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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987027


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the variations in the expression of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subunits during development of rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons and their correlation with maturation of electrophysiological characteristics of the neurons.@*METHODS@#We observed the changes in the expression levels of NaV1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.6 during the development of Purkinje neurons using immunohistochemistry in neonatal (5-7 days after birth), juvenile (12-14 days), adolescent (21-24 days), and adult (42-60 days) SD rats. Using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we recorded the spontaneous electrical activity of the neurons in ex vivo brain slices of rats of different ages to analyze the changes of electrophysiological characteristics of these neurons during development.@*RESULTS@#The expression of NaV subunits in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons showed significant variations during development. NaV1.1 subunit was highly expressed throughout the developmental stages and increased progressively with age (P < 0.05). NaV1.2 expression was not detected in the neurons in any of the developmental stages (P > 0.05). The expression level of NaV1.3 decreased with development and became undetectable after adolescence (P < 0.05). NaV1.6 expression was not detected during infancy, but increased with further development (P < 0.05). NaV1.1 and NaV1.3 were mainly expressed in the early stages of development. With the maturation of the rats, NaV1.3 expression disappeared and NaV1.6 expression increased in the neurons. NaV1.1 and NaV1.6 were mainly expressed after adolescence. The total NaV protein level increased gradually with development (P < 0.05) and tended to stabilize after adolescence. The spontaneous frequency and excitability of the Purkinje neurons increased gradually with development and reached the mature levels in adolescence. The developmental expression of NaV subunits was positively correlated with discharge frequency (r=0.9942, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the excitatory threshold of the neurons (r=0.9891, P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The changes in the expression levels of NaV subunits are correlated with the maturation of high frequency electrophysiological properties of the neurons, suggesting thatmature NaV subunit expressions is the basis of maturation of electrophysiological characteristics of the neurons.

Rats , Animals , Purkinje Cells/physiology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Neurons , Brain , Sodium/metabolism
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 458-462, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982614


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the predictive value of serum sodium variability within 72 hours, lactic acid (Lac), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) in predicting the 28-day prognosis of sepsis patients.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of patients with sepsis admitted to the department of intensive care unit (ICU) of the Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital of Qingdao University from December 2020 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed, including age, gender, previous medical history, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, white blood cell count (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), pH value, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), Lac, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), serum creatinine (SCr), total bilirubin (TBil), albumin (Alb), SOFA, APACHE II score, and 28-day prognosis. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of death in sepsis patients. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the predictive value of serum sodium variability within 72 hours, Lac, SOFA, APACHE II alone and in combination on the prognosis of patients with sepsis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 135 patients with sepsis were included, 73 survived and 62 died at 28 days, with 28-day mortality of 45.93%. (1) Compared with the survival group, SOFA, APACHE II, Lac and serum sodium variability within 72 hours in the death group were significantly higher [SOFA: 10.00 (8.00, 12.00) vs. 6.00 (5.00, 8.00), APACHE II: 18.00 (16.00, 21.25) vs. 13.00 (11.00, 15.00), Lac (mmol/L): 3.55 (2.90, 4.60) vs. 2.00 (1.30, 2.80), serum sodium variability within 72 hours: 3.4% (2.6%, 4.2%) vs. 1.4% (1.1%, 2.5%)], the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.01). (2) Multivariate Logistic regression showed that SOFA, APACHE II, Lac, serum sodium variability within 72 hours were independent risk factors of prognosis in patients with sepsis [SOFA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.479, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.114-1.963, P = 0.007; APACHE II: OR = 1.163, 95%CI was 1.009-1.340, P = 0.037; Lac: OR = 1.387, 95%CI was 1.014-1.896, P = 0.040; serum sodium variability within 72 hours: OR = 1.634, 95%CI was 1.102-2.423, P = 0.015]. (3) ROC curve analysis showed that SOFA, APACHE II, Lac and serum sodium variability within 72 hours had certain predictive value for the prognosis of sepsis patients [SOFA: the area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.858, 95%CI was 0.795-0.920, P = 0.000; APACHE II: AUC = 0.845, 95%CI was 0.776-0.913, P = 0.000; Lac: AUC = 0.840, 95%CI was 0.770-0.909, P = 0.000; serum sodium variability within 72 hours: AUC = 0.842, 95%CI was 0.774-0.910, P = 0.000]. The combined predictive value of the four indicators (AUC = 0.917, 95%CI was 0.870-0.965, P = 0.000) was higher than that of any single indicator, and has higher specificity (79.5%) and sensitivity (93.5%), indicating that the combined index has higher predictive value for the prognosis of sepsis patients than any single index.@*CONCLUSIONS@#SOFA, APACHE II, Lac, serum sodium variability within 72 hours are independent risk factors for 28-day death in patients with sepsis. The combination of SOFA score, APACHE II score, Lac and serum sodium variability within 72 hours has higher predictive value for prognosis than single index.

Humans , Lactic Acid , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis , Sodium
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371


Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.

