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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-952939


Objective: To investigate the effect of arsenic and its main metabolites on the apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bik. Methods: In October 2020, A549 cells were recovered and cultured, and the cell viability was detected by the cell counting reagent CCK-8 to determine the concentration and time of sodium arsenite exposure to A549. The study was divided into NaAsO(2) exposure groups and metobol: le expoure groups: the metabolite comparison groups were subdivided into the control group, the monomethylarsinic acid exposure group (60 μmol/L) , and the dimethylarsinic acid exposure group (60 μmol/L) ; sodium arsenite dose groups were subdivided into 4 groups: control group (0) , 20, 40, 60 μmol/L sodium arsenite NaAsO(2). Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide double staining (Ho/PI) was used to observe cell apoptosis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression levels of Bad and Bik mRNA in cells after exposure. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expressions of Bad, P-Bad-S112, Bik, cleaved Bik and downstream proteins poly ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 and cytochrome C (Cyt-C) , using spectrophotometry to detect the activity changes of caspase 3, 6, 8, 9. Results: Compared with the control group, the proportion of apoptotic cells in the 20, 40, and 60 μmol/L NaAsO(2) dose groups increased significantly (P<0.01) , and the expression levels of Bad, Bik mRNA, the protein expression levels of Bad, P-Bad-S112, Bik, cleaved Bik, PARP1, Cyt-C were increased (all P<0.05) , and the activities of Caspase 3, 6, 8, and 9 were significantly increased with significantly differences (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the expression level of Bad mRNA in the DMA exposure group (1.439±0.173) was increased with a significant difference (P=0.024) , but there was no significant difference in the expression level of Bik mRNA (P=0.788) . There was no significant differences in the expression levels of Bad and Bik mRNA in the poison groups (P=0.085, 0.063) . Compared with the control group, the gray values of proteins Bad, Bik, PARP1 and Cyt-C exposed to MMA were 0.696±0.023, 0.707±0.014, 0.907±0.031, 1.032±0.016, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.469, 0.669, 0.859, 0.771) ; the gray values of proteins Bad, Bik, PARP1 and Cyt-C exposed to DMA were 0.698±0.030, 0.705±0.022, 0.908±0.015, 1.029±0.010, and there was no difference between the two groups (P=0.479, 0.636, 0.803, 0.984) . Conclusion: Sodium arsenite induces the overexpression of Bad and Bik proteins, initiates the negative feedback regulation of phosphorylated Bad and the degradation of Bik, activates the downstream proteins PARP1, Cyt-C and Caspase pathways, and mediates the apoptosis of A549 cells.

A549 Cells , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Arsenic , Arsenites , Cacodylic Acid/pharmacology , Caspase 3 , Caspases/pharmacology , Cytochromes c/pharmacology , Humans , Mitochondrial Proteins/pharmacology , Poisons , Propidium/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Sincalide/pharmacology , Sodium Compounds , bcl-Associated Death Protein/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880352


BACKGROUND@#Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice.@*METHODS@#Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method.@*RESULTS@#The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.

Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites/toxicity , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Female , Gene Expression/drug effects , Genetic Markers , Male , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C3H , Oxidative Stress/genetics , Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Serotonin/metabolism , Social Behavior , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1026-1032, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266866


