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1.
Rev. ADM ; 77(1): 22-27, ene.-feb. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087921

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hoy en día, la mayoría de los pacientes requieren tratamiento de ortodoncia fija convencional, la cual utiliza procedimientos adhesivos afines con la superficie amelodentinaria. Aunque existen diferentes técnicas adhesivas que pueden ofrecer adecuados niveles de resistencia al desalojo, el uso del hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) como agente desproteinizante no ha sido bien definido en materiales de cementación en aparatología ortodóncica convencional. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los niveles de resistencia al desalojo con pruebas de microtensión y análisis topográfico con microscopia electrónica de barrido. Material y métodos: 20 bloques de esmalte bovino fueron expuestos superficialmente a soluciones acondicionadoras (ácido ortofosfórico al 37%) con y sin agente desproteinizante (NaClO al 5.25%); finalmente, brackets individuales de ortodoncia fueron cementados con sistemas adhesivos y resinas compuestas de casas comerciales (Ormco y 3M). Las pruebas de resistencia al desalojo fueron realizadas con una máquina de fuerzas universales y el análisis topográfico con microscopia electrónica de barrido. Resultados: El uso del NaClO al 5.25% y la marca Ormco tuvieron estadísticamente los mejores niveles de adhesión que el grupo sin desproteinización y la casa comercial 3M, respectivamente. La topografía adamantina expuesta al agente desproteinizante mostró características de superficie relacionadas con el patrón de grabado tipo I. Conclusión: El uso de un agente desproteinizante (NaClO 5.25%) así como una marca comercial (Ormco) en particular podrían definir el aumento en los niveles de adhesión en superficies adamantinas con aparatología ortodóncica convencional (AU)


Introduction: Nowadays, patients require conventional fixed orthodontic treatment, which uses adhesive procedures related to the dentinal denture surface. Although there are different adhesive techniques that can offer adequate levels of bonding resistance, the use of NaClO as a deproteinizing agent has not been well defined in cementing materials in conventional orthodontic appliances. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of bond resistance using micro tension tests and topographic analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Material and methods: Twenty-blocks of bovine enamel were exposed superficially to conditioning solutions (37% orthophosphoric acid) with and without deproteinizing agent (5.25% NaClO); finally, individual orthodontic brackets were cemented with adhesive systems and resin composites of different trademarks (Ormco and 3M). Bonding resistance tests were performed with a universal force machine and topographic analysis was made with scanning electron microscopy. Results: The use of 5.25% NaClO and the Ormco brand had statistically better levels of adhesion than the group without deproteinization and the 3M brand, respectively. Adamantine topography exposed to the deproteinizing agent showed surface characteristics related to the type I etching pattern. Conclusion: The use of a deproteinizing agent (NaClO 5.25%) as well as a trademark (Ormco) in particular conditions could define the increase in adhesion levels on adamantine surfaces with conventional orthodontic appliances (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Phosphoric Acids , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Composite Resins
2.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(1): 31-35, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989430

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate whether amplifying the volume and/or time of contact of NaOCl affects the fracture strength of endodontically treated bovine teeth. Four bovine incisors from 10 animals were allocated into 4 groups using a split-mouth design. Root canals were instrumented using a sequence of 4 manual stainless steel files and irrigated with a 5.25% alkalized NaOCl solution. The total volume and time of irrigation, per sample, varied among the groups as following: standard volume and time of contact - 15 mL/11.5 min; volume raise - 30 mL/11.5 min; time of contact raise - 15 mL/19 min; and volume and time of contact raise - 30 mL/19 min. Samples were subjected to a fracture resistance assay. At p=0.05, two-way ANOVA statistically scrutinized the results. Effect size of NaOCl time of contact and volume were also calculated (η2). The variation in time (p=0.000), volume of irrigation (p=0.000) and the combination of both (p=0.038) negatively influenced the fracture resistance. Standard volume and time of irrigation showed the highest fracture strength while isolated increase in volume or time reduced in 25% and 37%, respectively, the fracture resistance; the simultaneous increase in volume and time of irrigation promoted a reduction of 47%. Effect size of NaOCl time of contact was superior (0.746) than the volume (0.564). Raising the volume and/or time of a 5.25% alkalized NaOCl solution reduces the fracture resistance of endodontically treated bovine teeth.


Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi o de avaliar se o aumento de volume e/ou tempo de contato do NaOCl afeta a resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos tratados endodonticamente. Quatro incisivos bovinos de 10 animais foram alocados em 4 grupos usando um desenho experimental de boca dividida. Os canais radiculares foram instrumentados usando uma sequência de 4 limas manuais de aço inoxidável e irrigados com uma solução de NaOCl alcalinizada a 5,25%. O volume total e o tempo de irrigação, por amostra, variaram entre os grupos da seguinte forma: volume e tempo de contato padrão (grupo controle) - 15 mL/11,5 min; aumento de volume - 30 mL/11,5 min; aumento no tempo de contato - 15 mL/19 min; e aumento no volume e no tempo de contato - 30 mL/19 min. As amostras foram submetidas a um ensaio de resistência à fratura. Com p=0.05, o teste two-way ANOVA analisou estatisticamente os resultados. O tamanho do efeito do tempo de contato e volume de NaOCl também foi calculado (h2). A variação no tempo (p=0,000), no volume de irrigação (p=0,000) e a interação entre ambos (p=0.038) influenciaram negativamente a resistência à fratura. O volume e o tempo padrão de irrigação apresentaram a maior resistência à fratura, enquanto o aumento isolado no volume ou no tempo de contato reduziram 25% e 37%, respectivamente, a resistência à fratura; o aumento simultâneo do volume e tempo de irrigação promoveu uma redução de 47%. O tamanho do efeito do tempo de contato com o NaOCl foi superior (0,746) ao volume (0,564). Aumentando o volume e/ou o tempo de uma solução de NaOCl alcalinizada a 5,25% reduz a resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos tratados endodonticamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Root Canal Therapy , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Tooth Fractures , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Cattle , Dental Stress Analysis , Incisor , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e057, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011660

