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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Energy Intake , Executive Function , Sodium , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(3): 154-162, sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1399227

ABSTRACT

Introducción: en los últimos años se ha incrementado el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados en escolares y esto se ha relacionado con un aumento en la prevalencia de obesidad infantil. Objetivo: calcular el tamaño del efecto de una intervención nutricional en el consumo alimentario en escolares de educación básica de Reynosa, Tamaulipas, México. Materiales y métodos: estudio longitudinal, con una muestra de 309 escolares de 12 escuelas primarias públicas; se formaron dos grupos: intervención (GI) y control (GC) con seguimiento de un año. Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas. Para evaluar los alimentos incluidos en los refrigerios escolares se utilizó un registro de alimentos antes y después de la intervención y se caracterizaron como recomendables y no recomendables. Se calculó el tamaño del efecto (TE) utilizando el estadístico "g" de Hedges. Resultados: al final del estudio en ambos grupos se incrementó el consumo de agua, sin embargo, él TE fue grande en el GI (TE=0,84), mientras que en el GC fue moderado (TE=0,50). En el GI se encontró una reducción pequeña en el consumo de carnes procesadas (p=0,004; TE=0,28), cereales dulces (p=0,001; TE=0,36) y bebidas no lácteas endulzadas (p=0,001; TE=0,49); mientras que el GC mostró un incremento pequeño en el consumo de comida rápida y antojitos mexicanos (p=0,001; TE=0,46). Conclusiones: en el GI se observó una disminución y un TE pequeño en el consumo de carnes procesadas, cereales dulces y bebidas no lácteas endulzadas. Es necesario diseñar estrategias que promuevan el consumo de alimentos recomendables(AU)


Introduction: In recent years, the consumption of ultraprocessed foods in schoolchildren has increased and this has been linked to an increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Objective: To calculate the size of the effect of a nutritional intervention on food consumption in basic education schoolchildren in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Materials and methods: Longitudinal study, with a sample of 309 schoolchildren from 12 public elementary schools; two groups were formed: intervention (IG) and control (CG) with a follow-up of one year. Measurements of weight, height and waist circumference were made. To evaluate the foods included in school lunch, a food registry was used before and after the intervention and they were characterized as recommended and not recommended. The effect size (ES) was calculated using the Hedges'g statistic. Results: At the end of the study in both groups, water consumption increased, however the ES was big in the IG (ES=0.84); while in the CG it was moderate (ES=0.50). In the IG, a small reduction in the consumption of processed meats was observed (p=0.004; ES=0.28), sweet cereals (p=0.001; ES=0.36) and sweetened nondairy beverages decreased (p=0.001; ES=0.49); while the CG showed a small increase in the consumption of fast food and Mexican appetizers (p=0.001; ES=0.46). Conclusions: In the IG showed a TE small decrease in consumption of processed meats, sweet cereals, and sweetened non-dairy beverages. It is necessary to design strategies that promote the consumption of recommended foods(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Food and Nutrition Education , Nutrition Assessment , Eating , Pediatric Obesity , Processed Food , Sodium , Dietary Fats , Health Strategies , Sugars
3.
Medicina UPB ; 41(2): 145-156, julio-diciembre 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1392156

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus (dm) es una enfermedad crónica con alta incidencia y prevalencia. La enfermedad es un problema de salud pública que ha impulsado a la continua búsqueda de medidas tanto farmacológicas como no farmacológicas para el control. Gracias a la actual evidencia, se sabe que la dm, además de los niveles elevados de glucosa en sangre, se acompaña de otros problemas metabólicos como lo son la obesidad, alteraciones en el metabolismo de lípidos, entre otros; sumado a lo anterior, los pacientes tienen riesgo de padecer problemas cardiovasculares. El problema radica en que una gran cantidad de pacientes con riesgo cardiovascular (CV) o patología cardiovascular ya establecida, sufren de diabetes mellitus. La relación entre dm y las patologías cardiovasculares es de suma importancia, ya que cada una incrementa el riesgo de padecer la otra y empeora el pronóstico. Entre 1980 y 1990 se identificó el cotransportador de sodio y glucosa tipo 2 (SGLT2) como blanco para el tratamiento de la dm tipo 2. A partir de este hallazgo, se crearon los inhibidores de SGLT2 (i- SGLT2), grupo novedoso de medicamentos que disminuyen los niveles de glucosa. Además, tienen múltiples efectos tanto micro como macrovasculares (empagliflozina, canagliflozina y dapagliflozina). Por lo cual, haremos una revisión sobre la evidencia para los iSGLT2 como tratamiento de la insuficiencia cardiaca crónica y su impacto positivo sobre el sistema renal, reducción de presión arterial, disminución de peso, entre otros beneficios.


Diabetes mellitus (dm) is a chronic disease with high incidence and prevalence. The disease is a public health problem that has prompted the continuous search for both pharmacological and non-pharmacological control measures. Thanks to current evidence, it is known that dm, in addition to high blood glucose levels, is accompanied by other metabolic problems such as obesity, alterations in lipid metabolism, among others, and patients are also at risk of suffering from cardiovascular problems. The problema is that a large number of patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk or already established cardiovascular pathology suffer from diabetes mellitus. The relationship between dm and cardiovascular pathologies is extremely important, since each one increases the risk of suffering from the other and worsens the prognosis. Between 1980 and 1990, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) was identified as a target for the treatment of type 2 dm. Based on this finding, SGLT2 inhibitors (i-SGLT2) were created, a novel group of medications that lower glucose levels. In addition, they have multiple effects, both micro and macrovascular (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin). Therefore, we will review the evidence for iSGLT2 as a treatment for chronic heart failure and its positive impact on the renal system, blood pressure reduction, weight loss, among other benefits.


