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J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190516, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090775


Abstract This study investigated the effect of a calcium hydroxide (CH) paste (CleaniCal®) containing N-2-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a vehicle on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms compared with other products containing saline (Calasept Plus™) or propylene glycol (PG) (Calcipex II®). Methodology Standardized bovine root canal specimens were used. The antibacterial effects were measured by colony-forming unit counting. The thickness of bacterial microcolonies and exopolysaccharides was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Morphological features of the biofilms were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Bovine tooth blocks covered with nail polish were immersed into the vehicles and dispelling was observed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results CleaniCal® showed the highest antibacterial activity, followed by Calcipex II® (p<0.05). Moreover, NMP showed a higher antibacterial effect compared with PG (p<0.05). The thickness of bacteria and EPS in the CleaniCal® group was significantly lower than that of other materials tested (p<0.05). FE-SEM images showed the specimens treated with Calasept Plus™ were covered with biofilms, whereas the specimens treated with other medicaments were not. Notably, the specimen treated with CleaniCal® was cleaner than the one treated with Calcipex II®. Furthermore, the nail polish on the bovine tooth block immersed in NMP was completely dispelled. Conclusions CleaniCal® performed better than Calasept Plus™ and Calcipex II® in the removal efficacy of E. faecalis biofilms. The results suggest the effect might be due to the potent dissolving effect of NMP on organic substances.

Animals , Cattle , Pyrrolidinones/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Potassium Chloride/chemistry , Pyrrolidinones/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Materials Testing , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Calcium Chloride/chemistry , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sodium Bicarbonate/pharmacology , Sodium Bicarbonate/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Confocal , Drug Combinations
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 112-119, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889190


ABSTRACT An ascomycetes fungus was isolated from brine storage of green olives of the Arauco cultivar imported from Argentina and identified as Monascus ruber. The combined effects of different concentrations of sodium chloride (3.5-5.5%), sodium benzoate (0-0.1%), potassium sorbate (0-0.05%) and temperature (30-40 °C) were investigated on the growth of M. ruber in the brine of stored table olives using a response surface methodology. A full 24 factorial design with three central points was first used in order to screen for the important factors (significant and marginally significant factors) and then a Face-Centered Central Composite Design was applied. Both preservatives prevented fungal spoilage, but potassium sorbate was the most efficient to control the fungi growth. The combined use of these preservatives did not show a synergistic effect. The results showed that the use of these salts may not be sufficient to prevent fungal spoilage and the greatest fungal growth was recorded at 30 °C.

Food Preservation/methods , Monascus/growth & development , Olea/microbiology , Food Preservation/instrumentation , Food Preservatives/pharmacology , Food Storage , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/microbiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Monascus/drug effects , Olea/chemistry , Sodium Benzoate/analysis , Sodium Benzoate/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/analysis , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(2): 154-160, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838693


Abstract Background: Isotonic blood volume expansion (BVE) induced alterations of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the heart and blood vessels, which can be modulated by serotonergic pathways. Objective: To evaluate the effect of saline or serotonergic agonist (DOI) administration in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on cardiovascular responses after BVE. Methods: We recorded pulsatile blood pressure through the femoral artery to obtain the mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and the sympathetic-vagal ratio (LF/HF) of Wistar rats before and after they received bilateral microinjections of saline or DOI into the PVN, followed by BVE. Results: No significant differences were observed in the values of the studied variables in the different treatments from the control group. However, when animals are treated with DOI followed by BVE there is a significant increase in relation to the BE control group in all the studied variables: MBP (114.42±7.85 vs 101.34±9.17); SBP (147.23±14.31 vs 129.39±10.70); DBP (98.01 ±4.91 vs 87.31±8.61); HR (421.02±43.32 vs 356.35±41.99); and LF/HF ratio (2.32±0.80 vs 0.27±0.32). Discussion: The present study showed that the induction of isotonic BVE did not promote alterations in MAP, HR and LF/HF ratio. On the other hand, the injection of DOI into PVN of the hypothalamus followed by isotonic BVE resulted in a significant increase of all variables. Conclusion: These results suggest that serotonin induced a neuromodulation in the PVN level, which promotes an inhibition of the baroreflex response to BVE. Therefore, the present study suggests the involvement of the serotonergic system in the modulation of vagal reflex response at PVN in the normotensive rats.

