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1.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 29-33, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Agkistrodon acutus, a traditional Chinese medicine, clinically used in the treatment of rheumatism, tumor, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the unique medicinal value and the difficulty of artificial breeding of Agkistrodon acutus, the supply of Agkistrodon acutus on the market exceeds the demand, and a large number of its adulterants are found on the market. In this study, the cytb gene sequences of Agkistrodon acutus and 9 snakes were compared and analyzed, specific primers were designed, and specific PCR methods were established to detect Agkistrodon acutus medicinal samples on the market. RESULTS: This method was successfully applied to distinguish the snake from other adulterated species, and tested 18 Agkistrodon acutus samples randomly purchased from six cities. Twelve samples were counterfeit and six were genuine. The standard reference material of Agkistrodon acutus was cloned by molecular cloning and sequencing, and the gene sequence difference with other species was significant. It shows that the region could be used as the fingerprint region of the target species. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can be used as a species-specific marker and can be highly distinguished from other adulterated snake species, which is helpful to effectively avoid the problem of false sale of Agkistrodon acutus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Agkistrodon/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Snakes , Species Specificity , DNA/analysis , Cloning, Molecular , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878921

ABSTRACT

As a precious traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), snake bile has been widely used in numerous Chinese medicine prescriptions. Bile acid(BA) derivatives have been demonstrated as the primary chemical family in snake bile. In-depth chemical characterization of BAs is of great importance towards the establishment of quality standards and clarification of the effective material basis for snake bile. This study firstly employed ~1H-NMR to preliminarily analyze the chemical profiles of snake bile, an automated fraction collector was subsequently implemented to obtain the fractions-of-interest. The fraction was then concentrated and re-analyzed by LC-MS. Based on ~1H-NMR, BAs were found to be the main components of snake bile, and six BAs including CDCA, CA, TCDCA, TCA, TDCA and GCA were tentatively identified from the representative spectrum with the assistance of literature and reference compounds. Whereas the content of TCA in snake bile was too great, resulting in a great obstacle for the detection of trace components, the automated fraction collector was subsequently implemented to obtain the fractions-of-interest for LC-MS analysis. According to matching MS/MS information and retention time with reference compounds as well as database retrieval, a total of 57 BAs were detected and annotated. Because of the combination of ~1H-NMR and LC-MS platforms, the findings are beneficial for the in-depth characterization of BAs in snake bile, which provides references for the establishment of quality control and evaluation methods of snake bile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile , Bile Acids and Salts , Chromatography, Liquid , Snakes , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the therapeutic effect between long-snake moxibustion combined with western medication and simple medication on diarrhea type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) of spleen and kidney @*METHODS@#A total of 60 patients with IBS-D of spleen and kidney @*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the symptom scores of abdominal pain, defecation frequency, mucous stool and appetite reduction were decreased (@*CONCLUSION@#Long-snake moxibustion combined with western medication can effectively treat the IBS-D of spleen and kidney


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Kidney , Moxibustion , Quality of Life , Snakes , Spleen , Yang Deficiency/drug therapy
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06713, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1250483

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was the ultrasonographic evaluation of the organs in the middle third and caudal coelomic cavity of healthy snakes in the Boidae family. For such, 15 adult snakes from five species were evaluated: Boa constrictor amarali, Boa constrictor constrictor, Eunectes murinus, Epicrates assisi and Epicrates crassus. The animals were physically restrained for examination. After the application of acoustic gel over the scales the transducer was positioned in the frontal plane of the coelomic cavity. Microconvex and linear transducers at 10MHz were used. The ultrasound examination was conducted in the craniocaudal direction, with longitudinal and transversal sections to assess syntropy, echogenicity and echotexture of the organs. The liver was bilobulated, hyperechoic, homogeneous echotexture, hyperechoic capsule, with a hepatic lobe measuring 1.15±0.64cm wide, and the presence of a central hepatic vein, measuring 0.44±0.21cm in diameter. The gallbladder was characterized as an anechoic structure with echogenic walls and dimensions of 2.91±1.18cm x 1.38±0.84cm (length x width). The stomach showed a pleated and linear texture, echogenic, with hypoechoic walls measuring 0.3±0.07cm wide. The splenopancreas was a circular and echogenic structure, homogeneous echotexture and measuring 1.18±0.62cm in width and 1.56±0.88cm in length. The kidneys were characterized by elongated, lobulated, hypoechoic structures, an echogenic capsule and an echogenic central line, measuring 1.05±0.7cm in width. The testis were characterized by fusiform, hypoechoic structures, homogeneous echotexture, measuring 2.31±0.79cm in length and 0.6±0.23cm in width. Ovarian follicles were seen in different stages, 0.67±0.39cm wide and 0.73±0.38cm long. No differences were found between species of syntropy, echogenicity and echotexture of the organs of the coelomic cavity. The ultrasound examination proved to be a safe, non-invasive and efficient technique for characterizing the organs of the coelomic cavity of snakes.(AU)


