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Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 95-106, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356307


Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular impairment, increasing the rates of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic events. Additionally, adverse kidney events are directly linked with T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. In this context, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have demonstrated both cardioprotective and renoprotective effects in patients with or without T2DM. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or other add-on antidiabetic agents (ADA) in patients with or without T2DM. Objetive: The present meta-analysis aims to evaluate cardiovascular outcomes involving SGLT2i as monotherapy or add-on other ADA in patients with or without T2DM. Methods: The entrance criteria to SGLT2i studies were: describing any data regarding cardiovascular effects; enrolling more than 1,000 participants; being approved by either the FDA or the EU, and having available access to the supplementary data. The trial had to exhibit at least one of the following results: major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, renal or cardiovascular adverse events, or non-cardiovascular death. The significance level of 0.05 was adopted in the statistical analysis. Results: Nine trials with a total of 76,285 participants were included in the meta-analysis. SGLT2i reduced MACE (RR 0.75, 95% CI [0.55-1.01]), cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.72, 95% CI [0.55-0.93]), cardiovascular death (RR 0.66, 95% CI [0.48-0.91]), hospitalization for heart failure (RR 0.58, 95% CI [0.46-0.73]), renal or cardiovascular adverse events (RR 0.55, 95% CI [0.39-0.78]), and non-cardiovascular death (RR 0.88, 95% CI [0.60-1.00]). Conclusions: Conjunction overall data suggests that these drugs can minimize the risk of cardiovascular events, thus decreasing mortality in patients, regardless of the presence of T2DM.

Humans , Cardiotonic Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 , Hospitalization , Kidney Diseases/drug therapy
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 68-76, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364297


ABSTRACT The lowest dosage of empagliflozin (10 mg) showed similar benefits on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, body weight, blood pressure, and total and cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the highest available dose (25 mg) in the EMPAREG trial. These findings have not been clearly demonstrated for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. The objective was to compare the effect of different doses of SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Brazil on HbA1c and body weight of patients with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, Cochrane and Embase databases were searched from inception until 11th October 2021 for randomized controlled trials of SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients, lasting at least 12 weeks. HbA1c and body weight variations were described using standard mean difference. We performed direct and indirect meta-analysis, as well as a meta-regression with medication doses as covariates. Eighteen studies were included, comprising 16,095 patients. In the direct meta-analysis, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced HbA1c by 0.62% (95% CI −0.66 to −0.59) and body weight by 0.60 kg (95% CI −0.64 to −0.55). In the indirect meta-analysis, canagliflozin 300 mg ranked the highest regarding reductions in HbA1c and body weight. The remaining medications and dosages were clinically similar, despite some statistically significant differences among them. Canagliflozin 300 mg seems to be more potent in reducing HbA1c and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes. The remaining SGLT2 inhibitors at different doses lead to similar effects for both outcomes. Whether these glycemic and weight effects are reflected in lower mortality and cardiovascular events is still uncertain and may be a topic for further studies.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Blood , Body Weight , Brazil , Glycated Hemoglobin/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use
Protein & Cell ; (12): 336-359, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929159


Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus but the protective mechanism remains elusive. Here we demonstrated that the SGLT2 inhibitor, Empagliflozin (EMPA), suppresses cardiomyocytes autosis (autophagic cell death) to confer cardioprotective effects. Using myocardial infarction (MI) mouse models with and without diabetes mellitus, EMPA treatment significantly reduced infarct size, and myocardial fibrosis, thereby leading to improved cardiac function and survival. In the context of ischemia and nutritional glucose deprivation where autosis is already highly stimulated, EMPA directly inhibits the activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) in the cardiomyocytes to regulate excessive autophagy. Knockdown of NHE1 significantly rescued glucose deprivation-induced autosis. In contrast, overexpression of NHE1 aggravated the cardiomyocytes death in response to starvation, which was effectively rescued by EMPA treatment. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo analysis of NHE1 and Beclin 1 knockout mice validated that EMPA's cardioprotective effects are at least in part through downregulation of autophagic flux. These findings provide new insights for drug development, specifically targeting NHE1 and autosis for ventricular remodeling and heart failure after MI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Animals , Humans , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucose , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ventricular Remodeling
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(4): e002166, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359440


En este artículo, la autora jerarquiza la relevancia de la eficacia documentada de los agonistas del péptido similar alglucagón-1 y los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa tipo 2, que ha conducido a recientes modificaciones en el paradigma del cuidado en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. (AU)