Resumo Fundamento: Expansão de volume extracelular (EVEC) promove alterações da atividade simpática e parassimpática no coração e vasos sanguíneos, os quais podem ser moduladas por vias serotoninérgicas. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da administração de salina ou agonista serotoninérgico (DOI) nos núcleos paraventriculares hipotalâmico (NPV) sobre respostas cardiovasculares após EVEC. Métodos: Foram obtidos registros da pressão arterial pulsátil, por meio da artéria femoral, para obtenção dos valores da pressão arterial média (PAM), sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD), frequência cardíaca (FC) e razão simpático-vagal (LF/HF) de ratos Wistar antes e após receberem microinjeções bilaterais no NPV de salina ou DOI seguida de EVEC. Resultados: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas dos valores das variáveis estudadas nos diferentes tratamentos do grupo controle. Entretanto, quando os animais são tratados com DOI seguida de EVEC ocorre aumento significativo em relação ao grupo controle com EVEC em todas as variáveis estudadas: PAM (114,42±7,85 vs 101,34±9,17), PAS (147,23±14,31 vs 129,39±10,70), PAD (98,01 ±4,91 vs 87,31±8,61), FC (421,02±43,32 vs 356,35±41,99) e LF/HF (2,32±0,80 vs 0,27±0,32). Discussão: O presente estudo mostrou que a indução de EVEC isotônica não promoveu alterações na PAM, PAD, PAS, FC e LF/HF. Por outro lado, os animais que receberam microinjeção de DOI no NPV seguida de EVEC apresentaram aumento significativo de todas as variáveis. Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que a serotonina exerce uma neuromodulação em nivel do NPV, e essa promove uma inibição da resposta barorreflexa frente à EVEC. Assim, o presente trabalho sugere o envolvimento serotoninérgico na neuromodulação no nivel do NPV na resposta reflexa vagal em ratos normotensos.

Animals , Male , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/drug effects , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiology , Blood Volume/drug effects , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Serotonin Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Volume/physiology , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Baroreflex/drug effects , Baroreflex/physiology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 245-252, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768219


Abstract Several environmental parameters may influence biological processes of several aquatic invertebrates, such as the Monogenea. Current analysis investigates oviposition, hatching success and infestation of Aphanoblastella mastigatus, a parasite of the silver catfish Rhamdia quelen at different temperatures (~ 24 and 28 °C) and salinity (by adding sodium chloride to water, at concentrations 0, 5 and 9 g/L) in laboratory. There was no significant difference in oviposition rate and in A. mastigatus infestation success at 24 and 28 °C. On the other hand, the concentration 9 g/L of sodium chloride in the water impaired the parasite’s survival and the viability of the eggs. Results show that its usage is efficient as a possible prophylactic treatment. Eclosion rate of A. mastigatus’s eggs was significantly higher at 28 °C, although it was significantly less from 5 g/L. Two oviposition peaks (06h15 and 18h15) occurred during a 24-hour period, or rather, during the highest variations in luminosity. Further studies are recommended with greater temperature intervals and more intense experimental infestations to verify the effects of temperature in the life span and infestation success of A. mastigatus.

Resumo Diversos parâmetros ambientais podem afetar os processos biológicos de diversos organismos invertebrados aquáticos, como os Monogenea. Neste estudo, nós investigamos a oviposição, sucesso de eclosão e infestação de Aphanoblastella mastigatus, parasito de jundiá Rhamdia quelen, em diferentes condições de temperatura (~ 24 e 28 °C) e salinidade (por meio da adição de cloreto de sódio na água nas concentrações de 0, 5 e 9 g/L) em laboratório. Não houve diferença significativa na taxa de oviposição nem no sucesso de infestação de A. mastigatus à 24 e 28 °C; por outro lado, a concentração de 9 g/L de cloreto de sódio na água inviabilizou não só a sobrevivência do parasito mas também a viabilidade dos ovos. Esse resultado indica que seu uso é eficiente como potencial tratamento profilático. A taxa de eclosão dos ovos de A. mastigatus foi significativamente maior a 28 °C. A partir de 5 g/L, a mesma foi significativamente menor. Durante um período de 24 horas, dois picos na oviposição ocorreram nos momentos de maior variação da luminosidade (06h15 e 18h15). Futuros estudos são recomendados utilizando intervalos de temperatura e intensidades de infestação experimental maiores para verificar a influência da temperatura na longevidade e sucesso de infestação de A. mastigatus.

Animals , Female , Catfishes , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Trematoda/physiology , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Oviposition , Reproduction , Salinity , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Temperature , Trematode Infections/epidemiology , Trematode Infections/parasitology , Water/chemistry
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 91(5): 499-505, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766172