O objetivo do estudo foi realizar a avaliação ultrassonográfica de órgãos do terço médio e caudal da cavidade celomática de serpentes hígidas da família Boidae. Para isto, foram avaliadas 15 serpentes adultas de cinco espécies: Boa constrictor amarali, Boa constrictor constrictor, Eunectes murinus, Epicrates assisi e Epicrates crassus. Os animais foram contidos fisicamente para a realização do exame. Após aplicação de gel acústico sobre as escamas, o transdutor foi posicionado no plano frontal da cavidade celomática. Foram utilizados transdutores microconvexo e linear em 10MHz. O exame ultrassonográfico foi conduzido no sentido craniocaudal, com cortes longitudinais e transversais para avaliar sintopia, ecogenicidade e ecotextura dos órgãos. O fígado se apresentou bilobulado, hiperecoico, ecotextura homogênea, cápsula hiperecoica, com lobo hepático medindo 1,15±0,64cm de largura, e presença de uma veia central hepática, medindo 0,44±0,21cm de diâmetro. A vesícula biliar foi caracterizada como uma estrutura anecoica de paredes ecogênicas e dimensões de 2,91±1,18cm x 1,38±0,84cm(comprimento x largura). O estômago apresentou-se com o aspecto pregueado e linear, ecogênico, com paredes hipoecoicas medindo 0,3±0,07cm de largura. O esplenopâncreasse apresentou como uma estrutura circular e ecogênica, ecotextura homogênea e medindo de 1,18±0,62cm de largura e 1,56±0,88cm de comprimento. Os rins se caracterizaram por estruturas alongadas, lobuladas, hipoecoicas, cápsula ecogênica e uma linha central ecogênica, medindo 1,05±0,7cm de largura. Os testículos foram caracterizados por estruturas fusiformes, hipoecoicas, ecotextura homogênea, medindo 2,31±0,79cm de comprimento e 0,6±0,23cm de largura. Foram visualizados folículos ovarianos em diferentes estágios, de 0,67±0,39cm de largura e 0,73±0,38cm de comprimento. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre espécies de sintopia, ecogenicidade e ecotextura dos órgãos da cavidade celomática. O exame ultrassonográfico demonstrou-se uma técnica segura, não invasiva e eficiente para caracterização dos órgãos da cavidade celomática de serpentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snakes , Boidae , Liver , Ultrasonography
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06639, 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1250494