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA) as a single irrigant on the smear layer, on the intraradicular dentinal bond strength, and on the penetrability of an epoxy-based resin sealer into the dentinal tubules. A total of 120 roots were distributed into 4 groups according to the irrigant used in root canal preparation: 1% PAA (PAA); 2.5% NaOCl followed by final irrigation with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl); 2.5% NaOCl (NaOCl); and saline solution (SS). The smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The bond strength of an epoxy-based resin sealer (AH Plus) to root dentin was evaluated by the push-out test and penetrability of the sealer into dentinal tubules was observed by confocal laser microscopy. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post-test (α = 0.05). The use of 1% PAA as single root canal irrigant provided smear layer removal and improved the penetrability and bond strength of AH Plus to root dentin in a manner similar to that of the NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl group (p > 0.05). The NaOCl and SS groups had higher values of smear layer and lower values of sealer penetrability and dentin bond strength than the PAA and NaOCl-EDTA-NaOCl groups (p < 0.05). Thus, 1% PAA has the potential to be used as a single irrigant in root canals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Peracetic Acid/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Smear Layer/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Dental Bonding/methods , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180420, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This in vitro study aimed to compare the efficacy of irrigants using various irrigation activation methods to the push-out bond strengths of fiber post to root canal luted with self-adhesive resin cement (SARC). Methodology: Forty-eight decoronated human canines were used. The specimens were divided into four groups corresponding with the post-space irrigation process and were treated as follows: distilled water (DW) (Control) group received 15 mL of DW; sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)+ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) group was treated with 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, 5 mL of 17% EDTA, and 5 mL of DW; passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) group was treated with 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, 5 mL of 17% EDTA, and 5 mL of DW, and each irrigant was agitated with an ultrasonic file; and laser activated irrigation (LAI) group was treated with 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, 5 mL of 17% EDTA, and 5 mL of DW, and each irrigant was irradiated with Nd: YAG laser. Fiber posts were luted with SARC, and a push-out test was performed. Data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test. Results: The bond strength values for the groups obtained were as follows: Control (10.04 MPa), NaOCl+EDTA (11.07 MPa), PUI (11.85 MPa), and LAI (11.63 MPa). No statistically significant differences were found among all experimental groups (p>0.05). The coronal (12.66 MPa) and middle (11.63 MPa) root regions indicated a significantly higher bond strength compared with the apical (9.16 MPa) region (p<0.05). Conclusions: Irrigant activation methods did not increase the bond strength of fiber post to canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/radiation effects , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Post and Core Technique , Lasers, Solid-State , Self-Curing of Dental Resins/methods , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/radiation effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid/radiation effects , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Restoration Failure , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/radiation effects , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/radiation effects
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180157, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of surfactants 0.2% or 0.1% cetrimide (Cet) or 0.008% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on 2.5% calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2), and compare to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), regarding the properties of pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Material and Methods The pH and free chlorine content were evaluated by digital pHmeter and by titration, respectively. Surface tension was measured by the platinum ring technique with a Du Noüy tensiometer. The solution's contact angle in human dentin surfaces was checked by Drop Shape Analyzer software. Bovine pulps were used for pulp dissolution analysis and the dissolving capacity was expressed by percent weight loss. Antimicrobial activity over Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by the agar diffusion method. Results Surfactants addition to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl did not alter the pH, free chlorine content and pulp dissolution properties. Ca(OCl)2 had the highest surface tension among all tested solutions. When surfactants were added to Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl, there was a significant reduction of surface tension and contact angle values. The addition of 0.2% or 0.1% Cet enhanced antimicrobial activity of both Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion Surfactant addition to 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 has shown acceptable outcomes for pH, free chlorine content, surface tension, contact angle, pulp dissolution and antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, the addition of 0.2% Cet showed better results for all tested properties.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Cetrimonium/chemistry , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface Properties , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Materials Testing , Chlorine/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Cetrimonium/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180045, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-975882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the efficacy of different sonic and ultrasonic devices in the elimination of debris from canal irregularities in artificial root canals. Materials and Methods A resin model of a transparent radicular canal filled with dentin debris was used. Five groups were tested, namely: Group 1 - ultrasonic insert 15.02; Group 2 - ultrasonic insert 25/25 IRRI K; Group 3 - ultrasonic insert 25/25 IRRI S; Group 4 - sonic insert 20/28 Eddy on a vibrating sonic air-scaler handpiece; Group 5 - 20.02 K-file inserted on a Safety M4 handpiece. Two different irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA) and 3 different times of activation (20, 40, and 60 seconds) were tested. Means and standard deviations were calculated and statistically analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05). Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two irrigants used. Group 4 removed more debris than the other groups (p<0.05). Groups 1, 2, and 3 removed more debris than group 5 (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found for the time of activation in all groups and at all canal levels, except between 40 and 60 seconds in group 4 at coronal and middle third level (p>0.05). Conclusions No significant differences were found between 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. When the time of activation rises, the dentin debris removal increases in all groups. Both sonic and ultrasonic activation demonstrate high capacity for dentin debris removal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonic Therapy/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Instruments/standards , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Reference Values , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Sonication/instrumentation , Sonication/methods , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dentin , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(5): 446-451, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974176

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of post-space irrigation with NaOCl and CaOCl at different concentrations on the bond strength of posts cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement. Eighty premolars were sectioned 14 mm from the apex, and endodontically treated. The root canal filling was partially removed. Specimens were randomly assigned into 8 groups (n=10), according to the irrigant for post-space irrigation: SS - 0.9% saline solution (control group); CHX - 2% chlorhexidine; 1% NaOCl - 1% sodium hypochlorite; 2.5% NaOCl - 2.5% sodium hypochlorite; 5% NaOCl - 5% sodium hypochlorite; 1% CaOCl - 1% calcium hypochlorite; 2.5% CaOCl - 2.5% calcium hypochlorite; and 5% CaOCl - 5% calcium hypochlorite. For each group, irrigation was performed continuously with 2 ml of solution. The post-spaces were dried with paper points (#80), and glass fiber posts were cemented using a self-adhesive resin cement. The specimens were sectioned perpendicularly and the push-out test was performed. Optical microscopy was used to analyze the failure mode. ANOVA and Bonferroni tests analyzed the bond strength data. NaOCl and CaOCl presented similar bond strength regardless the concentration used to irrigate the post-space (p>0.05). SS showed the highest bond strength (11.47 MPa) (p<0.05). Adhesive failures at the cement/dentin interface were predominant (58.33%). Saline solution should be irrigant of choice to irrigate the post-space before fiber post cementation with self-adhesive resin cement. NaOCl and CaOCl negatively affect the bond strength values.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da irrigação do espaço preparado para o pino com NaOCl e CaOCl em diferentes concentrações na resistência adesiva de pinos cimentados com um cimento resinoso autoadesivo. Oitenta pré-molares foram seccionados 14 mm do ápice e endodonticamente tratado. As obturações foram parcialmente removidas. Os espécimes divididos randomicamente em 8 grupos (n=10) de acordo com o irrigante usado para irrigação do espaço preparado para pino: SF - soro fisiológico 0,9% (grupo controle); CHX - clorexidina 2%; NaOCl 1% - hipoclorito de sódio 1%; NaOCl 2,5% - hipoclorito de sódio 2,5%; NaOCl 5% - hipoclorito de sódio 5%; CaOCl 1% - hipoclorito de cálcio 1%; CaOCl 2,5% - hipoclorito de cálcio 2,5%; CaOCl 5% - hipoclorito de cálcio 5%. Para cada grupo, irrigação foi realizada com 2 mL de solução. O espaço preparado para pino foi seco com cone de papel absorvente (#80) e os pinos de fibra foram cimentados com cimento resinoso autoadesivo. Os espécimes foram seccionados perpendicularmente e o teste de push-out foi realizado. Microscopia óptica foi usada para analisar o padrão de falha. Os testes de ANOVA e Bonferroni analisaram os dados de resistência adesiva. NaOCl e CaOCl apresentaram similar resistência adesiva, independentemente da concentração usada para irrigar o espaço preparado para pino (p>0,05). SF apresentou os maiores valores de resistência adesiva (11,47 MPa) (p<0,05). Falhas adesivas na interface cimento/dentina foram predominantes (58,33%). Soro fisiológico deve ser o irrigante de escolha para irrigar o espaço preparado para pino antes da cimentação de pinos de fibra com cimentos resinosos autoadesivos. NaOCl e CaOCl afetam negativamente os valores de resistência adesiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Post and Core Technique , Dental Bonding , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Bicuspid , In Vitro Techniques , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e121, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974461