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of two intravenous maintenance fluids on plasma sodium (Na), and acid-base balance in pediatric intensive care patients during the first 24 h of hospitalization. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed, which allocated 233 patients to groups: (A) NaCl 0.9% or (B) NaCl 0.45%. Patients were aged 1 day to 18 years, had normal electrolyte concentrations, and suffered an acute insult (medical/surgical). Main outcome measured: change in plasma sodium. Parametric tests: t-tests, ANOVA, X 2 statistical significance level was set at a = 0.05. RESULTS: Group A (n = 130): serum Na increased by 2.91 (±3.9) mmol/L at 24 h (p < 0.01); 2% patients had Na higher than 150 mmol/L. Mean urinary Na: 106.6 (±56.8) mmol/L. No change in pH at 0 and 24 h. Group B (n = 103): serum Na did not display statistically significant changes. Fifteen percent of the patients had Na < 135 mmol/L at 24 h. The two fluids had different effects on respiratory and post-operative situations. CONCLUSIONS: The use of saline 0.9% was associated with a lower incidence of electrolyte disturbances.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito de dois fluidos de manutenção intravenosos sobre o sódio (Na) plasmático e o equilíbrio ácido-base em pacientes de terapia intensiva pediátrica durante as primeiras 24 horas de internação. MÉTODOS: Foi feito um estudo controlado randomizado prospectivo. Alocamos aleatoriamente 233 pacientes para os grupos: (A) NaCl a 0,9% e (B) NaCl a 0,45%. Os pacientes com um dia a 18 anos apresentavam concentrações normais de eletrólitos e sofriam de insulto agudo (médico/cirúrgico). Principal resultado: variação no sódio plasmático. Testes paramétricos: teste t, Anova, qui-quadrado. O nível de relevância estatística foi estabelecido em a = 0,05. RESULTADOS: Grupo A (n = 130): o Na sérico aumentou 2,91 (± 3,9) mmol L-1 em 24 h (p < 0,01); 2% dos pacientes apresentaram Na acima de 150 mmol L-1. Concentração média de Na na urina: 106,6 (± 56,8) mmol L-1. Sem alteração no pH em 0 e 24 horas. Grupo B (n = 103): o Na sérico não apresentou alterações estatisticamente significativas; 15% dos pacientes apresentaram Na < 135 mmol L-1 em 24 h. Os dois fluidos tiveram efeitos diferentes sobre as situações respiratória e pós-operatória. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de solução fisiológica a 0,9% foi associado à menor incidência de distúrbios eletrolíticos.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Acid-Base Equilibrium/drug effects , Fluid Therapy/methods , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Sodium/metabolism , Fluid Therapy/adverse effects , Hyponatremia/chemically induced , Hyponatremia/drug therapy , Hyponatremia/metabolism , Infusions, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Prospective Studies , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Sodium/blood
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 835-840, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755815


Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO). The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.


Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Origanum/metabolism , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/prevention & control , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Enterotoxins/metabolism , Food Microbiology , Lactic Acid/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Rosmarinus/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Food Poisoning/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
Salud colect ; 11(3): 331-349, jul.-sep. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-761805


Desde una perspectiva sociológica, este trabajo aborda una de las aristas de la intervención pública de ciertos sectores del catolicismo en la elaboración y sanción de leyes de salud. En particular se hace foco en el debate en comisiones parlamentarias sobre la llamada ley de "muerte digna" (Ley 26742) en el cual se convocó a un grupo de expertos en bioética para asesorar a los senadores sobre los alcances y límites de la ley. La mayoría de los expertos invitados pregonan la perspectiva de la bioética personalista, un desarrollo teológico de la bioética del catolicismo contemporáneo. En el debate no participaron representantes de otros credos consolidando la ampliamente estudiada imbricación entre el catolicismo y lo político en Argentina.

This paper discusses from a sociological perspective one of Catholicism's fronts of public intervention in the development and enactment of health legislation. In particular we analyze the debate in parliamentary committees on the so-called "death with dignity" law (No. 26742), for which a group of bioethics experts was convened to counsel senators regarding the scope and limits of the law. The majority of the invited experts advocated a personalist bioethics perspective, which is a theological bioethics development of contemporary Catholicism. In the debate no representatives of other faiths were present, reinforcing the widely studied overlap between Catholicism and politics in Argentina.

Mesembryanthemum/physiology , RNA, Plant/genetics , Salinity , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Arabidopsis/drug effects , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Genes, Plant , Mesembryanthemum/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 31 (6): 1349-1354
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-175107


Objective: To investigate the effects of normal saline [0.9% NaCl] and 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4[HES] solution on Ischemia/Reperfusion [I/R] injury in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy operations with spinal anesthesia using a tourniquet

Methods: The study comprised 48 ASA I-II patients undergoing knee arthroscopy with spinal anesthesia using a tourniquet. The patients were randomised into two groups and after standard monitoring two venous lines were introduced to obtain blood samples and to give intravenous therapy. In the control group [Group A] [n=21] 0.9% NaCl, 10 ml/kg/hours and in the study group [Group B] [n=19] 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4, 10 ml/kg/hours infusion were administered. Spinal anesthesia was applied with 12.5 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine to all patients. The tourniquet was applied and the operation was started when the sensorial block level reached T10 dermatome. Blood xanthine oxidase [XO] and malondialdehyde [MDA] levels as an indicator of ischemia and reperfusion injury were measured in samples before fluid infusion [t1], before tourniquet application [t2], 1 minute before tourniquet release [t3], and at 5 [t4] and 15 [t5] minutes after tourniquet release