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, snakes from the Bothrops genus are responsible for thousands of accidents, and their venoms are mainly composed of proteolytic enzymes. Although the antibothropic serum produced by the Brazilian Institutes is remarkably efficient, more studies are necessary, especially in veterinary medicine. The venom contain enzymes and non-enzymatic proteins that interfere with hemostasis leading to hemorrhage or even thrombosis. Possible treatment associations with known bothropic antivenom were the reason for the development of the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemostasis alterations caused by Bothrops alternatus venom in rabbits followed by treatments with anti-bothropic serum, tranexamic acid and desmopressin. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were distributed into five groups (n=4) that were experimentally envenomed with 150mcg/kg of B. alternatus venom via intramuscular injection and treated as follow: Group 1 (G1) was the positive control and received venom and PBS/BSA; Group 2 (G2) was treated with tranexamic acid; Group 3 (G3) with desmopressin; Group 4 (G4) with tranexamic acid and anti-bothropic serum; and Group 5 (G5) with anti-bothropic serum and desmopressin. Blood samples were collected before venom administration, and one, four, eight and 12 hours after, for Partial activated partial thromboplastin time, Prothrombin Time, Thrombin Time and fibrinogen evaluation. Thrombin generation (TG) test was carried out with a pool of samples from final times (8 and 12h). At the end of 12h, all animals were euthanized and necropsy was conducted. Samples from muscle tissue, heart, lungs and kidney were analyzed. Classic coagulation tests showed no significant differences amongst groups and times. However, TG indicated that the venom causes a hypocoagulability state, which was not reversed by proposed treatments. Histology showed muscle inflammation, hemorrhage and necrosis, as well as hemorrhage in other tissues with no differences amongst groups. B. alternatus envenomation causes hypocoagulability detected by TG assay, but not through classical coagulation tests. The use of tranexamic acid and desmopressin for hemostasis stabilization after inoculation of the venom did not show advantage in coagulation restoration.(AU)


No Brasil, as serpentes do gênero Bothrops são responsáveis por milhares de acidentes, e seus venenos são compostos principalmente de enzimas proteolíticas. Embora o soro antiofídico produzido pelos institutos brasileiros seja notavelmente eficiente, mais estudos são necessários, especialmente na medicina veterinária. O veneno contem enzimas e proteínas não-enzimáticas que interferem com a hemostasia levando a hemorragias ou trombose. A associação de outros tratamentos ao soro antibotrópico foi a razão para o desenvolvimento do presente estudo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações da hemostasia causadas pelo veneno de Bothrops alternatus em coelhos, após tratamento com soro antibotrópico, ácido tranexâmico e desmopressina. Vinte coelhos da Nova Zelândia foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n = 4) que foram submetidos a experimentos com 150mcg/kg de veneno de B. alternatus por injeção intramuscular. O Grupo 1 (G1) foi o controle positivo e recebeu veneno e PBS / BSA, enquanto o Grupo 2 (G2) foi tratado com ácido tranexâmico, o Grupo 3 (G3) com desmopressina, o Grupo 4 (G4) com ácido tranexâmico e soro antibotrópico, e o Grupo 5 (G5) com soro antibotrópico e desmopressina. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da administração do veneno, e uma, quatro, oito e 12 horas após os tratamentos para realização de tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada parcial (TTPa), tempo de protrombina (TP), tempo de trombina (TT) e mensuração de fibrinogênio. Para o ensaio de geração de trombina (TG) foi realizado com um pool de amostras nos tempos finais (8 e 12h). Ao final das 12h, todos os animais foram sacrificados e a necropsia foi realizada. Amostras de tecido muscular, coração, pulmões e rins foram analisadas. Os testes TTPa, TP, TT e fibrinogênio não mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos e os tempos. No entanto, o TG indicou que o veneno causa um estado de hipocoagulabilidade, que não foi revertido pelos tratamentos propostos. Na histologia, foram observadas inflamação muscular, hemorragia e necrose, além de hemorragia em outros tecidos, sem diferenças entre os grupos. O envenenamento por B. alternatus causa hipocoagulabilidade detectada mais precocemente pelo teste de geração de trombina. O uso de ácido tranexâmico e desmopressina para estabilização da hemostasia após a inoculação do veneno não mostrou vantagem na restauração da coagulação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Snakes , Bothrops , Hemostasis , Hemostatic Techniques
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200194, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136927

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present a case of human intoxication due to a snakebite by the opisthoglyphous dipsadid Thamnodynastes lanei. A 26-year-old man was bitten on the right hand and was not medicated. Bleeding lasted a few seconds, while paresthesia, chills, and headache persisted for up to 10 hours. The pain disappeared after a week, and the edema, itching, and prickling persisted for another 3 days. Although this patient's symptoms were typical of bites by South American opisthoglyphous snakes, they persisted longer than those of bites by some congeneric species. Our report adds a species to the list of medically relevant snakes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Snake Bites/complications , Pain , Snakes , Antivenins/therapeutic use , Edema , Hemorrhage
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 50(4)2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353067