O diabetes mellitus (dm) é uma doença crônica com alta incidência e prevalência. A doença é um problema de saúde pública que tem motivado a busca contínua por medidas de controle farmacológico e não farmacológico. Graças às evidências atuais, sabe-se que o dm, além dos níveis elevados de glicose no sangue, é acompanhado por outros problemas metabólicos como obesidade, alterações no metabolismo lipídico, entre outros; Além do exposto, os pacientes estão em risco de problemas cardiovasculares. O problema é que um grande número de pacientes com risco cardiovascular (CV) ou patologia cardiovascular já estabelecida sofre de diabetes mellitus. A relação entre dm e patologias cardiovasculares é de extrema importância, pois cada uma aumenta o risco de sofrer uma da outra e piora o prognóstico. Entre 1980 e 1990, o co-transportador sódio-glicose 2 (SGLT2) foi identificado como alvo para o tratamento do dm tipo 2. Com base nessa descoberta, foram criados os inibidores de SGLT2 (i-SGLT2), um novo grupo de drogas que reduzem a glicose níveis. Além disso, eles têm múltiplos efeitos micro e macrovasculares(empagliflozina, canagliflozina e dapagliflozina). Portanto, re-visaremos as evidências do iSGLT2 como tratamento para insuficiência cardíaca crônica e seu impacto positivo no sistema renal, redução da pressão arterial, perda de peso, entre outros benefícios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus , Sodium , Blood Glucose , Weight Loss , Canagliflozin , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Heart Failure , Obesity
4.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1398811

ABSTRACT

El material particulado (PM) es uno de los contaminantes más importantes presentes en el aire, representando un riesgo medioambiental para la salud. Las partículas con un diámetro de 10 micrones o menos (PM10), al ser inhalables, pueden penetrar y alojarse profundamente en los pulmones, contribuyendo al riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares y respiratorias, así como cáncer de pulmón, enfermedades mentales, dermatitis, daño ocular e incluso al aumento en las tasas de mortalidad. Se estableció como objetivo determinar la calidad del aire interior asociada a la inmisión de material particulado (PM10) en la zona este 2, un sector industrial ubicado en los distritos san juan de Lurigancho y Lurigancho-Chosica, Perú. Para tal fin, se propone el uso de indicadores duales: ecológicos y sociales. De acuerdo a los indicadores ecológicos explorados, la concentración media de PM10 en el aire exterior (CME) superó el límite de 100 µg/m3 establecido por MINAM. Aunque la mediana de CME (93,7µg/m3; IC 95%=89,07-98,33) estuvo por debajo de este límite, el cuartil superior lo superó, entendido por elevaciones puntuales de hasta 131 µg/m3 (Figura 2), potencialmente dañinos para la salud humana. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,921, obtenido del análisis bivariado entre los valores de concentración media diaria de PM10 exterior e interior, previo a la instalación de filtros en los sistemas de ventilación, es sugerente del efecto que puede tener la inmisión de aire ambiental con material particulado como vector de la contaminación del aire interior. al considerar los valores de la concentración media diaria, obtenidos en los 15 días posteriores a la instalación de los filtros (CMIFI), se observa que la concentración media de PM10 en el interior disminuyó en relación a la quincena anterior. El coeficiente de correlación de Spearman de 0,869 entre los indicadores CMIFI y CME, permite proponer que, en esta segunda fase, la calidad del aire interior fue influenciada en menor proporción por la contaminación de material particulado del aire ambiental, es decir que se presentó menos inmisión de PM10, gracias al proceso de filtrado, lo que disminuye el riesgo para la salud de los trabajadores(AU)


Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most important pollutants present in the air, representing an environmental risk to health. Particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), being inhalable, can penetrate and lodge deep in the lungs, contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, mental illness, dermatitis, eye damage and even increased mortality rates. The objective was to determine the indoor air quality associated with the immission of particulate matter (PM10) in East Zone 2, an industrial sector located in the districts of San Juan de Lurigancho and Lurigancho-Chosica, Peru. To this end, the use of dual indicators is proposed: ecological and social. According to the ecological indicators explored, the average concentration of PM10 in outdoor air (CME) exceeded the limit of 100 µg/m3 established by MINAM. Although the CME median (93.7µg/m3; 95% CI=89.07-98.33) was below this limit, the upper quartile exceeded it, understood as point elevations of up to 131µg/m3 (Figure 2 ), potentially harmful to human health. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.921, obtained from the bivariate analysis between the daily average concentration values of outdoor and indoor PM10, prior to the installation of filters in the ventilation systems, is suggestive of the effect that the immission of ambient air can have with particulate matter as a vector of indoor air pollution. When considering the values of the average daily concentration, obtained in the 15 days after the installation of the filters (CMIFI), it is observed that the average concentration of PM10 in the interior decreased in relation to the previous fortnight. Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.869 between the CMIFI and CME indicators allows us to propose that, in this second phase, indoor air quality was influenced to a lesser extent by particulate matter contamination in the ambient air, that is, there was less PM10 immission, thanks to the filtering process, which reduces the risk to the health of workers(AU)


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Occupational Health , Air Pollution, Indoor , Environmental Hazards , Environmental Pollutants , Sodium , Sulfates , Cardiovascular Diseases , Filters , Chlorides , Ammonia , Nitrates
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(5): e00252021, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374848

ABSTRACT

Existe una creciente evidencia de la transición global en los sistemas alimentarios que afectan la disponibilidad, accesibilidad, asequibilidad y conveniencia de los alimentos altamente procesados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el consumo aparente de energía, grasas saturadas, azúcares agregados y sodio según el grado de procesamiento de los alimentos en la Argentina entre 1996 y 2018, según el nivel de ingreso. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y transversal, con datos de gastos de alimentos y bebidas e ingresos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares de 1996-1997, 2004-2005, 2012-2013 y 2017-2018, que incluye más de 20.000 hogares en cada período. Se calculó el consumo aparente diario de energía, grasas saturadas, azúcares agregados y sodio por adulto equivalente de: (1) alimentos mínimamente procesados; (2) ingredientes culinarios procesados; (3) alimentos procesados y (4) productos ultraprocesados, para cada periodo y según el quintil de ingresos per cápita del hogar. Fue utilizado análisis estadístico descriptivo. En energía y todos los nutrientes evaluados, se observa la reducción de la proporción proveniente de alimentos mínimamente procesados, ingredientes culinarios y alimentos procesados, y el aumento de productos ultraprocesados. Con una mayor contribución a partir de ultraprocesados, a medida que aumentan los ingresos del hogar, pero con diferencias que disminuyen a lo largo del tiempo. Dados los resultados, las estrategias futuras en Argentina deberían promover el consumo de alimentos mínimamente procesados y desalentar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de alimentos ultraprocesados, con especial énfasis en los grupos más vulnerados.