In this article, the author highlights the relevance of the documented efficacy of glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and type 2 sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors, which has led to recent changes in the paradigm of care in patients with type 2diabetes. (AU)

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/agonists , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 1000-1011, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941390


Objective: To analyze the effects of different types of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Method: In this meta-analysis, we searched for randomized controlled trials on the effect of SGLT2i on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Three databases, namely PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library, were searched. The search was organized on the concept of 3 conceptual groups: the first group contained terms used to describe SGLT2i, the second group contained terms related to blood pressure, and the third group contained terms used to describe randomized controlled trials. The search time was from the establishment of the database to December 2020. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were formulated in accordance with the requirements of the Cochrane systematic review. According to whether the heterogeneity of the study was significant or not, a random effect model or a fixed effect model were used to conduct the analysis on the impact of different types of SGLT2i on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and day and night blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Further subgroup analysis was performed to define potential factors, which might lead to clinical heterogeneity. Results: Seven clinical trials were finally included. The result of the meta-analysis showed that compared with placebo group, SGLT2i could reduce the 24-hour dynamic systolic blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension by 4.36 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa). Reduction was 4.59, 3.74, 5.06, and 3.64 mmHg by canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, and ertugliflozin respectively; SGLT2i could reduce the 24-hour dynamic diastolic blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension by 2.20 mmHg, and the reduction was 2.30, 1.22, 2.00, and 2.69 mmHg by canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin and ertugliflozin respectively. SGLT2i could reduce the daytime systolic blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension by 5.25 mmHg, and reduction was 5.38, 4.87, 6.00, and 4.37 mmHg by canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin and ertugliflozin, respectively. Simultaneously, SGLT2i could reduce the diastolic blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension by 2.62 mmHg, and the reduction was 2.56, 2.47, and 2.80 mmHg by canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ertugliflozin, respectively. SGLT2i could reduce the nighttime systolic blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension by 3.62 mmHg, and the reduction was 2.09, 2.06, 3.92, and 2.45 mmHg by canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin and ertugliflozin, respectively. At the same time, SGLT2i could reduce the nighttime diastolic blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension by 1.60 and 1.51 mmHg, the reduction was 1.53 and 2.58 mmHg by canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ertugliflozin, respectively. Conclusion: SGLT2i can reduce 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

Humans , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e250, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156399


Introducción: Los medicamentos inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa actúan inhibiéndose de forma selectiva y reversible a nivel renal. A través de este mecanismo, reducen la reabsorción de glucosa, la cual pasa a excretarse por la orina y de esta forma, contribuyen a normalizar la glucemia. Objetivo: Describir la función de los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa tipo 2 en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Se utilizó como buscador de información científica a Google Académico, Google, Pubmed y SciELO. Se evaluaron artículos de revisión, de investigación y páginas Web, que en general, tenían menos de 10 años de publicados, en idioma español, portugués o inglés. Fueron excluidos los artículos que no cumplieron con estos requisitos. Esto permitió el estudio de 98 artículos, de los cuales 75 fueron referenciados. Conclusiones: La administración de los inhibidores del cotransportador sodio-glucosa induce cambios favorables en la hemoglobina glucosilada, el peso corporal y la presión arterial, además de presentar un bajo riesgo de hipoglucemia. Aunque constituyen un grupo farmacológico que puede ser utilizado como monoterapia, con mayor frecuencia son usados como coadyuvantes en el tratamiento de los pacientes con diabetes mellitus, que reciben tratamiento farmacológico con otros medicamentos normo o hipoglucemiantes y que no han alcanzado las metas de control. Se debe estar alerta ante la aparición de posibles efectos secundarios o reacciones adversas, para descontinuar el tratamiento y tomar las medidas correspondientes(AU)

Introduction: Sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors´ drugs (SGLT) work by selectively and reversiblely inhibiting at the renal level. Through this mechanism, they reduce glucose reabsorption, which is excreted through urine and thus contribute to normalizing blood glucose. Objective: Describe the role of sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Methods: There were used as search engines for scientific information : Google Scholar, Google, Pubmed and SciELO. The keywords used were: Glyphozines, sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors, diabetes mellitus, treatment and weight loss. Review articles, research articles and web pages were assessed, which generally had less than 10 years of publication, and were in Spanish, Portuguese or English language. Items that did not meet these requirements were excluded. This allowed the study of 98 articles, of which 75 were referenced. Conclusions: Administration of sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors induces favorable changes in glycosylated haemoglobin, body weight and blood pressure, as well as a low risk of hypoglycaemia. Although they are a pharmacological group that can be used as monotherapy, they are mostly used as adjuvants in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus who receive drug treatment with other normo or hypoglycemic medications and who have not met control goals. It is important to be alert to possible side effects or adverse reactions to discontinue treatment and take appropriate action(AU)