ABSTRACT

This study comprises a retrospective analysis of snakebites in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2007 to 2017. Data were collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (NDIS). 17,056 snakebites were recorded in Amazonas between 2007 and 2017. During the study period, the Rio Negro and Tefé micro-regions had the highest accumulated incidence, while small municipalities such as São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Uarini and Alvarães presenting a high incidence rate during the same period. Snakes in the genera Bothrops and Lachesis caused 69.5% and 20.3% snakebites. Snakebites occurred more frequently in the Amazonian winter, between January and April, and most of the snakebite victims (78.6%) were men. The most affected individuals were between 20 and 39 years of age (59.4%). The time elapsed between snakebites and medical assistance varied from one to six hours (51.4%). 7,705 of the snakebite cases, were classified as moderate, 7,328 as mild, and 1,299 as severe. Of the 104 deaths that occurred in the period, Bothrops genus caused the highest mortality (68.3%). The State of Amazonas recorded both high numbers of snakebites in the period 2007-2017 and the time elapsed between snakebite and medical assistance, which may affect the clinical status of patients.


Subject(s)
Snake Bites , Snakes , Viperidae , Bothrops
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0374-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155569

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon are caused mostly by snakes from the Bothrops genus and envenomated patients may suffer from tissue complications. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for severe tissue complications (STC) in patients with Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil. RESULTS: Snakebites that were classified as severe and affected female patients with comorbidities presented greater risks of developing STCs. In addition, hospitalizations of patients with STC exceeded 5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics can prove essential for assessing the evolution of STC and clinical prognosis of patients with Bothrops snakebites.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Snake Bites/complications , Snake Bites/diagnosis , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms , Snakes , Brazil/epidemiology , Antivenins , Risk Factors
10.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 239-245, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118840

ABSTRACT

The increasing urbanization of the Amazonian biome has promoted the creation of several forest fragments surrounded by an urban matrix, but the relationship of animal assemblages to the urban environment, especially in forest fragments, is poorly known. Here we aimed to 1) determine the composition of the squamate fauna of the largest urban forest fragment from central Amazonia, in the Brazilian city of Manaus, and 2) evaluate the influence of environmental parameters on assemblage diversity. We sampled 10 standardized riparian plots through visual search in six surveys between 2008/09 and 2015, totaling 360 observer-hours. We found 15 species of lacertoids (lizards and amphisbaenians) and seven species of snakes through active search. After considering occasional encounters and search in museum collections, we recorded a total of 24 lacertoid and 22 snake species. Multiple regression models indicated that species richness and abundance of individuals increased with the distance from the edge of the fragment, while other structural parameters of the environment did not affect the assemblage. We conclude that this forest fragment 1) consists of a subset of the regional species pool, and 2) undergoes reduction of species richness and abundance of individuals from the center to the borders. This and additional urban forest fragments should be continually monitored in order to evaluate their long-term role in maintaining the tropical biodiversity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Snakes , Amphisbaena vermicularis , Lizards , Reptiles , Urbanization
11.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 252-255, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118849

ABSTRACT

The rare Amazonian snake Eutrachelophis papilio is known from only five individuals, from four localities, belonging to its type-series, the more recent collected over 10 years ago. Here, we expand its distribution and describe its color in life for the first time. We also provide an estimate of its distribution area using the minimum convex polygon method and identify the values of anthropic pressure within its known distribution range with the Human Footprint Index. The new occurrence is located 291 km from the nearest known locality and its distribution is associated with pristine forests. Considering its rarity, and the absence of demographic and biological data, we suggest that the species should be classified as Data Deficient by IUCN criteria. (AU)


Subject(s)
Snakes , Forests , Animal Distribution
12.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(1): 68-75, ene.-abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279656