Growing evidence of the global transition in food systems exists, affecting the availability, accessibility, affordability, and convenience of highly processed foods. This study aimed to evaluate the apparent consumption of energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium according to the degree of food processing in Argentina from 1996 to 2018 and according to income level. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study with data on food and beverage expenditures and income from the National Household Expenditure Survey for years 1996-1997, 2004-2005, 2012-2013, and 2017-2018, including more than 20,000 households in each period. The apparent daily consumption of energy, saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium per adult for: (1) minimally processed foods; (2) processed culinary ingredients; (3) processed foods; and (4) ultra-processed products, was calculated for each period and according to per capita income quintile in each household. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Reductions in the proportion of energy and all nutrients evaluated from minimally processed foods, culinary ingredients and processed foods were observed, as well as an increase in the consumption of ultra-processed products. One also observes a greater share from ultra-processed foods as household income increases but with decreasing differences over time. Therefore, future strategies in Argentina should promote the consumption of minimally processed foods and discourage the availability and accessibility of ultra-processed ones, especially for the most vulnerable groups.


Cada vez mais há evidências sobre a mudança global nos sistemas alimentares, que envolvem disponibilidade, acessibilidade, custo e pertinência dos alimentos ultraprocessados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o consumo aparente de energia, gorduras saturadas, açúcar e sódio conforme o nível de processamento de alimentos e a renda familiar na Argentina no período entre 1996 e 2018. Estudo descritivo e transversal, realizado com dados sobre o consumo de alimentos e bebidas e a renda familiar obtidos da Pesquisa Nacional de Consumo Domiciliar de 1996-1997, 2004-2005, 2012-2013 e 2017-2018, que inclui mais de 20.000 residências em cada período. Foi calculado o consumo diário de energia, gordura saturada, açúcar e sódio por adulto equivalente a partir de: (1) alimentos minimamente processados; (2) ingredientes culinários processados; (3) alimentos processados e (4) alimentos ultraprocessados, para cada período e de acordo com o quintil de renda familiar per capita. Foi aplicada análise estatística descritiva. Em relação à energia e aos nutrientes analisados, foi encontrada uma redução na proporção de alimentos minimamente processados, ingredientes culinários e alimentos processados, e um aumento de alimentos ultraprocessados. O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados é maior conforme aumenta a renda familiar, mas com diferenças que diminuem ao longo do tempo. Esses resultados evidenciam a necessidade de promover estratégias na Argentina quanto ao consumo de alimentos minimamente processados e desestimular a disponibilidade e o acesso a alimentos ultraprocessados, especialmente para os grupos mais vulneráveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Argentina , Sodium , Brazil , Nutrients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sugars , Food Handling
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(2): 701-710, Fev. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356087

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a adesão aos acordos voluntários de redução de sódio firmados entre indústrias de alimentos e o Ministério da Saúde e comparar as metas adotadas com o limite de sódio proposto no modelo de perfil nutricional da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS). Utilizaram-se informações de 1.553 alimentos de 32 categorias incluídas nos acordos e comercializados nas maiores redes de supermercados brasileiras em 2017. Foram calculadas as proporções de produtos com quantidade de sódio igual ou abaixo do limite proposto pelos acordos e pela OPAS. A concordância de classificação dos itens segundo os dois critérios foi avaliada com o coeficiente kappa de Cohen (k). Nossos resultados mostraram que 77,7% dos alimentos analisados estavam adequados segundo os acordos de redução de sódio, porém apenas 35,9%, segundo o modelo da OPAS. A concordância entre os dois critérios ao classificar um produto como adequado em relação ao conteúdo de sódio foi fraca (k = 0,199). Conclui-se que os acordos voluntários de redução de sódio são limitados em relação à abrangência e ao rigor das metas estabelecidas. A adoção de medidas voltadas a todos os produtos disponíveis, com metas mais restritivas e obrigatórias, deveria ser considerada no país.


Abstract The objective was to assess adherence to voluntary agreements for sodium reduction firmed between the food industries and the Ministry of Health in Brazil and to compare their targets with the limit proposed in the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) nutritional profile model. We used data from 1.553 foods from 32 categories included in the agreements and sold in the largest Brazilian supermarket chains in 2017. The frequency of products with sodium equal or below the cut-offs proposed by the voluntary agreements and by PAHO was calculated. Classification concordance according to the two was evaluated with Cohen's kappa coefficient (k). Our results showed that 77.7% of products were adequate according to the voluntary agreements, and only 35.9% of them, according to the PAHO model. We identified a weak degree of concordance between both criteria in classifying a product as adequate about sodium content (k = 0.199). In conclusion, the voluntary agreements for sodium reduction are limited in their scope and rigor. The adoption of measures oriented for all products, with more restrictive and mandatory targets, should be considered in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sodium/analysis , Sodium, Dietary , Brazil , Food , Food Labeling
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928621

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To examine the association between duration of fever before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment and IVIG resistance in children with Kawasaki disease (KD).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 317 children with KD who were admitted from January 2018 to December 2020. According to the duration of fever before IVIG treatment, they were divided into two groups: short fever duration group (≤4 days) with 92 children and long fever duration group (>4 days) with 225 children. According to the presence or absence of IVIG resistance, each group was further divided into a drug-resistance group and a non-drug-resistance group. Baseline data and laboratory results were compared between groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the influencing factors for IVIG resistance.@*RESULTS@#In the short fever duration group, 19 children (20.7%) had IVIG resistance and 5 children (5.4%) had coronary artery aneurysm, and in the long fever duration group, 22 children (9.8%) had IVIG resistance and 19 children (8.4%) had coronary artery aneurysm, suggesting that the short fever duration group had a significantly higher rate of IVIG resistance than the long fever duration group (P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the incidence rate of coronary artery aneurysm between the two groups (P>0.05). In the short fever duration group, compared with the children without drug resistance, the children with drug resistance had a significantly lower level of blood sodium and significantly higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide before treatment (P<0.05). In the long fever duration group, the children with drug resistance had significantly lower levels of blood sodium and creatine kinase before treatment than those without drug resistance (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a reduction in blood sodium level was associated with IVIG resistance in the long fever duration group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#IVIG resistance in children with KD varies with the duration of fever before treatment. A reduction in blood sodium is associated with IVIG resistance in KD children with a duration of fever of >4 days before treatment.


