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1.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(1): 133-150, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356049

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Housing First (HF) tem se difundido no cenário internacional como uma intervenção baseada em evidência para superar a situação de rua entre pessoas com agravos de saúde mental. No Brasil, o HF tem sido adotado como referência no desenvolvimento de iniciativas voltadas para pessoas em situação de rua que fazem uso prejudicial de drogas. Estudos apontam a necessidade de maior compreensão da dinâmica implantação do modelo HF em diferentes cenários. De tal modo, utilizando o método de revisão de literatura, analisamos os fatores que facilitam e dificultam a implantação do HF. Foram selecionados 68 artigos, publicados entre 2003 e 2020, nas bases PubMed, Scopus, PsychoINFO, Embase, Lilacs e Scielo. Identificamos fatores em quatro dimensões: características da intervenção, contexto de implantação, aspectos institucionais e processo de implantação. A indisponibilidade de habitações, a falta de coordenação dos serviços necessários aos moradores e a resistência dos agentes implantadores aos princípios do HF são fatores que dificultam a implantação. Por sua vez, agentes com valores, atitudes e competências convergentes ao modelo e educação permanente aparecem como facilitadores. Apontamos a necessidade de se compreender e favorecer o processo de integração do HF aos sistemas de proteção social existentes.


Abstract Housing First (HF) has spread on the international scene as an evidence-based intervention to overcome homelessness among people with mental health problems. In Brazil, the HF has been adopted as a reference in the development of initiatives geared to people living in the streets who make harmful use of drugs. Studies point to the need for greater understanding of the dynamics of implementation in different settings. Thus, using the literature review method, we analyzed the factors that facilitate and hinder the implementation of HF. Sixty-eight papers published from 2003 to 2020 were selected from the PubMed, Scopus, PsychoINFO, Embase, Lilacs, and Scielo databases. We identified factors in four dimensions: intervention characteristics, implementation context, institutional aspects, and implementation process. The unavailability of housing, the lack of coordination of the services needed by residents, and the resistance of implementing agents to the HF principles are factors that hinder the implementation. In turn, agents with values, attitudes, and skills converging with the model and continuing education appear as facilitators. We point out the need to understand and favor the HF integration process in the existing social protection systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Social Problems , Brazil , Housing
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 15(3): 561-579, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337751

ABSTRACT

Entre questões que se elaboram nas dimensões do público e do privado na internet, a partir da acessibilidade dos smartphones e da configuração de plataformas que se organizam discursiva e tecnologicamente para que usuárias(os) estejam on-line e ativas(os) nas redes, a exposição não consensual de conteúdo íntimo de meninas e mulheres se configura em um problema potencializado. Nesse sentido, o artigo trata da exposição desautorizada de materiais íntimos, chamada no campo de 'explanação', apresentando dados etnográficos de um grupo no Facebook que desenvolve práticas para ajudar meninas, geralmente menores de idade, a se proteger e combater casos de explanação. Percebemos o exercício de uma forma atualizada de poder sobre o corpo e a sexualidade que se dissocia do padrão do que é entendido como pornografia de vingança. Nessa direção, o universo digital funciona como uma extensão do cotidiano, produzindo e estendendo violências contra meninas e mulheres.


Among issues that are elaborated in the public and private dimensions on the internet, from the accessibility of smartphones and the configuration of platforms that are discursive and technologically organized so that users are online and active on the networks, non-consensual exposure of intimate content of girls and women is an increasing problem. In this sense, the article deals with the unauthorized exposure of intimate materials, called in the field of 'explanation', presenting ethnographic data from a Facebook group that develops practices to help girls, usually minors, to protect themselves and fight cases of explanation. We perceive the exercise of an updated form of power over the body and sexuality that is dissociated from the pattern of what is understood as revenge pornography. In this direction, the digital universe works as an extension of everyday life, producing and extending violence against girls and women.


Entre los temas que se elaboran en las dimensiones pública y privada en internet, desde la accesibilidad de los teléfonos inteligentes y la configuración de plataformas discursivas y tecnológicamente organizadas para que los usuarios estén en línea y activos en las redes, la exposición no consensuada de contenidos íntimos de niñas y mujeres es un problema cada vez mayor. En este sentido, el artículo trata sobre la exposición no autorizada de materiales íntimos, denominada en el campo de exposición, presentando datos etnográficos de un grupo de Facebook que desarrolla prácticas para ayudar a niñas, generalmente menores de edad, a protegerse y combatir casos de exposición. Percibimos el ejercicio de una forma actualizada de poder sobre el cuerpo y la sexualidad que se disocia del patrón de lo que se entiende como pornografía de venganza. En esta dirección, el universo digital funciona como una extensión de la vida cotidiana, produciendo y extendiendo la violencia contra niñas y mujeres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Women's Health , Adolescent , Social Media , Gender-Based Violence , Cyberbullying , Social Problems , Web Archives as Topic , Internet-Based Intervention
3.
Psico USF ; 26(2): 253-263, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1287602