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. This study aimed to establish an animal model of ovarian oxidative stress and to assess the protective effect of curcumin against oxidative injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ovarian oxidative stress was induced in female Kunming mice (n = 40) with intraperitoneal injection of 8 mg/kg sodium arsenite (As) once every other day for 16 days; meanwhile, they were, respectively, treated by intragastric administration of 0, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg (n = 10/group) curcumin once per day for 21 days. Ten normal mice were used as control. Then, the mice were injected intraperitoneally with BrdU and sacrificed; the right ovaries were collected for hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and BrdU immunohistochemistry, and the left ovaries for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ELISA results showed that ROS (11.74 ± 0.65 IU/mg in 8 mg/kg AS + 0 mg/kg curcumin group vs. 10.71 ± 0.91 IU/mg in control group, P= 0.021) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.32 ± 0.02 nmol/g in 8 mg/kg AS + 0 mg/kg curcumin group vs. 0.27 ± 0.02 nmol/g in control group, P= 0.048) increased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) (3.96 ± 0.36 U/mg in 8 mg/kg AS + 0 mg/kg curcumin group vs. 4.51 ± 0.70 U/mg in control group, P= 0.012) and glutathione peroxidase (17.36 ± 1.63 U/g in 8 mg/kg AS + 0 mg/kg curcumin group vs. 18.92 ± 1.80 U/g in control group, P= 0.045) decreased in the ovary after injection of As, indicating successful modeling of oxidative stress. Curcumin treatment could considerably increase SOD (4.57 ± 0.68, 4.49 ± 0.27, and 4.56 ± 0.25 U/mg in 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg curcumin group, respectively, allP < 0.05) while significantly reduce ROS (10.64 ± 1.38, 10.73 ± 0.71, and 10.67 ± 1.38 IU/mg in 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg curcumin group, respectively, allP < 0.05) and MDA (0.28 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.03, and 0.27 ± 0.04 nmol/g in 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg curcumin group, respectively; bothP < 0.05) in the ovary. HE staining and BrdU immunohistochemistry of the ovarian tissues indicated the increased amount of atretic follicles (5.67 ± 0.81, 5.84 ± 0.98, and 5.72 ± 0.84 in 100 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg curcumin group, respectively, all P < 0.05), and the inhibited proliferation of granular cells under oxidative stress would be reversed by curcumin. Furthermore, the Western blotting of ovarian tissues showed that the p66Shc expression upregulated under oxidative stress would be lowered by curcumin.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Curcumin could alleviate arsenic-induced ovarian oxidative injury to a certain extent.</p>

Animals , Arsenites , Toxicity , Curcumin , Therapeutic Uses , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Glutathione Peroxidase , Metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Mice , Ovary , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Sodium Compounds , Toxicity , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
Rev. Assoc. Paul. Cir. Dent ; 70(2): 147-150, abr.-jun. 2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-797065


Objetivo: Estudar o efeito anticárie da adição de trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) aos compostos fluoretados (dentifrícios, vernizes e soluções) para prevenção e tratamento de lesões de cárie através de uma revisão de literatura. Materiais e Métodos: Foram selecionados artigos de pesquisa e revisões sistemáticas da literatura mais relevantes sobre o assunto publicados na língua inglesa, desde 1968 até 2015, pesquisados no PubMed. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: trimetafosfato de sódio, cárie dentária e fluoretos.Resultados: Foram apresentados os principais resultados de trabalhos de pesquisa sobre o TMP quando associado aos dentifrícios, vernizes e soluções para bochechos e estudos clínicos longitudinais. Conclusão: Os estudos in vitro e in situ mostram que o trimetafosfato de sódio pode potencializar a eficácia do flúor na prevenção e tratamento da cárie dentária, porém ainda faltam estudos para entender o mecanismo de ação do TMP, além de estudos clínicos para comprovar sua eficácia e indicação.

Objective: The aim of this work was to study the anticaries effect of adding sodium trimeta phosphate (TMP) to fluoride compounds (tooth pastes, varnishes and mouthrinse)for prevention and treatment of caries lesions with a review of the literature. Materials and Methods: The most relevant research articles and systematic reviews on the subject published in English, were selected from 1968 to 2015, browsed on Pubmed. The key words used were: sodium trimetaphosphate, dental caries and fluorides. Results: Themain results of research articles on the TMP associated with dentifrices, varnishes and mouthrinses and longitudinal clinical studies were presented. Conclusion: In situ and in vitro studies have shown that TMP might increase the effectiveness of fluoride in the prevention and treatment of caries, but there are few studies that explain its mechanism of action, as well as clinical studies to demonstrate its anticaries effect and indication.

Dental Caries/classification , Dental Caries/complications , Dental Caries/diagnosis , Fluorides , Fluorine Compounds , Polyphosphates , Sodium Compounds
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 36(2): 119-121, Apr-Jun. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785860


Coloprep is a bowel preparatory solution given before endoscopic procedures to get a unobscured internal vision. It has among its constituent's sodium sulphate, potassium sulphate and magnesium sulphate which produce an osmotic effect in the bowel. However, the use of such agents in hyponatremic and patients predisposed to seizures can have adverse ramifications. The current case outlines manifestation of absence seizure in a 52-year-old male patient who was administered Coloprep for colonoscopy. There was absence of other predisposing factors and the symptoms were ameliorated using timely identification and rectification of the underlying derangements.