Subject(s)
Child , Coronary Aneurysm/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sodium/therapeutic use
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 665-669, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350977

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the sodium concentration in cow milk available for sale and to estimate its consumption by infants up to 6 months of age. Methods: Sodium level was determined by flame emission spectrophotometry in eight different lots of five brands of liquid ultra-high temperature milk and three brands of powdered milk. To estimate sodium consumption via cow milk, orientations for exceptional situations when neither breastfeeding nor infant formula is possible were considered. Inferential statistics were performed and results were compared with critical parameters at a 5% significance level. Results: The mean sodium content per portion found in liquid milk (162.5 ± 16.2) mg/200 mL was higher than that in powdered milk (116.8 ± 3.0) mg/26 g. Estimated sodium consumption by infants through powdered milk varied from 149.8 to 224.7% of adequate intake, and via liquid milk can be more than 500% of the adequate intake, reaching 812.4% of it if dilution is not applied. Seven of the eight brands of milk studied had declared, on their labels, that the sodium content was 13-30% lower than that found in chemical analysis. Conclusion: Liquid and powdered whole cow milk have high sodium content, and the content per portion is higher in liquid milk than in powdered milk. The estimated consumption of sodium through these products can far exceed the adequate intake for infants from 0 to 6 months old, even when the recommended dilution and maximum daily volumes are followed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Sodium , Milk , Breast Feeding , Cattle , Infant Formula , Eating , Infant Food , Milk, Human
9.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 142-135, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282985

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La dieta actual de la población se caracteriza por la sustitución de alimentos naturales por productos alimenticios procesados, formulados industrialmente con ingredientes que contienen sodio. Objetivo. Clasificar el contenido de sodio en productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador, según el perfil de nutrientes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y las metas regionales para formulación industrial. Metodología. Diseño transversal descriptivo, se analizaron las etiquetas nutricionales de 1016 productos de siete categorías, registrados en el Sistema de Información en Salud Ambiental. Para la clasificación del contenido de sodio se aplicaron fórmulas según el perfil de nutrientes: alto en sodio ≥1 miligramo de sodio por caloría. Para la clasificación según metas regionales: cuando el contenido de sodio en 100 gramos de producto es > a la meta establecida. Resultados. Según el perfil de nutrientes, el 52% de los productos tiene alto contenido de sodio. Según metas regionales, el 24% está formulado por arriba de las metas, esto refleja diferencias entre las valoraciones de contenido de sodio por categoría. Conclusión. Más de la mitad los productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador son clasificados como altos en sodio, según el perfil de nutrientes. Una cuarta parte de estos están formulados con sodio por encima de las metas regionales, mostrando que las metas son más flexibles en la valoración de contenido máximo de sodio para la formulación industrial en relación con la valoración de contenido alto en sodio para consumo humano


Introduction. The current diet of the population is characterized by the substitution of natural foods for processed food products, industrially formulated with ingredients that contain sodium. Target. Classify the sodium content in prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador, according to the nutrient profile of the Pan American Health Organization and the regional goals for industrial formulation. Methodology. Descriptive cross-sectional design, the nutritional labels of 1016 products from seven categories, registered in the Environmental Health Information System, were analyzed. For the classification of sodium content, formulas were applied according to the nutrient profile: high in sodium ≥1 milligram of sodium per calorie. For classification according to regional goals: when the sodium content in 100 grams of product is> the established goal. Results. According to the nutrient profile, 52% of the products are high in sodium. According to regional goals, 24% is formulated above the goals, this reflects differences between the valuations of sodium content by category. Conclution. More than half of the prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador are classified as high in sodium, according to the nutrient profile. A quarter of these are formulated with sodium above the regional goals, showing that the goals are more flexible in the assessment of maximum sodium content for industrial formulation in relation to the assessment of high sodium content for human consumption


Subject(s)
Sodium , Food , Nutrients , Diet , Food Labeling
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 539-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The low accuracy of equations predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using a single spot urine sample contributed to the misclassification of individual sodium intake levels. The application of single spot urine sample is limited by a lack of representativity of urinary sodium excretion, possibly due to the circadian rhythm in urinary excretion. This study aimed to explore the circadian rhythm, characteristics, and parameters in a healthy young adult Chinese population as a theoretical foundation for developing new approaches.@*METHODS@#Eighty-five participants (mean age 32.4 years) completed the 24-h urine collection by successively collecting each of the single-voided specimens within 24 h. The concentrations of the urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine for each voided specimen were measured. Cosinor analysis was applied to explore the circadian rhythm of the urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion. The excretion per hour was computed for analyzing the change over time with repeated-measures analysis of variance and a cubic spline model.@*RESULTS@#The metabolism of urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine showed different patterns of circadian rhythm, although the urinary sodium excretion showed non-significant parameters in the cosinor model. A significant circadian rhythm of urinary creatinine excretion was observed, while the circadian rhythm of sodium was less significant than that of potassium. The circadian rhythm of urinary sodium and creatinine excretion showed synchronization to some extent, which had a nocturnal peak and fell to the lowest around noon to afternoon. In contrast, the peak of potassium was observed in the morning and dropped to the lowest point in the evening. The hourly urinary excretion followed a similar circadian rhythm.@*CONCLUSION@#It is necessary to consider the circadian rhythm of urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion in adults while exploring the estimation model for 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Circadian Rhythm , Creatinine , Humans , Potassium , Sodium , Urine Specimen Collection , Young Adult
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200164, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279407