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of radiation therapy on root canal sealer push-out bond strength (BS) to dentin and the sealer/dentin interface after different final irrigation solutions (NaOCl, EDTA, and chitosan). Sixty-four maxillary canines were distributed into two groups (n=30): non-irradiated and irradiated with 60 Gy. Canals were prepared with Reciproc-R50 and subdivided (n=10) for final irrigation (NaOCl, EDTA, chitosan) and filled. Three dentin slices were obtained from each root third. The first slice of each third was selected for BS evaluation, and the failure mode was determined by stereomicroscopy. SEM analysis of the sealer-dentin interface was performed in the remaining slices. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05) were used. Lower BS (P<0.0001) was obtained after irradiation (2.07±0.79 MPa), regardless of the final irrigation solution used. The NaOCl group (P<0.001) had the lowest BS in the irradiated (1.68±0.72) and non-irradiated (2.39±0.89) groups, whereas the EDTA (irradiated: 2.14±0.77 and non-irradiated: 3.92±1.54) and chitosan (irradiated: 2.37±0.73 and non-irradiated: 3.51±1.47) groups demonstrated a higher BS (P<0.05). The highest values were observed in the coronal third (3.17±1.38) when compared to the middle (2.74±1.36) and apical ones (2.09±0.97)(P<0.0001). There were more cohesive failures and more gaps in irradiated specimens, regardless of the final solution. The present study showed that radiation was associated with a decrease in BS, regardless of the final solution used, whereas chitosan increased BS in teeth subjected to radiation therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Filling Materials/radiation effects , Root Canal Irrigants/radiation effects , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/radiation effects , Epoxy Resins/radiation effects , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Surface Properties/radiation effects , Tooth Root/drug effects , Tooth Root/radiation effects , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Restoration Failure , Chitosan/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170374, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To determine the concentration of calcium, iron, manganese and zinc ions after the application of chelator to Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Material and Methods Fifty bovine maxillary central incisors were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 60 days. The following were used as irrigation solutions: 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) combined with 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10), distilled water (pH 3, 7 and 10), and 2.5% NaOCl. Each solution was kept in the root canal for five minutes. Fifteen uncontaminated root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10). Six teeth were used as bacterial control. The number of calcium, iron, manganese and zinc ions was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) values were used for descriptive statistics. Results Calcium chelation using 17% EDTA at pH 7 was higher than at pH 3 and 10, regardless of whether bacterial biofilm was present. The highest concentration of iron occurred at pH 3 in the presence of bacterial biofilm. The highest concentration of manganese found was 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA at pH 7 in the presence of bacterial biofilm. Zinc levels were not detectable. Conclusions The pH of chelating agents affected the removal of calcium, iron, and manganese ions. The concentration of iron ions in root canals with bacterial biofilm was higher after the use of 17% EDTA at pH 3 than after the use of the other solutions at all pH levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Materials Testing , Water/chemistry , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Calcium/analysis , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Enterococcus faecalis/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis
10.
Postgrad. Med. J. Ghana ; 7(1): 1-7, 2018. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1268719

ABSTRACT

Background: The majority of endodontic treatment in Ghana is provided by general dental practitioners due to the absence of specialists in endodontics. Sodium hypochlorite has been described as one of the commonly used irrigation solutions during endodontic treatment. However, there are no published reports on its use in Ghana. Aim: The study was to determine the proportion of Ghanaian dental practitioners who have used sodium hypochlorite for irrigation and the concentrations they usually use. Materials and methods: Self -administered questionnaires were mailed to dental practitioners in private clinics, government hospitals and clinics, teaching hospitals and training institutions across the country between December 2015 and March 2016. The collated data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 20.0.Results: The most commonly used root canal irrigant was 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite (Milton®). This was routinely used by 31 (73.7%) of the respondents as root canal irrigant while normal saline solution was used regularly by only 6(15.8%) respondents. The various concentrations of sodium hypochlorite used were 0.5%, 2.5%,1%and 5.0%; with the following percentage-use respectively, 42.9%, 32.1%,21.4%and 6.1%. Three (10.7%) respondents had reported experiencing some complications with the use of sodium hypochlorite. Conclusion: Sodium hypochlorite is the most commonly used root canal irrigant by dental practitioners in Ghana. The concentrations usually used ranges between 0.5% and 5.0%


Subject(s)
Economics , Endodontics , Ghana , Root Canal Irrigants , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. clín. periodoncia implantol. rehabil. oral (Impr.) ; 10(3): 145-148, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-900296

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Aim: The objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of irrigating solutions and the residual content of parachloroaniline (PCA) formed after endodontic irrigation, using 5% NaOCl, 0.9% NaCl, 10% EDTA and 2% CHX 2%. Methodology Twenty premolars were used and 13 samples were collected per tooth from each of the treatment phases. Samples of: NaOCl, EDTA, CHX and PCA were quantified by UV and visible spectrophotometry. Results: Sodium hypochlorite decreased its concentration from 3.8% to 3.4% in phases 1 to 4. In phases 5, 6 and 7, residual NaOCl was measured with concentrations of 0.007%, 0.003% and 0.001% %. The concentration of EDTA decreased to 8.85% in phase 8. In phases 9, 10 and 11, irrigated with serum, EDTA was quantified with concentrations of 0.013% to 0.002% and NaOCl values of 0.0011% to 0, 0006%. In phases 12 and 13, CHX concentrations were 1.850% and 1.812% and PCA values were 0.0005% and 0.0007%. PCA formation occurred in presence of 2% CHX and residual NaClO and was detected colorimetrically in phases 12 and 13. Conclusions. During endodontic irrigation the concentration of 5% NaOCl decreases significantly in the first four phases and the concentrations of EDTA and CHX also decrease. There is PCA training in the last stages of the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Aniline Compounds/analysis , Root Canal Irrigants/administration & dosage , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Spectrophotometry , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Drug Interactions , Endodontics
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(3): 290-298, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893628