Coloprep é uma solução preparatória intestinal administrada antes de procedimentos endoscópicos, com o objetivo de se ter uma visão interna não obscurecida. Entre os constituintes de Coloprep, observa-se sulfato de sódio, sulfato de potássio e sulfato de magnésio, que provocam efeito osmótico no intestino. Mas o uso de tais agentes em pacientes hiponatrêmicos e com predisposição para convulsões pode ter ramificações adversas. O caso em tela delineia uma manifestação de convulsão de ausência em paciente do gênero masculino com 52 anos e que recebeu Coloprep para colonoscopia. Não havia outros fatores predisponentes e os sintomas melhoraram graças à oportuna identificação e correção dos transtornos subjacentes.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seizures/complications , Sulfates/administration & dosage , Cathartics/adverse effects , Colonoscopy/adverse effects , Sodium Compounds/administration & dosage , Potassium Compounds/administration & dosage , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage , Seizures , Sulfates/analysis , Sulfates/adverse effects , Sulfates/therapeutic use , Cathartics/administration & dosage , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Sodium Compounds/analysis , Sodium Compounds/adverse effects , Sodium Compounds/therapeutic use , Potassium Compounds/analysis , Potassium Compounds/adverse effects , Potassium Compounds/therapeutic use , Hyponatremia , Magnesium Sulfate/analysis , Magnesium Sulfate/adverse effects , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use
Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2016; 18 (1): 30-38
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-178930


Background and Objective: Sodium Arsenite is an environmental pollutant which can generate free radicals causing tissue damage. This study was done to evaluate the effect of Green Tea [GTE], as a strong antioxidant, on kidney tissue in mice treated with Sodium Arsenite

Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice were randomly allocated into four groups including: control, GTE [l00mg/kg/day], Sodium Arsenite [5mg/kg/day] and Sodium Arsenite + GTE, for 34 days, orally. Animals were scarified and left kidney was taken out, fixed, sectioned, processed and stained using Heidenhain'azan method. Using stereological technique the total volume of kidney, volume of cortex, medulla, proximal and distal tubule, renal corpuscle, gelomerelus, tuft and capillary, membrane and space of Bowman's capsule and length of proximal and distal tubule were determined. Creatinine, BUN and MDA serum samples were measured

Results: The mean of total volume of cortex, proximal tubule, distal tubule, renal corpuscle and gelomerolus, taft, Bowman's capsule space, size of epithelium and lumen of proximal and distal tubule were significantly reduced in Sodium Arsenite group compared to control [P<0.05]. These parameters were significantly increased in the Sodium Arsenite + GTE group in comparison with Sodium Arsenite group [P<0.05], The creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen [BUN] and MDA were significantly increased in the Sodium Arsenite group in compared to the control group [P<0.05]. These parameters were significantly reduced in the Sodium Arsenite + GTE group in comparison with Sodium Arsenite group [P<0.05]

Conclusion: Green tea has a protective role in Sodium Arsenite induced nephrotoxicity

Animals, Laboratory , Plant Extracts , Kidney Diseases , Antioxidants , Sodium Compounds , Arsenites/toxicity , Mice
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(2): 141-147, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746464


Objective Investigate the effect of GC-1 on tolerance to exercise in rats with experimental hypothyroidism. Materials and methods Hypothyroidism was induced with methimazole sodium and perchlorate treatment. Six groups with eight animals were studied: control group (C), hypothyroid group without treatment (HYPO); hypothyroidism treated with physiological doses of tetraiodothyronine (T4) or 10 times higher (10×T4); hypothyroidism treated with equal molar doses of GC-1 (GC-1) or 10 times higher (10×GC-1). After eight weeks, each animal underwent an exercise tolerance test by measuring the time (seconds), in which the rats were swimming with a load attached to their tails without being submerging for more than 10 sec. After the test, the animals were killed, and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and the heart and soleus muscle were removed for weighing and morphometric analysis of the cardiomyocyte. Results Hypothyroidism significantly reduced tolerance to exercise and, treatment with GC-1 1× or T4 in physiological doses recover tolerance test to normal parameters. However, high doses of T4 also decreased tolerance to physical exercise. Conversely, ten times higher doses of GC-1 did not impair tolerance to exercise. Interestingly, hypothyroidism, treated or not with T4 in a physiological range, GC-1 or even high doses of GC-1 (10X) did not change cardiomyocyte diameters and relative weight of the soleus muscle. In contrast, higher doses of T4 significantly increased cardiomyocyte diameter and induced atrophy of the soleus muscle. Conclusion Unlike T4, GC-1 in high doses did not modify tolerance to physical exercise in the rats with hypothyroidism. .

