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Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 142-135, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282985


Introducción. La dieta actual de la población se caracteriza por la sustitución de alimentos naturales por productos alimenticios procesados, formulados industrialmente con ingredientes que contienen sodio. Objetivo. Clasificar el contenido de sodio en productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador, según el perfil de nutrientes de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y las metas regionales para formulación industrial. Metodología. Diseño transversal descriptivo, se analizaron las etiquetas nutricionales de 1016 productos de siete categorías, registrados en el Sistema de Información en Salud Ambiental. Para la clasificación del contenido de sodio se aplicaron fórmulas según el perfil de nutrientes: alto en sodio ≥1 miligramo de sodio por caloría. Para la clasificación según metas regionales: cuando el contenido de sodio en 100 gramos de producto es > a la meta establecida. Resultados. Según el perfil de nutrientes, el 52% de los productos tiene alto contenido de sodio. Según metas regionales, el 24% está formulado por arriba de las metas, esto refleja diferencias entre las valoraciones de contenido de sodio por categoría. Conclusión. Más de la mitad los productos alimenticios preenvasados comercializados en El Salvador son clasificados como altos en sodio, según el perfil de nutrientes. Una cuarta parte de estos están formulados con sodio por encima de las metas regionales, mostrando que las metas son más flexibles en la valoración de contenido máximo de sodio para la formulación industrial en relación con la valoración de contenido alto en sodio para consumo humano

Introduction. The current diet of the population is characterized by the substitution of natural foods for processed food products, industrially formulated with ingredients that contain sodium. Target. Classify the sodium content in prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador, according to the nutrient profile of the Pan American Health Organization and the regional goals for industrial formulation. Methodology. Descriptive cross-sectional design, the nutritional labels of 1016 products from seven categories, registered in the Environmental Health Information System, were analyzed. For the classification of sodium content, formulas were applied according to the nutrient profile: high in sodium ≥1 milligram of sodium per calorie. For classification according to regional goals: when the sodium content in 100 grams of product is> the established goal. Results. According to the nutrient profile, 52% of the products are high in sodium. According to regional goals, 24% is formulated above the goals, this reflects differences between the valuations of sodium content by category. Conclution. More than half of the prepackaged food products marketed in El Salvador are classified as high in sodium, according to the nutrient profile. A quarter of these are formulated with sodium above the regional goals, showing that the goals are more flexible in the assessment of maximum sodium content for industrial formulation in relation to the assessment of high sodium content for human consumption

Sodium , Food , Nutrients , Diet , Food Labeling
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 539-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878022


BACKGROUND@#The low accuracy of equations predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using a single spot urine sample contributed to the misclassification of individual sodium intake levels. The application of single spot urine sample is limited by a lack of representativity of urinary sodium excretion, possibly due to the circadian rhythm in urinary excretion. This study aimed to explore the circadian rhythm, characteristics, and parameters in a healthy young adult Chinese population as a theoretical foundation for developing new approaches.@*METHODS@#Eighty-five participants (mean age 32.4 years) completed the 24-h urine collection by successively collecting each of the single-voided specimens within 24 h. The concentrations of the urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine for each voided specimen were measured. Cosinor analysis was applied to explore the circadian rhythm of the urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion. The excretion per hour was computed for analyzing the change over time with repeated-measures analysis of variance and a cubic spline model.@*RESULTS@#The metabolism of urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine showed different patterns of circadian rhythm, although the urinary sodium excretion showed non-significant parameters in the cosinor model. A significant circadian rhythm of urinary creatinine excretion was observed, while the circadian rhythm of sodium was less significant than that of potassium. The circadian rhythm of urinary sodium and creatinine excretion showed synchronization to some extent, which had a nocturnal peak and fell to the lowest around noon to afternoon. In contrast, the peak of potassium was observed in the morning and dropped to the lowest point in the evening. The hourly urinary excretion followed a similar circadian rhythm.@*CONCLUSION@#It is necessary to consider the circadian rhythm of urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion in adults while exploring the estimation model for 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine.

Adult , China , Circadian Rhythm , Creatinine , Humans , Potassium , Sodium , Urine Specimen Collection , Young Adult
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200164, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279407


Background Conotoxins have become a research hotspot in the neuropharmacology field for their high activity and specificity in targeting ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. There have been reports of a conotoxin acting on two ion channels, but rare reports of a conotoxin acting on three ion channels. Methods Vr3a, a proline-rich M-superfamily conotoxin from a worm-hunting Conus varius, was obtained by solid-phase synthesis and identified by mass spectrometry. The effects of synthesized Vr3a on sodium, potassium and calcium currents were tested on rat DRG cells by patch clamp experiments. The further effects of Vr3a on human Cav1.2 and Cav2.2 currents were tested on HEK293 cells. Results About 10 μM Vr3a has no effects on the peak sodium currents, but can induce a ~10 mV shift in a polarizing direction in the current-voltage relationship. In addition, 10 μM Vr3a can increase 19.61 ± 5.12% of the peak potassium currents and do not induce a shift in the current-voltage relationship. An amount of 10 μM Vr3a can inhibit 31.26% ± 4.53% of the peak calcium currents and do not induce a shift in the current-voltage relationship. The IC50 value of Vr3a on calcium channel currents in rat DRG neurons is 19.28 ± 4.32 μM. Moreover, 10 μM Vr3a can inhibit 15.32% ± 5.41% of the human Cav1.2 currents and 12.86% ± 4.93% of the human Cav2.2 currents. Conclusions Vr3a can simultaneously affect sodium, potassium and calcium currents. This novel triple-target conotoxin Vr3a expands understanding of conotoxin functions.(AU)