ABSTRACT

Background Conotoxins have become a research hotspot in the neuropharmacology field for their high activity and specificity in targeting ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. There have been reports of a conotoxin acting on two ion channels, but rare reports of a conotoxin acting on three ion channels. Methods Vr3a, a proline-rich M-superfamily conotoxin from a worm-hunting Conus varius, was obtained by solid-phase synthesis and identified by mass spectrometry. The effects of synthesized Vr3a on sodium, potassium and calcium currents were tested on rat DRG cells by patch clamp experiments. The further effects of Vr3a on human Cav1.2 and Cav2.2 currents were tested on HEK293 cells. Results About 10 μM Vr3a has no effects on the peak sodium currents, but can induce a ~10 mV shift in a polarizing direction in the current-voltage relationship. In addition, 10 μM Vr3a can increase 19.61 ± 5.12% of the peak potassium currents and do not induce a shift in the current-voltage relationship. An amount of 10 μM Vr3a can inhibit 31.26% ± 4.53% of the peak calcium currents and do not induce a shift in the current-voltage relationship. The IC50 value of Vr3a on calcium channel currents in rat DRG neurons is 19.28 ± 4.32 μM. Moreover, 10 μM Vr3a can inhibit 15.32% ± 5.41% of the human Cav1.2 currents and 12.86% ± 4.93% of the human Cav2.2 currents. Conclusions Vr3a can simultaneously affect sodium, potassium and calcium currents. This novel triple-target conotoxin Vr3a expands understanding of conotoxin functions.(AU)


Subject(s)
Proline/analysis , Conotoxins/analysis , Potassium , Sodium , Calcium
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200173, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279403

ABSTRACT

Background: Scorpions are widely known for the neurotoxic effects of their venoms, which contain peptides affecting ionic channels. Although Colombia is recognized for its scorpion diversity, only a few studies are available describing the venom content. Methods: In this descriptive study, we analyzed the MS/MS sequence, electrophoretic and chromatographic profile linked to a bioinformatics analysis of the scorpions Chactas reticulatus (Chactidae), Opisthacanthus elatus (Hormuridae), Centruroides edwardsii (Buthidae) and Tityus asthenes (Buthidae) from Colombia. Results: Each scorpion showed a specific electrophoretic and chromatographic profile. The electrophoretic profiles indicate the presence of high molecular mass compounds in all venoms, with a predominance of low molecular mass compounds in the Buthidae species. Chromatographic profiles showed a similar pattern as the electrophoretic profiles. From the MS/MS analysis of the chromatographic collected fractions, we obtained internal peptide sequences corresponding to proteins reported in scorpions from the respective family of the analyzed samples. Some of these proteins correspond to neurotoxins affecting ionic channels, antimicrobial peptides and metalloproteinase-like fragments. In the venom of Tityus asthenes, the MSn analysis allowed the detection of two toxins affecting sodium channels covering 50% and 84% of the sequence respectively, showing 100% sequence similarity. Two sequences from Tityus asthenes showed sequence similarity with a phospholipase from Opisthacanthus cayaporum indicating the presence of this type of toxin in this species for the first time. One sequence matching a hypothetical secreted protein from Hottentotta judaicus was found in three of the studied venoms. We found that this protein is common in the Buthidae family whereas it has been reported in other families - such as Scorpionidae - and may be part of the evolutionary puzzle of venoms in these arachnids. Conclusion: Buthidae venoms from Colombia can be considered an important source of peptides similar to toxins affecting ionic channels. An interesting predicted antimicrobial peptide was detected in three of the analyzed venoms.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Scorpion Venoms , Sodium/analysis , Computational Biology , Neurotoxins
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 241-245, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153370

ABSTRACT

Pet rabbits have increased their popularity in a lot of countries. However, most of the laboratory profiles in rabbit medicine come from the observations made in rabbit as biomodels or meat production. So that further researches are necessary to obtain reference values for hematology and biochemical profiles in pet rabbits and the different breeds, especially, in relation to acid-base balance. The aim of this report was to offer the mean values of the main parameters connected with acid-base profile in Netherland Dwarf breed. Thirty-five healthy rabbits (15 males and 20 females) were studied. Venous blood sample from lateral saphenous vein was analyzed to measure: haematocrit, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, blood pH, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), total CO2, ions bicarbonate, chloride, sodium, potassium, base excess and anion Gap. Results showed a shorter range that those reported by different researchers. Moreover, differences between genders were showed in pCO2, its values were higher in males. It may be associated with a greater cellular metabolism. Values obtained in this research should be taken into account by veterinary clinicians for this breed in their clinical assessments. Besides, these values provide new results in parameters with few reference values.


A popularidade de coelhos como animais de estimação aumentou em muitos países. No entanto, a maioria dos perfis de laboratório em medicina de coelhos advém das observações de biomodelos animais ou da produção de carne. Assim, são necessárias pesquisas adicionais para obter valores de referência para hematologia e perfis bioquímicos em coelhos de estimação, e das diferentes raças, especialmente, em relação ao equilíbrio ácido-base. O objetivo deste relatório foi oferecer os valores médios dos principais parâmetros ligados ao perfil ácido-base na raça Anã Holandês. Trinta e cinco coelhos saudáveis ​​(15 machos e 20 fêmeas) foram estudados. A amostra de sangue venoso da veia safena lateral foi analisada para mensuração: hematócrito, hemoglobina, nitrogênio ureico sanguíneo, glicose, pH sanguíneo, pressão parcial de CO2 (pCO2), CO2 total, íons bicarbonato, cloreto, sódio, potássio, excesso de base e ânion Gap. Os resultados apresentaram um intervalo menor do que aqueles relatados por diferentes pesquisadores. Além disso, as diferenças entre os gêneros foram mostradas na pCO2, seus valores foram maiores no sexo masculino. Pode estar associado a um maior metabolismo celular. Os valores obtidos nesta pesquisa devem ser levados em consideração pelos clínicos veterinários para esta raça em suas avaliações clínicas. Além disso, esses valores fornecem novos resultados em parâmetros com poucos valores de referencia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Potassium/blood , Sodium/blood , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Pets/blood , Reference Values , Blood Specimen Collection/veterinary
15.
Itaituba; s.n; 2021. 64 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1413255