ABSTRACT

Essa pesquisa objetivou analisar a relação entre o Racismo Moderno e o Sexismo Ambivalente utilizando os Valores Humanos como terceira variável que pudesse explicar essa relação, tendo em vista seu poder de predição de fenômenos sociais. A amostra foi composta por 200 participantes distribuídos quase igualmente quanto ao sexo, sendo 101(50,5%) do sexo feminino e 99 (49,5%) do sexo masculino. A média de idade dos respondentes foi de 23 anos (DP = 5,41). Observou-se que o Sexismo Ambivalente e o Racismo Moderno estão correlacionados positivamente como também se relacionam com as subfunções Realização, Interativa e Normativa dos Valores Humanos explicando parcialmente a relação entre o racismo e o sexismo. Concluiu-se que as expressões modernas de racismo e sexismo estão interligadas e que os valores normativos, que visam manter a estabilidade social e tradição, podem desempenhar um papel importante na explicação parcial dessa ligação. (AU)


This study aimed to analyze the relationship between Modern Racism and Ambivalent Sexism using Human Values as a third variable that could explain this relationship, given its predictive power against social phenomena. The sample consisted of 200 participants distributed almost equally regarding gender, including 101 (50.5%) women and 99 (49.5%) men. The mean age of the respondents was 23 years (SD = 5.41). It was observed that Ambivalent Sexism and Modern Racism are positively correlated as they are also related to the Realization, Interactive, and Normative subfunctions of Human Values, partially explaining the relationship between racism and sexism. It was concluded that modern expressions of racism and sexism are interconnected and that normative values, which aim to maintain social stability and tradition, may play an important role in partially explaining this connection. (AU)


Esta investigación objetivó analizar la relación entre el Racismo Moderno y el Sexismo Ambivalente utilizando los Valores Humanos como la tercera variable que pudiera explicar esa relación, considerando su poder de predicción de fenómenos sociales. La muestra fue compuesta por 200 participantes distribuidos casi por igual cuanto al sexo, siendo 101 (50, 5%) mujeres y 99 (49,5%) hombres. La edad media de los encuestados fue de 23 años (DS = 5,41). Se observó que el Sexismo Ambivalente y el Racismo Moderno se correlacionaron positivamente, dado que también se relacionaron con las subfunciones Realización, Interactiva y Normativa de los Valores Humanos, explicando parcialmente la conexión entre el racismo y el sexismo. Se concluyó que las expresiones modernas de racismo y sexismo están interconectadas y que los valores normativos, que apuntan a mantener la estabilidad social y la tradición, pueden ejecutar un papel importante en la explicación parcial de esta conexión. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Prejudice/psychology , Social Problems/psychology , Social Values , Racism/psychology , Sexism/psychology , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Higher
4.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(2): 581-585, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279145

ABSTRACT

Resumen A pesar de los esfuerzos del Estado por contener la llegada y propagación de la covid-19, que comprendió una cuarentena estricta a nivel nacional por más de cien días, el Perú fue uno de los países en el mundo con más casos y número de muertes por la pandemia. La pandemia hizo visible la precariedad del sistema de salud, del empleo, de las condiciones de vivienda y transporte. Demostró además que mientras no se resuelvan problemas de fondo en el sistema social y económico del país, es poco lo que se puede hacer desde el sector salud para confrontar una crisis sanitaria. Este artículo analiza las respuestas estatales y sociales a la pandemia entre febrero y agosto del 2020.


Abstract Despite efforts by the Peruvian state to contain the outbreak and spread of covid-19, including a strict nationwide quarantine for more than one hundred days, Peru had one of the highest numbers of cases and deaths in the world due to the pandemic. The pandemic highlighted the precariousness of the health care system, work, living conditions and transport. The pandemic also demonstrated that until underlying problems in the country's social and economic system are solved (such as inequality and poverty), the health sector can do little to combat a health care crisis. This article analyzes state and societal responses to the pandemic between February and August 2020.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Quarantine , Government
5.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 14(1): 1-27, jan.-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1279123

ABSTRACT

A questão agrária diz respeito a um problema social advindo da concentração da estrutura fundiária da terra, a qual é responsável por gerar concentração de riqueza e, dessa forma, desigualdades sociais e regionais. O presente artigo propõe investigar de que maneira a produção de conhecimento brasileira em Psicologia tem abordado o tema da questão agrária em seus estudos, bem como tem contribuído para produzir norteadores para a profissão. Com esse objetivo, foi realizado um estudo bibliográfico na base de dados Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) em janeiro de 2017, sendo encontrados 18 artigos abordando a temática. A análise do material considerou os seguintes eixos: entendimentos da Psicologia acerca da questão agrária e abordagens teóricas, analíticas e práticas da Psicologia a respeito da questão agrária. Espera-se colaborar com o debate acerca da inserção da Psicologia na discussão sobre a questão agrária, contribuindo para a problematização de sua participação no campo das ruralidades.