Proline/analysis , Conotoxins/analysis , Potassium , Sodium , Calcium
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 27: e20200173, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1279403


Background: Scorpions are widely known for the neurotoxic effects of their venoms, which contain peptides affecting ionic channels. Although Colombia is recognized for its scorpion diversity, only a few studies are available describing the venom content. Methods: In this descriptive study, we analyzed the MS/MS sequence, electrophoretic and chromatographic profile linked to a bioinformatics analysis of the scorpions Chactas reticulatus (Chactidae), Opisthacanthus elatus (Hormuridae), Centruroides edwardsii (Buthidae) and Tityus asthenes (Buthidae) from Colombia. Results: Each scorpion showed a specific electrophoretic and chromatographic profile. The electrophoretic profiles indicate the presence of high molecular mass compounds in all venoms, with a predominance of low molecular mass compounds in the Buthidae species. Chromatographic profiles showed a similar pattern as the electrophoretic profiles. From the MS/MS analysis of the chromatographic collected fractions, we obtained internal peptide sequences corresponding to proteins reported in scorpions from the respective family of the analyzed samples. Some of these proteins correspond to neurotoxins affecting ionic channels, antimicrobial peptides and metalloproteinase-like fragments. In the venom of Tityus asthenes, the MSn analysis allowed the detection of two toxins affecting sodium channels covering 50% and 84% of the sequence respectively, showing 100% sequence similarity. Two sequences from Tityus asthenes showed sequence similarity with a phospholipase from Opisthacanthus cayaporum indicating the presence of this type of toxin in this species for the first time. One sequence matching a hypothetical secreted protein from Hottentotta judaicus was found in three of the studied venoms. We found that this protein is common in the Buthidae family whereas it has been reported in other families - such as Scorpionidae - and may be part of the evolutionary puzzle of venoms in these arachnids. Conclusion: Buthidae venoms from Colombia can be considered an important source of peptides similar to toxins affecting ionic channels. An interesting predicted antimicrobial peptide was detected in three of the analyzed venoms.(AU)

Animals , Scorpion Venoms , Sodium/analysis , Computational Biology , Neurotoxins
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 436-446, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156326


Resumen Introducción: el cáncer colorrectal es un problema de salud pública; sin embargo, la detección temprana reduce su morbimortalidad. La colonoscopia es el procedimiento de elección para detectar lesiones premalignas y el éxito depende de una limpieza adecuada. El objetivo es evaluar el desempeño de dos preparaciones de bajo volumen empleados en un hospital de alto nivel. Materiales y métodos: estudio prospectivo en adultos que asistieran a colonoscopia en la Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Las preparaciones se evaluaron con la escala de Boston, con puntaje ≥ 6 puntos para una limpieza adecuada. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer la efectividad de los medicamentos con un cálculo de no inferioridad del 3 %-5 %. Resultados: 598 pacientes fueron evaluados. El 49 % (293) fue expuesto al picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio y el 51 % (305) fue expuesto al sulfato de sodio/potasio/magnesio. Con un promedio de Boston de 6,98 ± 1,86 (78 % con puntaje de Boston ≥ 6) y 7,39 ± 1,83 (83 %), respectivamente (p = 0,649). Según el análisis de la presencia y frecuencia de síntomas no deseados, el picosulfato fue mejor tolerado (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: los estudios de preparación intestinal en pacientes de un escenario real son muy escasos. Los medicamentos de bajo volumen obtuvieron una efectividad global y por segmento de colon similar, confirmando la no-inferioridad; el picosulfato de sodio/citrato de magnesio fue mejor tolerado. Un estudio de costo-efectividad podría definir esto según las necesidades de la población de estudio.

Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a public health problem; however, early detection reduces morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is the procedure of choice for detecting precancerous lesions, and success depends on proper bowel cleansing. Objective: To evaluate the performance of two low-volume agents used in a high-level hospital. Materials and methods: Prospective study in adults who underwent colonoscopy at the Fundación Santa Fe in Bogotá, Colombia. Preparations were evaluated using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. A score ≥6 points indicated adequate preparation. A logistic regression analysis was carried out to establish the effectiveness of the medicines with a non-inferiority ratio of 3-5%. Results: 598 patients were evaluated. 49% (293) received sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate and 51% (305) received sodium sulfate/potassium/magnesium, with an average Boston score of 6.98±1.86 (78% Boston ≥6) and 7.39±1.83 (83%), respectively (p=0.649). According to the analysis of the presence and frequency of unwanted symptoms, picosulfate was better tolerated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Bowel preparation studies in patients from a real-life scenario are scarce. Low-volume agents had similar overall and segmental effectiveness in the colon, confirming non-inferiority; sodium picosulfate/magnesium citrate was better tolerated. A cost-effectiveness study could establish the best option according to the needs of the study population.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Colorectal Neoplasms , Prospective Studies , Colonoscopy , Potassium , Sodium , Effectiveness , Citric Acid , Costs and Cost Analysis , Preparedness , Magnesium
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(5): 394-399, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289248


Abstract Background: Hypertension is responsible for a substantial number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease and stroke. A crucial step toward its control is the identification of modifiable predictors of hypertension. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between salt intake, serum uric acid and incident hypertension in a primary care setting. Methods: Retrospective cohort of the CAMELIA study in which a non-randomized sample of 1098 participants who were ≥ 20 year-old was recruited from a primary care program. Originally, the sample consisted of hypertensive, diabetic and non-diabetic/non-hypertensive subjects. For the analysis, 258 participants with blood pressure (BP) lower than 140/90 mm Hg not using antihypertensive drugs and without diabetes mellitus were included. Five years after the first visit, their medical records were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to BP in the first visit: normal BP group (systolic BP ≤ 120 mm Hg and diastolic BP ≤ 80 mm Hg) and high-normal BP group (systolic BP 121-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 81-89 mm Hg). Results: In multivariate analysis, high-normal BP, hyperuricemia and salt intake ≥ 6 g/day predicted incident hypertension. In participants of thenormal BP group, high salt intake conferred the highest risk. In the high-normal BP group, smoking and serum uric acid were found to be the most important ones. Conclusion: In a healthy, multiethnic, and normotensive population from an urban primary care program, high-normal BP, hyperuricemia and high salt intake were found to be predictors of incident hypertension.

