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1.
Rev. bras. hipertens ; 28(4): 288-292, 10 dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367466

ABSTRACT

O potássio tem função fisiológica fundamental no volume intracelular e na manutenção funcional de nervos e músculos. Distúrbios do potássio são comuns e estão associados a aumento na mortalidade nos portadores de doenças cardiovasculares, entre elas a hipertensão arterial. Assim a manutenção de um equilíbrio entre o potássio intra e extracelular é de fundamental importância para nervos, músculos e o sistema cardiovascular. Há décadas os diuréticos tiazídicos são uma das principais drogas utilizadas no tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Entre suas principais reações adversas relacionam-se os distúrbios eletrolíticos e metabólicos, os quais se tornaram menos frequentes com o uso de doses menores do que as habitualmente empregadas no seu início. Neste artigo os principais efeitos adversos do uso crônico dos diuréticos tiazídicos bem como suas consequências serão discutidos.


Potassium has a fundamental physiological function without intracellular volume and in the functional maintenance of nerves and muscles. Potassium disorders are common and are associated with increased mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Thus, maintaining a balance between intracellular and extracellular potassium is of fundamental importance for the nerves, muscles and cardiovascular system. Thiazide diuretics have been one of the main drugs used in the treatment of hypertension for decades. Among its main adverse reactions are related electrolyte and metabolic disturbances, which become less frequent with the use of lower doses than those usually used at the beginning. In this article, the main adverse effects of the chronic use of thiazide diuretics as well as their consequences will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypokalemia
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of hypertension in the Western Pacific Region is 37% of adults older than 24, while in the Philippines it is 25% of adults 21 years old and above. Several guidelines have been developed for the management of hypertension. All these guidelines have recommendations for assessment and treatment.OBJECTIVES: The overall objective of the development and implementation of this clinical pathway is to improve outcomes of patients with hypertension seen in family and community practice.METHODS: The PAFP Clinical Pathways Group reviewed published medical literature to identify, summarize, and operationalize the clinical content of diagnostics, interventions and clinical indicators or outcomes to develop an evidence-based clinical pathway in family medicine practice. The group developed a time-related representation of recommendations on patient care processes, in terms of history and physical examination, laboratory tests, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions as well as social and community strategies to treat hypertension and prevent complications.RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations were made based on the number of visits. During the first visit, all adult patients consulting at the clinic should be screened for hypertension with appropriate BP measurement. A thorough history focusing on symptoms, family history using genogram, smoking and other lifestyle and co-existing chronic disease and a thorough physical examination focusing on the weight/BMI, waist/hip ration, funduscopy, neurological, cardiac, renal and peripheral arteries should be done. For the laboratory, request for 12-lead ECG, urinalysis, FBS, creatinine, serum K and lipid profile to determine co-morbidities and baseline values. If the patient is already diagnosed hypertensive, start/continue medications with either or a combination of thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blocker depending on co-morbidities or side effects. But if there is a need for further confirmation, no medication is warranted. Educate the patient about hypertension, risk factors and complications. If medications were prescribed, explain the dose, frequency, intended effect, possible side effects and importance of medication adherence. Lifestyle modifications focusing on weight control, exercise and smoking cessation should be advised. During the first first visit is expected that the patient is aware of the diagnosis of hypertension, its risks factors and complications to encourage compliance.IMPLEMENTATION: Education, training and audit are recommended strategies to implement the clinical pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Smoking Cessation , Medication Adherence , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Hypertension , Chronic Disease , Lipids , Thiazides , Arteries
3.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 31(2): 105-108, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-757185

ABSTRACT

In Chile, hydrochlorothiazide is frequently prescribed as first line antihypertensive therapy. Among it’s well known adverse reactions are: electrolytic disorders, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, agranulocytosis and azotemia. Acute pulmonary edema is a rare and potentially lethal adverse effect. Only 50 cases have been reported since 1968. In this article, we discuss a case of a 70 year old woman who, one hour after the ingestion of hydrochlorotiazide, presented acute and progressive dyspnea. Her clinical and radiologic findings are compatible with non-cardiogenic acute pulmonary edema.