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Identificar la prevalencia de endoparásitos y ectoparásitos en serpientes ex situ en la Fundación Botánica y Zoológica de Barranquilla "Barranquilla Zoo". Materiales y métodos. Para esto se analizaron muestras de materia fecal y ectoparásitos de 2 colúbridos (Leptophis ahaetulla y Spilotes pullatus), 2 dipsadinos (Oxybelys aeneus y Thamnodynastes paraguanae) y 13 boidos (9 individuos de la especie Boa constrictor, 2 de Epicrates maurus y 2 de Eunectes murinus) utilizando los métodos de flotación en solución saturada de azúcar y observación directa. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el 65% (11/17) de los animales evaluados fueron positivos a la presencia de parásitos, de los cuales el 91% (10/11) de los ejemplares pertenece a la familia Boidae presentando en su mayoría nematodos, mientras que en los dipsadinos se observaron principalmente protozoarios y los colúbridos resultaron negativos. Finamente como ectoparásitos se identificaron 2 especies de garrapatas (Amblyomma dissimile y Ornothodoros turicata) halladas en ejemplares de Boa constrictor, Epicrates maurus y Spilotes pullatus. Conclusiones. La identificación de las formas parasitarias en este trabajo representa una contribución para el conocimiento de los parásitos en serpientes ex situ en Colombia. Provee información para desarrollar medidas profilácticas y permite comparar los datos sobre las formas parasitarias encontradas con muestreos de estas especies en vida silvestre y bajo cuidados humanos.


ABSTRACT Objective. Identify the prevalence of internal and external parasites in ex situ snakes at the Fundación Botánica y Zoológica de Barranquilla "Barranquilla Zoo". Materials and methods. Stool samples and ectoparasites of 2 colubrids (Leptophis ahaetulla and Spilotes pullatus), 2 diapsids (Oxybelys aeneus and Thamnodynastes paraguanae) and 13 boids (9 individuals of Boa constrictor, 2 of Epicrates maurus and 2 Eunectes murinus) were analyzed using flotation method in saturated sugar solution and direct observation. Results. The results showed that 65% (11/17) of the population was positive to the presence of parasites. In relation to the positive specimens, 91% (10/11) belong to the Boidae family, presenting mostly nematodes, in the dipsadid's samples mainly protozoans were observed and the colubrid's samples were negative. Regarding ectoparasites, 2 species of ticks (Amblyomma dissimile and Ornothodoros turicata) were found in specimens of Boa constrictor, Epicrates maurus and Spilotes pullatus. Conclusions. The identification of parasitic forms in this paper represents a contribution to the knowledge of parasites in snakes ex situ in Colombia. It provides information to develop prophylactic measures against these pathological agents and also allows comparing the data about the parasitic forms found with other researches in the wild and in captivity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Parasitology , Snakes , Prevalence , Colubridae , Boidae , Argasidae
13.
Acta amaz ; 50(1): 90-99, jan. - mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118771

ABSTRACT

This study addresses the clinical and epidemiological aspects of envenoming cases resulting from snakebites treated at a hospital in Cruzeiro do Sul, in the upper Juruá River region, western Brazilian Amazonia. The specific identity of snakes that caused the envenomings was inferred (a) from the diagnosis of patient symptoms and signs upon hospital admission, (b) by enzyme immunoassay for detection of Bothrops atrox and Lachesis muta venom from serum samples taken from patients before antivenom therapy, or (c) by direct identification of the snake, when it was brought along to the hospital or photographed. There were 133 snakebites (76.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) registered during one year (July 2017 to June 2018). Most snakebites (88.7%) were caused by Bothrops spp., and the rest by non-venomous snakes or dry bites. Snakebites tended to occur more often during the rainy season, coinciding with the period of greater reproductive activity of the snakes and greater availability of their prey. In addition, the increase in the water level of rivers and lakes during the rainy season tends to concentrate snakes in dry places and, thus, to increase encounters with humans. Information campaigns on prevention and first aid, specially among the most vulnerable groups (indigenous people, farmers, and children and teenagers in rural areas), and the importance of using protective equipment (boots, leggings, leather gloves) in certain high risk activities (e.g. agriculture and extractivism in forests) are fundamental for the reduction of snakebite morbidity. (AU)