Animals , Acetates/pharmacology , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Phenols/pharmacology , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/agonists , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Hypothyroidism/blood , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/physiopathology , Methimazole , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Perchlorates , Rats, Wistar , Sodium Compounds , Swimming , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Thyroxine/blood , Triiodothyronine/blood
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 22(6): 902-910, 16/12/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732951


METHOD: one hundred (n=100) elderly outpatients with diabetic retinopathy taking antihypertensives and/or oral antidiabetics/insulin were interviewed. Adherence was evaluated by the adherence proportion and its association with the care taken in administrating medications and by the Morisky Scale. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was used to evaluate HRQoL. RESULTS: most (58%) reported the use of 80% or more of the prescribed dose and care in utilizing the medication. The item "stopping the drug when experiencing an adverse event", from the Morisky Scale, explained 12.8% and 13.5% of the variability of adherence proportion to antihypertensives and oral antidiabetics/insulin, respectively. CONCLUSION: there was better HRQoL in the Color Vision, Driving and Social Functioning domains of the NEI VFQ-25. Individuals with lower scores on the NEI VFQ-25 and higher scores on the Morisky Scale presented greater chance to be nonadherent to the pharmacological treatment of diabetes and hypertension. .

OBJETIVO: investigar os fatores relacionados à adesão medicamentosa e sua relação com a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em idosos com retinopatia diabética. MÉTODO: foram entrevistados 100 idosos, em acompanhamento ambulatorial, em uso de anti-hipertensivos e/ou antidiabéticos orais/insulina. A adesão foi avaliada pela proporção de adesão e sua associação com os cuidados no uso dos medicamentos e pela Escala de Morisky. O National Eye Institute Visual Funcioning Questionnaire foi utilizado para avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde. RESULTADOS: A maioria (58%) relatou o uso de 80% ou mais das doses prescritas e os cuidados na tomada dos medicamentos. O item "interromper o uso dos medicamentos por se sentir pior", da Escala de Morisky, explicou 12,8 e 13,5% da variabilidade da proporção de adesão aos anti-hipertensivos e aos antidiabéticos orais/insulina, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se melhor qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde nos domínios visão de cores, dirigir automóvel e apectos sociais do National Eye Institute Visual Funcioning Questionnaire. Indivíduos com menor pontuação na National Eye Institute Visual Funcioning Questionnaire e maiores escores na Escala de Morisky apresentaram maiores chances de serem não aderentes aos medicamentos do diabetes e da hipertensão arterial. .

OBJETIVO: investigar los factores relacionados a la adhesión a la medicación y su relación con la Calidad de Vida Relacionada a la Salud (CVRS) de ancianos con retinopatía diabética. MÉTODO: fueron entrevistados cien (n=100) pacientes ancianos de ambulatorio con retinopatía diabética que toman medicamentos antihipertensivos y/o antidiabéticos orales/insulina. La adhesión fue evaluada mediante la proporción de adhesión y su asociación con el cuidado tomado en la administración de medicamentos y mediante la Escala de Morisky. El National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) fue usado para evaluar la CVRS. RESULTADOS: la mayoría (58%) relató el uso de 80% o más de la dosis prescrita y cuidado con el uso de la medicación. El ítem "suspender la droga cuando vivencia un evento adverso", de la Escala de Morisky, explicó 12.8% y 13.5% de la variabilidad en la proporción de adhesión a los antihipertensivos y antidiabéticos orales/insulina, respectivamente. CONCUSIÓN: fue encontrada mejor CVRS en los dominios de Visión Cromática, Dirección y Funcionamiento Social del NEI VFQ-25. Individuos con puntuaciones menores en el NEI VFQ-25 y puntuaciones mayores en la Escala de Morisky revelaron mayor chance de no adhesión al tratamiento farmacológico de la diabetes y hipertensión. .