ABSTRACT

Uma das coisas mais bonitas em nossa cultura Munduruku e que nos foi passada por nossos ancestrais é de que nós fazemos parte do mundo e o mundo faz parte de cada um de nós. Tudo foi criado a partir da voz mágica de Karusakaibo usando os corpos dos nossos parentes-seres para fazer nascer todos os nossos alimentos, nossos remédios, nossas curas, nossas sabedorias. Em contrapartida, nós temos que nos esforçar para cuidar do mundo que ele nos deixou e no qual ele continua atuando. Enquanto continuarmos cuidando deste mundo, estaremos honrando a criação e o esforço de nossos avós que sempre lutaram com grande força para nos deixar este mundo bonito. O que se quer dizer com este livro é que nós fazemos parte da natureza e que é importante conhecer para entender quem somos e o que somos. A vida do planeta é a nossa própria vida. Devemos conhecer o mundo que a gente vive e cuidar dele, protegê-lo, pois é tão importante para nós a beleza de tudo que se encontra no ambiente e que está ao nosso redor. O valor da vida é primordial. Essa leitura é para nossas crianças, jovens e adultos para que apreciem e aprendam como se relacionar de forma saudável com a natureza, a fim de que se encantem com o passeio pelo mundo em que vivemos. Assim, imaginar como funciona o meio ambiente, a natureza, o seu ecossistema, assimilando o nosso modo de viver e como tudo está relacionado à nossa volta. Procuramos proporcionar uma leitura fácil, utilizando linguagem simples e acessível para que todos possamos entender o ciclo da vida e como nós nos encaixamos nele. Para compreender melhor, será preciso entrar e caminhar através da leitura. Vamos nos conscientizar, imaginar, olhar com uma visão mais humana, quão rico é ter respeito pelo que temos, que é a terra, uma herança de nosso criador Karusakaibo que entregou em nossas mãos um presente valiosíssimo, tão precioso para cuidarmos com muito carinho. Então, cabe a nós preservar o nosso território para que não seja destruído por nossas ações e pelas ações de pessoas que não conseguem entender nosso modo de vida. Somos responsáveis por cuidar, mas também ensinar aos outros que somos partes do mundo e não seus donos. Desejamos que esta leitura possa lhes ensinar a cuidar do mundo cuidando de si mesmos e das pessoas com quem convivem. Este material é a forma de dizermos NÃO à invasão de nossos territórios e NÃO ao uso de agrotóxicos e mercúrio em nosso alimento e em nossas águas. É nosso jeito de dizer SIM ao respeito ao espírito da natureza e ao bem-estar das futuras gerações. Desejamos a todos uma boa leitura e que ela seja capaz de lembrar a cada um de vocês que cada coisa que está na natureza também está dentro de nós; que a natureza é cíclica e que nós também somos; que alterar o ciclo da natureza afeta a nossa própria vida e empobrece nossa cultura porque mexe com nosso alimento, nossas crenças e nosso espírito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Gold , Mercury , Sodium , Zinc , Metals, Heavy , Nature , Elements , Environment , Magnesium , Methylmercury Compounds
16.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 436-446, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156326

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cáncer colorrectal es un problema de salud pública; sin embargo, la detección temprana reduce su morbimortalidad. La colonoscopia es el procedimiento de elección para detectar lesiones premalignas y el éxito depende de una limpieza adecuada. El objetivo es evaluar el desempeño de dos preparaciones de bajo volumen empleados en un hospital de alto nivel. Materiales y métodos: estudio prospectivo en adultos que asistieran a colonoscopia en la Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Las preparaciones se evaluaron con la escala de Boston, con puntaje ≥ 6 puntos para una limpieza adecuada. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer la efectividad de los medicamentos con un cálculo de no inferioridad del 3 %-5 %. Resultados: 598 pacientes fueron evaluados. El 49 % (293) fue expuesto al picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio y el 51 % (305) fue expuesto al sulfato de sodio/potasio/magnesio. Con un promedio de Boston de 6,98 ± 1,86 (78 % con puntaje de Boston ≥ 6) y 7,39 ± 1,83 (83 %), respectivamente (p = 0,649). Según el análisis de la presencia y frecuencia de síntomas no deseados, el picosulfato fue mejor tolerado (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: los estudios de preparación intestinal en pacientes de un escenario real son muy escasos. Los medicamentos de bajo volumen obtuvieron una efectividad global y por segmento de colon similar, confirmando la no-inferioridad; el picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio fue mejor tolerado. Un estudio de costo-efectividad podría definir esto según las necesidades de la población de estudio.


Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a public health problem; however, early detection reduces morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is the procedure of choice for detecting precancerous lesions, and success depends on proper bowel cleansing. Objective: To evaluate the performance of two low-volume agents used in a high-level hospital. Materials and methods: Prospective study in adults who underwent colonoscopy at the Fundación Santa Fe in Bogotá, Colombia. Preparations were evaluated using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. A score ≥6 points indicated adequate preparation. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to establish the effectiveness of the medicines with a non-inferiority ratio of 3-5%. Results: 598 patients were evaluated. 49% (293) received sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and 51% (305) received sodium sulfate/potassium/magnesium, with an average Boston score of 6.98±1.86 (78% Boston ≥6) and 7.39±1.83 (83%), respectively (p=0.649). According to the analysis of the presence and frequency of unwanted symptoms, picosulfate was better tolerated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Bowel preparation studies in patients from a real-life scenario are scarce. Low-volume agents had similar overall and segmental effectiveness in the colon, confirming non-inferiority; sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was better tolerated. A cost-effectiveness study could establish the best option according to the needs of the study population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Colorectal Neoplasms , Prospective Studies , Colonoscopy , Potassium , Sodium , Effectiveness , Citric Acid , Costs and Cost Analysis , Disaster Preparedness , Magnesium
17.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(5): 394-399, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289248

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertension is responsible for a substantial number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. A crucial step toward its control is the identification of modifiable predictors of hypertension. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between salt intake, serum uric acid and incident hypertension in a primary care setting. Methods: Retrospective cohort of the CAMELIA study in which a non-randomized sample of 1098 participants who were ≥ 20 year-old was recruited from a primary care program. Originally, the sample consisted of hypertensive, diabetic and non-diabetic/non-hypertensive subjects. For the analysis, 258 participants with blood pressure (BP) lower than 140/90 mm Hg not using antihypertensive drugs and without diabetes mellitus were included. Five years after the first visit, their medical records were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to BP in the first visit: normal BP group (systolic BP ≤ 120 mm Hg and diastolic BP ≤ 80 mm Hg) and high-normal BP group (systolic BP 121-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 81-89 mm Hg). Results: In multivariate analysis, high-normal BP, hyperuricemia and salt intake ≥ 6 g/day predicted incident hypertension. In participants of thenormal BP group, high salt intake conferred the highest risk. In the high-normal BP group, smoking and serum uric acid were found to be the most important ones. Conclusion: In a healthy, multiethnic, and normotensive population from an urban primary care program, high-normal BP, hyperuricemia and high salt intake were found to be predictors of incident hypertension.