The agrarian question concerns a social problem arising from the concentration of the land structure, which is responsible for generating concentration of wealth and, thus, social and regional inequalities. This article proposes to investigate how the production of Brazilian knowledge in Psychology has addressed the theme of the agrarian question in its studies, as well as has contributed to produce guidelines for the profession. With this purpose, a bibliographic study was conducted in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) database in January 2017, and 18 articles addressing the theme were found. The analysis of the material considered the following axes: understandings of Psychology about the agrarian question, and theoretical, analytical and practices approaches of Psychology about the agrarian question. It is expected to collaborate with the debate about the insertion of Psychology in the discussion on the agrarian question, contributing to the problematization of its participation in the field of ruralities.


Subject(s)
Psychology , Agricultural Sciences , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Rural Economy , Economics
6.
Dolor ; 31(73)ene. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362748

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La rápida diseminación de un nuevo coronavirus 2, designado como SARS-CoV-2 por el Síndrome agudo respiratorio grave que provoca, ha promovido una pandemia global con más de 83.516.987 de infecciones y más de 1.818.336 de muertes hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2020 (Fuente: Johns Hopkins Center for Systems Science and Engineering). La incidencia en la población pediátrica es menor que en la adulta, en torno al 0,8-10 % (1-5). Según los datos disponibles, los niños y adolescentes tienen síntomas leves o moderados y un mejor pronóstico en relación a los adultos, y el curso de la enfermedad tiende a ser más severo en lactantes y en niños con patologías subyacentes, habiéndose reportado casos graves con hipotensión y afectación sistémica (1,5-7). Si bien existen todavía pocos datos publicados, revisaremos la presentación de la COVID 19 en los niños: detección, severidad, prevención, tratamientos, sus problemas sociales y el más reciente síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico.


Introduction: The rapid spread of a new coronavirus 2, designated as SARS-CoV-2 because of the severe acute respiratory syndrome it causes, has promoted a global pandemic with more than 83.516.987 infections and more than 1.818.336 deaths as of December 31, 2020 (Source: Johns Hopkins Center for Systems Science and Engineering). The incidence in the pediatric population is lower than in the adult, around 0.8-10 % (1-5). According to the available data, children and adolescents have mild or moderate symptoms and a better prognosis in relation to adults, and the course of the disease tends to be more severe in infants and children with underlying pathologies, with severe cases with hypotension having been reported and systemic involvement(1,5-7). Although there are still few published data, we will review the presentation of COVID 19 in children: detection, severity, prevention, treatments, its social problems and the most recent multisystemic inflammatory síndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , Palliative Care , Social Problems , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology
7.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 50-55, Ene-Jun 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147882

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fundamental de esta investigación es proponer un programa de intervención sobre la comunicación familiar dirigido a padres y madres con hijas adolescentes en conflicto con la Ley Penal asistidas en la Entidad de Atención Acarigua II (H) Portuguesa; para ello se empleó la metodología cuantitativa bajo la modalidad de Proyecto Factible, desarrollándose las tres primeras partes del proyecto: Diagnóstico, Estudio de Factibilidad y Diseño de la Propuesta. La población objeto de estudio estuvo conformada por veinticinco (25) padres, madres o representantes presentes durante los meses de Octubre 2017-Febrero 2018. Para determinar el modelo de comunicación de padres y madres con hijas adolescentes en conflicto con la ley penal se elaboró un cuestionario autoaplicado de comunicación familiar, el cual fue sometido a juicio de expertos y prueba piloto. Los datos obtenidos fueron tabulados y procesados mediante la estadística descriptiva. El análisis de los datos reveló que el modelo de comunicación predominante fue el nivelador aunque con marcadas fluctuaciones entre los modelos. Se realizó un estudio de factibilidad (estudio de mercado, institucional, social y financiero) confirmando la factibilidad de la propuesta. La misma fue diseñada bajo la modalidad de cinco talleres teóricos ­ prácticos con la finalidad de autoevaluar la forma en que se comunican y de esta forma adquirir nuevas pautas de comunicación con sus hijas adolescentes, principalmente el modelo nivelador(AU)


The main objective of this research is to propose an intervention program on family communication aimed at parents with adolescent daughters in conflict with the Criminal Law assisted in the Acarigua II (H) Portuguese state Care Entity. A quantitative methodology was used under the modality of Feasible Project, developing the first three parts of the project as Diagnosis, Feasibility Study and Design of the Proposal. The population included twenty-five (25) fathers, mothers or representatives present during the months of October 2017-February 2018. To determine the communication model of fathers and mothers with adolescent daughters, a self-administered family communication questionnaire was used which was submitted to expert judgment and a pilot test. The data obtained was tabulated and processed using descriptive statistics. The analysis of the data revealed that the predominant communication model was the leveler although with marked fluctuations between the models. A feasibility study (market, institutional, social and financial study) was carried out confirming the feasibility of the proposal. The program was designed under the modality of five theoretical-practical workshops in order to self-assess the way parents communicate and thus acquire new communication guidelines with their adolescent daughters, mainly at the leveling model(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parent-Child Relations , Adolescent , Communication , Juvenile Delinquency , Social Problems , Criminal Behavior
9.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41(spe4): 1-17, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340464

ABSTRACT

Resumo A proposta de emenda à Constituição Federal (PEC) 171/1993 prevê a redução da maioridade penal no Brasil de 18 para 16 anos. Essa proposta foi votada pela Câmara dos Deputados e está, atualmente, no Senado Federal, contando com intenso apoio do atual presidente. Embora haja evidências de que a idade não se relaciona a indicadores de violência, a opinião pública se manifesta favorável à medida. Diante disso, considera-se primordial escutar a fala dos próprios adolescentes sobre essa questão. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a perspectiva de adolescentes sobre a redução da maioridade penal. Participaram 25 adolescentes provenientes de uma escola pública e cinco que estavam em cumprimento de medida socioeducativa, todos na faixa etária entre 12 e 17 anos. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de rodas de conversa com o primeiro grupo e entrevistas com o segundo. Foram escritos relatos em ambos os momentos da coleta. Para a análise, esses relatos foram lidos e discutidos em grupo pelos pesquisadores. Os resultados apontam alguns analisadores que emergiram a partir das rodas e entrevistas: adolescência, raiva, medo, questão social, lei e violência. Observou-se que os participantes foram além de um posicionamento opinativo, produzindo importantes elaborações sobre o tema que foram disparadores capazes de abordar problemáticas próprias da adolescência e da realidade social. Considera-se que é tarefa ímpar da psicologia trazer à luz opiniões como as dos adolescentes objeto desta pesquisa.(AU)


Abstract The proposed amendment to the Federal Constitution (PEC 171/1993) of Brazil provides for the lowering of the minimum age of criminal responsibility from 18 to 16 years. This proposal was voted by the House of Representatives and is currently in the Federal Senate, being strongly supported by the elected President. Despite evidence showing that age is unrelated to indicators of violence, public opinion supports the measure, indicating the urge for listening to the opinion of adolescents on this subject. This study aimed to investigate the perspective of adolescents regarding the lowering of the minimum age of criminal responsibility in Brazil. The study sample consisted of 25 adolescents from a public school and five who fulfilled socioeducational measures, all aged from 12 to 17 years. Data on the first group were collected by means of conversation circles, and on the second group by interviews. A written record was kept for both moments of data collection, which was later read and discussed among the researchers involved in the study. The results indicate some common themes emerging from circles and interviews, namely: adolescence, anger, fear, social issues, law, and violence. When sharing their perspectives on the subject, participants went beyond an opinionated position, producing important elaborations. This also triggered the possibility of addressing specific problems of adolescence and social reality. In this scenario, Psychology plays a key role in bringing opinions to light, such as those of adolescents participating in this study - who tend to stay on the sidelines.(AU)


Resumen La propuesta de enmienda a la Constitución Federal (PEC 171/1993) prevé la reducción de la edad mínima de responsabilidad penal en Brasil de 18 para 16 años. Esta propuesta fue votada por la Cámara de Diputados y está actualmente en el Senado Federal, contando con intenso apoyo del actual Presidente. Aunque hay evidencias de que la edad no se relaciona con los indicadores de violencia, la opinión pública se manifiesta favorable a la medida. Por lo tanto, se considera esencial escuchar el discurso de los adolescentes sobre este tema. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la perspectiva de algunos adolescentes sobre la reducción de la edad de responsabilidad penal. Participaron 25 adolescentes provenientes de una escuela pública y cinco que estaban en cumplimiento de medida socioeducativa, todos en el grupo de edad de entre 12 y 17 años. La recopilación de datos se realizó por medio de círculos de conversación con el primer grupo y de entrevistas con el segundo. Los informes fueron escritos en ambas ocasiones. Para el análisis, los investigadores leyeron y discutieron estos informes en grupos. Los resultados muestran algunos analizadores que surgieron de los círculos y las entrevistas: adolescencia, ira, miedo, problemas sociales, derecho y violencia. Se observó que los participantes fueron más allá de una posición de opinión, produciendo elaboraciones importantes sobre el tema; esto también desencadenó la posibilidad de abordar problemas específicos de la adolescencia y la realidad social. Se considera que es una tarea única de la psicología sacar a la luz opiniones, como las de estos adolescentes, que tienden a permanecer al margen.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Psychoanalysis , Speech , Adolescent , Interview , Criminal Liability , Psychology , Public Opinion , Social Problems , Violence , Data Collection , Constitution and Bylaws , Criminals , Jurisprudence , Anger
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250460

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the emotional and social experiences of parents or caregivers of children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) in a city in the Northeastern of Brazil. Material and Methods: A quantitative and cross-sectional study was conducted among parents or caregivers of children with CL/P by interviews based on a questionnaire. Interviews were conducted during the First Smile Project in Sobral, Ceará, Brazil. All participants (n=41) agreed to participate in the interview and signed an informed consent. The data was analyzed in SPSS software version 22.0. Results: The majority of participants were female (87.2%), with a mean age of 37 years, with a low level of education and low family income. The great majority (90.2%) of the parents were not prenatally diagnosed to have CL/P babies. Of those interviewed, 56.1% mentioned that the first diagnosis of cleft lip and palate was not presented by the professionals in a clarifying way to the family. Fear (36.6%) and sadness (19.5%) were the main feelings experienced when the child was diagnosed with fissure. Feeding (48.8%) was pointed out as the main concern in caring for a child with CL/P. Conclusion: The parents and caregivers interviewed faced important emotional and social problems that must be addressed by the professional team that assists the child with CL/P.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Parents , Child , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/pathology , Caregivers , Affective Symptoms , Social Problems , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Interview , Emotions
11.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 41: e223487, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1346792

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo, por meio da Análise Institucional (AI) de papel, identificamos quantas são e discutimos criticamente como funcionam as entidades públicas e privadas que atendem crianças e adolescentes considerados em "situação de risco pessoal e social" num município do interior do estado de São Paulo. Fomos indicados como representante da universidade na qual atuamos para participarmos como integrante titular do Conselho Municipal dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente (CMDCA), o que viabilizou nossa análise documental dos arquivos do CMDCA relativa às entidades assistenciais cadastradas. A revisão da bibliografia permitiu caracterizar as políticas dos direitos da criança e do adolescente na atualidade brasileira, e, com a análise documental, buscamos compreender a estrutura, modo de funcionamento, efetividade, principais problemas e desafios que enfrentam tais entidades. A análise política dos documentos das entidades assistenciais que atendem a crianças e adolescentes revelou que os problemas sociais estão sendo psicologizados e, como resposta, foram criadas pedagogias terapêuticas de base moral e relacional, focalizadas nos comportamentos, valores, atitudes e hábitos dos indivíduos atendidos. Os resultados desta pesquisa oferecem dados para orientar os gestores municipais e demais autoridades na implementação de políticas mais efetivas voltadas para o atendimento dos direitos da infância e da adolescência do município, caso queiram tomá-los em consideração.(AU)


Abstract Based on an institutional analysis (IA), this study identifies and critically discusses the public and private entities attending children and adolescents at "personal and social risk" from a municipality in the countryside of São Paulo. Representing the University as a member of the Municipal Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (MCRCA), a documental analysis was performed in MCRCA's files to verify registered welfare services, seeking to understand the structure, functioning, effectiveness, and main problems and challenges faced by them. A literature review was also performed for characterizing the policies aimed at the rights of children and adolescents in the current Brazilian scenario. The political analysis revealed that these support entities are psychologizing social problems, which led to the development of therapeutic pedagogies of moral and relational basis focused on the behaviors, values, attitudes, and habits of assisted individuals. This study results provide data to guide municipal managers and other authorities in implementing more effective policies aimed for the rights of children and adolescents within the municipality.(AU)


Resumen Desde el análisis del rol institucional (IA), en este artículo identificamos cuántas son y cómo funcionan las entidades públicas y privadas que atienden a niños, niñas y adolescentes en "riesgo personal y social" en un municipio del estado de São Paulo. Como miembro del Consejo Municipal de Derechos de Niños y Adolescentes (CMDCA), en representación de la universidad, realizamos un análisis documental en los archivos del CMDCA sobre las entidades asistenciales registradas. La revisión bibliográfica nos permitió caracterizar las políticas de derechos de la niñez y adolescencia en la actualidad brasileña y, con el análisis documental, tratamos de comprender la estructura, la forma de funcionamiento, la efectividad, los principales problemas y los retos que enfrentan estas entidades. El análisis político de los documentos de estas entidades asistenciales reveló que se están psicologizando los problemas sociales y, en respuesta, se crearon pedagogías terapéuticas de base moral y relacional enfocadas en comportamientos, valores, actitudes y hábitos de las personas asistidas. Los resultados de esta investigación brindan datos para orientar a los gestores municipales y a otras autoridades en la implementación de políticas más efectivas dirigidas al cumplimiento de los derechos de la niñez y adolescencia en el municipio.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Paper , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Child , Adolescent , Archives , Psychology , Research , Social Problems , Child Advocacy , Records , Empathy
12.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1179052