Subject(s)
Poisoning , Snakes , Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique , Bothrops , Animals, Poisonous
14.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190044, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1091017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Endogenous phospholipase A2 inhibitors from snake blood (sbPLIs) have been isolated from several species around the world, with the primary function of self-protection against the action of toxic phospholipases A2. In American snakes, sbPLIs were solely described in pit vipers, in which the natural protection role is justified. In this study, we described a sbPLI in Boa constrictor (popularly known as jiboia), a non-venomous snake species from America. Methods: PLA2 inhibitory activity was tested in the blood plasma of B. constrictor using C. d. terrificus venom as the enzyme source. Antibodies developed against CNF, a sbγPLI from Crotalus durissus terrificus, were used to investigate the presence of homologues in the blood plasma of B. constrictor. A CNF-like molecule with a PLA2 inhibitory activity was purified by column chromatography. The encoding gene for the inhibitor was cloned from B. constrictor liver tissue. The DNA fragment was cloned, purified and sequenced. The deduced primary sequence of interest was aligned with known sbγPLIs from the literature. Results: The blood plasma of B. constrictor displayed PLA2 inhibitory activity. A CNF-like molecule (named BcNF) was identified and purified from the blood plasma of B. constrictor. Basic properties such as molecular mass, composing amino acids, and pI were comparable, but BcNF displayed reduced specific activity in PLA2 inhibition. BcNF showed highest identity scores (ISs) with sbγPLIs from pit vipers from Latin America (90-100%), followed by gamma inhibitors from Asian viperid (80-90%). ISs below 70% were obtained for BcNF and non-venomous species from Asia. Conclusion: A functional sbγPLI (BcNF) was described in the blood plasma of B. constrictor. BcNF displayed higher primary identity with sbγPLIs from Viperidae than to sbγPLIs from non-venomous species from Asia. The physiological role played by sbγPLIs in non-venomous snake species remains to be understood. Further investigation is needed.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snakes , Viperidae , Elapid Venoms , Phospholipases A2 , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190041, 2020. graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1056676

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the presence of a neurotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity isolated from Micrurus lemniscatus venom (Mlx-8) with affinity for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Methods: The purification, molecular mass determination, partial amino acid sequencing, phospholipase A2 activity determination, inhibition of the binding of the selective muscarinic ligand [3H]QNB and inhibition of the total [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in rat hippocampus of the Mlx-8 were determined. Results: Thirty-one fractions were collected from HPLC chromatography, and the Mlx-8 toxin was used in this work. The molecular mass of Mlx-8 is 13.628 Da. Edman degradation yielded the following sequence: NLYQFKNMIQCTNTRSWL-DFADYG-CYCGRGGSGT. The Mlx-8 had phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity. The pKi values were determined for Mlx-8 toxin and the M1 selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine in hippocampus membranes via [3H]QNB competition binding assays. The pKi values obtained from the analysis of Mlx-8 and pirenzepine displacement curves were 7.32 ± 0.15, n = 4 and 5.84 ± 0.18, n = 4, respectively. These results indicate that Mlx-8 has affinity for mAChRs. There was no effect on the inhibition ability of the [3H]QNB binding in hippocampus membranes when 1 µM Mlx-8 was incubated with 200 µM DEDA, an inhibitor of phospholipase A2. This suggests that the inhibition of the phospholipase A2 activity of the venom did not alter its ability to bind to displace [3H]QNB binding. In addition, the Mlx-8 toxin caused a blockade of 43.31 ± 8.86%, n = 3 and 97.42 ± 2.02%, n = 3 for 0.1 and 1 µM Mlx-8, respectively, on the total [3H]inositol phosphate content induced by 10 µM carbachol. This suggests that Mlx-8 inhibits the intracellular signaling pathway linked to activation of mAChRs in hippocampus. Conclusion: The results of the present work show, for the first time, that muscarinic receptors are also affected by the Mlx-8 toxin, a muscarinic ligand with phospholipase A2 characteristics, obtained from the venom of the Elapidae snake Micrurus lemniscatus, since this toxin was able to compete with muscarinic ligand [3H]QNB in hippocampus of rats. In addition, Mlx-8 also blocked the accumulation of total [3H]inositol phosphate induced by muscarinic agonist carbachol. Thus, Mlx-8 may be a new pharmacological tool for examining muscarinic cholinergic function.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Snakes , Elapid Venoms/adverse effects , Phospholipases A2 , Inositol Phosphates , Acetylcholine , Receptors, Muscarinic/analysis , Sequence Analysis, Protein
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190305, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057260