Resumen Antecedentes: La hipertensión es responsable de un gran número de muertes debido a cardiopatías e ictus. Un paso esencial para su control es la identificación de factores modificables predictivos de la hipertensión. Objetivos: Calcular la relación entre ingesta de sal, ácido úrico sérico e hipertensión incidental en un centro de atención primaria. Métodos: Cohorte retrospectiva del estudio CAMELIA, en el que se incluyó una muestra no aleatorizada de 1.098 participantes con edades ≥ 20 años, obtenida de un programa de atención primaria. Originalmente, la muestra incluía sujetos hipertensos, diabéticos y no diabéticos/no hipertensos. Para el análisis, se estudiaron 258 participantes con presión arterial (PA) inferior a 140/90 mm Hg, sin prescripción de fármacos antihipertensivos, y no diabéticos. Transcurridos cinco años de la primera visita, se revisaron sus historias médicas. Se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos, con arreglo a su PA en la primera visita: grupo con PA normal (PA sistólica ≤ 120 mm Hg y PA diastólica ≤ 80 mm Hg), y grupo con PA alta-normal BP (PA sistólica 121-139 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica 81-89 mm Hg). Resultados: En el análisis multivariante, la PA alta-normal, hiperuricemia e ingesta de sal ≥ 6 g/día predijeron la hipertensión incidental. En los participantes del grupo de PA normal, la ingesta elevada de sal confirió el mayor riesgo. En el grupo de PA alta-normal, el tabaquismo y el ácido úrico sérico fueron los factores más importantes. Conclusión: En una población sana, multiétnica y normotensa, procedente de un programa de atención primaria urbana la PA alta-normal, hiperuricemia e ingesta elevada de sal constituyeron los factores predictivos de la hipertensión incidental.

Humans , Uric Acid , Stroke , Hyperuricemia , Hypertension , Primary Health Care , Sodium , Incidence , Arterial Pressure
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 1112-1119, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124903


Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer widely used in the food industry, with obesogenic properties, in addition to causing alterations in the oral cavity. The aim of the study was to observe the morphofunctional changes in the parotid gland after the administration of MSG in rats. 18 newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were used, divided into three groups (Control group; MSG1 group: 4 mg/g weight of monosodium glutamate, 5 doses, kept for 8 weeks, and MSG2 group: 4 mg/g weight of MSG, 5 doses, kept for 16 weeks). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the salivary flow, pH, a-amylase activity, Na, Cl, K and Ca were analyzed by quantitative analysis. After euthanasia by ketamine/xylazine overdose, parotid volume was analyzed and stereology was performed. MSG administration caused an increase in BMI and a decrease in parotid volume as well as a reduction in salivary flow and pH and an increase in a-amylase activity, also increasing the salivary sodium and chlorine levels. Alterations in the normal stereological parameters of the gland were observed. Exposure to MSG caused morphofunctional alterations at parotid gland.

El glutamato monosódico (MSG), es un potenciador del sabor ampliamente utilizado en la industria alimentaria. Diversos estudios han propuesto la relación entre éste y el desarrollo de obesidad, además de provocar alteraciones en la cavidad oral. El objetivo del estudio fue observar los cambios morfofuncionales a nivel de la glándula parótida, posterior a la administración de MSG en ratas. Se utilizaron 18 ratas neonatas Sprague Dawley machos, divididas en tres grupos según su tiempo de exposición y dosis a MSG (Grupo Control, Grupo MSG1: 4 mg/g peso de glutamato monosódico, 5 dosis, mantenidas 8 semanas, Grupo MSG2: 4 mg/g peso de MSG, 5 dosis, mantenidas 16 semanas. Fue calculado el índice de masa corporal (BMI), además de ser analizado el flujo salival, pH, actividad de α-amilasa, y Na, Cl, K y Ca mediante análisis semicuantitativo. Luego de la eutanasia por sobredosis de ketamina/xilasina, las glándulas parótidas fueron extraídas y analizado su volumen y fueron procesadas para histología, y estudio estereológico. La administración de MSG causó aumento en BMI y disminución del volumen parotídeo, además de disminución del flujo y pH salival, así como aumento en actividad de la a-amilasa, aumentando además los niveles de sodio y cloro salival. Fueron observadas alteraciones a nivel de los parámetros estereológicos normales de la glándula. La exposición a MSG causó alteraciones morfofuncionales a nivel parotídeo, observándose una disminución del volumen de la glándula, acompañado de alteraciones en el adenómero y conductos estriados de la glándula, implicados en la producción, secreción y modificación de la saliva, la cual se vio alterada, en el flujo, pH, y en sus componentes.