Results: No difference was observed between the two groups in respect of demographic parameters, the highest block level, duration before tourniquet application and tourniquet duration [p>0.05]. The MDA level after tourniquet application and 15 minutes after tourniquet release was lower in Group B [p<0.05]. XO levels were not different [p>0.05]

Conclusion: In this study 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 solution reduced MDA level which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation. 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 solution may be beneficial for Ischemia/reperfusion injuries

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Administration, Intravenous , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Arthroscopy , Knee , Anesthesia, Spinal , Tourniquets , Xanthine Oxidase/blood , Malondialdehyde/blood
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950797


BACKGROUND: The epicuticular waxy layer of plant leaves enhances the extreme environmental stress tolerance. However, the relationship between waxy layer and saline tolerance was not established well. The epicuticular waxy layer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was studied under the NaHCO3 stresses. In addition, strong saline tolerance Puccinellia tenuiflora was chosen for comparative studies. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that there were significant changes in waxy morphologies of the rice epicuticular surfaces, while no remarkable changes in those of P. tenuiflora epicuticular surfaces. The NaHCO3-induced morphological changes of the rice epicuticular surfaces appeared as enlarged silica cells, swollen corns-shapes and leaked salt columns under high stress. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic profiles supported that the changes were caused by significant increment and localization of [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] in the shoot. Atomic absorption spectra showed that [Na(+)]shoot/[Na(+)]root for P. tenuiflora maintained stable as the saline stress increased, but that for rice increased significantly. CONCLUSION: In rice, NaHCO3 stress induced localization and accumulation of [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)] appeared as the enlarged silica cells (MSC), the swollen corns (S-C), and the leaked columns (C), while no significant changes in P. tenuiflora.

Oryza/drug effects , Waxes/analysis , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Salt Tolerance , Oryza/ultrastructure , Stress, Physiological , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 28(1): 53-56, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742746


BACKGROUND: In traditional laparoscopic cholecistectomy, the cystic duct and artery are commonly closed by metallic clips just before their division. Although the placement of these clips for occluding cystic artery and duct can be considered safe, biliary leaks and bleeding may occur especially by its dislodgement. AIM: To report a prospective case-series in total clipless cholecystectomy by means of harmonic shears for closure and division of the artery and cystic duct as well removal of the gallbladder from the liver. METHODS: Was evaluate a series of 125 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy where the sealing and division of cystic artery and duct was carried out only by harmonic shears. The intact extracted gallbladder was submitted to a reverse pressure test for assessment of the technique safety by means of CO2 insuflation. RESULTS: The most common indication for surgery was gallstones. The mean operative time was 26 min and all gallbladders were dissected intact from the liver bed. There was no mortality and the overall morbidity rate was 0.8% with no hemorrhage or leaks. The reverse pressure test showed that all specimens support at least 36-mmHg of pressure without leaking. CONCLUSION: The harmonic shears is effective and safe in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a sole instrument for sealing and division of the artery and cystic duct. The main advantages could be related to the safety and decreased operative time. .

RACIONAL: A colecistectomia laparoscópica na técnica tradicional oclui o ducto cístico e a artéria cística por clipes cirúrgicos, que podem se deslocar ou desprender no pós-operatório, possibilitando a ocorrência de fístula biliar ou hemorragia. OBJETIVO: Relato prospectivo de série de casos de colecistectomias laparoscópicas sem uso de clipe cirúrgico, sendo que a ligadura e secção da artéria cística e do ducto cístico foram realizadas por meio de bisturi ultrassônico. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 125 pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica sem utilização de clipe cirúrgico metálico, onde a ligadura da artéria e do ducto cístico e também a remoção da vesícula biliar de seu leito hepático foram realizadas por meio de tesoura ultrassônica. Realizou-se teste de pressão reversa na vesícula biliar removida intacta do leito hepático para verificar a segurança da técnica. RESULTADOS: A principal indicação cirúrgica foi a colelitíase. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 26 min e todas as vesículas biliares foram retiradas intactas do leito hepático. Não houve mortalidade e a taxa global de morbidade foi de 0,8%, sem hemorragias ou fístulas. O teste de pressão reversa mostrou que o ducto cístico ocluído pelo bisturi harmônico suportou ao pelo menos 36 mmHg de pressão sem que ocorresse nenhum vazamento. CONCLUSÃO: O bisturi harmônico é eficaz e seguro em colecistectomias laparoscópicas eletivas como um instrumento único para ocluir e seccionar tanto a artéria cística quanto o ducto cístico. Vantagens podem ser apontadas ao método com relação a sua segurança e diminuição do tempo cirúrgico. .