Animals , Cattle , Arsenites , DNA , DNA-Binding Proteins/physiology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Sodium Compounds , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Arsenic/pharmacology , Chemical Phenomena , Chemistry , Chromatography, Gel , Cytosol/metabolism , Dextrans , Methyl Methanesulfonate/analogs & derivatives , Methyl Methanesulfonate/pharmacology , Molybdenum/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 31(4): 1251-1256, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702301


We evaluated the sperm parameters such as cauda epididymis weight, sperm count, sperm morphology and sperm DNA stability of adult CF-1 male mice treated daily (oral exposure) with the toxic sodium arsenite (As, 7.0 mg/kg/body weight); Melatonin (Me, 10.0 mg/kg/bw), Me (10.0 mg/kg/bw) plus As (7.0 mg/kg/bw) and Negative Control (NaCl 0.9 percent) to assess acute (8.3 days), chronic (33.2 days) and recovery of testicular damage (66.4 days). Arsenic decreases the number of sperm from chronic treatment (33.2 days) and this effect continued until 66.4 days of treatment. The toxic effect of As also altered the morphology of spermatozoa in all treatment periods when compared to the negative control group. However, Metalonin induced protective effects in periods of 33.2 and 66.4 days of treatment. Additionally, the stability of DNA was significantly affected by arsenic in all periods, but the chronic treatment (33.2 days) in the AsMe revealed increased stability compared to the group treated with arsenic only. Melatonin partially protects sperm toxicity caused by Arsenic, especially during periods of 33.2 and 66.4 days.

Se evaluaron los parámetros espermáticos como peso de la cola del epidídimo, conteo de espermatozoides, morfología de los espermatozoides y estabilidad del ADN de espermatozoides de ratones machos adultos CF-1 tratados diariamente (exposición oral) con el tóxico arsenito de sodio (As, 7,0 mg/kg/peso corporal), melatonina (Me, 10,0 mg/kg/pc, Me (10,0 mg/kg/pc) más As (7,0 mg/kg/pc) y el Control Negativo (NaCl 0,9 por ciento) en evaluación aguda (8,3 días), crónica (33,2 días) y recuperación del daño testicular (66.4 días). El arsénico reduce el número de espermatozoides en el tratamiento crónico (33,2 días) y este efecto continuó hasta 66,4 días. El efecto tóxico de As también altero la morfología de los espermatozoides en todos los períodos de tratamiento cuando se compara con el grupo control negativo. Sin embargo, metalonina indujo efectos protectores en períodos de 33,2 y 66,4 días de tratamiento. La estabilidad del ADN se vio afectada significativamente por el arsénico en todos los periodos, pero en el tratamiento crónico (33,2 días) con AsMe se observa un aumento de la estabilidad em comparación com el grupo tratado con arsénico. Sin embargo, la melatonina protege parcialmente a los espermatozoides del daño causado por arsénico, especialmente durante los períodos de 33,2 y 66,4 días.

Male , Animals , Mice , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Testicular Diseases/chemically induced , Spermatozoa , Spermatozoa/pathology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Arsenites/toxicity , Sodium Compounds/toxicity , Epididymis , Epididymis/pathology , Sperm Count , Protective Agents/pharmacology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 479-485
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142607


In the present work, a series of 2-O-substituted derivatives of 1-[[3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy phenyl] sulfonyl]piperidine [5a-j] were synthesized. These derivatives were geared up by the coupling of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy benzenesulfonyl chloride [1] with piperidine [2] under dynamic pH control in aqueous media to form parent compound 1-[[3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl]sulfonyl]piperidine [3], followed by the substitution at oxygen atom with different electrophiles [4a-j] in the presence of sodium hydride [NaH] and dimethyl formamide [DMF] to give a series of Osubstituted derivatives of sulfonamides bearing piperidine nucleus 5a-j. The synthesized O-substituted sulfonamides were spectrally characterized. The bioactivity of all the synthesized compounds were evaluated against lipoxygenase [LOX], acetylcholinesterae [AChE] and butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] enzymes and found to be having talented activity against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme

Sodium Compounds/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Oxygen/chemistry , Lipoxygenase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipoxygenase/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis
AJMB-Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology. 2012; 4 (3): 148-154
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-132568