En Chile, la hidroclorotiazida se utiliza ampliamente como terapia de primera línea en la hipertensión arterial esencial. Entre los efectos adversos más conocidos destacan: trastornos hidroelectrolíticos, hiperuricemia, dislipidemia, azotemia, entre otros. El edema pulmonar agudo es un efecto adverso infrecuente y potencialmente grave. Desde 1968, se han reportado 50 casos clínicos en la literatura. En este artículo presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 70 años atendida en el Hospital Santiago Oriente quien, una hora posterior a la ingesta de hidroclorotiazida, presenta disnea aguda progresiva. El estudio clínico y radiológico es compatible con edema pulmonar agudo no cardiogénico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pulmonary Edema/chemically induced , Diuretics/adverse effects , Hydrochlorothiazide/adverse effects , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Acute Disease , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164155

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess one-year persistence with antihypertensive therapy (AHT) among newly treated uncomplicated hypertensive patients in Korea and to evaluate the effect of initial therapeutic classes on persistence. We retrospectively analyzed a random sample of 20% of newly treated uncomplicated hypertensive patients (n = 45,787) in 2012 from the National Health Insurance claims database. This group was classified into six cohorts based on initial AHT class. We then measured treatment persistence, allowing a prescription gap of 60 days. Adherence to AHT was assessed with the medication possession ratio. Calcium channel blockers (CCB, 43.7%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB, 40.3%) were most commonly prescribed as initial monotherapy. Overall, 62.1% and 42.0% were persistent with any AHT and initial class at one year, respectively, and 64.2% were adherent to antihypertensive treatment. Compared with ARBs, the risk of AHT discontinuation was significantly increased with initial use of thiazide diuretics (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96-3.74) and beta blockers (HR, 1.86; CI, 1.77-1.95) and was minimally increased with CCBs (HR, 1.12; CI, 1.08-1.15). In conclusion, persistence and adherence to AHT are suboptimal, but the differences are meaningful in persistence and adherence between initial AHT classes.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/classification , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Young Adult
5.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 775-779, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-219576

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention.


Subject(s)
Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Calcium Oxalate/analysis , Cystine/analysis , Diet , Humans , Kidney Calculi/chemistry , Potassium Citrate/therapeutic use , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Uric Acid/analysis , Urological Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 173-176, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115479

ABSTRACT

4 liters of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution is commonly used to evacuate the colon before colonoscopy. This substance, however, is known to cause electrolyte abnormalities such as hyponatremia. Seizures caused by hyponatremia associated with bowel preparation have only rarely been reported. We report the case that a 75-year-old woman with no prior history of seizures was developed severe hyponatremia (112 mEq/L) with generalized tonic-clonic seizure and mental change after ingestion of 4L of PEG solution. Past medical history was notable for thiazide diuretics. Her symptoms are improved during intravenous administration of hypertonic saline for the correction of hyponatremia. Patients with impaired ability to excrete free water those with renal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, mineralocorticoid deficiency, liver cirrhosis, or heart failure as well as those taking drugs which including thiazide diuretics, NASIDs, and ACE inhibitors have risk of hyponatremia following bowel preparation for colonoscopy. We conclude that physicians should check patient's condition and electrolyte abnormalities before colonoscopy procedures.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravenous , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Colon , Colonoscopy , Eating , Female , Heart Failure , Humans , Hyponatremia , Hypothyroidism , Liver Cirrhosis , Polyethylene , Polyethylene Glycols , Renal Insufficiency , Seizures , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Water
7.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 813-816, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126591

ABSTRACT

Duloxetine is a balanced serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor available for treating peripheral neuropathic pain. The occurrence of hyponatremia as an adverse event of duloxetine treatment, but it has not yet been reported in Korea. Here, we report two cases of hyponatremia induced by duloxetine for treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. Our findings highlight the need for special attention when using duloxetine in elderly patients taking thiazide diuretics.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Hyponatremia , Korea , Neuralgia , Norepinephrine , Serotonin , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Thiophenes , Duloxetine Hydrochloride
8.
Gut and Liver ; : 172-187, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19390