Animals , Humans , Drosophila Proteins/metabolism , Drosophila melanogaster/drug effects , Drosophila melanogaster/physiology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/drug effects , Symporters/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drosophila melanogaster/cytology , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Genes, Insect , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Ion Transport/drug effects , Luminescent Proteins/metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Organ Specificity/drug effects , Phylogeny , Reproducibility of Results , RNA Interference/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/pharmacology , Time Factors
Nutrire Rev. Soc. Bras. Aliment. Nutr ; 39(3): 348-365, dec 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737294


Sodium plays an essential role in health and in the production and palatability of foods, but the current recommendations of sodium intake have been exceeded in many countries. The reduction of its intake is necessary because of public health problems, such as hypertension.Many are the available techniques and studies already developed on sodium reduction in foods; however, a single and low cost method that does not modify the consumers? acceptance to different food products has notbeen identified. This paper presents a general perspective regarding the functions of sodium in health and foods, the current intake scenario and recommendations in Brazil and other countries, and also some aspects regarding consumer perception when sodium is reduced in different foods.

O sódio tem papel fundamental na saúde e na produção e palatabilidade dos alimentos, porém as recomendações atuais do consumo diário de sódio são ultrapassadas em muitos países. A diminuição de sua ingestão se faz necessária devido a problemas de saúde pública, como a hipertensão. Muitas são as técnicas disponíveis e os estudos já realizados para a diminuição de sódio nos alimentos, todavia, ainda não se identificouum método único, de baixo custo e que não altere a aceitação dos consumidores e suas propriedades tecnológicas nos diversos produtos alimentícios. O presente trabalho apresenta um panorama geral sobre as funções do sódio na saúde e nos alimentos, cenário atual de consumo no Brasil e no mundo, recomendações em termos de redução de sódio, além de aspectos relacionados à percepção do consumidor ao se reduzir o sódio em diferentes alimentos.

Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Sodium/analysis , Food , Technology/classification
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 703-710, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728647


PURPOSE: To verify the effects of different catecholamines on volemic expansion and on the autonomic nervous system in rabbits that were subjected to hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty four rabbits subjected to hemorrhage (with a 25% loss of blood volume) and were randomly divided into four experimental groups: 1) HEMO Group underwent replacement with their own blood in an equal volume; 2) SS Group underwent replacement with saline solution (SS) in a volume that corresponded to three times the removed blood volume; 3) ISP Group underwent replacement with SS and isoprenaline; 4) FNL Group underwent replacement with SS and phenylephrine. Spectral Analysis of the heart rate and heart rate variability were performed from the recorded data. Hematocrit was measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Replacement with SS and an α- or β-agonist did not produce differences in the intravascular retention compared to replacement with SS alone. An analysis of HRV showed that the FNL group maintained the LF/HF ratio better than ISP and SS. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in vascular retention when α- or β- agonists were added to SS during post-hemorrhagic recovery. The animals in the FNL group maintained the integrity of the autonomic response within normal physiological standards during hemorrhagic stress. .

Animals , Rabbits , Blood Volume/drug effects , Catecholamines/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Fourier Analysis , Hematocrit , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrum Analysis , Time Factors
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 26(3): 277-286, Jul-Sep/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-723282


Objetivo: Investigar o papel de duas diferentes soluções salinas nos mecanismos de lesão após isquemia intestinal: estresse oxidativo e respostas inflamatórias. Métodos: Ratos Wistar foram submetidos a oclusão transitória da artéria mesentérica superior e estudados durante as 6 horas seguintes à reperfusão. Após randomização, os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: Falso; Solução Hipertônica, os quais receberam infusão de solução salina hipertônica a 7,5% (4mL/kg de peso corpóreo); Solução Fisiológica, os quais receberam infusão de solução salina a 0,9% (33mL/kg); e Sem Tratamento. A infusão foi realizada imediatamente antes da reperfusão. Foram realizadas dosagens sequenciais de interleucina 6 e interleucina 10 no plasma. Foram coletadas amostras de tecidos (pulmão, fígado e intestino) para medir malondialdeído, mieloperoxidase e interleucina. Resultados: Em comparação ao Grupo Sem Tratamento, os animais que receberam volume (Grupos Solução Hipertônica e Solução Fisiológica) mostraram níveis tissulares mais baixos de malondialdeído, mieloperoxidase, interleucina 6 e interleucina 10. As concentrações plasmáticas de interleucina 6 e interleucina 10 foram mais altas nos animais tratados com solução hipertônica do que nos tratados com solução fisiológica e nos sem tratamento. Conclusão: Neste modelo de isquemia intestinal transitória, a manutenção adequada de volume intravascular diminuiu o estresse oxidativo e a síntese de marcadores de inflamação. Tanto a solução hipertônica quanto a fisiológica atenuaram os efeitos deletérios observados após isquemia intestinal. .