In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of water Hyacinth Root Powder [HRP] on arsenic-mediated toxic effects in mice. Swiss albino mice, used in this study, were divided into four different groups [for each group n=5]. The control group was supplied with normal feed and water, Arsenic group [As-group] was supplied with normal feed plus arsenic [sodium arsenite]-containing water, and arsenic+hyacinth group [As+Hy group] was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus arsenic water. The remaining Hy-group was supplied with feed supplemented with HRP plus normal water. Oral administration of arsenic reduced the normal growth of the mice as evidenced by weight loss. Interestingly, tip of the tails of these mice developed wound that caused gradual reduction of the tail length. Supplementation of HRP in feed significantly prevented mice growth retardation and tail wounding in As+Hy group mice. However, the growth pattern in Hygroup mice was observed to be almost similar to that of the control group indicating that HRP itself has no toxic or negative effect in mice. Ingested arsenic also distorted the shape of the blood cells and elevated the serum enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]. Importantly, elevation of these enzymes and distortion of blood cell shape were partially reduced in mice belong to As+Hy group, indicating HRP-mediated reduction of arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the preventive effect of hyacinth root on arsenic-poisoned mice suggested the future application of hyacinth to reduce arsenic toxicity in animal and human

Animals, Laboratory , Arsenic/toxicity , Arsenites , Sodium Compounds , Mice , Dietary Supplements , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Plant Extracts
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 229-240, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179886


The effects of sodium arsenite exposure on the hepatic maturation period of cellular and functional reorganization in developing rat livers were evaluated. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of sodium arsenite (1.5 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water on days 9 to 28 after birth. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed either by cervical dislocation or by perfusion fixation. The perfusion fixed liver tissue was processed for paraffin embedding, sectioning and hematoxylin and eosin staining. The fresh liver tissue was processed for cryo-sectioning followed by Sudan Black B staining and for biochemical estimation of reduced glutathione. Microscopic observation revealed comparable preserved hepatic lobular patterns and distributions of uninucleate and binucleate hepatocytes in the control and the experimental groups. The mean nuclear area and diameter of the hepatocytes was increased in the experimental group. Lipid droplet distribution pattern in Sudan Black B stained sections revealed higher staining intensity towards the centrilobular area in both groups. Semiquantitative estimation of staining intensity showed lower mean gray values in zone 3 than in zones 2 and 1 (suggestive of the setting in of the adult pattern) in both groups. The reduced glutathione levels in the liver tissue and the altered nuclear size of the hepatocytes in the experimental group suggested the impairment of morphological and biochemical processes induced by arsenic exposure during the postnatal period.

Adult , Animals , Arsenic , Arsenites , Azo Compounds , Biochemical Phenomena , Joint Dislocations , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Glutathione , Hematoxylin , Hepatocytes , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Liver , Paraffin Embedding , Parturition , Perfusion , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sodium , Sodium Compounds , Sudan , Water
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324214


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study mechanism of the apoptosis of rat pancreas islet β cell strain (INS-1 cells) induced by sodium arsenite.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>INS-1 cells were exposed to sodium arsenite at the different concentrations. MTT assay was used to detect the viability of INS-1 cells. The potentials on mitochondrial membrane and lysosome membrane of INS-1 cells were determined with the fluorescence spectrophotometer. The apoptotic levels of INS-1 cells exposed to sodium arsenite were observed by a fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After exposure to sodium arsenite, the viability of INS-1 cells significantly decreased with the doses of sodium arsenite. At 24 h after exposure, the OD values of the mitochondrial membrane potentials declined observably with the doses of sodium arsenite (P < 0.01). At 48 h after exposure, the OD values of the lysosome membrane potentials significantly increased with the doses of sodium arsenite (P < 0.01). At 72 h after exposure, the apoptotic cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope and enhanced with the doses of sodium arsenite. The apoptosis cells with light blue, karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis, apoptotic body and chromatin concentration appeared. The results detected with flow cytometry indicated that after exposure, the apoptotic INS-1E cells significantly increased with the doses of sodium arsenite.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The sodium arsenite can induce the apoptosis of INS-1 cells through the mitochondria-lysosome pathway.</p>

Animals , Apoptosis , Arsenites , Toxicity , Cells, Cultured , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Lysosomes , Metabolism , Membrane Potentials , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Rats , Sodium Compounds , Toxicity
Rev. ADM ; 68(5): 258-265, sept.-oct. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-655861