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of laser-activated irrigation (LAI), XP-endo Finisher, CanalBrush, Vibringe, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and conventional syringe irrigation systems on the removal of calcium hydroxide (CH) from simulated root canal irregularities. Material and Methods The root canals of one hundred and five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented using Reciproc rotary files up to size R40. The teeth were split longitudinally. Two of the three standard grooves were created in the coronal and apical section of one segment, and another in the middle part of the second segment. The standardized grooves were filled with CH and the root halves were reassembled. After 14 days, the specimens were randomly divided into 7 experimental groups (n=15/group). CH was removed as follows: Group 1: beveled needle irrigation; Group 2: double side-vented needle irrigation; Group 3: CanalBrush; Group 4: XP-endo Finisher; Group 5: Vibringe; Group 6: PUI; Group 7: LAI. The amount of remaining CH in the grooves was scored under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Statistical evaluation was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-Correction Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Groups 1 and 2 were the least efficient in eliminating CH from the grooves. Groups 6 and 7 eliminated more CH than the other protocols; however, no significant differences were found between these two groups (P>.05). Conclusions Nevertheless, none of the investigated protocols were able to completely remove all CH from all three root regions. LAI and PUI showed less residual CH than the other protocols from artificial grooves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Laser Therapy/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
13.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e29, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839514

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluates the influence of root dentin treatment with NaOCl alone and combined with EDTA, with and without ultrasound activation, on the push-out bond strength (BS) of fiber-reinforced posts in weakened roots, cemented with RelyX or Panavia. The root canals of 42 maxillary canines were instrumented with Reciproc and 2.5% NaOCl. In the coronal 12mm of all canals, experimental weakening of the roots was produced by reducing dentin thickness with 2.44mm diameter diamond burs. The roots were assigned to 3 groups (n = 14) according to root dentin treatment: 2.5% NaOCl; 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA; and 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, with solutions agitated using passive ultrasonic irrigation. After cementation of the fiber-reinforced posts the roots were divided in thirds. The first slice of each third was used for the push-out BS test, the second slice for confocal laser scanning microscopy and dentin microhardness (Knoop) analysis. Data were analysed by a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (a = 0.05). NaOCl + EDTA provided highest BS values than NaOCl (p < 0.0001). Specimens cemented with Panavia presented significantly higher BS than those with RelyX in the three root thirds (p < 0.0001). The highest BS values occurred in the cervical third (p < 0.001). Ultrasound-activated NaOCl + EDTA promoted the greatest reduction in dentin microhardness, followed by NaOCl/EDTA and NaOCl. Ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and EDTA reduced root dentin microhardness, but did not improve the push-out BS of resin-based cements. Panavia presented higher BS than RelyX. RelyX was not influenced by the root dentin treatment protocols.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Tooth Root/drug effects , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Analysis of Variance , Dental Restoration Failure , Dentin/radiation effects , Hardness Tests , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Post and Core Technique , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Root/radiation effects , Ultrasonic Therapy
14.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 30(1): 13-18, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907402

ABSTRACT

This study compared the surface detail reproduction anddimensional accuracy of molds after disinfection using 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to those of molds that were not disinfected, forfour elastomeric impression materials: polysulfide (Light Bodied Permlastic), polyether (Impregum Soft), polydimethylsiloxane(Oranwash L) and polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV). Themolds were prepared on a matrix by applying pressure, using aperforated metal tray. The molds were removed followingpolymerization and either disinfected (by soaking in one of thesolutions for 15 minutes) or not disinfected. The samples werethus divided into 16 groups (n=5). Surface detail reproductionand dimensional accuracy were evaluated using opticalmicroscopy to assess the 20 ­µm line over its entire 25 mm length. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjectedto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were comparedby Tukey’s test (α=5%). The 20 ­µm line was completelyreproduced by all elastomeric impression materials, regardlessof disinfection procedure. There was no significant difference between the control group and molds disinfected with peraceticacid for the elastomeric materials Impregum Soft (polyether)and Aquasil Ultra LV (polyvinylsiloxane). The high­leveldisinfectant peracetic acid would be the choice material for disinfection.


Este estudo comparou a reprodução de detalhes da superfície e estabilidade dimensional de moldes obtidos após desinfecção utilizando hipoclorito de sódio 2%, digluconato de clorexidina 2%, ou ácido peracético 0,2% a moldes que não foram desinfetados com quatro elastômeros: polissulfeto (Light Bodied Permlastic), polieter (Impregum Soft), silicona reação porcondensação (Oranwash L) e silicona reação por adição (Aquasil Ultra LV). Os moldes foram preparados sobre matriz conten dolinhas de 20, 50 e 75 µm realizado sob pressão com moldeirade metal perfurada. Os moldes foram removidos após a polimerização e desinfetados (utilizando uma das soluções porimersão, armazenados em frascos fechados durante 15 minutos)ou não desinfetados. Assim, as amostras foram divididas em 16grupos (n=5). A reprodução detalhes da superfície e a precisão dimensional foram avaliadas usando microscopia óptica na linha 20 µm com 25 mm de comprimento, de acordo com a norma ISO 4823. Os resultados de precisão dimensional (%) foram submetidos à análise de variância (A NOVA) e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey com 5% de nível de significância. A linha de 20 µm foi completamente reproduzida por todos os elastômeros, independentemente do processo de desinfecção. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o grupo controle e moldes desinfetados com acido peracético para os elastômeros Impregum Soft (polieter) e Aquasil Ultra LV (siliconareação por adição). O desinfetante de alto nível ácido peracético seria o material de escolha para a desinfecção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Impression Materials , Models, Dental , Dental Disinfectants/chemistry , Surface Properties , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Elastomers/classification , Microscopy/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Siloxanes/classification , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Sulfides/classification
15.
Bauru; s.n; 2017. 159 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-883792