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Review Literature as Topic , Search Engine/methods
J. bras. nefrol ; 42(4): 467-477, Oct.-Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154642


ABSTRACT Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) were initially approved to improve glycemic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials have also demonstrated beneficial effects with regards to cardiovascular and renal parameters. Beyond improving glycemic control, these therapies promote weight loss and lower blood pressure when used individually, and in an additive manner when used together. Accordingly, taking advantage of complementary mechanisms of action with the combined use of these two classes of agents to further improve cardiorenal outcomes is conceptually appealing, but has yet to be explored in detail in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss proposed mechanisms for renal protection, clinical benefits, and adverse events associated with the individual and combined use of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1RA. The management of type 2 diabetes has significantly changed over the last few years, moving away from solely glycemic control towards the concurrent management of associated comorbidities in a patient population at significant risk of cardiovascular disease and progression of chronic kidney disease. It is from this perspective that we seek to outline the rationale for the sequential and/or combined use of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1RA in patients with type 2 diabetes.

RESUMO Inibidores do cotransporter-2 de glicose sódica (SGLT2) e agonistas do receptor peptídeo-1 do tipo glucagon (GLP-1RA) foram inicialmente aprovados para melhorar o controle glicêmico no tratamento da diabetes tipo 2. Os ensaios clínicos também demonstraram efeitos benéficos em relação aos parâmetros cardiovasculares e renais. Além de melhorar o controle glicêmico, essas terapias promovem perda de peso e redução da pressão arterial quando usadas individualmente, e de forma aditiva quando usadas em conjunto. Consequentemente, tirar proveito de mecanismos de ação complementares com o uso combinado dessas duas classes de agentes para melhorar ainda mais os resultados cardiorrenais é conceitualmente atraente, mas ainda precisa ser explorado em detalhes em ensaios clínicos. Nesta revisão, discutimos os mecanismos propostos para proteção renal, benefícios clínicos e eventos adversos associados ao uso individual e combinado de inibidores de SGLT2 e GLP-1RA. O tratamento do diabetes tipo 2 mudou significativamente nos últimos anos, passando do controle exclusivamente glicêmico para o tratamento simultâneo de comorbidades associadas em uma população de pacientes com risco significativo de doença cardiovascular e progressão da doença renal crônica. É nessa perspectiva que procuramos delinear a justificativa para o uso sequencial e/ou combinado de inibidores de SGLT2 e GLP-1RA em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 458-465, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136227


SUMMARY After metformin failure in treatment for diabetes type 2, there is no trivial option for adjuvant medication. The last two oral class medications, gliflozins and gliptins, have different mechanisms of action but have never been compared in long run studies. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to assess the overall long-term efficacy of these drugs after metformin failure. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed, including all trials with a duration of over 2 years, comparing gliflozins or gliptins after metformin failure in type 2 diabetes. Data Sources: Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Lilacs, and the Cochrane Library from inception through July 2016 without language restrictions. The longest study period found in the literature was 4 years. We selected 1 article on empagliflozin, 1 on dapagliflozin, and 1 on saxagliptin with missing data. After one year of treatment, over 50% of the patients presented HbA1c > 7%. Efficacy rate after 4 years of empagliflozin (23%) was better than dapagliflozin (5%) and saxagliptin (7%); however, it presented statistically non-significant values for HbA1c (7.4 and 7.3% between gliflozins), and missing data for saxaglifozin. Nonetheless, empagliflozin performed better than glimepiride in the 4-year period (standardized mean difference SMD 0.4, confidence interval CI 95% 0.23 to 0.56). The failure of the secondary treatment using gliflozins occurs in less than one year of treatment (less than 50% of the patients presenting HbA1c > 7 %). Empagliflozin offered better glycemic control compared to sulfonylureas but was similar to dapagliflozin.