La Odontología de Mínima Intervención es una de las áreas de mayor auge y crecimiento en la última década. Dentro de esta filosofía de aplicar la prevención, se encuentra el resurgimiento de los selladores de fosas y fisuras debido a la llegada de los materiales bioactivos. Estos selladores han demostrado ser eficaces no sóloen prevenir las desmineralizaciones antes de su inicio, sino también, deteniendo el progreso de las lesiones en sus fases más tempranas y también remineralizando la estructura dentaldañada. Debido a las propiedades de estos materiales, no solo están indicados en niños y adolescentes, sino también en adultos. Una de las ventajas de los selladores es la posibilidad de que ellos podrían ser colocados inadvertidamente sobre desmineralizaciones incipientes,previniendo la progresión de la lesión cariosa y el daño a la integridad del diente. Con los ionómeros de vidrio remineralizantes, al ser colocados no sólo remineralizan la lesión, sino también la estructura circundante.Además se recargan con enjuagues y pastas, a base de fluoruros de sodio y de fosfato de calcio y lo que es mejor, ayudan a neutralizar el pH de la saliva y disminuir el número de bacterias.Cuando los selladores son utilizados como alternativa terapéutica, se realizan procedimientos restauradores microconservadores, los cuales fomentan la preservación de la estructura dental y no su remoción innecesaria. Estas restauraciones con instrumentación mínima, poseen simultáneamente una finalidad terapéutica y una preventiva. La odontología de mínima intervención.

Humans , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Pit and Fissure Sealants/therapeutic use , Sodium Compounds/chemistry , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Preventive Dentistry
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33998


Bromate is an oxidizing agent used as a permanent wave neutralizer. Accidental or deliberate ingestion of bromate has rarely been reported, but is potentially severe. We report a 36-year-old female hairdresser, who was admitted due to nausea and vomiting after ingestion of sodium bromate. The patient was successfully treated with hemodialysis therapy and renal function recovered without any complication. The clinicians must remember that early therapeutic measures, including hemodialysis, should be taken as soon as possible to prevent irreversible hearing loss and renal failure.

Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Bromates , Eating , Female , Hearing Loss , Humans , Nausea , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency , Sodium , Sodium Compounds , Vomiting
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-46534


Sodium bromate is a strong oxidant used as a neutralizing solution in hair permanents, as well as an auxiliary agent in printing and dyeing. Accidental or deliberate ingestion of bromate solution has rarely been reported in Korea. The clinical manifestations of bromate intoxication are vomiting, diarrhea, central nervous system symptoms, oliguric or non-oliguric acute kidney injury, hemolytic anemia, and deafness; most of these manifestations are reversible, with the exception of renal failure and deafness. Here, we report on two patients who demonstrated distinct clinical progressions. In the first case, a 16-year-old woman was successfully treated with hemodialysis and recovered renal function without hearing loss. However, in the second case, delayed hemodialysis resulted in persistent renal failure and hearing loss in a 77-year-old woman. This suggests that emergency therapeutic measures, including hemodialysis, should be taken as soon as possible, as the rapid removal of bromate may be essential to preventing severe intoxication and its sequelae.

Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adolescent , Aged , Bromates/toxicity , Fatal Outcome , Female , Hearing Loss , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis , Sodium Compounds/toxicity
Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences-JAUMS. 2010; 8 (3): 173-178
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-146302


Arsenic is one of the most important current environmental toxicants. Arsenic is one of the biggest protein stress inducer in several organs and systems. One of the basic and sensitive criteria for following protein stress is assessing carbonyl and thiol groups of proteins. Therefore, we assessed protein stress that produced by sodium arsenite in chicken embryos by measuring carbonyl and thiol proteins. After 4 days of incubation, 36 fertilized eggs were candled. The eggs that had alive embryos received a single injection of 0.1 and 0.5 ppm arsenite sodium in two separate groups of 12 eggs and the rest 12 [control group] received 0.5 ml saline into the yolk sac. After 20 days of incubation, teratogenicity and external defects in embryos were investigated, one ml of embryo blood was analyzed for assaying protein thiol and carbonyl as well. Data were analyzed by SPSS [version 16] with ANOVA test [tukey]. The mean of carbonyl protein was in 0.1 ppm group 0.835, 0.5 ppm group 0.844 and control group 0.804 and this change was significant and dose dependent. In addition, the mean of thiol protein was in 0.1 ppm group 0.053, 0.5 ppm group 0.014 and control group 0.054 and this change was also significant and dose dependent. The carbonyl and thiol protein alterations in serum of embryos exposed to arsenite sodium, suggest the embryotoxicity of this agent induction of plasma carbonyl and thiol protein stress