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We examined the ethnobiological perception of the population of the Alto Juruá region about different snake species, in terms of their dangerousness and manifestations of envenomation. METHODS: We interviewed 100 villagers who were active in the forests. RESULTS: Lachesis muta was considered the most venomous snake, and Bothrops atrox appeared to be the most feared snake species. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence, severity, and mortality of B. atrox bites and the severity and mortality of L. muta bites were the factors that contributed to these species being perceived as the most feared and venomous snakes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Snakes/classification , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Popular Culture , Rural Population , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged
17.
Acta amaz ; 49(1): 24-27, jan. - mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119182

ABSTRACT

We report an observation of predation by an Amazon tree boa, Corallus hortulanus, on an American fruit-eating bat, Artibeus sp., in an area of seasonal forest close to a small stream in the northern Brazilian Amazon. While bats appear to be one of the main food items of C. hortulanus, our observation is only the fourth such event to be recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. The Artibeus sp. individual was observed making distress (agony) calls continuously over a period of three hours, much longer than recorded on previous observations. Records of this type are important to further our knowledge on bat predators, and the defensive behavior of bats. (AU)


Subject(s)
Snakes , Behavior, Animal , Chiroptera , Amazonian Ecosystem
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774553

ABSTRACT

Through market investigation, the adulteration of Zaocys dhumnades on markets was found out, and samples of authentic and adulterated Z. dhumnades on markets were collected. The origin and properties of the adulterated Z. dhumnades were studied in order to provide reference for the identification of Z. dhumnades. The counterfeit Z. dhumnades sold on markets were as follows: Ptyas korros, P. mucosus, Najanaja atra, Sinonatrix annularis, Dinodon septentrionalis, etc. It is found that there existed a obvious difference between the traits of the Z. dhumnades and counterfeits. Genuine Z. dhumnades with "sword ridge" "iron tail", strongly ribbed scales and other features, is the key point to identify the difference from adulterants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Contamination , Materia Medica , Reference Standards , Snakes
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190120, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041505

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: In this study, we examined the clinical manifestations, laboratory evidence, and the circumstances of snakebites caused by non-venomous snakes, which were treated at the Regional Hospital of Juruá in Cruzeiro do Sul. METHODS: Data were collected through patient interviews, identification of the species that were taken to the hospital, and the clinical manifestations. RESULTS: Eight confirmed and four probable cases of non-venomous snakebites were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The symptoms produced by the snakes Helicops angulatus and Philodryas viridissima, combined with their coloration can be confused with venomous snakes (Bothrops atrox and Bothrops bilineatus), thus resulting in incorrect bothropic snakebite diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Snake Bites/diagnosis , Snake Bites/history , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Snakes/classification , Snakes/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Colubridae , Diagnostic Errors
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20170415, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041504

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Genetic polymorphisms define the cytokine production leading to susceptibility or resistance to diseases. We studied the cytokine polymorphism in the development of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). METHODS: Genotyping of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 were performed by polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: G and C alleles of TGF- β1 (codon 25) were the most common in controls and patients, respectively. G/G was the most frequent genotype in controls, and G/C and C/C in patients. CONCLUSIONS: G/G genotype of codon 25 in TGF-β1 appeared to confer resistance, and G/C and C/C genotypes, susceptibility to TL in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Snake Bites/diagnosis , Snakes/anatomy & histology , Snake Bites/epidemiology , Snakes/classification , Snakes/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Colubridae , Diagnostic Errors
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