Animals , Male , Rats , Parotid Gland/drug effects , Sodium Glutamate/administration & dosage , Flavoring Agents/administration & dosage , Saliva/chemistry , Sodium/analysis , Sodium Glutamate/pharmacology , Time Factors , Body Mass Index , Chlorine/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Rats, Wistar , alpha-Amylases/analysis , Flavoring Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(2): 117-124, jun. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130586


El estudio de gases en sangre involucra pruebas relacionadas con el equilibrio ácido-base y estado de oxigenación (pH, pO2, SO2, pCO2, HCO3 -). Además, en los equipos multiparamétricos se realizan otras determinaciones (mediciones relacionadas) como: Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucosa y lactato. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar los resultados de medición de dos tipos de recipientes (tipo 2: jeringa preparada en el laboratorio con heparinato de Na+ líquido diluido y tipo 3: microtubo con heparinato de Li líquido) contra el recipiente recomendado por el CLSI en su guía 46-A2 (tipo 1: jeringa con heparinato de Li liofilizado balanceado con zinc). El análisis se hizo desde un punto de vista estadístico y clínico para establecer la posibilidad de usar indistintamente estos tres tipos de recipientes. Se analizaron un total de 254 muestras. Para evaluar la aceptación clínica de los resultados se tomó como estándar de calidad la variabilidad biológica. No se encontraron diferencias clínicamente significativas en los analitos del recipiente tipo 2 respecto del tipo 1, excepto para Ca2+. Se rechazaron desde el punto de vista clínico varios analitos del recipiente tipo 3. En conclusión, el uso del recipiente tipo 3 fue inapropiado. Sin embargo, el recipiente tipo 2 sería apto para el análisis de este tipo de muestras.

Blood gas analysis involves tests related to the acid-base balance and oxygenation state (pH, pO2, SO2, pCO2, HCO3 -). In multiparametric equipment, some ion and metabolite (related measurements) are performed: Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca²+, glucose and lactate. The objective of this study was to compare two types of containers (type 2: syringe prepared in the laboratory with diluted liquid sodium heparinate and type 3: microtube with liquid lithium heparinate) against the container recommended by CLSI in its guide 46-A2 (type 1: syringe with lyophilized lithium heparinate balanced with inc). The analysis was made from a statistical and clinical point of view to establish the possibility of indiscriminately using these three types of containers. A total of 254 samples were analyzed. To establish the clinical acceptance of the results, the biological variability quality standard was used. No clinically significant differences were found in the analytes of the type 2 container compared to type 1, except for Ca+. Several analytes of the type 3 container were rejected from the clinical point of view. In conclusion, the use of the type 3 container is inappropriate; however, the type 2 container would be suitable for the analysis of this type of samples.

O estudo de gases em sangue envolve testes relacionados com o equilíbrio ácido-base e estado de oxigenação (pH, pO2, SO2, pCO2, HCO3 -). Além disso, nos equipamentos multiparâmetros, outras determinações (medições relacionadas) como: Na+ , K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glicose e lactato são realizadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os resultados de medição de dois tipos de recipientes (tipo 2: seringa preparada no laboratório com heparinato de Na+ líquido diluído e tipo 3: microtubo com heparinato de Li líquido) contra o recipiente recomendado pelo CLSI em seu guia 46-A2 (tipo 1: seringa com heparinato de Li liofilizado equilibrado com zinco). A análise foi feita do ponto de vista estatístico e clínico, para estabelecer a possibilidade de utilização indiscriminada desses três tipos de recipientes. Um total de 254 amostras foram analisadas. Para avaliar a aceitação clínica dos resultados, a variabilidade biológica foi tomada como padrão de qualidade. Não foram encontradas diferenças clinicamente significativas nos analitos do recipiente tipo 2 em relação ao tipo 1, exceto para Ca²+. Vários analitos do recipiente tipo 3 foram rejeitados do ponto de vista clínico. Em conclusão, o uso do contêiner tipo 3 foi inadequado. No entanto, o recipiente tipo 2 seria apto para a análise deste tipo de amostras.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Syringes , Acid-Base Equilibrium , Blood Gas Analysis , Quality Management , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Sodium , Zinc , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Blood , Lactic Acid , State , Equipment and Supplies , Gases , Glucose , Laboratories
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(2): 134-143, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1140344


El consumo excesivo de sodio es causa importante de enfermedades no transmisibles incluyendo hipertensión. En esta investigación se evaluó una metodología sensorial para reducir el contenido de sodio en salsas de tomate y mayonesas, productos altamente consumidos en Costa Rica. Se caracterizaron, por triplicado, 16 salsas y 7 mayonesas comerciales para determinar los ingredientes más comunes y sus características físicoquímicas. Se comparó el contenido de sodio reportado en la etiqueta contra el valor determinado experimentalmente. Se formularon prototipos de ambos productos y se determinó el umbral de diferencia apenas perceptible (DAP) para el gusto salado utilizando el método de estímulo constante con 40 panelistas no entrenados (d'= 1, significancia de 0,05 y potencia de prueba de 0,95). Se contruyeron las curvas psicofísicas con concentraciones de sal entre 0,67% y 2,5% para salsa de tomate y 0,13% y 4,16% para mayonesa; obteniéndose DAPs de 0,51% y 0,26% respectivamente; equivalentes a 28,3% y 14,4% menos de sal en cada producto. Para la validación del umbral, se aplicó una prueba de discriminación 2-AFC con 40 panelistas comparando la formulación regular con la reducida en sodio. Los panelistas no detectaron diferencias significativas entre mayonesas (P>0,05) pero sí entre salsas (P<0,05), por lo que se aplicó una prueba de agrado con 112 consumidores y se determinó que la salsa reducida en sodio resultó de mayor o igual agrado que la contraparte. Estos resultados guiarían a la industria alimentaria regional hacia el mejoramiento del perfil nutricional de estos productos(AU)