ABSTRACT

Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bile , Cholecystectomy , Cholelithiasis , Cholesterol , Crohn Disease , Developed Countries , Fasting , Female , Fibrosis , Gallbladder , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Gallstones , Hemolysis , Humans , Incidence , Indians, South American , Mass Screening , Obesity , Octreotide , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Polyps , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Weight Loss
9.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 24 (4): 583-587
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137564

ABSTRACT

The precise relationship of Hyperuricemia found in hypertensive patients is still obscure; this study is a urinary uric acid lowering intervention with Losartan in hypertensive patients induced by Thiazide diuretics. A number of pharmacological agents like loop diuretics, similarly low doses of aspirin [<3g daily] aggravate Hyperuricemia. The effect of Losartan on urinary uric acid excretion In Hypertensive patients with Thiazide induced Hyperuricemia were investigated in the Department of pharmacology and therapeutics, Basic Medical Sciences Institute Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi. It was randomized, open label, prospective, comparative study. Total 60 hypertensive Hyperuricemic patients were enrolled one by one in this study, selected from medical OPD and wards of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. Patients were divided in three groups. Group-1 patients were treated with Thiazide 50 mg/day, Group-2 with Losartan + Thiazide 50 mg/day, and Group-3 with Losartan 50 mg/day. The effect on urinary uric acid level was measured, after every fortnightly. Treatment with Thiazide + Losartan group and Losartan group showed significantly increase in urinary uric acid excretion. Whereas, Thiazide group decrease in urinary uric acid level. In contrast to Thiazide and Losartan alone Thiazide + Losartan led to a greater increased in urinary uric acid excretion. The average percentage increase in urinary uric acid excretion in Thiazide + Losartan group was -13.27% and the average percentage increased in urinary uric acid excretion was 6.7% in Losartan group. Thus it can be concluded from the present study that urinary uric acid excretion was more increased in combination therapies. Ultimately Losartan decrease serum uric acid level and uricosuric effect of Losartan might be particularly useful in Hyperuricemic patients those on Thiazide diuretic [for hypertension and heart failure]


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hydrochlorothiazide/adverse effects , Hydrochlorothiazide , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Treatment Outcome , Uric Acid/urine , Uricosuric Agents , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hydrochlorothiazide/adverse effects , Hydrochlorothiazide , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Treatment Outcome , Uric Acid/urine , Uricosuric Agents
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64083

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thiazide diuretics exert their hypotensive efficacy through a combined vasodilator and diuretic effect. The present study was conducted to assess the inhibitory effect of thiazide diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, and the thiazide-like diuretics, indapamide and chlorthalidone on contractile responses to norepinephrine and arginine vasopressin in aortic rings from 2K1C renal hypertensive and sham-clipped normotensive rats. METHODS: 2K1C hypertension was made by clipping the left renal artery and age-matched control rats received a sham treatment. Changes in the tension of aortic ring preparations were measured isometrically. RESULTS: Indapamide inhibits the contractile responses to norepinephrine and vasopressin in aortic rings from 2K1C rats, while it did not modify in control rats. The inhibitory effect of indapamide was abolished by endothelium removal. Hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone did not affect the vasoconstriction induced by norepinephrine and vasopressin either in sham or in 2K1C hypertensive rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that indapamide inhibits the contractile responses to norepinephrine and vasopressin via an endothelium-dependent mechanism in 2K1C renal hypertension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta , Arginine Vasopressin , Chlorthalidone , Diuretics , Endothelium , Hydrochlorothiazide , Hypertension , Hypertension, Renal , Indapamide , Norepinephrine , Placebos , Rats , Renal Artery , Salicylamides , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Vasoconstriction , Vasodilation , Vasopressins
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64082