RESUMO Após a falha da metformina no tratamento do diabetes tipo 2, não existe uma opção trivial para a medicação adicional. Os dois últimos medicamentos de classe oral, gliflozinas e gliptinas, têm mecanismos de ação diferentes, mas nunca foram comparados em estudos de longo prazo. O objetivo da presente meta-análise é a avaliação da eficácia global em longo prazo desses medicamentos após a falha da metformina. Uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise foram realizadas, incluindo todos os ensaios com uma duração de mais de dois anos, comparando gliflozinas ou gliptinas após a insuficiência de metformina no diabetes tipo 2. Fontes de dados: PubMed (Medline), Embase, Lilacs e a Biblioteca Cochrane desde o início até julho de 2016, sem restrições de idioma. O período mais longo de estudo encontrado na literatura foi de quatro anos. Foi selecionado um artigo sobre empagliflozina, um artigo sobre dapagliflozina e um artigo sobre saxagliptina com dados faltantes. Após um ano de tratamento, mais de 50% dos pacientes apresentavam HbA1c >7%. A taxa de eficácia em quatro anos de empagliflozina (23%) foi melhor que dapagliflozina (5%) e saxagliptina (7%), porém com valores estatisticamente não significativos para HbA1c (7,4% e 7,3% entre gliflozinas) e dados ausentes para a saxaglifozina. No entanto, a empagliflozina teve um desempenho melhor do que a glimepirida no período de quatro anos (diferença média padronizada SMD 0,4, intervalo de confiança IC 95% 0,23 a 0,56). A falha do tratamento secundário com gliflozinas ocorre em menos de um ano de tratamento (menos de 50% dos pacientes com HbA1c >7%). A empagliflozina ofereceu melhor controle glicêmico em comparação com as sulfonilureias, mas semelhante à dapagliflozina.

Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Metformin , Benzhydryl Compounds , Network Meta-Analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(supl.1): s17-s24, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057108


SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem, with a significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Various hypoglycemic therapies have proved to be beneficial to clinical outcomes, while others have failed to provide an improvement in cardiovascular and renal failure, only reducing blood glucose levels. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, represented by the empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have been showing satisfactory and strong results in several clinical trials, especially regarding the reduction of cardiovascular mortality, reduction of hospitalization due to heart failure, reduction of albuminuria, and long-term maintenance of the glomerular filtration rate. The benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors stems from its main mechanism of action, which occurs in the proximal tubule of the nephron, causing glycosuria, and a consequent increase in natriuresis. This leads to increased sodium intake by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, activating the tubule glomerular-feedback and, finally, reducing intraglomerular hypertension, a frequent physiopathological condition in kidney disease caused by diabetes. In addition, this class of medication presents an appropriate safety profile, and its most frequently reported complication is an increase in the incidence of genital infections. Thus, these hypoglycemic agents gained space in practical recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and should be part of the initial therapeutic approach to provide, in addition to glycemic control, cardiovascular outcomes, and the renoprotection in the long term.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/metabolism , Diabetic Nephropathies/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2/therapeutic use , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose/metabolism , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/metabolism
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(9): 1093-1098, set. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058650


Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a new pharmacological alternative for the treatment of diabetes. Aim: To report our experience with the use of this type of drugs in type 2 diabetics treated in an outpatient clinic. Material and Methods: We selected 77 type 2 diabetic patients aged 59 ± 11 years (45 men) who started SGLT2i, based on the advice of their treating physician. We registered their demographic characteristics and changes in metabolic parameters, weight, blood pressure, albuminuria and adverse effects, during a follow-up of at least three months. Results: We observed a decrease of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c of 0.8 ± 1.14% (p < 0.01) and a weight decrease of 2.5 ± 2.24 kg (p < 0.01). The proportion of patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin A1c of less than 7% increased from 7.2% to 30.9% (p = 0.002). In addition, a relative decrease in albuminuria of 39.9% was observed (p = 0.07). The treatment was well tolerated with a rate of adverse effects of 21%, all of them being categorized as mild. Of these, most of them corresponded to genital mycotic infections. Conclusions: The effects observed in this study are comparable and of similar magnitude to randomized studies of SGLT2i reported in the international literature.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium , Glucose , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(2): 246-252, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990338


SUMMARY Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are drugs that act by maintaining glycosuria. Recent studies have shown promising effects of these in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). However, there may be an increased risk of developing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients treated with these. Our study aims to analyze the association between the risk of UTI in patients treated with SGLT2i. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by randomized clinical trials, totalizing at the end of the selection 23 articles that were statistically evaluated. The incidence of UTI was generally demonstrated in articles and in different subgroups: patients on SGLT2i monotherapy or on combination therapy; according to specific comorbidities of each sample or according to the drug used. They noticed an increase in the chance of UTI in the SGLT2i groups compared to the control groups on placebo or other oral antidiabetic agents. This increased chance was found predominantly with the use of Dapagliflozin, Canagliflozin, and Tofogliflozin, regardless of the dosing. Lastly, stands out that the dimension of UTI chances for DM2 patients who use SGLT2i remains to be more strictly determined.