ABSTRACT

Besides of the desired effects, the chemical solutions used to assist the endodontic instruments in the cleanliness and disinfection of the root canal system can also cause changes in the physicochemical properties of dentin, and consequently affect the adhesion of endodontic sealers and microorganisms to the root canal walls. However, the effects of new irrigators and irrigation protocols remain unknown. The objectives of this thesis were to verify the alterations in the properties of some irrigants when used combined in mixtures, to define the time necessary for the smear layer removal by a new irrigant, to determine the organic matter dissolution capacity and the effects in the physicochemical properties of dentin of some irrigation solutions and protocols, and to evaluate the adhesion of microorganisms and AH Plus sealer to dentin after its submission to different irrigation sequences. In all experiments with dentin, the samples used were obtained from bovine teeth. In the analysis performed in this thesis, the following solutions were tested isolated and combined in different irrigation protocols: saline solution (control), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), trisodium (EDTAHNa3), alkaline ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium (EDTANa4), chlorhexidine (CHX), peracetic acid (PAA), and etidronic acid (HEDP). The EDTAHNa3 and EDTANa4 were tested in relation to their effects on the free chlorine content of NaOCl. The solutions were mixed in a 1:1 ratio and the iodometric titration of the mixtures performed in different time intervals. The time necessary for smear layer removal from dentin samples by solutions of EDTAHNa3 and different concentrations of EDTANa4 isolated and mixed with NaOCl was determined with the aid of the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The capacity of NaOCl to dissolve organic matter was determined by weighting fragments of bovine muscle before and after immersion in solutions of 1%, 2.5%, and 5% of NaOCl in different periods of time. Also, the effects of EDTAHNa3, EDTANa4 and HEDP on the organic matter dissolution by NaOCl were evaluated. The alterations produced by all solutions isolated and some irrigation protocols in the organic and inorganic components of the dentin surface were analysed by the attenuated total reflectance of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) technique. Absorbance spectra were collected from the dentin surface before and after immersion of samples in the irrigants and the ratios of the amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate bands were calculated. To quantify the adhesion of CHX to mineralized dentin and to dentin demineralized by different irrigation protocols, the areas of the band associated with CHX with the peak in 1492 cm−1 were determined in spectra obtained by ATR-FTIR. The effects of different irrigation protocols in the roughness and wettability of dentin surface were measured with a benchtop roughness tester and the sessile drop technique, respectively. For the assays of microorganisms' adhesion, samples were prepared and treated the same way and with the same irrigation protocols used in the roughness and wettability tests. Following, Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis were maintained in contact with the dentin for 2 hours and the samples were analyzed on the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Tests of push-out were performed to determine the impact of different irrigation protocols on the dentin bonding strength of AH Plus sealer over time. Canals of bovine incisors teeth were instrumented, irrigated and following obturated using only the sealer AH Plus. Half of the samples were submitted to pushout assessment 7 days after the obturation and the other half 20 months later. The results of the experiments showed that the EDTAHNa3 caused an almost complete and immediate loss of free available chlorine from NaOCl, whilst EDTANa4 promoted a slow and concentration-dependent decline. The smear layer was removed only by decalcifying solutions and in about 1 min by the 17% EDTAHNa3 and 5 min by the EDTANa4, both isolated or mixed with NaOCl. The increase in NaOCl concentration and contact time with the samples intensified the dissolution of organic matter. The mixtures of NaOCl with EDTANa4 and HEDP were able to dissolve the fragments of bovine muscle over-time, however, the EDTAHNa3 strongly affected the NaOCl dissolution capacity when they were mixed. The results of ATR-FTIR experiments showed that the increase in the NaOCl concentration intensified the deproteination of the dentin collagen with a reduction in the amide III/phosphate ratio. For the same decalcifying agent, the higher the concentration and immersion time the greater the removal of phosphate, exposure of the collagen matrix and consequently the increases in amide III/phosphate ratio. The PAA caused greater increases in amide III/phosphate ratio, followed by EDTAHNa3, EDTANa4 and HEDP and this order was maintained in the protocols in which NaOCl was used before the decalcifying agents. NaOCl required approximately 0.5 min to deproteinate the collagen matrix exposed after phosphate removal by EDTAHNa3 and PAA. The carbonate/phosphate ratio decreased after 30 s of samples immersion in solutions of NaOCl at 1%, 2.5% and 5% with no more alterations over time. The carbonate of the dentine was removed faster than phosphate by all decalcifying agents employed alone and in the irrigation protocols in which the use of the NaOCl was followed by the use of the EDTAHNa3, PAA and HEDP. For irrigation protocols that associate NaOCl with chelating solutions, the last irrigant used defined the final dentine amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate ratios. For the ATR-FTIR analysis of CHX adhesion, the results showed that the adsorption of this irrigant to the dentin was potentiated when chelating agents were used prior to the CHX. In relation to the experiments of surface roughness, the saline solution, NaOCl, HEDP and CHX did not alter the roughness of the dentin, but EDTAHNa3 and PAA increased it. The wettability of the surface increased after the use of all irrigants, being the HEDP to cause the greater increases. In the assays of microorganisms' adhesion, the smear layer and collagen exposed by the chelating agents favored the adhesion of E. faecalis. The C. albicans adhesion was major in surfaces with smear layer and more mineral. The use of CHX as the final irrigant reduced the adhesion of both microorganisms. The wettability did not influence the microorganisms' adhesion, while increases in roughness seems to potentiate the adherence of E. faecalis. The experiments of bond strength of AH Plus to the dentin showed that the irrigation with NaOCl and mixture of NaOCl + EDTANa4 produced the lowest push-out bond strength values in 7 days compared to NaOCl + EDTAHNa3, NaOCl + EDTAHNa3 + NaOCl, NaOCl + EDTAHNa3 + CHX and the mixture of NaOCl + HEDP. After 20 months the lowest values were obtained in the groups irrigated with NaOCl and NaOCl + EDTAHNa3. The groups of NaOCl + EDTAHNa3 + NaOCl, mixture NaOCl + HEDP, and mixture NaOCl + EDTANa4 presented values of push-out bond strength in 20 months similar to the values in 7 days. It was possible to conclude that the irrigation solutions tested in this study have different effects in the organic and inorganic matter and some of them can affect the action of each other when mixed. Independent of being used isolated or combined in irrigation protocols, these irrigants cause modifications in the dentin physicochemical properties that influence the adhesion of AH Plus sealer in short and long term and the microorganisms' adherence to the surface in cases of recontaminations.(AU)