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study, the etiology and the change of clinical characteristics of hyponatremia, in relation to the increased used of thiazide diuretics, have been assessed. METHODS: To perform a retrospective cohort study, a total sum of 322 patients who have been admitted in a single tertiary referral hospital between 2004 and 2009, were included. RESULTS: The most common cause of hyponatremia was due to thiazide diuretics (37.6%). Among the 121 patients who suffered from thiazide induced hyponatremia, 60 (48.0%) patients took combination thiazide. The incidence of hyponatremia has shown a tendency to increase from 2004 to 2009 (trend test, p<0.001). The incidence of hyponatremia due to the use of combination types has also increased (trend test, p<0.001). Thiazide induced hyponatremia showed no difference when compared to hyponatremia due the other causes, except the fact that the portion of female patients was higher (73.6% vs 64.6%, p<0.001), mean age was older (74.7 vs 69.9 years-old, p<0.001), and incidence of cerebrovascular accident was also higher (19.8% vs 6.5%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of thiazide is increasing and hence thiazide-induced hyponatremia is also increasing. This is thought to be particularly related to the increase of thiazide-combined drugs. Thiazideinduced hyponatremia shows a higher incidence in old age, female sex and those who have a history of a cerebrovascular event. Hence more caution is needed when using thiazide diuretics as antihypertensives, and plasma sodium levels should be monitored carefully.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Cohort Studies , Diuretics , Female , Humans , Hyponatremia , Incidence , Plasma , Retrospective Studies , Sodium , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Stroke , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 309-314, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272254

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>We used the individual patient data from clinical trials, pooled in the INDANA data set, to explore whether blood pressure reduction was related to the baseline individual characteristics, and quantify the potential associations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We used the data from 31 140 patients with essential hypertension recruited in four randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, MRC35-64, MRC65-74, STEP and SYST-EU. Thiazide diuretics, β-blocker, and calcium channel blocker, three of six major BP lowering drugs were analyzed. Patients were all with the same first dosage of the drug in each trial. Age, body weight, height, level of total cholesterin (TC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) when initialed and at first visit of follow-up, pharmacological treatment, gender, status of smoking, history of myocardium infarction were factors taken into model. Data were managed by software SAS(®). Statistical analyses were performed with SAS(®) and R. Model was developed to evaluate the relationship between decrease of SBP and characteristics of patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Initial SBP is the only modifier of treatment effect on SBP response in the 3 BP lowering drug classes (β = 0.09, 0.37 and 0.18, respectively). Age and initial DBP were factors significantly correlated with SBP fall for diuretic (β = 0.17 and 0.14), and age was one of factors significantly correlated with SBP fall for β-blocker (β = -0.17). Smokers would receive less SBP fall compare to non-smokers in β-blocker active treated group (β = -2.07). There is converse effect of age between the diuretic and β-blocker; older people seem sensitive to diuretic, while young people are sensitive to β-blocker. As to calcium channel antagonist class, body weight is another modifier (β = 0.06) (All P value are 0.000 except 0.050 for body weight in calcium channel antagonist class).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We identified 5 significant modifiers (baseline SBP and DBP, age, smoking status and body weight) for SBP response to treatment effect, while gender, TC and history of myocardial infarction are not modifiers for SBP response to treatment effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , Calcium Channel Blockers , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Smoking , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Systole
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-199396

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is one of the most significant but modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Previous clinical trial clearly showed that blood pressure reduction effectively decreased the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Despite the improvement of hypertension treatment, the overall control rate of hypertension has not yet been clearly improved. The proportion of hypertensive patients who have their blood pressure controlled has increased dramatically during the past several decades; however, a lot of patients still did not reach the optima goal. In addition, other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease rapidly increased recently. As such, the proper control of the risk factors is much more important in high risk hypertensive patients. The control of hypertension continues to be inadequate despite the effective, well-tolerated medications. The control rates are even worse among the high risk patients, to whom target blood-pressure levels of 130/80 mm Hg or lower are recommended. In order to improve the level of blood pressure control in the population, we should enhance the awareness and treatment of hypertension through public health education. In addition, aggressive combination therapy including diuretics, overcoming therapeutic inertia, and screening for primary aldosteronism is warranted in all the hypertensive patients. Novel therapeutic approach for hypertension such as immunization against angiotensin II or renal denervation has gained much attention. In condusion, despite recent advance in pharmacological therapeutics, the rate of hypertension control is still far from satisfactory. Lower treatment thresholds and more intensive treatment contribute to better hypertension control. In particular, much more efforts are needed to encourage the use of low-cost thiazide diuretics as antihypertensive agents in patients taking more than three anti-hypertensive medications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II , Antihypertensive Agents , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases , Denervation , Diuretics , Dyslipidemias , Humans , Hyperaldosteronism , Hypertension , Immunization , Incidence , Mass Screening , Public Health , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Risk Factors , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177038