Animals , Heat-Shock Proteins , Sodium Compounds , Chick Embryo/drug effects , Protein Carbonylation , Teratogens
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 52(1): 84-90
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-107434


Effect of arsenic was studied on the testicular tissue of Swiss albino mice. Sodium-meta-arsenite (NaAsO2) was administered to adult mice (25 +/- 30 g) at a dose level of 30 mg/L and 40 mg/L through drinking water for 30, 45 and 60 days. After the treatment, the testicular organ was removed, weighed and processed for histopathological observation. No change in the body weight was recorded in treated groups after arsenic exposure but significant decrease in the relative testicular weight was observed in comparison with the control. The result showed that arsenic-treated mice exhibited dose dependent gradual reductions in seminiferous tubular diameter and various gametogenic cell population i.e. resting spermatocyte, pachytene spermatocyte and step-7-spermatid except spermatogonia. Leydig cell atrophy was significantly increased in dose dependent manner indicating a definite effect of arsenic on the spermatogenesis in mice. These observations were supported by gradual reduction in Leydig cell population in the above treated groups. In conclusion, the above results confirm the toxic effect of arsenic in testis of mice.

Animals , Arsenites/toxicity , Body Weight/drug effects , Leydig Cells/drug effects , Male , Mice , Organ Size/drug effects , Sodium Compounds/toxicity , Sperm Count , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatogonia/drug effects , Testicular Diseases/chemically induced , Testis/pathology , Tissue Fixation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359422


The histopathological features and the associated clinical findings of ulcerative colitis (UC) are due to persistent inflammatory response in the colon mucosa. Interventions that suppress this response benefit UC patients. We tested whether sodium arsenite (SA) benefits rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis. The DSS-colitis was induced by 5% DSS in drinking water. SA (10 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) was given 8 h before DSS treatment and then every 48 h for 3 cycles of 7, 14 or 21 d. At the end of each cycle rats were sacrificed and colon sections processed for histological examination. DSS induced diarrhea, loose stools, hemoccult positive stools, gross bleeding, loss of body weight, loss of epithelium, crypt damage, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The severity of these changes increased in the order of Cycles 1, 2 and 3. Treatment of rats with SA significantly reduced this severity and improved the weight gain.

Animals , Arsenites , Pharmacology , Body Weight , Colitis , Drug Therapy , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Pathology , Dextran Sulfate , Pharmacology , Epithelium , Pathology , Inflammation , Male , Models, Biological , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sodium Compounds , Pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences-Rahavard Danesh. 2008; 10 (4): 57-63
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-100547


Sodium arsenite is an environmental pollutant which its amounts in industrial cities are more than other places because of its use in chemical industry. Human populations are exposed to this chemical compound through food, soil, air and water which has toxic and histopathological effects on different body organs including kidney. The aim of this investigation is to study the quantitative histopathological effects of sodium arsenite on the kidney structure of rats. 12 male Wistar rats with mean body weight of 200 +/- 20 g were randomly divided into 2 groups [n=6]. One treated with sodium arsenite [8 mg/kg/day in drinking water] and the other one [the control group] received drinking water only. 2 months after treatment the rats were weighed, anesthetized with ether and dissected. The left kidney was taken out, cleaned, weighed and then fixed in 10% formaldehyde solution. After obtaining 1mm thick slices, tissue processing was carried out, then 5 micro m thick sections were prepared and stained using H and E method. Slides were finally studied stereologically and data was statistically analyzed using paired samples t-test and the means were considered significantly different at p<0.05. The results of this investigation indicated significant reduction in the total mean volume of kidney [p<0.001] and cortex [p<0.001] and medulla [p<0.003] in sodium arsenite treated group compared to the control rats. The mean volume of tubules and interstitial tissue as components of cortex reduced significantly compared to the control group [p<0.003].The mean volume of glomeruli and Bowman's capsule significantly reduced in treated group [p<0.001]. While the other components did not show a significant reduction in volume. A significant reduction was also found in the kidney [p<0.002] and the body weight [p<0.01] in the treated group compared to the control ones at the end of the experiment. We concluded that exposure to sodium arsenite leads to histopathological changes in kidney structure however more studies are needed to determine the effects of these structural changes on the kidney function

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Sodium Compounds/toxicity , Kidney/pathology , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar