscicidal and larvicidal activities. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails to sample aqueous solutions. Accordingly, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol-water (8:2, v-v) were used as extraction solvents. As a result, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity, according to the World Health Organization, giving LC50 = 7.59 mg/L and 6.69 mg/L for hexane extracts of leaves and fruits, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts gave LC50 = 5.90 mg/L and 7.32 mg/L for leaves and fruits, successively. Molluscicidal activities of powders were less potent on snails, but active according to the World Health Organization. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from leaves and fruits gave potent larvicidal activities with a delay rate exceeding 45.50% (45.50- 98.92%). Phytochemical tests showed that these activities may be attributed to the presence of triterpenoids and/or sterols.
Fasciolose é uma parasitose generalizada que ocorre em animais de fazendas em muitos países em desenvolvimento. Por esta razão, é necessária a busca de novas substâncias contra as doenças parasitárias causadas por vermes. De fato, uma grande variedade de plantas terrestres foi objeto de testes farmacológicos e químicos a fim de descobrir o seu potencial para utilização em terapêutica humana. As atividades moluscicida e larvicida de Atriplex inflata foram testadas contra estágios larvários de Galba truncatula e Fasciola hepatica infectando este caracol na Tunísia. Testes fitoquímicos foram realizados com extratos a fim de estabelecer uma relação significativa com as atividades moluscicida e larvicida. A atividade moluscicida foi avaliada submetendo os caracóis a soluções aquosas. Conforme o caso, hexano, acetato de etilo, metanol e metanol-água (8:2, v-v) foram utilizados como solventes de extração. Como resultado, hexano e extratos de acetato apresentaram atividades potentes de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, resultando em LC50 = 7,59 mg/L e 6,69 mg/L para extratos de hexano de folhas e frutos, respectivamente. Extratos de acetato de etilo resultaram em LC50 = 5,90 mg/L e 7,32 mg/L para as folhas e frutos sucessivamente. Atividades moluscicidas das substâncias sob a forma de pó foram menos potentes em caracóis, mas ativas de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde. Hexano e extratos de acetato de folhas e frutos apresentaram atividade larvicida potente, com uma taxa de atraso superior a 45,50% (45,50-98,92%). Testes fitoquímicos mostraram que estas atividades podem ser atribuídas à presença de triterpenóides e/ou esteróis.
Subject(s)Animals , Atriplex/chemistry , Fasciola hepatica/drug effects , Pest Control/methods , Plant Components, Aerial/chemistry , Snails/drug effects , Snails/parasitology , Fruit/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Molluscacides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Sterols/analysis , Sterols/pharmacology
The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics ofAngiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similariswas the most abundant, followed byAchatina fulica, Streptaxissp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformisand Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulicaand B. similariswere parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensisin A. fulicawas more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulicaand the prevalence of A. cantonensisand abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensisin B. similariswas 24.6%. A. fulicawas the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensisin the studied area andB. similariswas secondary in importance for A. cantonensistransmission dynamics.
Subject(s)Animals , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/physiology , Introduced Species , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/transmission , Animal Distribution , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/pathogenicity , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Climate Change , Disease Vectors , Linear Models , Mollusca/classification , Mollusca/parasitology , Rain/parasitology , Snails/classification , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology
The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of larval stages of Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Brachylaima sp. in the first intermediate host, a species of land snail, Helix aspersa, in Turkey. A total of 211 snails were collected in April-May 2014 from pastures in Mersin District. Larval stages of D. dendriticum were identified under a light microscope. Hepatopancreas from naturally infected H. aspersa snails were examined histologically. The prevalence of larval stages of D. dendriticum and Brachylaima sp. in H. aspersa snails was found to be 2.4% and 1.9%, respectively, in Mersin, Turkey. Cercariae were not matured in sporocysts at the beginning of April; however, it was observed that cercariae matured and started to leave sporocysts by early-May. Thus, it was concluded that H. aspersa acts as an intermediate host to D. dendriticumin and Brachylaima sp. in Mersin, Turkey. A digenean trematode Brachylaima sp. was seen for the first time in Turkey.