The excessive consumption of sodium is an important cause of noncommunicable diseases including hypertension. This research aimed, using a sensorial methodology, to reduce sodium content in tomato sauces and mayonnaise, highly consumed products in Costa Rica. A total of 16 commercial sauces and 7 mayonnaises were characterized to determine their most common ingredients and physicochemical properties. The sodium content reported in the labed was compared against values obtained experimentally. Prototypes for both products were developed and the threshold for the just noticiable difference (JND) for salty flavor was determined using the constant stimulus method with 40 panelists (d'= 1, 0.05 significance and a test power of 0,95). Psychophysical curves were built with salt concentrations between 0.67% and 2.5% for tomato sauce and 0.13% and 4.16% for mayonnaise; obtaining JNDs of 0.51% and 0.26% respectively; equivalent to 28.3% and 14.4% less salt in tomato and mayonnaise. To validate the threshold, a discriminatory 2-AFC test with 40 panelists was performed to compare the regular formulations against those reduced in sodium. Panelists did not detect significant differences among mayonnaises (P>0.05) but they did found differences between sauces (P<0.05). Thus, for tomato sauce a consumer liking test with 112 consumers was performed and it was found that sodium reduced tomato sauce was equally or more liked than its counterpart. These results guide the regional food industry towards the improval of the nutritional profile of both products(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Sodium , Lycopersicon esculentum , Food Handling , Cardiovascular Diseases , Food, Formulated , Eating
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(1): 13-18, mar. 2020. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130574


La deteccion de trastornos metabolicos minerales puede explicar diversas anomalias fisiologicas que exigen para su interpretacion la comparacion con valores de referencia validados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la determinacion de valores de referencia en la poblacion infantil uruguaya, de los analitos sodio, potasio, calcio, magnesio, fosforo y urato relacionados con la creatinina en muestras de la segunda miccion de la manana en 470 escolares (240 ninas y 230 ninos) con edades comprendidas entre 7 y 12 anos. Las medianas obtenidas fueron: Na/Crea: 139 mmol/g, K/Crea: 78 mmol/g, Ca/Crea: 77 mg/g, Mg/Crea: 71 mg/g, P/Crea: 500 mg/g, Ur/Crea: 554 mg/g, Crea: 117 mg/dL. A excepcion de los cocientes Na/Crea y K/Crea se encontro una disminucion de la excrecion de estos analitos con la edad, independientemente del sexo. Los valores obtenidos resultaron ser analogos a los de otras poblaciones con tipo de alimentacion similar.

The detection of mineral metabolic disorders can explain several pathologies which require the comparison with reference values for their interpretation. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values of 470 Uruguayan school children with ages between 7 and 12 for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosporous and urate and their relationship with creatinine in urine samples of the second urination of the morning. The median obtained were: Na/Crea: 139 mmol/g, K/Crea: 78 mmol/g, Ca/Crea: 77 mg/g, Mg/Crea: 71 mg/g, P/Crea: 500 mg/g, Ur/Crea: 554 mg/g, Crea: 117 mg/dL. A diminishment of excretion with the age was found, regardless the sex, except for Na/Crea and K/Crea. The values obtained were similar to those of others populations with a similar diet.

A detecção de distúrbios metabólicos minerais pode explicar várias anomalias fisiológicas, que exigem a comparação com valores de referência validados para serem interpretados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar valores de referência na população infantil uruguaia, dos analitos sódio, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, fósforo e urato relacionados com a creatinina em amostras da segunda micção da manhã em 470 alunos (240 meninas e 230 meninos) com idades entre 7 e 12 anos. As medianas obtidas foram: Na/Crea: 139 mmol/g, K/Crea: 78 mmol/g, Ca/Crea: 77 mg/g, Mg/Crea: 71 mg/g, P/Crea: 500 mg/g, Ur/Crea: 554 mg/g, Crea: 117 mg/dL. Com exceção dos quocientes Na/Crea e K/Crea, foi encontrada uma diminuição na excreção destes analitos com a idade independentemente do sexo. Os valores obtidos foram análogos aos de outras populações com um tipo similar de dieta.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Reference Values , Urine/chemistry , Phosphorus , Potassium , Sodium , Students , Uric Acid , Calcium , Determination , Creatinine , Diet , Magnesium , Minerals
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880310


BACKGROUND@#Estimates of daily sodium (Na) and potassium (K) excretion were explicitly biased when using equations for adults. We aimed to develop equations to estimate them using overnight urine from Japanese children and adolescents.@*METHODS@#The subjects comprised 70 students aged 10.49-15.76 years: validation group, n = 34; and verification group, n = 36. Each subject performed two operations of overnight spot urine (U@*RESULTS@#In validation, we formulated Na excretion (mg d@*CONCLUSION@#We obtained validated equations to estimate daily Na and K excretion with accessible variables such as Na, K, and Cr concentrations of overnight urine, body height and weight, and age for children and adolescents. When using the obtained equations, caution should be paid to small but definite biases and measurement errors.

Adolescent , Child , Creatinine/urine , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Potassium/urine , Sodium/urine
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 757-764, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878223


The aim of the present paper was to study the role of sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) in the generation of action potentials (APs) in cardiomyocytes during early developmental stage (EDS). The precisely dated embryonic hearts of C57 mice were dissected and enzymatically dissociated to single cells. The changes of APs were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique before and after administration of NCX specific blockers KB-R7943 (5 μmol/L) and SEA0400 (1 μmol/L). The results showed that, both KB-R7943 and SEA0400 had potent negative chronotropic effects on APs of pacemaker-like cells, while such effects were only observed in some ventricular-like cardiomyocytes. The negative chronotropic effect of KB-R7943 on ventricular-like cardiomyocytes was accompanied by shortening of AP duration (APD), whereas such an effect of SEA0400 was paralleled by decrease in velocity of diastolic depolarization (Vdd). From embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E10.5, the negative chronotropic effects of KB-R7943 and SEA0400 on ventricular-like APs of embryonic cardiomyocytes gradually disappeared. These results suggest that, in the short-term development of early embryo, the function of NCX may experience developmental changes as evidenced by different roles of NCX in autorhythmicity and APs generation, indicating that NCX function varies with different conditions of cardiomyocytes.