Resumen Antecedentes: La hipertensión es responsable de un gran número de muertes debido a cardiopatías e ictus. Un paso esencial para su control es la identificación de factores modificables predictivos de la hipertensión. Objetivos: Calcular la relación entre ingesta de sal, ácido úrico sérico e hipertensión incidental en un centro de atención primaria. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva del estudio CAMELIA, en el que se incluyó una muestra no aleatorizada de 1.098 participantes con edades ≥ 20 años, obtenida de un programa de atención primaria. Originalmente, la muestra incluía sujetos hipertensos, diabéticos y no diabéticos/no hipertensos. Para el análisis, se estudiaron 258 participantes con presión arterial (PA) inferior a 140/90 mm Hg, sin prescripción de fármacos antihipertensivos, y no diabéticos. Transcurridos cinco años de la primera visita, se revisaron sus historias médicas. Se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos, con arreglo a su PA en la primera visita: grupo con PA normal (PA sistólica ≤ 120 mm Hg y PA diastólica ≤ 80 mm Hg), y grupo con PA alta-normal BP (PA sistólica 121-139 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica 81-89 mm Hg). Resultados: En el análisis multivariante, la PA alta-normal, hiperuricemia e ingesta de sal ≥ 6 g/día predijeron la hipertensión incidental. En los participantes del grupo de PA normal, la ingesta elevada de sal confirió el mayor riesgo. En el grupo de PA alta-normal, el tabaquismo y el ácido úrico sérico fueron los factores más importantes. Conclusión: En una población sana, multiétnica y normotensa, procedente de un programa de atención primaria urbana la PA alta-normal, hiperuricemia e ingesta elevada de sal constituyeron los factores predictivos de la hipertensión incidental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Uric Acid , Stroke , Hyperuricemia , Hypertension , Primary Health Care , Sodium , Incidence , Arterial Pressure
18.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1112-1119, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124903

ABSTRACT

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer widely used in the food industry, with obesogenic properties, in addition to causing alterations in the oral cavity. The aim of the study was to observe the morphofunctional changes in the parotid gland after the administration of MSG in rats. 18 newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into three groups (Control group; MSG1 group: 4 mg/g weight of monosodium glutamate, 5 doses, kept for 8 weeks, and MSG2 group: 4 mg/g weight of MSG, 5 doses, kept for 16 weeks). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the salivary flow, pH, a-amylase activity, Na, Cl, K and Ca were analyzed by quantitative analysis. After euthanasia by ketamine/xylazine overdose, parotid volume was analyzed and stereology was performed. MSG administration caused an increase in BMI and a decrease in parotid volume as well as a reduction in salivary flow and pH and an increase in a-amylase activity, also increasing the salivary sodium and chlorine levels. Alterations in the normal stereological parameters of the gland were observed. Exposure to MSG caused morphofunctional alterations at parotid gland.


El glutamato monosódico (MSG), es un potenciador del sabor ampliamente utilizado en la industria alimentaria. Diversos estudios han propuesto la relación entre éste y el desarrollo de obesidad, además de provocar alteraciones en la cavidad oral. El objetivo del estudio fue observar los cambios morfofuncionales a nivel de la glándula parótida, posterior a la administración de MSG en ratas. Se utilizaron 18 ratas neonatas Sprague Dawley machos, divididas en tres grupos según su tiempo de exposición y dosis a MSG (Grupo Control, Grupo MSG1: 4 mg/g peso de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, mantenidas 8 semanas, Grupo MSG2: 4 mg/g peso de MSG, 5 dosis, mantenidas 16 semanas. Fue calculado el índice de masa corporal (BMI), además de ser analizado el flujo salival, pH, actividad de α-amilasa, y Na, Cl, K y Ca mediante análisis semicuantitativo. Luego de la eutanasia por sobredosis de ketamina/xilasina, las glándulas parótidas fueron extraídas y analizado su volumen y fueron procesadas para histología, y estudio estereológico. La administración de MSG causó aumento en BMI y disminución del volumen parotídeo, además de disminución del flujo y pH salival, así como aumento en actividad de la a-amilasa, aumentando además los niveles de sodio y cloro salival. Fueron observadas alteraciones a nivel de los parámetros estereológicos normales de la glándula. La exposición a MSG causó alteraciones morfofuncionales a nivel parotídeo, observándose una disminución del volumen de la glándula, acompañado de alteraciones en el adenómero y conductos estriados de la glándula, implicados en la producción, secreción y modificación de la saliva, la cual se vio alterada, en el flujo, pH, y en sus componentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Parotid Gland/drug effects , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Flavoring Agents/administration & dosage , Saliva/chemistry , Sodium/analysis , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Chlorine/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , alpha-Amylases/analysis , Flavoring Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(2): 134-143, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1140344