Além dos efeitos desejados, as soluções químicas utilizadas para auxiliar os instrumentos endodônticos na limpeza e desinfecção do sistema radiculares podem causar alterações nas propriedades físico-químicas da dentina e consequentemente afetar a adesão de cimentos endodônticos e microrganismos às paredes do canal radicular. Contudo, os efeitos de novos irrigantes e protocolos de irrigação ainda são desconhecidos. Os objetivos desta tese foram verificar as alterações nas propriedades de alguns irrigantes quando utilizados combinados em misturas, definir o tempo necessário para a remoção da camada de smear layer por um novo irrigante, determinar a capacidade de dissolução de matéria orgânica e os efeitos de algumas soluções e protocolos de irrigação nas propriedades físico-químicas de dentina e avaliar a adesão de microrganismos e cimento AH Plus à dentina após a submissão desta a diferentes sequências de irrigação. Em todos os experimentos com dentina as amostras utilizadas foram obtidas a partir de dentes bovinos. Nas análise realizadas nesta tese as seguintes soluções foram testadas isoladas e combinadas em diferentes protocolos de irrigação: solução salina (controle), hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), ácido etilenodiaminotetraacético trisódico (EDTAHNa3), ácido etilenodiaminotetracético tetrassódico alcalino (EDTANa4), clorexidina (CHX), ácido peracético (PAA) e ácido etidrônico (HEDP). O EDTAHNa3 e o EDTANa4 foram testados em relação aos seus efeitos sobre o teor de cloro livre do NaOCl. As soluções foram misturadas em uma proporção de 1:1 e a titulação iodométrica das misturas realizada em diferentes intervalos de tempo. O tempo necessário para a remoção da smear layer de amostras de dentina pela solução de EDTAHNa3 a 17% e diferentes concentrações de EDTANa4 isoladas e misturadas com NaOCl foi determinado com o auxílio do microscópio eletrônico de varredura (SEM). A capacidade de dissolução de matéria orgânica pelo NaOCl foi determinada pesando fragmentos de músculo bovino antes e depois da imersão em soluções de 1%, 2,5% e 5% de NaOCl em diferentes períodos de tempo. Além disso, os efeitos do EDTAHNa3, EDTANa4 e HEDP na dissolução de matéria orgânica pelo NaOCl foram avaliados. As alterações produzidas por todas as soluções isoladas e alguns protocolos de irrigação nos componentes orgânicos e inorgânicos da superfície da dentina foram analisadas pela técnica de reflexão total atenuada em espectroscopia no infravermelho por transformação de Fourier (ATRFTIR). Espectros de absorbância foram coletados da superfície da dentina antes e após a imersão das amostras nos irrigantes, e foram calculadas as razões das bandas de amida III/fosfato e carbonato/fosfato. Para quantificar a adesão da CHX à dentina mineralizada e à dentina desmineralizada por diferentes protocolos de irrigação, foram determinadas as áreas da banda associada a CHX com pico em 1492 cm−1 em espectros obtidos por ATR-FTIR. Os efeitos de diferentes protocolos de irrigação na rugosidade e molhabilidade da superfície da dentina foram medidos com um rugosímetro de bancada e a técnica de gota séssil, respectivamente. Para os ensaios de adesão de microrganismos, amostras foram preparadas e tratadas da mesma maneira e com os mesmos protocolos de irrigação utilizados nos testes de rugosidade e molhabilidade. Em seguida, Candida albicans e Enterococcus faecalis foram mantidos em contato com a dentina por 2 horas e as amostras foram analisadas no microscópio confocal de varredura laser (CLSM). Testes de push-out foram realizados para determinar o impacto de diferentes protocolos de irrigação na resistência de união à dentina do cimento AH Plus ao longo do tempo. Canais de dentes incisivos de bovinos foram instrumentados, irrigados e em seguida obturados utilizando apenas o cimento AH Plus. Metade das amostras foi submetida a avaliação de push-out 7 dias após a obturação e a outra metade após 20 meses. Os resultados dos experimentos mostraram que o EDTAHNa3 causou uma perda quase completa e imediata do cloro livre do NaOCl, enquanto o EDTANa4 promoveu um declínio lento e concentração dependente. A smear layer foi removida apenas por soluções descalcificantes e em cerca de 1 min pelo EDTAHNa3 a 17% e em 5 min pelo EDTANa4, tanto isolados ou misturados com o NaOCl. O aumento da concentração de NaOCl e do tempo de contato com os fragmentos de músculo bovino intensificou a dissolução da matéria orgânica. As misturas de NaOCl com EDTANa4 e HEDP foram capazes de dissolver as amostras de músculo ao longo do tempo, no entanto, o EDTAHNa3 afetou fortemente a capacidade de dissolução do NaOCl quando eles foram misturados. Os resultados dos experimentos com ATR-FTIR mostraram que o aumento da concentração do NaOCl intensificou a desproteinização do colágeno da dentina com redução da relação amida III/fosfato. Para o mesmo agente de descalcificação, quanto maior a concentração e o tempo de imersão, maior a remoção de fosfato, exposição da matriz de colágeno e consequentemente o aumento da proporção amida III/fosfato. O PAA causou os maiores aumentos na relação amida III/fosfato, seguido de EDTAHNa3, EDTANa4 e HEDP e esta ordem foi mantida nos protocolos em que o NaOCl foi usado antes dos agentes descalcificantes. O NaOCl necessitou aproximadamente 0,5 min para desproteinizar a matriz de colágeno exposta após a remoção de fosfato pelo EDTAHNa3 e o PAA. A relação carbonato/fosfato diminuiu após 30 s de imersão das amostras em soluções de NaOCl a 1%, 2,5% e 5%, sem mais alterações ao longo do tempo. O carbonato da dentina foi removido mais rápido do que o fosfato por todos os agentes descalcificantes empregados sozinhos e nos protocolos de irrigação em que o uso do NaOCl foi seguido pelo uso do EDTAHNa3, PAA e HEDP. Para os protocolos de irrigação que associam o NaOCl com soluções quelantes, o último irrigante utilizado definiu as proporções finais de amida II/fosfato e carbonato/fosfato da dentina. Para as análises da adesão da CHX em ATR-FTIR, os resultados mostraram que a adsorção deste irrigante à dentina foi potencializada quando agentes quelantes foram utilizados antes da CHX. Em relação aos experimentos de rugosidade da superfície, a solução salina, o NaOCl, o HEDP e a CHX não alteraram a rugosidade da dentina, mas o EDTAHNa3 e o PAA a aumentaram. A molhabilidade da superfície aumentou após o uso de todos os irrigantes, sendo que o HEDP causou os maiores aumentos. Nos ensaios de adesão dos microrganismos, a smear layer e o colágeno exposto pelos agentes quelantes favoreceram a adesão de E. faecalis. A adesão da C. albicans foi maior em superfícies com smear layer ou mais mineral. O uso de CHX como irrigante final reduziu a adesão de ambos os microrganismos. A molhabilidade não influenciou a adesão dos microrganismos, enquanto o aumento da rugosidade parece potencializar a adesão do E. faecalis. Os experimentos de resistência de união do AH Plus à dentina mostraram que a irrigação com NaOCl e a mistura de NaOCl + EDTANa4 produziram valores de resistência de união em 7 dias mais baixos em comparação com NaOCl + EDTAHNa3, NaOCl + EDTAHNa3 + NaOCl, NaOCl + EDTAHNa3 + CHX e a mistura de NaOCl + HEDP. Após 20 meses, os valores mais baixos foram obtidos nos grupos irrigados com NaOCl e NaOCl + EDTAHNa3. Os grupos de NaOCl + EDTAHNa3 + NaOCl, mistura de NaOCl + HEDP e mistura de NaOCl + EDTANa4 apresentaram valores de força de união por push-out em 20 meses semelhante aos valores em 7 dias. Foi possível concluir que as soluções de irrigação testadas neste estudo têm diferentes efeitos na matéria orgânica e inorgânica e elas podem afetar as ações umas das outras quando misturadas. Independentemente de serem utilizadas isoladas ou combinadas em protocolos de irrigação, os irrigantes causam modificações nas propriedades físico-químicas dentinárias que influenciam na adesão do cimento AH Plus a curto e longo prazo e na adesão de microrganismos à superfície em casos de recontaminação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Etidronic Acid/chemistry , Peracetic Acid/chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Smear Layer/drug therapy , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Time Factors
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(6): 568-574, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841156