Action Potentials , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Mice , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Sodium/metabolism , Sodium-Calcium Exchanger , Thiourea/pharmacology
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 98 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147548


Introdução - A carne é um elemento central na alimentação, entretanto, diferentes condições podem levar a formação de produtos da oxidação do colesterol (POCs). Também os efeitos do excesso de sódio na pressão arterial estão bem documentados. Assim, o uso de sal de ervas poderia reduzir o teor de sódio e a formação de POCs. Objetivo - Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de sal de ervas na aceitação da redução de sódio e na proteção contra a oxidação lipídica em hambúrguer. Material e Métodos - Os hambúrgueres foram adicionados de dois níveis de sal (0,60% e 1,90%) e dois níveis de orégano, alecrim e manjericão (0,36% e 0,72%). Aos controles FC1 (0,60% de sal) e FC2 (1,90% de sal), foram adicionadas duas concentrações de ervas, compondo as formulações F3 (0,60% de sal e 0,36% de ervas), F4 (1,90% de sal e 0,36% de ervas), F5 (0,60% de sal e 0,72% de ervas) e F6 (1,90% de sal e 0,72% de ervas). A aceitação sensorial foi realizada por escala hedônica e de intensidade do sabor. A cor e textura foram avaliadas por análises instrumentais. Foi realizada a caracterização físico-química das amostras cruas e grelhadas. A avaliação da oxidação lipídica foi realizada logo após o preparo e após 30, 60 e 90 dias de congelamento. Foram determinados os compostos fenólicos totais e a capacidade antioxidante das ervas. Resultados - Todas as formulações foram aceitas, sendo FC2, F3 e F4 as mais aceitas. No atributo sabor, F3 obteve média maior que FC2, indicando maior aceitação do sabor após adição de sal de ervas, em comparação a adição isolada de sal no teor regularmente consumido. A cor obteve médias de aceitação maiores para os controles. A análise instrumental da dureza não apresentou variações, porém pela avaliação sensorial as ervas auxiliaram na maciez. A maioria das formulações foram consideradas com salinidade e condimentação ideal. A retenção de umidade após a cocção foi maior com o uso de ervas. Os teores de fenólicos totais no orégano foi de 16,46 ± 0,25 mg EAG/g, no alecrim de 17,80 ± 0,18 mg EAG/g e no manjericão 3,24 ± 0,34 mg EAG/g. O uso de ervas não inibiu a oxidação lipídica durante a cocção e após, o armazenamento, a inibição ocorreu no teor reduzido de sal (F3 e F5 com 21% e 16%, respectivamente, em 30 dias e 54% e 59%, respectivamente, em 60 dias) e, em 90 dias, apenas F3 apresentou inibição de 22%. Os teores de colesterol variaram entre 35,25 ± 5,34 a 87,13 ± 8,05 mg/100g de amostra seca e a concentração de POCs totais foi de 68,19 ± 2,89 a 123,68 ± 4,51 µg/g de amostra seca. As formulações com ervas não apresentaram menores teores de POCs que os controles. Conclusão - Todas as formulações foram aceitas em todos os atributos, com maior aceitação a formulação adicionada de teor de sal reduzido e do menor teor de ervas, sendo também a formulação com menor oxidação e redução de sal de 40%. A adição de ervas não apresentou efeito sinérgico contra a formação de POCs.

Introduction - Meat is central element in the diet; however, different conditions can lead to the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs). The effects of excess sodium on blood pressure are also well documented. Thus, the use of herbal salt could reduce the sodium content and the formation of POCs. Objective - To evaluate the effects of different concentrations of herbal salt on the acceptance of sodium reduction and protection against lipid oxidation in hamburgers. Material and Methods - The hamburgers were formulated with two levels of sodium chloride (0.60% and 1.90%) and two levels of herbal mixture (0.36% and 0.72%), composed of oregano, rosemary and basil. To the controls FC1 (0.60% of salt) and FC2 (1.90% of salt), different herbs proportions were added: F3 (0.60% of salt and 0.36% of the herbal mix), F4 (1.90% of the salt and 0.36% of the herbal mix), F5 (0.60% of the salt and 0.72% of the herbal mix) and F6 (1.90% of the salt and 0.72% herbal mix). Sensory acceptance was achieved by hedonic scale and flavor intensity. The color and texture were evaluated by instrumental analyzes. The physical and chemical characterization of raw and grilled samples was carried out. The evaluation of lipid oxidation was performed immediately after preparation and after 30, 60 and 90 days of freezing. The total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the herbs were determined. Results - All formulations were accepted, with FC2, F3 and F4 being the most accepted. In the flavor attribute, F3 obtained an average greater than FC2, demonstrating greater acceptance of flavor after adding herbal salt, compared to salt in the content regularly consumed. The color obtains higher acceptance averages for the controls. An instrumental analysis of the hardness does not show variations, however, in the sensorial evaluation the herbs helped in the softness. Most formulations were evaluated with ideal salinity and seasoning. Moisture retention after cooking was greater with the use of herbs. The content of total phenolics in oregano was 16.46 ± 0.25 mg EAG / g, in rosemary 17.80 ± 0.18 mg EAG / g and in basil 3.24 ± 0.34 mg EAG / g. The use of herbs did not inhibit lipid oxidation during cooking and after storage the inhibition occurred reduced salt content (F3 and F5 with 21% and 16%, respectively, in 30 days and 54% and 59%, respectively, in 60 days) and in 60 days only F3 showed 22% inhibition. Cholesterol levels vary between 35.25 ± 5.34 to 87.13 ± 8.05 mg / 100g of dry sample and the concentration of total COPs was 68.19 ± 2.89 to 123.68 ± 4.51 µg / g of dry sample. The herbal formulations has no lower COPs content than controls. Conclusions - All formulations were accepted in all attributes, with preference for the formulation added with reduced salt content and the lowest herbal content, and also the formulation with less oxidation and 40% salt reduction. The addition of herbs has no synergistic effect against the formation of POCs.