Objective: We investigated the effect of two different saline solutions on the mechanisms of injury after intestinal ischemia: oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Methods: Wistar rats underwent transient superior mesenteric artery occlusion and were studied for 6 hours after reperfusion. After randomization, the animals were divided into four groups: Sham; Hypertonic Saline, in which they received infusion of 4mL/kg body weight of 7.5% hypertonic saline; Saline, in which they received infusion of 33mL/kg body weight of 0.9% saline; and Non Treatment. The infusion was performed immediately prior to the reperfusion. The plasma concentrations of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 were measured. Tissue samples (lung, liver, and intestine) were collected for malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and interleukin measurements. Results: The animals that received infusions (Hypertonic Saline and Saline) showed lower levels of tissue malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 compared with the Non Treatment group. The plasma concentrations of interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 were higher in the animals treated with 7.5% hypertonic saline compared with Saline and Non Treatment groups. Conclusion: In this model of transient intestinal ischemia, the adequate maintenance of intravascular volume decreased oxidative stress and the synthesis of inflammatory markers. Both 7.5% Hypertonic Saline and Saline attenuated the deleterious effects observed after intestinal ischemia. .

Animals , Male , Rats , Ischemia/drug therapy , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Interleukins/metabolism , Intestines/blood supply , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/pathology , Ischemia/pathology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury/pathology
Braz. oral res ; 28(1): 22-27, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697002


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium essential oils (EOs) compared to 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on multi-species biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The biofilms were grown in acrylic disks immersed in broth, inoculated with microbial suspension (106 cells/mL) and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. After the biofilms were formed, they were exposed for 5 minutes to the solutions (n = 10): C. aurantium EO, C. limonum EO, 0.2% CHX, 1% NaOCl or sterile saline solution [0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl)]. Next, the discs were placed in sterile 0.9% NaCl and sonicated to disperse the biofilms. Tenfold serial dilutions were performed and the aliquots were seeded onto selective agar and incubated at 37°C / 48 h. Next, the number of colony-forming units per milliliter was counted and analyzed statistically (Tukey test, p ≤ 0.05). C. aurantium EO and NaOCl inhibited the growth of all microorganisms in multi-species biofilms. C. limonum EO promoted a 100% reduction of C. albicans and E. coli, and 49.3% of E. faecalis. CHX was less effective against C. albicans and E. coli, yielding a reduction of 68.8% and 86.7%, respectively. However, the reduction of E. faecalis using CHX (81.7%) was greater than that obtained using C. limonum EO. Both Citrus limonum and Citrus aurantium EOs are effective in controlling multi-species biofilms; the microbial reductions achieved by EOs were not only similar to those of NaOCl, but even higher than those achieved by CHX, in some cases.

Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Citrus/chemistry , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida albicans/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Escherichia coli/growth & development , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 29(supl.2): 67-71, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721383


PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and adenosine as strategies to protect cardiac injury caused by intestinal IR in rats, based on increasing in adenosine bioavailability and improvement of cell energy state by IPC. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to 60 minutes of intestinal ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Intravenous injections of saline or Adenosine (AD) was administered five minutes before ischemia, five minutes before reperfusion and after 55 minutes reperfusion. Cardiac samples were obtained, fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin, and sections of 5 μm were stained by hematoxylin-eosin. Histological analysis of myocardium was performed according occurrence of necrosis signs: piknosis, band contraction, eosinophilic cytoplasm, karyorrhexis and vacuolization (score - zero to 5). RESULTS: The groups submitted to ischemia alone (I=4.0), and reperfusion (IR=4.5) showed highest level of lesion compared to the others (I+IPC=3.3, IR+IPC=3.6, I+AD=3.0, IR+AD=3.8). The most interesting result was association of IPC and AD in IR model (IR+IPC+AD=1.2, p=0.002), showing preservation of the heart tissue, with fibers showing typical cross-striations and nuclei characteristics. Rare and small areas of tissue necrosis was observed and suggestion of capillaries congestion. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia reperfusion promotes cardiac tissue injury. Ischemic preconditioning in association with adenosine is an efficient strategy to protect the heart against ischemia and reperfusion injury. .