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conventional syringe irrigations, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), Vibringe, CanalBrush, XP-endo Finisher, and laser-activated irrigation (LAI) systems in removing double antibiotic paste (DAP) from root canals. Material and Methods One hundred five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented. The roots were split longitudinally. Three standard grooves were created and covered with DAP. The roots were distributed into seven groups: Group 1, beveled needle irrigation; Group 2, double side-vented needle irrigation; Group 3, CanalBrush; Group 4, XP-endo Finisher; Group 5, Vibringe; Group 6, PUI; Group 7, LAI. The amount of remaining DAP was scored under a stereomicroscope. Results Group 4, Group 6, and Group 7 removed significantly more DAP than the other protocols in the coronal region. Group 7 was more efficient in the middle region; however, no significant difference was found between Group 7 and Group 6. No differences were found between groups in the apical region either, except for the comparisons between groups 7 and 2, and groups 2 and 3. Conclusions None of the investigated protocols were able to completely remove the DAP from the grooves. The Vibringe and XP-endo Finisher systems showed results similar to those of conventional needle irrigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface Properties/drug effects , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Laser Therapy/methods , Therapeutic Irrigation/instrumentation , Needles
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(4): 446-451, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Studies have been showing a decrease of bond strength in dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-thermal argon plasma on the bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to dentin exposed to NaOCl. Thirty-two flat dentin surfaces of bovine incisors were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl for 30 min to simulate the irrigation step during endodontic treatment. The specimens were divided into four groups (n=8), according to the surface treatment: Control (without plasma treatment), AR15 (argon plasma for 15 s), AR30 (argon plasma for 30 s) and AR45 (argon plasma for 45 s). For microtensile bond strength test, 5 specimens were used per group. In each group, the specimens were hybridized with a self-etch adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond) and resin composite buildups were constructed. After 48 h of water storage, specimens were sectioned into sticks (5 per tooth, 25 per group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) until failure, evaluating failure mode. Three specimens per group were analyzed under FTIR spectroscopy to verify the chemical modifications produced in dentin. μTBS data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tamhane tests (p<0.05). AR30 showed the highest μTBS (20.86±9.0). AR15 (13.81±6.4) and AR45 (11.51±6.8) were statistically similar to control (13.67±8.1). FTIR spectroscopy showed that argon plasma treatment produced chemical modifications in dentin. In conclusion, non-thermal argon plasma treatment for 30 s produced chemical changes in dentin and improved the μTBs of Clearfil SE Bond to NaOCl-treated dentin.


Resumo Estudos vêm demonstrando uma diminuição na resistência adesiva em dentina tratada com hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl). O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do plasma de argônio não-térmico na resistência de união de um sistema adesivo autocondicionante à dentina exposta ao NaOCl. Trinta e duas superfícies dentinárias lisas de incisivos bovinos foram imersas em NaOCl a 2,5% por 30 min para simular o passo de irrigação durante o tratamento endodôntico. Os espécimes foram divididos em 4 grupos (n=8), de acordo com o tratamento de superfície: Controle (sem tratamento de plasma), AR15 (plasma de argônio por 15 s), AR30 (plasma de argônio por 30 s) e AR45 (plasma de argônio por 45 s). Para teste de resistência de união por microtração, cinco espécimes foram utilizadas por grupo. Em cada grupo, os espécimes foram hibridizados com um sistema adesivo autocondicionante (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray) e blocos de resina composta foram construídos. Após 48 h de armazenamento em água, os espécimes foram seccionados em palitos (5 por dente - 25 por grupo) e submetidos ao teste de resistência de união por microtração (μTBS) até a fratura, avaliando o padrão de fratura. Três amostras por grupo foram analisadas sob espectroscopia por FTIR para verificar as modificações químicas produzidas pelos tratamentos na dentina. Os dados de microtração foram avaliados estatisticamente utilizando os testes de ANOVA e Tamhane (p<0,05). AR30 apresentou o maior μTBS (20,86±9,0). AR15 (13,81±6,4) e AR45 (11,51±6,8) foram estatisticamente semelhantes ao controle (13,67±8,1). A espectroscopia por FTIR mostrou que o tratamento de plasma produziu modificações químicas na dentina. Como conclusão, o tratamento de plasma de argônio não-térmico por 30 s produziu alterações químicas na dentina e melhorou o μTBS do Clearfil SE Bond à dentina tratada com NaOCl.


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Argon/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Plasma Gases , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
18.
Rev. clín. periodoncia implantol. rehabil. oral (Impr.) ; 9(2): 132-139, ago. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794508

ABSTRACT

Aim To evaluate the release of sodium hypochlorite from three different commercial brands of heat-polymerized acrylic resin immersed in water and submitted to mechanical or chemical polishing after disinfection with hypochlorite at different concentrations. Material and methods Fifty-four disk-shaped specimens (n = 18) were made for each resin (Lucitone 550, QC-20, and Classico) and assigned to two groups according to the type of polishing. Specimens were divided in three sub-groups in relation to sodium hypochlorite concentration (1%, 2.5%, and 5.25%), and the groups were immersed for 10-min periods in each sodium hypochlorite concentration. The electrochemical method used for detecting the release of sodium hypochlorite in each specimen was the cyclic voltammetry. Results In the specimens of Clássico resin polished mechanically and immersed in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, as well as Lucitone and QC-20 resins immersed in 2.5%, the amounts of disinfectant solution released in the four 15-min water exchanges were higher than the four 60-min exchanges. Conclusion There were differences in hypochlorite release from the three commercial brands of denture-base acrylic resins subjected to mechanical polishing. However, no hypochlorite release from the same resins was observed when they were subjected to chemical polishing.


Objetivo Evaluar la liberación de hipoclorito de sodio de 3 marcas comerciales diferentes de resinas termo-polimerizadas sumergidas en agua, y sometidas a pulido mecánico o químico después de la desinfección con hipoclorito a diferentes concentraciones. Material y métodos Cincuenta y cuatro especímenes en forma de disco (n = 18) fueron confeccionados para cada resina (Lucitone 550, QC-20 y Clássico) y asignados a 2 grupos de acuerdo con el tipo de pulido. Las muestras se dividieron en 3 subgrupos en relación con la concentración de hipoclorito de sodio (1, 2,5 y 5,25%), y los grupos se sumergieron durante períodos de 10 min en cada concentración de hipoclorito de sodio. El método electroquímico usado para la detección de la liberación de hipoclorito de sodio en cada espécimen fue a través de voltametría cíclica. Resultados En las muestras pulidas mecánicamente de resina Clássico inmerso en hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, así como en las resinas Lucitone y QC-20 inmersas a 2,5%, la cantidad de solución desinfectante liberada en los 4 intercambios de agua de 15 min fue superior a los 4 de 60 min. Conclusión Hubo diferencias en la liberación de hipoclorito de las 3 marcas comerciales de resinas acrílicas sometidas a pulido mecánico. Sin embargo, no se observó liberación de hipoclorito en las mismas resinas cuando se sometieron a pulido químico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resins, Synthetic , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Dentures , Dental Disinfectants/chemistry , Time Factors , Acrylic Resins
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 291-298, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787545

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) remains the most used irrigation solution during root canal preparation because of characteristics such as wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity and organic tissue dissolution capacity. However, these solutions can alter dentin composition and there is no consensus on the optimal concentration of NaOCl to be used. Objectives To determine the organic matter dissolution and changes in dentin chemical composition promoted by different concentrations of NaOCl over time. Material and Methods: Fragments of bovine muscle tissue were weighed before and after 5, 10, and 15 min of immersion in the groups (n=10): G1- 0.9% saline solution; G2- 1% NaOCl; G3- 2.5% NaOCl; and G4- 5% NaOCl. Bovine dentin fragments were subjected to the same irrigants and absorption spectra were collected by Attenuated Total Reflectance of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) before and after 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 min of immersion in the solutions. The ratios of the amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate absorption bands were determined. The tissue dissolution and carbonate/phosphate ratios were submitted to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s multiple-comparison test (α<0.05) and to the one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s (α<0.05). The amide III/phosphate ratio was analyzed by Friedman test (α<0.05) and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc (α<0.05). Results The increase in NaOCl concentration and contact time intensified the dissolution of organic matter and dentin collagen with reduction in the amide III/phosphate ratio. Significant differences between all groups (p<0.05) were observed in the dissolution of organic matter at 10 min and in the amide III/phosphate ratio between the saline solution and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. The carbonate/phosphate ratio decreased significantly in G2, G3, and G4 after 0,5 min of immersion (p<0.05), but more alterations did not occur in the subsequent periods (p>0.05). Intergroup differences were not observed in this ratio (p>0.05). Conclusions The increase in the exposure time and in the concentration of NaOCl solution lead to an increase in the tissue dissolution and dentin collagen deproteination. Furthermore, some carbonate ions are removed from the dentin inorganic phase by the NaOCl.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Disinfectants/chemistry , Reference Values , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Solubility/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Collagen/drug effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immersion , Muscles/drug effects
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 27(2): 208-216, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-778335

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentration, exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) added with surfactants on its penetration into dentinal tubules. Sixty-five extracted human permanent maxillary anterior teeth with single canals were prepared by ProTaper SX hand-operated instruments. The teeth were then sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. The crowns and apical thirds of all the teeth were removed. The remaining roots were processed into 4-mm-long blocks and stained overnight in crystal violet. One hundred and thirty stained blocks were further split into halves and treated by nine different types of NaOCl-based solutions. Three solutions were added with surfactants (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra) and the others were regular hypochlorites at increasing concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, 5.25%, <6%, 6% NaOCl) from different brands. The dentin blocks were exposed to the solutions for 2, 5, and 20 min at 20 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C, respectively. The depth of NaOCl penetration was determined by bleaching of the stain and measured by light microscopy at 20 and 40. Statistical comparisons were made by using a generalized linear model with Bonferroni's post-hoc correction. The shortest penetration (81±6.6 μm) was obtained after incubation in 1% NaOCl for 2 min at 20 °C; the highest penetration (376.3±3.8 μm) was obtained with Chlor-Xtra for 20 min at 45 °C. Varying NaOCl concentration produced a minimal effect while temperature and exposure time had a significant direct relationship with NaOCl penetration into dentinal tubules, especially those with lowered surface tension. The exposure time and temperature of sodium hypochlorite as well as the addition of surfactants may influence the penetration depth of irrigants into dentinal tubules.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da concentração, tempo de exposição e temperatura de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) acrescidos de tensioativos na penetração nos túbulos dentinários. Sessenta e cinco dentes superiores humanos uniradiculares extraídos foram preparadas usando instrumentos ProTaper SX operados manualmente. Os dentes foram seccionados perpendicularmente ao longo eixo. As coroas e o terço apical foram removidos. Os restantes das raízes foram transformadas em blocos de 4-mm de comprimento e coradas durante em violeta de cristal. Cento e trinta blocos foram posteriormente divididos em metades e tratados por nove tipos diferentes de soluções de NaOCl. Três soluções com tensioativos foram adicionadas (Hypoclean, H6, Chlor-Xtra); e os outros foram os hipocloritos regulares em concentrações crescentes (1, 2, 4, 5,25, <6 and 6% de NaOCl) de diferentes origens. Os blocos de dentina foram expostos às soluções de 2, 5 e 20 min a 20 °C, 37 °C e 45 °C, respectivamente. A profundidade de penetração do NaOCl foi determinada pelo branqueamento da mancha e medido em microscopia de luz com ampliações de 20× e 40×. Comparações estatísticas foram feitas usando um modelo linear generalizado com a correção de Bonferroni (post-hoc). A menor penetração (81±6,6 m) foi medida após incubação com 1% de hipoclorito de sódio durante 2 min a 20 °C; a maior penetração (376,3±3,8 m) foi obtida com Chlor-Xtra durante 20 min a 45 °C. Variando a concentração do NaOCl verificou-se um efeito mínimo, enquanto que a temperatura e o tempo de exposição teve uma relação significativa direta com a penetração de hipocloritos de sódio, especialmente aqueles com tensão superficial reduzido, nos túbulos dentinários. O tempo de exposição e temperatura do hipoclorito de sódio bem como a adição de agentes tensioativos pode influenciar significativamente a profundidade de penetração de soluções irrigantes nos túbulos dentinários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacokinetics , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
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