Oxides , Sodium , Cholesterol , Condiments , Meat
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 287 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146121


Introdução: Dietas inadequadas são importantes fatores de risco preveníveis para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis (DCNTs), no mundo. Entre os nutrientes críticos associados às DCNTs, o consumo excessivo de sódio é o principal fator de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, mediadas pela hipertensão arterial. Diferentes fontes dietéticas contribuem para o consumo de sódio, portanto sua redução depende de múltiplas estratégias paralelas e complementares que podem ser avaliadas antes de sua implementação por meio de macro e microssimulações de cenários. Objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo são desenvolver e aplicar metodologias de macro e microssimulação para estimar o impacto do consumo excessivo de sódio e das metas voluntárias de redução do sódio sobre a morbimortalidade da população e os custos da doença no Brasil. Métodos: Foram produzidos quatro manuscritos baseados em dados de inquéritos nacionais, estatísticas nacionais e sistemas de informação do Sistema Único de Saúde. O primeiro manuscrito avalia o impacto das metas voluntárias entre 2011-2017 nos teores de sódio de categorias prioritárias no Brasil. O segundo detalha o desenvolvimento e aplicação de uma metodologia de macrossimulação para estimar os custos da doença atribuíveis ao consumo de sódio. O terceiro artigo usa macrossimulações para estimar as mortes e custos atribuíveis ao excesso de sódio no Brasil. O último estima, por microssimulação, o impacto projetado em 20 anos das metas voluntárias de redução do sódio sobre a morbimortalidade e custos diretos e indiretos em saúde. Resultados: O consumo excessivo de sódio representa uma grande carga sobre a saúde da população brasileira, assim como para os gastos do SUS e perdas econômicas para a sociedade. Estimou-se que seriam atribuíveis ao excesso de sódio, em 2017, 47.017 mortes por todas doenças cardiovasculares associadas à hipertensão (equivalentes a 585 mil anos de vida perdidos), responsáveis por US$ 195 milhões em despesas ao SUS e US$ 800 milhões em perdas de produtividade por mortalidade precoce. As metas voluntárias de redução do sódio no Brasil resultaram na redução do conteúdo médio de sódio de 5% a 28% nos produtos e uma redução final de 0,25 g/dia no consumo diário de sal da população entre 2011 e 2017. Em 20 anos, a continuidade dessas metas voluntárias nacionais evitaria 112 mil casos e 2.524 mortes por doenças isquêmicas do corção e doenças cerebrovasculares, cujos custos diretos e indiretos de tratamento somariam US$ 292,5 milhões. Conclusões: Os resultados evidenciam os prejuízos à saúde da população e os elevados custos ao SUS e à sociedade causados pelo consumo excessivo de sódio e apoiam a priorização da redução do consumo de sódio na agenda de saúde. Além disso, considerando a multiplicidade das fontes dietéticas de sódio e nos impactos limitados das metas voluntárias sobre a morbimortalidade e os custos das doenças cardiovasculares, é necessário ampliar o impacto da reformulação de alimentos e fortalecer outras estratégias voltadas à redução das demais fontes de sódio. Nesse sentido, as modelagens de impacto de fatores dietéticos sobre DCNTs demonstram ser importantes ferramentas para subsidiar a formulação e implementação de políticas mais efetivas no Brasil e em outros países.

Introduction: Inadequate diets are important preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the world. Among critical nutrients associated with NCDs, excessive sodium consumption is the largest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, mediated by hypertension. Different dietary sources contribute to sodium intake; therefore, sodium reduction depends on multiple parallel and complementary strategies, which can be evaluated previously to implementation through macro and microsimulations. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to develop and apply macro and microsimulation methodologies to evaluate the impact of excessive sodium intake and of the national voluntary targets for sodium reduction on morbimortality and costs of disease in Brazil. Methods: Four manuscripts were produced based on data from national surveys, national statistics and health information systems of the National Health System (SUS). The first manuscript evaluated the impact of the national voluntary sodium targets on the sodium content of priority food categories. The second detailed the development and application of a cost of disease macrosimulation methodology for estimating attributable costs to sodium. The third manuscript used macrosimulations to estimate the attributable deaths and costs to excessive sodium intake in Brazil. The last manuscript used microsimulation models to estimate the projected a 20-year impact of the voluntary sodium targets on morbimortality and direct and indirect health costs. Results: Excessive sodium intake represents a large health burden to Brazilians, and an economic burden to the National Health System and to society. In 2017, it was estimated that 47,017 deaths from all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mediated by hypertension (equivalent to 585 thousand years of lofe lost), US$ 195 million in expenditures to the National Health System and US$ 800 million in productivity losses to premature deaths were attributable to excessive sodium intake. The voluntary sodium reduction targets for processed and ultraprocessed foods have reduced the average sodium content of foods in 5% to 28% and the average salt intake of the population in 0.25 g/day, from 2011 to 2017. The continuity of the voluntary targets over 20 years would prevent or postpone 112 thousand CVD cases and 2,524 deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke, which represent US$ 292.5 in direct and indirect treatment costs. Conclusions: The results highlight the burden of excessive sodium intake to health and its costs to the National Health System and to the Brazilian society, which support the need for prioritizing sodium reduction in the health agenda. Besides, considering the multiple dietary sources of sodium and the limited impact of the voluntary targets on the incidence, deaths and costs of cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to expand the impact of food reformulation and strengthen other strategies addressed to the other dietary sources of sodium. Therefore, modeling the impact of dietary factors on NCDs on related morbimortality and costs is an important tool to formulate and implement more cost-effective policies in Brazil and in other countries.