Humans , Child , Energy Intake , Executive Function , Sodium , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 216-230, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980999


Virtually all of the dietary potassium intake is absorbed in the intestine, over 90% of which is excreted by the kidneys regarded as the most important organ of potassium excretion in the body. The renal excretion of potassium results primarily from the secretion of potassium by the principal cells in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), which is coupled to the reabsorption of Na+ by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) located at the apical membrane of principal cells. When Na+ is transferred from the lumen into the cell by ENaC, the negativity in the lumen is relatively increased. K+ efflux, H+ efflux, and Cl- influx are the 3 pathways that respond to Na+ influx, that is, all these 3 pathways are coupled to Na+ influx. In general, Na+ influx is equal to the sum of K+ efflux, H+ efflux, and Cl- influx. Therefore, any alteration in Na+ influx, H+ efflux, or Cl- influx can affect K+ efflux, thereby affecting the renal K+ excretion. Firstly, Na+ influx is affected by the expression level of ENaC, which is mainly regulated by the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway. ENaC gain-of-function mutations (Liddle syndrome, also known as pseudohyperaldosteronism), MR gain-of-function mutations (Geller syndrome), increased aldosterone levels (primary/secondary hyperaldosteronism), and increased cortisol (Cushing syndrome) or deoxycorticosterone (hypercortisolism) which also activate MR, can lead to up-regulation of ENaC expression, and increased Na+ reabsorption, K+ excretion, as well as H+ excretion, clinically manifested as hypertension, hypokalemia and alkalosis. Conversely, ENaC inactivating mutations (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1b), MR inactivating mutations (pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1a), or decreased aldosterone levels (hypoaldosteronism) can cause decreased reabsorption of Na+ and decreased excretion of both K+ and H+, clinically manifested as hypotension, hyperkalemia, and acidosis. The ENaC inhibitors amiloride and Triamterene can cause manifestations resembling pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1b; MR antagonist spironolactone causes manifestations similar to pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1a. Secondly, Na+ influx is regulated by the distal delivery of water and sodium. Therefore, when loss-of-function mutations in Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) expressed in the thick ascending limb of the loop and in Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) expressed in the distal convoluted tubule (Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome, respectively) occur, the distal delivery of water and sodium increases, followed by an increase in the reabsorption of Na+ by ENaC at the collecting duct, as well as increased excretion of K+ and H+, clinically manifested as hypokalemia and alkalosis. Loop diuretics acting as NKCC inhibitors and thiazide diuretics acting as NCC inhibitors can cause manifestations resembling Bartter syndrome and Gitelman syndrome, respectively. Conversely, when the distal delivery of water and sodium is reduced (e.g., Gordon syndrome, also known as pseudohypoaldosteronism type 2), it is manifested as hypertension, hyperkalemia, and acidosis. Finally, when the distal delivery of non-chloride anions increases (e.g., proximal renal tubular acidosis and congenital chloride-losing diarrhea), the influx of Cl- in the collecting duct decreases; or when the excretion of hydrogen ions by collecting duct intercalated cells is impaired (e.g., distal renal tubular acidosis), the efflux of H+ decreases. Both above conditions can lead to increased K+ secretion and hypokalemia. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of renal potassium excretion and the corresponding diseases arising from dysregulation.

Humans , Bartter Syndrome/metabolism , Pseudohypoaldosteronism/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism , Aldosterone/metabolism , Hypokalemia/metabolism , Gitelman Syndrome/metabolism , Hyperkalemia/metabolism , Clinical Relevance , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , Kidney Tubules, Distal/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Hypertension , Alkalosis/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 36: e220123, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441038


ABSTRACT Objective To describe the prevalence of inadequate mineral intake and associated factors with calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium intakes in individuals aged 15-24.9 years. Methods We analyzed 476 individuals from the Brazilian Study of Nutrition and Health, stratified into two age groups (adolescents aged 15-18.9 years and young adults aged 19-24.9 years). Mineral intake was obtained from two 24-hour Dietary Recalls. The values of the Estimated Average Requirement and the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels were considered to calculate the prevalence of inadequacy. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine associated factors with mineral intake. Results Calcium and magnesium had the highest prevalence of inadequacy (>83%) in both sexes and age groups. Sodium intake was above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for the majority of the population studied (>68%). The intake of all minerals was different between the sexes for the two age groups (p<0.01), and it was not different between age groups (p>0.05). The associated factors with mineral intake were sex (calcium, iron, phosphorus, and sodium), age group (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and sodium), and physical activity (calcium, iron, and magnesium), followed by socioeconomic level (zinc and sodium) and body weight status (iron and sodium). Conclusion The expressive portion of the studied population is at nutritional risk for calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Such data can contribute to the national public policy revision that is related to micronutrient intake and the adoption of healthier habits by adolescents and young adults.

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever as prevalências de inadequação e fatores associados à ingestão de cálcio, ferro, zinco, magnésio, fósforo e sódio em indivíduos dos 15 aos 24,9 anos. Métodos Foram analisados 476 indivíduos do Estudo Brasileiro de Nutrição e Saúde, estratificados em dois grupos etários (adolescentes de 15-18,9 anos e adultos jovens de 19-24,9 anos). A ingestão de minerais foi obtida por meio de dois recordatórios de 24hs. Os valores de Requerimento Médio Estimado e do Limite Superior Tolerável de Ingestão foram considerados para calcular as prevalências de inadequação. Regressão logística múltipla foi utilizada para determinar os fatores associados à ingestão de minerais. Resultados Cálcio e magnésio tiveram elevadas prevalências de inadequação (>83%) em pacientes de ambos os sexos e grupos etários. A ingestão de sódio foi acima Limite Superior Tolerável de Ingestão para a maioria da população estudada (>68%). O consumo de todos os minerais foi diferente entre os sexos para os dois grupos etários (p<0,01) e não foi diferente entre os grupos etários (p>0,05). Os fatores associados à ingestão dos minerais foram sexo (cálcio, ferro, fósforo e sódio), grupo etário (cálcio, magnésio, fósforo e sódio) e atividade física (cálcio, ferro e magnésio), seguidos por nível socioeconômico (zinco e sódio) e estado de peso corporal (ferro e sódio). Conclusão Expressiva parcela da população estudada encontra-se em risco nutricional para cálcio, magnésio e sódio. Esses dados podem contribuir para a revisão de políticas públicas nacionais que se relacionam à ingestão de micronutrientes e à adoção de hábitos mais saudáveis pelos adolescentes e adultos jovens.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Prevalence , Eating , Phosphorus/analysis , Sodium/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Brazil , Calcium/analysis , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sociodemographic Factors , Iron/analysis , Magnesium/analysis
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1435821


Objectives. To assess urinary sodium/potassium intake and identify its links with global cardiovascular risk (RCVG) according to the WHOPEN approach to WHO/ISH (International High Blood Pressure Society). Methods. It was a cross-sectional and analytical study that took place from July 6, 2020, to September 17, 2021, in Togo, in the Aneho, Notse and Dapaong localities. It focused on 400 adults selected by sampling. The analysis of two urine samples was done. Cardiovascular risk scores were determined from specific graphs that take into account age, gender, systolic blood pressure, diabetes status and smoking behavior. Results. Among the 400 respondents, 49% lived in rural areas. The average age was 41 (30; 51) years. The average sodium and potassium intakes were respectively 3.2 g (1.04-5.99) or 7.95 g of salt and 1.4 g (1.89-5.62) per day. The risk of excessive sodium intake was 2.39 times higher in urban areas than in rural ones (p=0.049). Residing in rural areas was associated with high potassium intakes compared to urban ones (OR=3,2 IC [1.89-5.62]). Thirteen percent (13%) of respondents were likely to develop at least a deadly or non-deadly cardiovascular disease in the next 10 years 'time, of whom 5% present a high risk. Excessive sodium intake increases by 2.10 times the risk of a deadly cardiovascular disease occurrence. Conclusions. Sodium intakes are high while potassium intakes are low with a subsequent global cardiovascular risk (GCVR) in the three cities. Sodium intakes were associated with VCVR. It is necessary to take steps to reduce excessive sodium intake and improve potassium intake.

Potassium , Sodium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 145-156, julio-diciembre 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392156


La diabetes mellitus (dm) es una enfermedad crónica con alta incidencia y prevalencia. La enfermedad es un problema de salud pública que ha impulsado a la continua búsqueda de medidas tanto farmacológicas como no farmacológicas para el control. Gracias a la actual evidencia, se sabe que la dm, además de los niveles elevados de glucosa en sangre, se acompaña de otros problemas metabólicos como lo son la obesidad, alteraciones en el metabolismo de lípidos, entre otros; sumado a lo anterior, los pacientes tienen riesgo de padecer problemas cardiovasculares. El problema radica en que una gran cantidad de pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular (CV) o patología cardiovascular ya establecida, sufren de diabetes mellitus. La relación entre dm y las patologías cardiovasculares es de suma importancia, ya que cada una incrementa el riesgo de padecer la otra y empeora el pronóstico. Entre 1980 y 1990 se identificó el cotransportador de sodio y glucosa tipo 2 (SGLT2) como blanco para el tratamiento de la dm tipo 2. A partir de este hallazgo, se crearon los inhibidores de SGLT2 (i- SGLT2), grupo novedoso de medicamentos que disminuyen los niveles de glucosa. Además, tienen múltiples efectos tanto micro como macrovasculares (empagliflozina, canagliflozina y dapagliflozina). Por lo cual, haremos una revisión sobre la evidencia para los iSGLT2 como tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca crónica y su impacto positivo sobre el sistema renal, reducción de presión arterial, disminución de peso, entre otros beneficios.

Diabetes mellitus (dm) is a chronic disease with high incidence and prevalence. The disease is a public health problem that has prompted the continuous search for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological control measures. Thanks to current evidence, it is known that dm, in addition to high blood glucose levels, is accompanied by other metabolic problems such as obesity, alterations in lipid metabolism, among others, and patients are also at risk of suffering from cardiovascular problems. The problema is that a large number of patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk or already established cardiovascular pathology suffer from diabetes mellitus. The relationship between dm and cardiovascular pathologies is extremely important, since each one increases the risk of suffering from the other and worsens the prognosis. Between 1980 and 1990, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) was identified as a target for the treatment of type 2 dm. Based on this finding, SGLT2 inhibitors (i-SGLT2) were created, a novel group of medications that lower glucose levels. In addition, they have multiple effects, both micro and macrovascular (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin). Therefore, we will review the evidence for iSGLT2 as a treatment for chronic heart failure and its positive impact on the renal system, blood pressure reduction, weight loss, among other benefits.

O diabetes mellitus (dm) é uma doença crônica com alta incidência e prevalência. A doença é um problema de saúde pública que tem motivado a busca contínua por medidas de controle farmacológico e não farmacológico. Graças às evidências atuais, sabe-se que o dm, além dos níveis elevados de glicose no sangue, é acompanhado por outros problemas metabólicos como obesidade, alterações no metabolismo lipídico, entre outros; Além do exposto, os pacientes estão em risco de problemas cardiovasculares. O problema é que um grande número de pacientes com risco cardiovascular (CV) ou patologia cardiovascular já estabelecida sofre de diabetes mellitus. A relação entre dm e patologias cardiovasculares é de extrema importância, pois cada uma aumenta o risco de sofrer uma da outra e piora o prognóstico. Entre 1980 e 1990, o co-transportador sódio-glicose 2 (SGLT2) foi identificado como alvo para o tratamento do dm tipo 2. Com base nessa descoberta, foram criados os inibidores de SGLT2 (i-SGLT2), um novo grupo de drogas que reduzem a glicose níveis. Além disso, eles têm múltiplos efeitos micro e macrovasculares(empagliflozina, canagliflozina e dapagliflozina). Portanto, re-visaremos as evidências do iSGLT2 como tratamento para insuficiência cardíaca crônica e seu impacto positivo no sistema renal, redução da pressão arterial, perda de peso, entre outros benefícios.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Sodium , Blood Glucose , Weight Loss , Canagliflozin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Heart Failure , Obesity
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1220-1228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969730


Objective: To investigate the associations between 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and all-cause mortality in adult Northern Chinese population. Methods: Data from this study were derived from the prospective urban and rural epidemiology (PURE) study in north China. Baseline information of all participants were obtained by face to face interview through trained research staffs based on questionnaires, and morning fasting urine samples of participants were collected to estimate 24hUNaE and 24-hour potassium excretion (24hUKE). Multivariable frailty Cox regression models were used to explore the association between 24hUNaE (<3.00, 3.00-3.99, 4.00-4.99, 5.00-5.99 and ≥6 g/d) and all-cause death. Results: A total of 27 310 participants were included in this study. The mean 24hUNaE was (5.84±1.73) g/d. After a median follow-up of 8.8 years, 1 024 participants died (3.7%), including 390 cardiovascular related deaths and 591 non-cardiovascular related deaths. The cause of death of the remaining patients could not be determined. Using 24hUNaE level of 4.00-4.99 g/d as the reference group, after fully adjustment, 24hUNaE ≥6.00 g/d was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (HR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.02-1.49) and cardiovascular related death (HR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.02-1.88). 24hUNaE<3.00 g/d was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.38, 95%CI: 0.96-1.99). There was no significant association between 24hUNaE and non-cardiovascular related death. Furthermore, using the combination of 24hUNaE 4.00-4.99 g/d and 24hUKE≥2.11 g/d as the reference group, the highest risk occurred in participants with the combination of low sodium (<3.00 g/d) and low potassium (<2.11 g/d). Conclusion: 24hUNaE equal or higher than 6 g/d or lower than 3 g/d is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular related death in Northern Chinese population. Besides, moderate sodium intake in combination with increased potassium intake might reduce the risk of all-cause death.

Humans , Adult , Sodium/urine , Prospective Studies , Potassium/urine , China/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928621


OBJECTIVES@#To examine the association between duration of fever before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and IVIG resistance in children with Kawasaki disease (KD).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 317 children with KD who were admitted from January 2018 to December 2020. According to the duration of fever before IVIG treatment, they were divided into two groups: short fever duration group (≤4 days) with 92 children and long fever duration group (>4 days) with 225 children. According to the presence or absence of IVIG resistance, each group was further divided into a drug-resistance group and a non-drug-resistance group. Baseline data and laboratory results were compared between groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the influencing factors for IVIG resistance.@*RESULTS@#In the short fever duration group, 19 children (20.7%) had IVIG resistance and 5 children (5.4%) had coronary artery aneurysm, and in the long fever duration group, 22 children (9.8%) had IVIG resistance and 19 children (8.4%) had coronary artery aneurysm, suggesting that the short fever duration group had a significantly higher rate of IVIG resistance than the long fever duration group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the incidence rate of coronary artery aneurysm between the two groups (P>0.05). In the short fever duration group, compared with the children without drug resistance, the children with drug resistance had a significantly lower level of blood sodium and significantly higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide before treatment (P<0.05). In the long fever duration group, the children with drug resistance had significantly lower levels of blood sodium and creatine kinase before treatment than those without drug resistance (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a reduction in blood sodium level was associated with IVIG resistance in the long fever duration group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#IVIG resistance in children with KD varies with the duration of fever before treatment. A reduction in blood sodium is associated with IVIG resistance in KD children with a duration of fever of >4 days before treatment.

Child , Humans , Infant , Coronary Aneurysm/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/therapeutic use
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398811


El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes más importantes presentes en el aire, representando un riesgo medioambiental para la salud. Las partículas con un diámetro de 10 micrones o menos (PM10), al ser inhalables, pueden penetrar y alojarse profundamente en los pulmones, contribuyendo al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares y respiratorias, así como cáncer de pulmón, enfermedades mentales, dermatitis, daño ocular e incluso al aumento en las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableció como objetivo determinar la calidad del aire interior asociada a la inmisión de material particulado (PM10) en la zona este 2, un sector industrial ubicado en los distritos san juan de Lurigancho y Lurigancho-Chosica, Perú. Para tal fin, se propone el uso de indicadores duales: ecológicos y sociales. De acuerdo a los indicadores ecológicos explorados, la concentración media de PM10 en el aire exterior (CME) superó el límite de 100 µg/m3 establecido por MINAM. Aunque la mediana de CME (93,7µg/m3; IC 95%=89,07-98,33) estuvo por debajo de este límite, el cuartil superior lo superó, entendido por elevaciones puntuales de hasta 131 µg/m3 (Figura 2), potencialmente dañinos para la salud humana. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,921, obtenido del análisis bivariado entre los valores de concentración media diaria de PM10 exterior e interior, previo a la instalación de filtros en los sistemas de ventilación, es sugerente del efecto que puede tener la inmisión de aire ambiental con material particulado como vector de la contaminación del aire interior. al considerar los valores de la concentración media diaria, obtenidos en los 15 días posteriores a la instalación de los filtros (CMIFI), se observa que la concentración media de PM10 en el interior disminuyó en relación a la quincena anterior. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,869 entre los indicadores CMIFI y CME, permite proponer que, en esta segunda fase, la calidad del aire interior fue influenciada en menor proporción por la contaminación de material particulado del aire ambiental, es decir que se presentó menos inmisión de PM10, gracias al proceso de filtrado, lo que disminuye el riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores(AU)

Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important pollutants present in the air, representing an environmental risk to health. Particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), being inhalable, can penetrate and lodge deep in the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, mental illness, dermatitis, eye damage and even increased mortality rates. The objective was to determine the indoor air quality associated with the immission of particulate matter (PM10) in East Zone 2, an industrial sector located in the districts of San Juan de Lurigancho and Lurigancho-Chosica, Peru. To this end, the use of dual indicators is proposed: ecological and social. According to the ecological indicators explored, the average concentration of PM10 in outdoor air (CME) exceeded the limit of 100 µg/m3 established by MINAM. Although the CME median (93.7µg/m3; 95% CI=89.07-98.33) was below this limit, the upper quartile exceeded it, understood as point elevations of up to 131µg/m3 (Figure 2 ), potentially harmful to human health. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.921, obtained from the bivariate analysis between the daily average concentration values of outdoor and indoor PM10, prior to the installation of filters in the ventilation systems, is suggestive of the effect that the immission of ambient air can have with particulate matter as a vector of indoor air pollution. When considering the values of the average daily concentration, obtained in the 15 days after the installation of the filters (CMIFI), it is observed that the average concentration of PM10 in the interior decreased in relation to the previous fortnight. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.869 between the CMIFI and CME indicators allows us to propose that, in this second phase, indoor air quality was influenced to a lesser extent by particulate matter contamination in the ambient air, that is, there was less PM10 immission, thanks to the filtering process, which reduces the risk to the health of workers(AU)

Respiratory Tract Infections , Occupational Health , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Hazards , Environmental Pollutants , Sodium , Sulfates , Cardiovascular Diseases , Filters , Chlorides , Ammonia , Nitrates
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19193, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374567


Abstract The present study proposes and evaluates the test-retest reliability of indicators of the correct use of sodium alendronate in elderly patients. This is a test-retest reliability study for use of sodium alendronate. Six questions to evaluate the correct use of this medicine were elaborated after analysis of information in the literature. Data collection was performed through questionnaires in face-to-face in-home interviews by previously trained interviewers. The participants were initially interviewed (test) when they agreed to participate in the study, and secondly (retest), after a period of 7 to 14 days from the first interview. The reliability of the questions was evaluated by means of the agreement percentage and the Kappa coefficient. Fifty-seven pairs (test-retest) were obtained. The mean age was 69.3 (SD = 6.9) years, the majority (92.5%) completed elementary education, and declared themselves white (50.9%). All the questions presented high concordance ranging from 79.0% to 98.3%. The Kappa values ranged from 0.1 (low) to 0.83 (very good). The agreement percentage and the Kappa values suggest adequate reliability of the proposed questions. We suggest that they can be used as a simple and quick way to evaluate the quality of sodium alendronate use among the elderly.

Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Sodium/administration & dosage , Patients/classification , Aged , Data Collection/instrumentation , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Alendronate/analysis , White People/ethnology
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(5): e00252021, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374848


Existe una creciente evidencia de la transición global en los sistemas alimentarios que afectan la disponibilidad, accesibilidad, asequibilidad y conveniencia de los alimentos altamente procesados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el consumo aparente de energía, grasas saturadas, azúcares agregados y sodio según el grado de procesamiento de los alimentos en la Argentina entre 1996 y 2018, según el nivel de ingreso. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y transversal, con datos de gastos de alimentos y bebidas e ingresos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares de 1996-1997, 2004-2005, 2012-2013 y 2017-2018, que incluye más de 20.000 hogares en cada período. Se calculó el consumo aparente diario de energía, grasas saturadas, azúcares agregados y sodio por adulto equivalente de: (1) alimentos mínimamente procesados; (2) ingredientes culinarios procesados; (3) alimentos procesados y (4) productos ultraprocesados, para cada periodo y según el quintil de ingresos per cápita del hogar. Fue utilizado análisis estadístico descriptivo. En energía y todos los nutrientes evaluados, se observa la reducción de la proporción proveniente de alimentos mínimamente procesados, ingredientes culinarios y alimentos procesados, y el aumento de productos ultraprocesados. Con una mayor contribución a partir de ultraprocesados, a medida que aumentan los ingresos del hogar, pero con diferencias que disminuyen a lo largo del tiempo. Dados los resultados, las estrategias futuras en Argentina deberían promover el consumo de alimentos mínimamente procesados y desalentar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de alimentos ultraprocesados, con especial énfasis en los grupos más vulnerados.

Growing evidence of the global transition in food systems exists, affecting the availability, accessibility, affordability, and convenience of highly processed foods. This study aimed to evaluate the apparent consumption of energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium according to the degree of food processing in Argentina from 1996 to 2018 and according to income level. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study with data on food and beverage expenditures and income from the National Household Expenditure Survey for years 1996-1997, 2004-2005, 2012-2013, and 2017-2018, including more than 20,000 households in each period. The apparent daily consumption of energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium per adult for: (1) minimally processed foods; (2) processed culinary ingredients; (3) processed foods; and (4) ultra-processed products, was calculated for each period and according to per capita income quintile in each household. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Reductions in the proportion of energy and all nutrients evaluated from minimally processed foods, culinary ingredients and processed foods were observed, as well as an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed products. One also observes a greater share from ultra-processed foods as household income increases but with decreasing differences over time. Therefore, future strategies in Argentina should promote the consumption of minimally processed foods and discourage the availability and accessibility of ultra-processed ones, especially for the most vulnerable groups.

Cada vez mais há evidências sobre a mudança global nos sistemas alimentares, que envolvem disponibilidade, acessibilidade, custo e pertinência dos alimentos ultraprocessados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o consumo aparente de energia, gorduras saturadas, açúcar e sódio conforme o nível de processamento de alimentos e a renda familiar na Argentina no período entre 1996 e 2018. Estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado com dados sobre o consumo de alimentos e bebidas e a renda familiar obtidos da Pesquisa Nacional de Consumo Domiciliar de 1996-1997, 2004-2005, 2012-2013 e 2017-2018, que inclui mais de 20.000 residências em cada período. Foi calculado o consumo diário de energia, gordura saturada, açúcar e sódio por adulto equivalente a partir de: (1) alimentos minimamente processados; (2) ingredientes culinários processados; (3) alimentos processados e (4) alimentos ultraprocessados, para cada período e de acordo com o quintil de renda familiar per capita. Foi aplicada análise estatística descritiva. Em relação à energia e aos nutrientes analisados, foi encontrada uma redução na proporção de alimentos minimamente processados, ingredientes culinários e alimentos processados, e um aumento de alimentos ultraprocessados. O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados é maior conforme aumenta a renda familiar, mas com diferenças que diminuem ao longo do tempo. Esses resultados evidenciam a necessidade de promover estratégias na Argentina quanto ao consumo de alimentos minimamente processados e desestimular a disponibilidade e o acesso a alimentos ultraprocessados, especialmente para os grupos mais vulneráveis.

Humans , Adult , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Argentina , Sodium , Brazil , Nutrients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sugars , Food Handling
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 701-710, Fev. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356087


Resumo O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a adesão aos acordos voluntários de redução de sódio firmados entre indústrias de alimentos e o Ministério da Saúde e comparar as metas adotadas com o limite de sódio proposto no modelo de perfil nutricional da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS). Utilizaram-se informações de 1.553 alimentos de 32 categorias incluídas nos acordos e comercializados nas maiores redes de supermercados brasileiras em 2017. Foram calculadas as proporções de produtos com quantidade de sódio igual ou abaixo do limite proposto pelos acordos e pela OPAS. A concordância de classificação dos itens segundo os dois critérios foi avaliada com o coeficiente kappa de Cohen (k). Nossos resultados mostraram que 77,7% dos alimentos analisados estavam adequados segundo os acordos de redução de sódio, porém apenas 35,9%, segundo o modelo da OPAS. A concordância entre os dois critérios ao classificar um produto como adequado em relação ao conteúdo de sódio foi fraca (k = 0,199). Conclui-se que os acordos voluntários de redução de sódio são limitados em relação à abrangência e ao rigor das metas estabelecidas. A adoção de medidas voltadas a todos os produtos disponíveis, com metas mais restritivas e obrigatórias, deveria ser considerada no país.

Abstract The objective was to assess adherence to voluntary agreements for sodium reduction firmed between the food industries and the Ministry of Health in Brazil and to compare their targets with the limit proposed in the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) nutritional profile model. We used data from 1.553 foods from 32 categories included in the agreements and sold in the largest Brazilian supermarket chains in 2017. The frequency of products with sodium equal or below the cut-offs proposed by the voluntary agreements and by PAHO was calculated. Classification concordance according to the two was evaluated with Cohen's kappa coefficient (k). Our results showed that 77.7% of products were adequate according to the voluntary agreements, and only 35.9% of them, according to the PAHO model. We identified a weak degree of concordance between both criteria in classifying a product as adequate about sodium content (k = 0.199). In conclusion, the voluntary agreements for sodium reduction are limited in their scope and rigor. The adoption of measures oriented for all products, with more restrictive and mandatory targets, should be considered in the country.

Humans , Sodium/analysis , Sodium, Dietary , Brazil , Food , Food Labeling
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 665-669, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350977


Abstract Objective: To determine the sodium concentration in cow milk available for sale and to estimate its consumption by infants up to 6 months of age. Methods: Sodium level was determined by flame emission spectrophotometry in eight different lots of five brands of liquid ultra-high temperature milk and three brands of powdered milk. To estimate sodium consumption via cow milk, orientations for exceptional situations when neither breastfeeding nor infant formula is possible were considered. Inferential statistics were performed and results were compared with critical parameters at a 5% significance level. Results: The mean sodium content per portion found in liquid milk (162.5 ± 16.2) mg/200 mL was higher than that in powdered milk (116.8 ± 3.0) mg/26 g. Estimated sodium consumption by infants through powdered milk varied from 149.8 to 224.7% of adequate intake, and via liquid milk can be more than 500% of the adequate intake, reaching 812.4% of it if dilution is not applied. Seven of the eight brands of milk studied had declared, on their labels, that the sodium content was 13-30% lower than that found in chemical analysis. Conclusion: Liquid and powdered whole cow milk have high sodium content, and the content per portion is higher in liquid milk than in powdered milk. The estimated consumption of sodium through these products can far exceed the adequate intake for infants from 0 to 6 months old, even when the recommended dilution and maximum daily volumes are followed.

Humans , Animals , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sodium , Milk , Breast Feeding , Cattle , Infant Formula , Eating , Infant Food , Milk, Human
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 142-135, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1282985


Introducción. La dieta actual de la población se caracteriza por la sustitución de alimentos naturales por productos alimenticios procesados, formulados industrialmente con ingredientes que contienen sodio. Objetivo. Clasificar el contenido de sodio en productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador, según el perfil de nutrientes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y las metas regionales para formulación industrial. Metodología. Diseño transversal descriptivo, se analizaron las etiquetas nutricionales de 1016 productos de siete categorías, registrados en el Sistema de Información en Salud Ambiental. Para la clasificación del contenido de sodio se aplicaron fórmulas según el perfil de nutrientes: alto en sodio ≥1 miligramo de sodio por caloría. Para la clasificación según metas regionales: cuando el contenido de sodio en 100 gramos de producto es > a la meta establecida. Resultados. Según el perfil de nutrientes, el 52% de los productos tiene alto contenido de sodio. Según metas regionales, el 24% está formulado por arriba de las metas, esto refleja diferencias entre las valoraciones de contenido de sodio por categoría. Conclusión. Más de la mitad los productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador son clasificados como altos en sodio, según el perfil de nutrientes. Una cuarta parte de estos están formulados con sodio por encima de las metas regionales, mostrando que las metas son más flexibles en la valoración de contenido máximo de sodio para la formulación industrial en relación con la valoración de contenido alto en sodio para consumo humano

Introduction. The current diet of the population is characterized by the substitution of natural foods for processed food products, industrially formulated with ingredients that contain sodium. Target. Classify the sodium content in prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador, according to the nutrient profile of the Pan American Health Organization and the regional goals for industrial formulation. Methodology. Descriptive cross-sectional design, the nutritional labels of 1016 products from seven categories, registered in the Environmental Health Information System, were analyzed. For the classification of sodium content, formulas were applied according to the nutrient profile: high in sodium ≥1 milligram of sodium per calorie. For classification according to regional goals: when the sodium content in 100 grams of product is> the established goal. Results. According to the nutrient profile, 52% of the products are high in sodium. According to regional goals, 24% is formulated above the goals, this reflects differences between the valuations of sodium content by category. Conclution. More than half of the prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador are classified as high in sodium, according to the nutrient profile. A quarter of these are formulated with sodium above the regional goals, showing that the goals are more flexible in the assessment of maximum sodium content for industrial formulation in relation to the assessment of high sodium content for human consumption

Sodium , Food , Nutrients , Diet , Food Labeling
Int. j. morphol ; 39(2): 554-559, abr. 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385361


RESUMEN: El intervalo Postmortem (IPM) es un importante desafío por resolver en la patología forense, y consiste en poder determinar el tiempo transcurrido desde la muerte hasta el momento de la autopsia. Dada la poca confiabilidad de algunos métodos por la gran influencia de factores externos y propios del cadáver, la bioquímica forense ha recibido considerable atención por sus niveles de seguridad. La ciudad de Quito se ubica en la cordillera de Los Andes a 2850 msnm, sin embargo, en la literatura no existen reportes de medición de estos parámetros a una altura como ésta. El objetivo fue establecer una correlación entre sodio (Na+), cloro (Cl-) y potasio (K+) del humor vítreo del cuerpo vítreo y el IPM a la altura de la ciudad de Quito. Para el estudio se utilizaron 128 muestras de cuerpo vítreo provenientes de 16 autopsias practicadas en la Unidad de Medicina Legal Zona 9, en IPM de 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 y 144 horas. Para la obtención del humor vítreo se siguió el método convencional, se dividió para las 8 alícuotas y se llevó a congelación -20 °C hasta el momento de su análisis. La cuantificación de la concentración de electrolitos Na+, Cl- y Potasio+ se realizó mediante analizador ISE de Roche Cobas (Roche Diagnostics) C501, calibrado para uroanálisis, y no fue necesaria la dilución. Durante la calibración y cada tres muestras, se midió un estándar interno para corregir los efectos de la desviación sistemática en la calibración. El enfoque estadístico se basó en un análisis de correlación lineal, utilizando el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman. La correlación entre las horas postmortem y las concentraciones de los diferentes electrolitos, fueron estadísticamente significativas. Se pudo corroborar una correlación lineal significativa entre el IPM y el aumento del K+ en el HV.

SUMMARY: The postmortem interval (PMI) is an important challenge to be solved in forensic pathology, and it consists of being able to determine the time elapsed from death to the moment of autopsy. Given the unreliability of some methods due to the great influence of external factors and those specific to the corpse, forensic biochemistry has received considerable attention for its levels of safety. The city of Quito is located in the Andes mountain range at 2850 meters above sea level, however, in the literature there are no reports of measurement of these parameters at a height like this. The objective was to establish a correlation between sodium (Na+), chlorine (Cl-) and potassium (K+) of the vitreous humor and the MPI at a height of 2,850 masl. For the study, 128 samples of vitreous humor were used from 16 autopsies performed in the Zone 9 Legal Medicine Unit, in IPM of 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. To obtain the vitreous humor, the conventional method was followed, it was divided for the 8 aliquots and it was frozen at -20 ° C until the moment of its analysis. The quantification of the concentration of electrolytes Na+, Cl- and K+ was carried out using an ISE analyzer from Roche Cobas (Roche Diagnostics) C501, calibrated for urinalysis, and no dilution was necessary. During calibration and every third sample, an internal standard was measured to correct for the effects of systematic deviation on the calibration. The statistical approach was based on a linear correlation analysis, using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The correlation between the postmortem hours and the concentrations of the different electrolytes were statistically significant. A significant linear correlation between the PMI and the increase in K+ in vitreous humor could be corroborated.

Humans , Postmortem Changes , Potassium/analysis , Sodium/analysis , Vitreous Body/chemistry , Chlorine/analysis , Time Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Electrolytes/analysis
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(2): 178-186, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389440


Background: Excessive sodium intake is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Daily sodium intake is usually inferred from sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine collection, which is cumbersome and prone to errors. Different formulas have attempted to estimate 24-hour urinary sodium from a spot urine sample. Unfortunately, their concordances are insufficient and have not been tested in our population. Aim: To develop an equation to predict 24-hour urine sodium from parameters in plasma and spot urine samples. To validate the equation and compare it with other formulas in Chilean population. Material and Methods: Analysis of 24-hour urine collections, plasma sample and spot urine sample from 174 adult outpatients (81% females) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2. These were collected between 2015 and 2019 using standardized methods and educating patients about the correct method to collect 24 h urine samples. In all these patients, creatinine and electrolytes were measured in plasma and urine. A new equation was developed using a multiple linear regression model. Results: Twenty-four-hour urine sodium excretion was significantly correlated with age, weight, height, eGFR, plasma osmolarity, urine electrolytes and parameters obtained from spot urine sample, among others. The new equation had a linear correlation with 24-hour natriuresis of 0.91 and the concordance was 0.9. The predictive capacity of the new equation was better than the existing formulas. Conclusions: We developed a formula to accurately predict daily natriuresis in the Chilean population.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Sodium , Natriuresis , Urinalysis , Creatinine , Glomerular Filtration Rate