Animals , Male , Adenosine/pharmacology , Heart Injuries/prevention & control , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Purinergic P1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Heart Injuries/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Dec; 50(6): 511-520
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150265


The study focuses on the importance of Tyr11 amino acid (AA) and subsequent stereochemistry involved in the binding process of neurotensin (NT) with its receptor (NTR)/binding protein(s) as well as the size heterogeneity. Using the binding of 125I-NT with several chicken tissues, it is identified that one of the crucial factors behind all high affinity (Kd ~10 pM) interactions is due to phenolic-OH (Φ-OH) at the para (p) position of Tyr11 within RRPYIL-CO2H (NT8-13) sequence. Replacing the p-OH only in Tyr11 by substituting with p-Cl, p-F and p-NH2 results in significant change of the binding affinity (Kd); p-OH ≈ p-NH2 (~10 pM), p-Cl (~100 pM), p-F (~120 pM). Interestingly, p-NH2 equals to p-OH displaying the highest affinity. Experiments conducted by binding several of the 125I-azido–NT analogs having azido group attached at different positions within the NT molecule have further confirmed the necessity of RRPYIL sequence for high affinity ligand-receptor interaction. The role of Tryp11 in place of Tyr11 in addition to the results above establishes a significant possibility of H–bonding occurring between p-OH of NT and NTR inside the docking space. Photo labeling of the liver tissue by substituted 125I-Y3-azido-NT analogs shows several specifically labeled bands with considerable range of molecular weight (Mr ~90-30 kDa) variations. These results indicate the existence of molecular heterogeneity concerning the sizes of NTR or else any NT binding proteins in the avian tissues. Further, the study has revealed that besides liver, several other chicken tissues also express similar specific high affinity binding (Kd ~20 pM) with varying capacities (Bmax). The order for Bmax is: liver (1.2 pMol/mg) gall bladder (1.03 pMol/mg) > spleen (0.43 pMol/mg) > brain (0.3 pMol/mg) > colon lung (0.15 pMol/mg). In all cases, the binding was reduced by GTPgS (ED50 ~ 0.05 nM), NEM (ED50 ~ 0.50 mM) and NaCl (ED50 ~30 mM), indicating the existence of NTR identical to the mammalian type-1.

Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , Azides/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chickens , Ethylmaleimide/pharmacology , Female , Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate) , Liver/cytology , Male , Molecular Weight , Neurotensin/chemistry , Neurotensin/genetics , Neurotensin/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Receptors, Neurotensin/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Neurotensin/chemistry , Receptors, Neurotensin/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Stereoisomerism , Tyrosine
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Jul; 51(7): 522-530
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147623


Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp.

Brassica/drug effects , Brassica/genetics , Brassica/growth & development , Databases, Genetic , Expressed Sequence Tags/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Library , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Plant/genetics , Genome, Plant , Humans , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Stress, Physiological/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124616


The activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), a well-known osmoprotective factor, can be induced by isotonic stimuli, such as activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). It is unclear, however, how NFAT5 discriminates between isotonic and hypertonic stimuli. In this study we identified a novel context-dependent suppression of NFAT5 target gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a high salt (NaCl) concentration. Although LPS and NaCl both used NFAT5 as a core transcription factor, these stimuli mutually inhibited distinct sets of NFAT5 targets within the cells. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for this inhibition, the source of ROS differed depending on the context: mitochondria for high salt and xanthine oxidase for TLRs. Specifically, the high salt-induced suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) production was mediated through the ROS-induced inhibition of NFAT5 binding to the IL-6 promoter. The context-dependent inhibition of NFAT5 target gene expression was also confirmed in mouse spleen and kidney tissues that were cotreated with LPS and high salt. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS function as molecular sensors to discriminate between TLR ligation and osmotic stimuli in RAW 264.7 macrophages, directing NFAT5 activity toward proinflammatory or hypertonic responses in a context-dependent manner.

Animals , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Mannitol/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Protein Binding/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Rotenone/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors , Transcription Factors/genetics
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(3): 221-225, Mar. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-616908


Ethidium bromide (EB) causes local astrocytic disappearance, with glia limitans disruption and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BBB integrity after the injection of 0.1 percent EB or 0.9 percent saline solution into the cisterna pontis of Wistar rats submitted or not to the streptozotocin diabetogenic model. Brainstem sections were collected from 24 hours to 31 days post-injection for ultrastructural analysis and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemical staining. Some animals received colloidal carbon ink by intravenous route at the same periods. In rats injected with EB, results revealed astrocyte disappearance and leakage of carbon particles beginning at 48 hours and persisting for 7 days in non-diabetic rats and for 15 days in the diabetic ones, although, in both groups, several areas remained devoid of astrocytic processes up to 31 days. In rats injected with saline, there was no sign of astrocytic loss or carbon particles leakage.

O brometo de etídio (BE) determina o desaparecimento local de astrócitos, com ruptura da glia limitans e dano na barreira hematoencefálica (BHE). Este estudo visou avaliar a integridade da BHE após injeção de solução de BE a 0,1 por cento ou de salina a 0,9 por cento na cisterna pontis de ratos Wistar submetidos ou não ao modelo diabetogênico da estreptozotocina. Fragmentos do tronco encefálico foram coletados das 24 horas aos 31 dias pós-injeção para estudo ultraestrutural e marcação imuno-histoquímica para proteína glial fibrilar ácida. Alguns animais receberam carvão coloidal por via intravenosa nos mesmos períodos. Nos grupos injetados com BE, os resultados mostraram desaparecimento astrocitário e extravasamento de partículas de carvão nas lesões a partir das 48 horas, persistindo por até sete dias nos animais não diabéticos e 15 dias nos diabéticos, embora, em ambos os grupos, diversas áreas permanecessem destituídas de astrócitos até 31 dias após. Nos ratos injetados com salina, diabéticos ou não, não houve sinal de perda astrocitária nem de extravasamento vascular de carvão.

Animals , Male , Rats , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , Brain Stem/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Ethidium/pharmacology , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/chemistry , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain Stem/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 27(1): 110-116, jan.-mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638658


BACKGROUND: There is a growing need to improve myocardial protection, which will lead to better performance of cardiac operations and reduce morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of myocardial protection solution using both intracellular and extracellular crystalloid type regarding the performance of the electrical conduction system, left ventricular contractility and edema, after being subjected to ischemic arrest and reperfusion. METHODS: Hearts isolated from male Wistar (n=32) rats were prepared using Langendorff method and randomly divided equally into four groups according the cardioprotective solutions used Krebs-Henseleit-Buffer (KHB), Bretschneider-HTK (HTK), St. Thomas-1 (STH-1) and Celsior (CEL). After stabilization with KHB at 37ºC, baseline values (control) were collected for heart rate (HR), left ventricle systolic pressure (LVSP), maximum first derivate of rise left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt), maximum first derivate of fall left ventricular pressure (-dP/dt) and coronary flow (CF). The hearts were then perfused at 10ºC for 5 min and kept for 2 h in static ischemia at 20ºC in each cardioprotective solution. Data evaluation was done using analysis of variance in completely randomized One-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance chosen was P<0.05. RESULTS: HR was restored with all the solutions used. The evaluation of left ventricular contractility (LVSP, +dP/ dt and -dP/dt) showed that treatment with CEL solution was better compared to other solutions. When analyzing the CF, the HTK solution showed better protection against edema. CONCLUSION: Despite the cardioprotective crystalloid solutions studied are not fully able to suppress the deleterious effects of ischemia and reperfusion in the rat heart, the CEL solution had significantly higher results followed by HTK>KHB>STH-1.

INTRODUÇÃO: Existe crescente necessidade de aprimorar a proteção miocárdica, para melhor desempenho das operações cardíacas e diminuição da morbimortalidade. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da proteção miocárdica usando tanto solução cristaloide tipo intracelular como extracelular quanto ao desempenho do sistema de condução elétrica, contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo e edema, após parada isquêmica e posterior reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Corações isolados de ratos Wistar foram montados em Langendorff e aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos. de acordo com as soluções cardioprotetoras utilizadas Krebs-Henseleit-Buffer (KHB), Bretschneider-HTK (HTK), St. Thomas-1(STH-1) e Celsior (CEL). Após a estabilização com KHB a 37ºC, valores basais (controle) foram coletados para frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo (PSVE), derivada máxima de aumento da pressão ventricular esquerda (+dP/dt), derivada máxima de queda da pressão ventricular esquerda (-dP/dt) e fluxo coronariano (FCo). Os corações foram então perfundidos a 10ºC por 5 min e mantidos por 2 h em isquemia estática a 20ºC em cada solução cardioprotetora. Avaliação dos dados foi por análise de variância inteiramente casualizados em One-Way ANOVA e teste de Tukey para comparações múltiplas. O nível de significância estatística escolhido foi P<0,05. RESULTADOS: Houve recuperação da FC com todas as soluções utilizadas. A avaliação da contratilidade ventricular esquerda (PSVE, +dP/dt e -dP/dt) demonstrou que o tratamento com a solução CEL foi melhor em comparação às outras soluções. Ao analisar o CF, a solução HTK indicou melhor proteção contra edema. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar das soluções cristaloides cardioprotetoras estudadas não serem capazes de suprimir os efeitos deletérios da isquemia e reperfusão no coração de ratos, a solução CEL apresentou resultado superior seguido por HTK>KHB>STH-1.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cardioplegic Solutions/pharmacology , Edema, Cardiac/pathology , Heart Transplantation , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Bicarbonates/pharmacology , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Disaccharides/pharmacology , Electrolytes/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Glutamates/pharmacology , Glutathione/pharmacology , Heart Arrest, Induced/methods , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Histidine/pharmacology , Models, Animal , Magnesium/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Organ Preservation/methods , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Procaine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Tromethamine/pharmacology