Sodium , Health Care Economics and Organizations , Sodium Chloride , Cardiovascular Diseases , Health Policy , Noncommunicable Diseases , Hypertension
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s59-s67, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057111


SUMMARY A healthy diet is an essential requirement to promote and preserve health, even in the presence of diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, nutritional therapy for CKD will be addressed considering not only the main nutrients such as protein, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, which require adjustments as a result of changes that accompany the reduction of renal functions, but also the benefits of adopting dietary patterns associated with better outcomes for both preventing and treating CKD. We will also emphasize that these aspects should also be combined with a process of giving new meaning to a healthy diet so that it can be promoted. Finally, we will present the perspective of an integrated approach to the individual with CKD, exploring the importance of considering biological, psychological, social, cultural, and economic aspects. This approach has the potential to contribute to better adherence to treatment, thus improving the patient's quality of life.

RESUMO Uma dieta saudável é essencial para promover e preservar a saúde, mesmo na presença de doenças como a Doença Renal Crônica (DRC). Nesta revisão, a terapia nutricional para pacientes de DRC será abordada levando em conta não só os principais nutrientes que precisam ser ajustados devido às alterações que acompanham a redução das funções renais, tais como proteínas, fósforo, potássio e sódio. Abordaremos também os benefícios da adoção de padrões alimentares associados a desfechos melhores tanto para a prevenção quanto para o tratamento da DRC. Também enfatizaremos que esses aspectos devem ser aliados a um processo de ressignificação do conceito de dieta saudável para que seja possível a sua promoção. Por último, apresentaremos a perspectiva de uma abordagem integrada para o indivíduo com DRC, explorando a importância de considerar aspectos biológicos, psicológicos, sociais, culturais e econômicos. Essa abordagem tem o potencial de contribuir para uma melhor adesão ao tratamento, melhorando assim a qualidade de vida do paciente.

Humans , Nutrition Therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diet therapy , Phosphorus , Potassium , Quality of Life , Sodium , Energy Intake , Dietary Proteins , Diet/classification , Feeding Behavior
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787235


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that mainly involves the colon. Thus far, glucocorticoids and amino-salicylate have been the main treatment.METHODS: To assess drugs with fewer side effects, this study evaluated the effects of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) on acetic acid-induced UC in rats. The treatment groups included SCG receivers (50 and 100 mg/kg, intra-orally) and sulfasalazine (SSZ) receivers (100 mg/kg, intra-orally). The colonic mucosal injury was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and histopathological examinations.RESULTS: In the treatment groups with 50 and 100 mg/kg of SCG, the clinical activity score decreased to 2.67±0.18 and 1.73±0.21 (p<0.05), respectively, compared to the UC control group (3.21±0.31), and were higher than that of the group given the standard treatment of 100 mg/kg SSZ (1.10±0.09). The treatment groups with 50 and 100 mg/kg of SCG showed a lower clinical gross lesion score than the UC control group (2.91±0.28 and 2.10±0.43, vs. 4.49±0.61, p<0.05) and were higher than the standard group (0.95±0.18). Treatment with SCG (100 mg/kg) decreased the macroscopic scores significantly compared to the UC control group (p<0.05) on the 8th day.CONCLUSIONS: SCG (100mg/kg) decreased significantly the clinical activity score, gross lesion, and percentage-affected area compared to the UC controls on the 8th day.

Acetic Acid , Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative , Colon , Cromolyn Sodium , Glucocorticoids , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Rats , Sodium , Sulfasalazine , Ulcer
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 432-440, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816673


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although dietary management is strongly recommended in patients with hypertension, little is known about how many manage their diet and follow the guidelines for hypertension. We investigated the prevalence of dietary management among adults with known hypertension and evaluated their compliance to the dietary guidelines.METHODS: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2016 were used. Among 15,870 adults aged 30–79 years, 4,162 reported a physician-diagnosed hypertension. Diet management behavior was defined by self-report response. Actual dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary quality was evaluated using the Korean Healthy Eating Index (KHEI).RESULTS: Among adults with hypertension, 28.0% reported that they were managing their diet. Those with hypertension consumed significantly less dietary sodium (p value<0.01), but also less potassium (p value<0.01), resulting in no difference of sodium-to-potassium ratio compared to those without hypertension (p value=0.66). Among those with hypertension, diet-managing adults had better KHEI score (66.9, p value<0.01) and consumed less sodium (3,354.3 mg, p value<0.01) than not-managing adults (63.6 score and 3,554.5 mg, respectively). However, total KHEI score was rather lower in those with hypertension (p value<0.01) than those without hypertension and their sodium intake was still over the recommended amount.CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of Korean adults with hypertension did not manage their diet in daily life. More effective strategies are needed to increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations for people with high blood pressure.

Adult , Compliance , Diet Therapy , Diet , Eating , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Nutrition Policy , Nutrition Surveys , Potassium , Prevalence , Self Care , Sodium , Sodium, Dietary
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 441-442, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816672


No abstract available.