RESUMO Os inibidores do cotransportador de sódio-glicose do tipo 2 (SGLT2i) são medicamentos que atuam mantendo a glicosúria. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado efeitos promissores desses no tratamento de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). No entanto, pode haver um risco aumentado de desenvolver infecções do trato urinário (UTI) em pacientes tratados com essa classe de medicação. Nosso estudo tem como objetivo analisar a associação entre o risco de desenvolver UTI em pacientes tratados com SGLT2i. Uma revisão sistemática da literatura foi realizada por ensaios clínicos randomizados, totalizando, ao final da seleção, 23 artigos que foram avaliados estatisticamente. A incidência de UTI foi demonstrada genericamente de acordo com os dados dos artigos e em diferentes subgrupos: pacientes em monoterapia com SGLT2i ou em terapia combinada, de acordo com as comorbidades específicas de cada amostra ou de acordo com a droga utilizada. Verificou-se um aumento na chance de UTI nos grupos SGLT2i em comparação com os grupos de controle em placebo ou outros agentes antidiabéticos orais. Essa chance aumentada foi encontrada predominantemente com uso de Dapagliflozina, Canagliflozina e Tofoglifozina, independentemente da dosagem. Por fim, ressaltou-se que as chances de UTI em pacientes com DM2 em uso de SGLT2i ainda precisam ser mais bem determinadas.

Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 70-86, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985001


SUMMARY The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the elderly grew sharply over the last decade. Reduced insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity, weight gain, sarcopenia, and elevated adiposity are all common metabolic and body changes in the aging population that favor an increased risk of hypoglycemia, frailty syndrome, falls, and cognitive dysfunction. First line antidiabetic therapy is frequently not safe in older individuals because of its high risk of hypoglycemia and prevalent co-morbid diseases, such as chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) is a new class of antidiabetic therapy that inhibits glucose and sodium reabsorption on renal proximal convoluted tubule. Its effect is well demonstrated in various clinical scenarios in the younger population. This review and metanalysis describe particularities of the SGLT2i on the elderly, with mechanistic insights of the potential benefit and remaining challenges about the use of these drugs in this important age group. Further, we will present a meta-analysis of the main effects of SGLT2i reported in post-hoc studies in which the median age of the subgroups analyzed was over 60 years. Despite the absence of specific clinical trials for this population, our findings suggest that SGLT2i therapy on older individuals is effective to lower glucose and maintain its effect on systolic blood pressure and body weight.

RESUMO A prevalência da diabetes mellitus tipo 2 em idosos cresceu muito na última década. A redução na sensibilidade à insulina e na capacidade secretora, ganho de peso, sarcopenia e adiposidade elevada são todas alterações metabólicas e corporais comuns entre a população idosa. Essas mudanças críticas favorecem o aumento no risco de hipoglicemia, síndrome de fragilidade, quedas e disfunções cognitivas. A primeira linha de tratamento contra a diabete muitas vezes não é segura para indivíduos mais velhos devido ao alto risco de hipoglicemia e a prevalência de comorbidades patogênicas, como doença renal crônica, osteoporose, doença cardiovascular e obesidade. Os inibidores do cotransportador sódio-glicose 2 (SGLT2) são uma nova classe de tratamento contra a diabete que inibe reabsorção de glicose e sódio na parte convoluta do túbulo proximal. Seu efeito é claramente demonstrado em diversos cenários clínicos em populações mais jovens. Esta revisão e meta-análise descreve as particularidades dos SGLT2 na população idosa, abordando os mecanismos dos potenciais benefícios e desafios ainda presentes do uso destes medicamentos nesse grupo etário tão importante. Além disso, apresentaremos uma meta-análise dos principais efeitos dos SGLT2 encontrados em estudos post-hoc nos quais a idade média dos subgrupos analisados foi acima de 60 anos. Apesar da ausência de ensaios clínicos que incluem essa população, os dados encontrados sugerem que o tratamento com SGLT2 em idosos é eficaz para diminuir os níveis de glicose e tem efeitos na pressão arterial sistólica e no peso corporal.

Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Frail Elderly , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Middle Aged