ABSTRACT

El consumo excesivo de sodio es causa importante de enfermedades no transmisibles incluyendo hipertensión. En esta investigación se evaluó una metodología sensorial para reducir el contenido de sodio en salsas de tomate y mayonesas, productos altamente consumidos en Costa Rica. Se caracterizaron, por triplicado, 16 salsas y 7 mayonesas comerciales para determinar los ingredientes más comunes y sus características físicoquímicas. Se comparó el contenido de sodio reportado en la etiqueta contra el valor determinado experimentalmente. Se formularon prototipos de ambos productos y se determinó el umbral de diferencia apenas perceptible (DAP) para el gusto salado utilizando el método de estímulo constante con 40 panelistas no entrenados (d'= 1, significancia de 0,05 y potencia de prueba de 0,95). Se contruyeron las curvas psicofísicas con concentraciones de sal entre 0,67% y 2,5% para salsa de tomate y 0,13% y 4,16% para mayonesa; obteniéndose DAPs de 0,51% y 0,26% respectivamente; equivalentes a 28,3% y 14,4% menos de sal en cada producto. Para la validación del umbral, se aplicó una prueba de discriminación 2-AFC con 40 panelistas comparando la formulación regular con la reducida en sodio. Los panelistas no detectaron diferencias significativas entre mayonesas (P>0,05) pero sí entre salsas (P<0,05), por lo que se aplicó una prueba de agrado con 112 consumidores y se determinó que la salsa reducida en sodio resultó de mayor o igual agrado que la contraparte. Estos resultados guiarían a la industria alimentaria regional hacia el mejoramiento del perfil nutricional de estos productos(AU)


The excessive consumption of sodium is an important cause of noncommunicable diseases including hypertension. This research aimed, using a sensorial methodology, to reduce sodium content in tomato sauces and mayonnaise, highly consumed products in Costa Rica. A total of 16 commercial sauces and 7 mayonnaises were characterized to determine their most common ingredients and physicochemical properties. The sodium content reported in the labed was compared against values obtained experimentally. Prototypes for both products were developed and the threshold for the just noticiable difference (JND) for salty flavor was determined using the constant stimulus method with 40 panelists (d'= 1, 0.05 significance and a test power of 0,95). Psychophysical curves were built with salt concentrations between 0.67% and 2.5% for tomato sauce and 0.13% and 4.16% for mayonnaise; obtaining JNDs of 0.51% and 0.26% respectively; equivalent to 28.3% and 14.4% less salt in tomato and mayonnaise. To validate the threshold, a discriminatory 2-AFC test with 40 panelists was performed to compare the regular formulations against those reduced in sodium. Panelists did not detect significant differences among mayonnaises (P>0.05) but they did found differences between sauces (P<0.05). Thus, for tomato sauce a consumer liking test with 112 consumers was performed and it was found that sodium reduced tomato sauce was equally or more liked than its counterpart. These results guide the regional food industry towards the improval of the nutritional profile of both products(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sodium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Food Handling , Cardiovascular Diseases , Food, Formulated , Eating
20.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(2): 117-124, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130586

ABSTRACT

El estudio de gases en sangre involucra pruebas relacionadas con el equilibrio ácido-base y estado de oxigenación (pH, pO2, SO2, pCO2, HCO3 -). Además, en los equipos multiparamétricos se realizan otras determinaciones (mediciones relacionadas) como: Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucosa y lactato. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar los resultados de medición de dos tipos de recipientes (tipo 2: jeringa preparada en el laboratorio con heparinato de Na+ líquido diluido y tipo 3: microtubo con heparinato de Li líquido) contra el recipiente recomendado por el CLSI en su guía 46-A2 (tipo 1: jeringa con heparinato de Li liofilizado balanceado con zinc). El análisis se hizo desde un punto de vista estadístico y clínico para establecer la posibilidad de usar indistintamente estos tres tipos de recipientes. Se analizaron un total de 254 muestras. Para evaluar la aceptación clínica de los resultados se tomó como estándar de calidad la variabilidad biológica. No se encontraron diferencias clínicamente significativas en los analitos del recipiente tipo 2 respecto del tipo 1, excepto para Ca2+. Se rechazaron desde el punto de vista clínico varios analitos del recipiente tipo 3. En conclusión, el uso del recipiente tipo 3 fue inapropiado. Sin embargo, el recipiente tipo 2 sería apto para el análisis de este tipo de muestras.


Blood gas analysis involves tests related to the acid-base balance and oxygenation state (pH, pO2, SO2, pCO2, HCO3 -). In multiparametric equipment, some ion and metabolite (related measurements) are performed: Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca²+, glucose and lactate. The objective of this study was to compare two types of containers (type 2: syringe prepared in the laboratory with diluted liquid sodium heparinate and type 3: microtube with liquid lithium heparinate) against the container recommended by CLSI in its guide 46-A2 (type 1: syringe with lyophilized lithium heparinate balanced with inc). The analysis was made from a statistical and clinical point of view to establish the possibility of indiscriminately using these three types of containers. A total of 254 samples were analyzed. To establish the clinical acceptance of the results, the biological variability quality standard was used. No clinically significant differences were found in the analytes of the type 2 container compared to type 1, except for Ca+. Several analytes of the type 3 container were rejected from the clinical point of view. In conclusion, the use of the type 3 container is inappropriate; however, the type 2 container would be suitable for the analysis of this type of samples.


O estudo de gases em sangue envolve testes relacionados com o equilíbrio ácido-base e estado de oxigenação (pH, pO2, SO2, pCO2, HCO3 -). Além disso, nos equipamentos multiparâmetros, outras determinações (medições relacionadas) como: Na+ , K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glicose e lactato são realizadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os resultados de medição de dois tipos de recipientes (tipo 2: seringa preparada no laboratório com heparinato de Na+ líquido diluído e tipo 3: microtubo com heparinato de Li líquido) contra o recipiente recomendado pelo CLSI em seu guia 46-A2 (tipo 1: seringa com heparinato de Li liofilizado equilibrado com zinco). A análise foi feita do ponto de vista estatístico e clínico, para estabelecer a possibilidade de utilização indiscriminada desses três tipos de recipientes. Um total de 254 amostras foram analisadas. Para avaliar a aceitação clínica dos resultados, a variabilidade biológica foi tomada como padrão de qualidade. Não foram encontradas diferenças clinicamente significativas nos analitos do recipiente tipo 2 em relação ao tipo 1, exceto para Ca²+. Vários analitos do recipiente tipo 3 foram rejeitados do ponto de vista clínico. Em conclusão, o uso do contêiner tipo 3 foi inadequado. No entanto, o recipiente tipo 2 seria apto para a análise deste tipo de amostras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Syringes , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Blood Gas Analysis , Total Quality Management , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Sodium , Zinc , Blood , Lactic Acid , State , Equipment and Supplies , Gases , Glucose , Laboratories
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