Subject(s)Animals , Hepatopancreas/parasitology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Microscopy , Snails/parasitology , Trematoda/anatomy & histology , Turkey
Eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) is an acute disease that affects the central nervous system. It is primarily caused by infection with the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. This infection was previously restricted to certain Asian countries and the Pacific Islands, but it was first reported in Brazil in 2007. Since then, intermediate and definitive hosts infected with A. cantonensis have been identified within the urban areas of many states in Brazil, including those in the northern, northeastern, southeastern and southern regions. The goals of this review are to draw the attention of the medical community and health centres to the emergence of EoM in Brazil, to compile information about several aspects of the human infection and mode of transmission and to provide a short protocol of procedures for the diagnosis of this disease.
Subject(s)Animals , Humans , Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections , Eosinophilia , Meningitis , Strongylida Infections , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections/epidemiology , Eosinophilia/diagnosis , Eosinophilia/drug therapy , Eosinophilia/epidemiology , Eosinophilia/parasitology , Meningitis/diagnosis , Meningitis/drug therapy , Meningitis/epidemiology , Meningitis/parasitology , Snails/parasitology , Strongylida Infections/diagnosis , Strongylida Infections/drug therapy , Strongylida Infections/epidemiology
Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study) and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study). Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae). In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso) during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%). Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity. .
Subject(s)Animals , Disease Vectors/classification , Fresh Water/parasitology , Power Plants , Schistosoma mansoni , Snails/classification , Snails/parasitology , Brazil , Population Density , Seasons , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission
Coccidian oocysts were proved to be found in 70 of 100 collected Pirenella conica snails, with a natural infection of 70%. It was observed that, Pfeifferinella sp. was transferred between hepatopancreas and small intestine of snail. The prepatent period of Pfeifferinella sp. infecting P. conica snails ranged from 14-18 days and the patent period was reached 50 days [P.L]- Mer-ogony stages were the early stages observed in this study. These stages were observed in the hepatopancreas and in a large clear parasiteophorous vacuole [PV]. In snails killed 4 days P.I. immature meronts were measured 12x10 microm containing 8 nuclei. Meanwhile, mature meronts with about 6 differentiated merozoites were detected as early as 6 days P.I., and measured 3.1xl.4jim. The earliest gametogonic stages were seen in the intestine of Pirenella conica snails killed 12 days P.L Microgamonts contained about 4 nuclei and measured 79x6.7microm. The mac-rogamonts measured 7.3x5.6|
Subject(s)Animals , Snails/parasitology , Fresh Water/parasitology , Microscopy, Polarization/statistics & numerical data , Microscopy, Electron
The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province.
Subject(s)Animals , Chickens , Cricetinae , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Fresh Water , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae/anatomy & histology , Prevalence , Snails/parasitology , Thailand/epidemiology
The echinostome metacercariae encysted in Cipangopaludina sp. snails that were purchased from a market in Vientiane Municipality, Lao PDR, were identified as Echinostoma macrorchis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) through recovery of adult flukes after experimental infection to rats and a cat. The metacercariae were round, 113-128 (121)x113-125 (120) microm, having a thick cyst wall, a head collar armed with collar spines, and excretory granules. The adult flukes recovered from the rats and cat at day 14 and 30 post-infection, respectively, were elongated, ventrally curved, and 3.9-6.3x0.7-1.1 mm in size. The head collar was distinct, bearing 43-45 collar spines with 5 angle spines on each side. Two testes were large (as the name implies), tandem, and slightly constricted at the middle, with irregular margins. Eggs were operculated, ovoid to elliptical, and 88-95x56-60 microm. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent, with 43-45 collar spines. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the oral and ventral suckers. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around the 2 suckers. It is confirmed that E. macrorchis is distributed in Lao PDR using Cipangopaludina sp. snails as the second intermediate host.