ABSTRACT

Thiazide is known to decrease urinary calcium excretion. We hypothesized that thiazide shows different hypocalciuric effects depending on the stimuli causing hypercalciuria. The hypocalciuric effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), calbindin-D(28K), and several sodium transporters were assessed in hypercalciuric rats induced by high calcium diet and vitamin D3. Urine calcium excretion and the expression of transporters were measured from 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats; control, HCTZ, high calcium-vitamin D, and high calcium-vitamin D with HCTZ groups. HCTZ decreased urinary calcium excretion by 51.4% in the HCTZ group and only 15% in the high calcium-vitamin D with HCTZ group. TRPV5 protein abundance was not changed by HCTZ in the high calcium-vitamin D with HCTZ group compared to the high calcium-vitamin D group. Protein abundance of NHE3, SGLT1, and NKCC2 decreased in the hypercalciuric rats, and only SGLT1 protein abundance was increased by HCTZ in the hypercalciuric rats. The hypocalciuric effect of HCTZ is attenuated in high calcium and vitamin D-induced hypercalciuric rats. This attenuation seems to have resulted from the lack of HCTZ's effect on protein abundance of TRPV5 in severe hypercalciuric condition induced by high calcium and vitamin D.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/therapeutic use , Calcium Channels/genetics , Cholecalciferol/toxicity , Hydrochlorothiazide/therapeutic use , Hypercalciuria/chemically induced , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1/genetics , Sodium-Hydrogen Exchangers/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters/genetics , TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96406

ABSTRACT

The importance of thiazide-induced hyponatremia (TIH) is reemerging because thiazide diuretic prescription seems to be increasing after the guidelines recommending thiazides as first-line treatment of essential hypertension have been introduced. Thiazide diuretics act by inhibiting reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- from the distal convoluted tubule by blocking the thiazide-sensitive Na+/Cl- cotransporter. Thus, they inhibit electrolyte transport in the diluting segment and may impair urinary dilution in some vulnerable groups. Risk factors predisposing to TIH are old age, women, reduced body masses, and concurrent use of other medications that impair water excretion. While taking thiazides, the elderly may have a greater defect in water excretion after a water load compared with young subjects. Hyponatremia is usually induced within 2 weeks of starting the thiazide diuretic, but it can occur any time during thiazide therapy when subsequent contributory factors are complicated, such as reduction of renal function with aging, ingestion of other drugs that affect free water clearance, or changes in water or sodium intake. While some patients are volume depleted on presentation, most appear euvolemic. Notably serum levels of uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen are usually normal or low, suggestive of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Despite numerous studies, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying TIH are unclear. Although the traditional view is that diuretic-induced sodium or volume loss results in vasopressin-induced water retention, the following 3 main factors are implicated in TIH: stimulation of vasopressin secretion, reduced free-water clearance, and increased water intake. These factors will be discussed in this review.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Creatinine , Diuretics , Drinking , Eating , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Hyponatremia , Nitrogen , Prescriptions , Retention, Psychology , Risk Factors , Sodium , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Thiazides , Urea , Uric Acid , Vasopressins , Water
17.
Arq. méd. ABC ; 31(2): 91-101, jul.-dez. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-457914