ABSTRACT

A pandemia do novo coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2) produziu, e permanece produzindo, diversas significações em torno da vida da população brasileira, onde as mídias comunicacionais permanecem presentes nas veiculações acerca dos desdobramentos dessa conjuntura. Este estudo objetiva analisar informações veiculadas no contexto da pandemia, buscando compreender e explicitar aspectos ancorados nas produções dos discursos, os sentidos produzidos, bem como as materialidades expressas através do comportamento de consumo e acumulação da população, suscitados pela pandemia. Foram analisadas dez matérias jornalísticas, veiculadas na internet entre março e abril de 2020, à luz da psicossociologia do risco, inspirados em autores como Ulrich Beck e Mary Jane Spink; dos comportamentos de consumo, principalmente a partir de Jurandir Freire Costa, e sob as lentes da necropolítica de Achille Mbembe. Os comportamentos analisados expõem problemas sociais crônicos, onde o consumo exacerbado procura sustentar o cenário ilusório de segurança frente ao avanço do vírus, esvaziando prateleiras, em atos que desassistem aqueles que não têm recursos financeiros para garantir seus próprios insumos, operando em favor de tecnologias necropolíticas. Na atividade midiática encontram-se incitações ao consumo e uma amplificação da sensação de medo diante da suposta escassez anunciada.


The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic produced and continues to produce, several meanings around the life of the Brazilian population, where the communication media remain present in the news about the developments of this situation. This study aims to analyze information conveyed in the context of the pandemic, seeking to understand and explain aspects anchored in the production of the speeches, the meanings produced, as well as the materialities expressed through consumption and accumulation behavior of the population, raised by the pandemic. Ten journalistic articles, published on the Internet between March and April 2020, were analyzed in the light of risk psychosociology, inspired by authors such as Ulrich Beck and Mary Jane Spink; consumer behavior, mainly from Jurandir Freire Costa, and under the necropolitics' lens of Achille Mbembe. The analyzed behaviors expose chronic social problems, where the exacerbated consumption seeks to sustain the illusory scenario of security face the advance of the virus, emptying shelves, in acts that neglect those who do not have financial resources to guarantee their inputs, operating in favor of necropolitical technologies. In media activity, there are incitements to consumption and amplification of the feeling of fear in the face of the supposed shortage announced.


Subject(s)
Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Risk , Communication , Pandemics , Psychology, Social
13.
Brasília; IPEA;CEPAL; 2021. 327 p. ilus, graf.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1290466

ABSTRACT

Este livro visa complementar debates já desenvolvidos sobre a regulação da produção, da distribuição e da comercialização de substâncias psicoativas (SPAs), como é o caso de CEDD (2014), por meio do foco exclusivo nas políticas públicas de atenção e cuidado aos usuários, objeto ainda carente de análises mais sistemáticas na região.


Subject(s)
Illicit Drugs , Social Problems , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Users
15.
Agora USB ; 20(2): 259-271, jul.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152768

ABSTRACT

Resumen La democracia se ha constituido en uno de los temas de gran interés y debate para las ciencias sociales, en particular para el campo de la sociología política en América Latina. El trayecto histórico que ha tenido la esfera de lo público se ha convertido en un espacio epistémico encargado de reconfigurar las relaciones sociopolíticas que existen entre la ciudadanía y el Estado en el marco de los procesos endógenos/exógenos que constituyen la democracia en su concepción de lo público. Así pues, el propósito del presente artículo consiste en realizar un breve análisis sobre la discusión de la democracia en el marco del imaginario de los grupos subalternos que ejercen una mirada crítica sobre los procesos hegemónicos fomentados por los grupos dominantes, los cuales instituyen un modelo propio de la democracia moderna/liberal que está en función de un orden político en el plano vertical que genera actores marginados en la región.


Abstract Democracy has become one of the topics of great interest and debate for the social sciences, in particular, for the field of political sociology in Latin America. The historical journey, which has taken the public sphere has become an epistemic space responsible for reshaping the socio-political relations that exist between citizens and the state within the framework of the endogenous/exogenous processes, which constitute democracy in its conception of the public. Thus, the purpose of this article is to carry out a brief analysis of the discussion of democracy within the framework of the imaginary of junior groups that exercise a critical view of the hegemonic proces ses fostered by dominant groups, which institute a model typical of modern/liberal democracy, which is based on a political order at the vertical level generated by marginalized actors in the region.


Subject(s)
Social Problems
16.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 185-190, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145464

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión narrativa describe el daño colateral de la pandemia de COVID-19, tanto en aspectos de la salud, como también sociales, educativos o económicos. Comunicamos el impacto mundial y local. Consideramos que varias de estas consecuencias eran inevitables, especialmente las sucedidas durante los primeros meses de una pandemia que se difundió a gran velocidad y con graves consecuencias directas en la morbimortalidad de la población. Sin embargo, luego de seis meses de su llegada a la Argentina, es oportuno revaluar la situación y replantearse si no se debería cambiar el enfoque para balancear la minimización del impacto directo de COVID-19 junto con la del daño colateral que las medidas para paliarlo produjeron. Es un desafío que no debe limitarse al sistema de salud. Debe encararse con un abordaje intersectorial amplio y con participación activa de la sociedad. Así como aplanamos la curva de COVID-19, cuanto más nos demoremos en aplanar las otras curvas de problemas sanitarios y sociales que se están generando, mayor será su impacto, tanto en el corto como en el largo plazo. (AU)


This narrative review shows the collateral damage of the COVID-19 pandemic, whether in health, social, educational or economic aspects. We report on the impact at the global and local levels. Many of these consequences were inevitable, especially in the first months of a pandemic that spread at great speed and with serious direct consequences on the morbidity and mortality of the population. However, six months after the arrival in our country, it is an opportunity to reassess the situation and rethink whether the approach should not be changed to balance the minimization of the direct impact of COVID-19 with that of the collateral damage that mitigation measures produced. This is a challenge that should not be limited to the health system. It must be addressed with a broad intersectoral approach and active participation of society. Just as we flatten the COVID-19 curve, the longer we delay in flattening the other curves of health and social problems that are being generated, the greater the impact, both in the short and long term. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quality of Life , Social Isolation , Social Problems/prevention & control , Social Problems/statistics & numerical data , National Health Strategies , Health Systems/trends , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Impacts on Health/statistics & numerical data , Equity in Access to Health Services , Consequence Analysis , Health Communication/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
17.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(9): 568-573, 20200000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363010

ABSTRACT

Background. Street children are a real phenomenon in everyday life that cause complex social and health problems, dirty appearance, come from poor families, slum settlements or even street children do not have a place to live. The number of homeless people, beggars and street children has decreased, there were 990 street children and homeless people with beggars in Makassar City in 2012. There were 798 street children in Makassar City in 2016 who were recorded by Social Service officers from a number of points. Makassar road with various problems. This number includes 257 street children, 249 homeless and beggars, 58 buskers, 41 prostitutes, 5 transgender women, 63 drug users, and 125 mental disorders. The results of the observations of street children were found with traffic light and garbage disposal sites. These places are often found with dirty, dirty appearance, dirty clothes, smelly, unkempt hair, dirty hands, not wearing sandals and sometimes they eat without washing their hands, which can cause health problems for street children. Based on this background, the researcher is interested in examining the factors related to the personal hygiene of street children in the final waste disposal site in Manggala District, Makassar City. Material and Methods. The research is analytic observation using the Cross-Sectional study. The study was conducted in 21 October 2019 - 31 December 2019. The population was the patients with street children numbered 88 people, a purposive sampling technique was applied through chic square, uji continuity correction and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. The results showed that the variables age, gender, education and knowledge had a relationship with personal hygiene (pvalue 0.035), the R-square value was 0.897, which means that the ability of the independent variable to explain the dependent variable was 89.7% and 10.3% explained. by factors other than variables. Conclusion. Knowledge variable has a significant effect on personal hygiene (pvalue <0.001), the magnitude of the influence is indicated by the value of Exp (B) 26.6, which means that street children who are knowledgeable are at least 26.6 times less likely to have personal hygiene than street children with good knowledge


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Poverty , Social Conditions , Social Problems , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies/statistics & numerical data , Homeless Youth/education
18.
Estud. psicol. (Natal) ; 25(3): 335-346, jul.-set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1339894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed several sectors of society in the face of the urgent need to rethink people's relations with their surroundings. This article proposes a possible framework for reading the person-environment relations in the pandemic context, considering the Brazilian scenario. Our argument focuses on analyzing the spatialization of social and racial inequalities, determining factors for the spread of COVID-19, and the differences in its impacts, parallel to other readings that environmental psychology has presented for this context. We assume that more traditional approaches have limitations for understanding Latin American specificities, requiring revisions and reorientations of a theoretical-epistemological character and an ethical-political nature. In the end, we outline some propositions, from a critical perspective.


A pandemia de COVID-19 tem colocado diversos setores da sociedade diante da urgência de repensar as relações das pessoas com seus entornos. Neste ensaio propomos um quadro possível para a leitura das relações pessoa-ambiente no contexto da pandemia, considerando o cenário brasileiro. Nosso argumento se centra na análise da espacialização das desigualdades sociais e raciais, como fatores determinantes da disseminação da COVID-19 e das diferenças em seus impactos, em paralelo a outras leituras que a psicologia ambiental vem apresentando para esse contexto. Assumimos que abordagens mais tradicionais apresentam limitações para a compreensão das especificidades latino-americanas, demandando revisões e reorientações de caráter teórico-epistemológico, e de cunho ético-político. Ao final, esboçamos algumas proposições, a partir de uma perspectiva crítica, para a construção de conhecimentos mais condizentes com a materialidade da vida da maior parte da população.


La pandemia de COVID-19 ha convocado a varios sectores de la sociedad ante la urgente necesidad de repensar las relaciones de las personas con su entorno. En este ensayo, proponemos un posible marco para leer las relaciones entre las personas y el medio ambiente en el contexto de la pandemia, considerando el escenario brasileño. Nuestro argumento se centra en el análisis de la espacialización de las desigualdades sociales y raciales, como factores determinantes para la propagación de COVID-19 y las diferencias en sus impactos, en paralelo a otras lecturas que la psicología ambiental ha presentado para este contexto. Suponemos que los enfoques más tradicionales tienen limitaciones para comprender las especificidades latinoamericanas, que requieren revisiones y reorientaciones de carácter teórico-epistemológico y de naturaleza ético-política. Al final, delineamos algunas propuestas, desde una perspectiva crítica, para la construcción de conocimiento más consistente con la materialidad de la vida de la mayoría de la población.


Subject(s)
Social Isolation/psychology , Social Problems/psychology , Brazil , Environment , Environmental Psychology , COVID-19/psychology
19.
Pesqui. prát. psicossociais ; 15(2): 1-15, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1125323

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se investigar se e de que modo uma articulação em rede pode auxiliar e garantir a participação social na elaboração de uma agenda de políticas sociais pautada na garantia dos direitos de crianças, adolescentes e jovens. Por meio de observação participante e entrevistas, em uma experiência local, concluiu-se que, apesar de ter fomentado o debate sobre direitos e possibilitado a participação dos profissionais, a forma de organização para ser efetivamente democrática precisa ser revista, a fim de propiciar a participação de todos os atores sociais envolvidos, inclusive crianças, adolescentes e jovens.


This study attempt to investigate if and how a network articulation can help and guarantee social participation in the elaboration of an agenda of social policies based on the guarantee of the rights of children, adolescents and young people. Through the method of participant observation and interviews, in a local experience, we concluded that despite the fact we have fomented the debate on rights and made possible the participation of professionals, the form of organization to be effectively democratic needs to be revised in order to facilitate the participation of all social actors involved, including children, adolescents and young people.


El objetivo fue investigar si y cómo una red puede asistir y garantizar la participación social en el desarrollo de una agenda de políticas sociales basado en la garantía de los derechos de los niños, adolescentes y jóvenes. A través de la observación participante y entrevistas, en un experimento local encontró que, a pesar de haber fomentado el debate sobre los derechos y hecho posible la participación de profesionales; la forma de organización efectivamente democrática necesita revisarse, con el fin de propiciar la participación de todos los actores sociales involucrados, incluyendo niños, adolescentes y jóvenes.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Social Participation , Social Problems , Child Advocacy , Health Services Needs and Demand
20.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 28(3): 152-158, Jul-sept 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343056

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en el contexto universitario, los papeles de madre y estudiante son funciones con las que algunas mujeres deben convivir e interrelacionar. En consecuencia, la vivencia de la maternidad afecta al proceso de aprendizaje. Objetivo: identificar las problemáticas más frecuentes del embarazo y la maternidad en el rendimiento académico de las estudiantes de una universidad pública del Estado de México. Metodología: estudio descriptivo y cuantitativo. La población se conformó con 90 estudiantes de enfermería, psicología, turismo y contaduría. El instrumento se validó por juicio de expertos y se integró con 29 preguntas, con base en cuatro áreas: económica, académica, familiar y social. Resultados: uno de los problemas identificados es la falta de apoyo familiar en el cuidado de los hijos, lo cual altera el tiempo y la atención dedicados a la jornada estudiantil, que es minima para obtener los créditos académicos necesarios; una consecuencia de ello es el rendimiento académico menor y la prolongación de los estudios. Conclusiones: desempeñar de forma simultánea los papeles de estudiante y madre es una labor complicada, que prolonga los años de permanencia en los estudios profesionales o bien trunca esta posibilidad.


Introduction: In the university context, the role of mother and student are roles that some women must live with and that they must make compatible. In such a way that the experience of motherhood affects the learning process. Objective: To identify the problems and consequences of pregnancy and motherhood in the academic performance of the students of a public University of the State of Mexico. Methods: Descriptive and quantitative study. The population was made up of students of Nursing, Psychology, Tourism and Accounting. The instrument was validated by expert judgment, made up of 29 questions. Based on 5 areas: economic, psychological, academic, family and social. Results: One of the problems identified is the lack of family support in childcare, which impacts the time and attention that they dedicate to their student day, which is minimal to cover the necessary academic credits; as a consequence, academic performance is lower and study permanence is prolonged. Conclusions: Making the role of student mother compatible is a complicated task, which impacts by prolonging the years spent in professional studies or this possibility is truncated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Nursing , Pregnancy , Parenting , Academic Performance , Social Problems , Socioeconomic Factors , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies
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