ABSTRACT

A hipertensão arterial sistêmica é uma doença crônica com alta prevalência na população brasileira e mundial, com elevado custo econômico-social, principalmente em decorrência das suas complicações. Estima-se que exista cerca de 1 bilhão de indivíduos hipertensos no mundo, sendo a hipertensão arterial responsável por aproximadamente 7,1 milhões de óbitos por ano. Dando ênfase ao seu controle e tratamento precoces, a classificação da hipertensão arterial foi recentemente modificada pelo Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. A adoção de hábitos de vida saudáveis por todas as pessoas é essencial para a prevenção da hipertensão arterial, sendo indispensável como parte do tratamento para indivíduos hipertensos. A droga de escolha para a maioria dos pacientes portadores de hipertensão arterial primária é um diurético tiazídico. Foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico em bases de dados eletrônicos sobre o tema estudado em março de 2005. Das publicações encontradas, foram utilizadas as que apresentavam os maiores níveis de evidência. Devido a notável prevalência da hipertensão arterial em nosso meio e da necessidade de uma abordagem correta desses pacientes pelos profissionais de saúde, tivemos como objetivo sistematizar o conhecimento atual sobre aspectos epidemiológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos da hipertensão arterial.


Systemic hypertension is a chronic disease with a high prevalence among the Brazilians as well as world populations with a high social and economic cost due to its complications.It is estimated that 1 billion individuals all over the world suffer from hypertension, and this disease is responsible for approximately 7,1 million deaths per year. With an emphasis on control and easy treatment, the classification of hypertensionhas been recently modified in the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection,Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. The adoption of a healthy lifestyle is essential for the preventionof hypertension in all people but it is indispensable as part of the treatment for hypertensive individuals. The choice of drug for most sufferers of basic hypertension is a tiazidic diuretic. Bibliographical survey in electronic databases on the subject studied in March of 2005 was carried through. Offound publications, the ones had been used that presented the biggest levels of evidence. Due to the high prevalenceof hypertension among people and the need for the right approach to these patients by health professionals, ourobjective has been to carry out a review of the literature on the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects ofthis disease and how they are approached in this hospital.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antihypertensive Agents , Hypertension/classification , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/diet therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/therapy , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
18.
Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences-Assiut University. 2006; 29 (part.1): 33-58
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-76345

ABSTRACT

Three Simple and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed for the quantitative determination of certain diuretics [bendroflumethiazide, benzthiazide, chlorthalidone, clopamide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide and xipamide] in pure forms as well as in their pharmaceutical formulations through their hydroxamate formation and subsequent complexation with iron [method I], reaction with potassium ferricyanide [method II] and reaction with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan [method III]. The conditions for different reactions were studied and optimized. The methods have been validated and successfully applied to the analysis of bulk drugs and their tablets with good recoveries ranging from 97.93 [ +/- 1.46] to 100.6 [ +/- 1.75] for method I. 98.49 [ +/- 1.43] to 99.86 [ +/- 0.87] for method II, and 98.98 [ +/- 1.11] to 99.90 [ +/- 0.86] for method III. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. The results obtained compare well with those of reported methods


Subject(s)
Drug Monitoring/methods , Spectrophotometry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
19.
La Lettre du cedim ; 9(28): 21-22, 2006.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264815

ABSTRACT

Les diuretiques sont des medicaments couramment utilises en pratique clinique quotidienne. Bien que rarement utilises en automedication; une meilleure connaissance des risques et des benefices lies a ces medicaments peut permettre de mieux les utiliser en fonction de la situation clinique du patient


Subject(s)
Diuretics , Diuretics/adverse effects , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
20.
La Lettre du cedim ; 9(28): 23-26, 2006.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264816

ABSTRACT

L`hypertension arterielle (HTA) est une affection repandue dans toutes les regions du monde. Ses complications sont responsables d`une importante mortalite. D`une maniere generale; sa prise en charge est loin d`etre parfaite. Au Burkina Faso en 1998; une etude a montre que 17de la population urbaine de plus de 30 ans avait une pression arterielle superieure ou egale a 160/95 mm Hg (a); il y a des controverses sur la definition de l`HTA; mais de plus en plus; il y a convergence de point de vue sur la hierarchisation des interventions medicamenteuses. Nous presentons ici des strategies therapeutiques ayant demontre leur efficacite preventive


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents , Hypertension/drug therapy , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use
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