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1.
Med. lab ; 25(1): 363-392, 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292640

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades pueden generar un desequilibrio de electrolitos como parte de su fisiopatología, al igual que los medicamentos usados crónicamente y algunas sustancias tóxicas disponibles en nuestro medio. A pesar de todos los datos estadísticos existentes, la incidencia global de los trastornos electrolíticos secundarios a fármacos o sustancias tóxicas permanece desconocida, y, posiblemente, subregistrada; por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los trastornos electrolíticos que causan algunos medicamentos y sustancias tóxicas, y describir el mecanismo a través del cual se producen las alteraciones, en particular, del sodio, potasio, magnesio, calcio y fósforo, con el fin de alertar a los profesionales de la salud en el momento de enfrentarse a este tipo de condiciones en su práctica clínica. El conocimiento de los efectos adversos relacionados con medicamentos y tóxicos es importante para prevenir, identificar y gestionar de forma eficaz, complicaciones que son potencialmente peligrosas. Esta revisión pretende ser un referente de apoyo para los profesionales de la salud en estas situaciones


Diseases can generate an electrolyte imbalance as part of their pathophysiology, as well as chronic use of some medications, and toxic substances available in our environment. Despite all the separate statistical data, the overall incidence of fluid and electrolyte disorders secondary to drugs or toxic substances remains unknown, and possibly underreported; therefore, the objective of this review is to analyze electrolyte disorders caused by some medications and toxic substances, and describe the mechanism through which changes in sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus occur, in particular, in order to alert health professionals when facing this type of conditions in their clinical practice. Knowledge of drug and toxic-related adverse effects is important to effectively prevent, identify, and manage complications that can be potentially life-threatening. This review intends to be a reference for supporting health professionals in these situations


Subject(s)
Electrolytes , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Diuretics , Ethanol , Toxicity
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(2): 157-161, abr. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125057

ABSTRACT

Un tercio de la población mundial tiene niveles anormalmente altos de presión arterial, hipertensión, responsable de casi el 50% de las muertes por accidente cerebrovascular y enfermedad coronaria. La sensibilidad a la sal es un factor de riesgo para la morbilidad y mortalidad cardiovascular y también para otras enfermedades. En estudios previos describimos un modelo de hipertensión sal sensible (HSS) en ratas Wistar ovariectomizadas (oVx) adultas. Las ratas oVx son normotensas con ingesta normal de sal (NS, 0.24% de NaCl), pero desarrollan un perfil de HSS con una ingesta elevada de sal (HS, 1% de NaCl). En los estudios en riñón encontramos que el circuito receptor D1 de dopamina, citocromo P450 4A y Na+, K+-ATPasa está alterado por la ausencia de hormonas ováricas, lo que se asocia a menor excreción de sodio e hipertensión arterial. La ingesta HS en ratas oVx también promueve cambios en la expresión de proteínas relacionadas con el transporte de sodio en células mononucleares de sangre periférica, principalmente linfocitos periféricos. Por lo tanto, el transporte de sodio se modifica en varios niveles de la fisiología normal. En estudios recientes observamos que el estradiol aumenta la proliferación y diferenciación de células epiteliales en cultivos de corteza renal humana. Sensibilidad a la sal, inmunidad adaptativa, presión arterial y proliferación de células epiteliales en riñón son fenómenos de gran importancia biológica regulados por estradiol.


Female sex hormones participate in the regulation of blood pressure and renal epithelial proliferation, effects not related to their reproductive function. About one-third of the world's population has abnormally high levels of blood pressure, hypertension, which is responsible for almost 50% of deaths from stroke and coronary heart disease. Salt sensitivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and other diseases as well. We reported a model of salt sensitive hypertension in adult ovariectomized (oVx) Wistar rats. oVx rats are normotensive under normal salt intake (NS, 0.24% NaCl), but upon a high salt intake (HS, 1% NaCl) oVx rats developed a blood pressure profile of salt-sensitive hypertension. Our studies on kidney molecules related to sodium balance found that the circuit dopamine D1-like receptor, cytochrome P450 4A and Na+, K+-ATPase is altered by the absence of ovary hormones which is accompanied by a reduced ability to excrete sodium. In oVx rats HS intake also promotes changes in the expression of proteins related to sodium transport in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly peripheral lymphocytes. Therefore, sodium transport is modified at several levels of normal physiology. Lately, we described that estradiol increases the rate of renal epithelial cell proliferation in primary cultures developed from human renal cortex. Thus, salt sensitivity, adaptive immunity, blood pressure and renal cell proliferation are complex biological responses regulated by female sex hormones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Rats , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Estradiol/metabolism , Hypertension/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Blood Pressure , Sodium Chloride/adverse effects , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Cell Proliferation , Hypertension/physiopathology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771676

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of paeoniflorin and menthol on the physiological function of Calu-3 cell membrane during the transport of puerarin. Calu-3 cell was used as the cell model to simulate nasal mucosa tissues, and the cell membrane fluidity, Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) and ultramicro enzyme activity testing, in order to explore the mechanism of compatible drugs on promoting puerarin transport. The results showed that when puerarin associated with low, middle and high concentration of menthol or both paeoniflorin and menthol, the fluorescence recovery rate was increased significantly, while Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity had no significant change and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity was enhanced significantly as compared with puerarin alone. Therefore, it was concluded that menthol had the abilit of promoting the transport and the mechanism might be related to increasing membrane fluidity and activating Ca²⁺-ATPase.


Subject(s)
Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Membrane , Glucosides , Chemistry , Humans , Isoflavones , Metabolism , Membrane Fluidity , Menthol , Chemistry , Monoterpenes , Chemistry , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771667

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the general state and changes in pathophysiological indexes of multiple cerebral infarction rat model with Qi-deficienty and Blood-stasis syndrome. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups(with 30 in each group): the normal group, the sham group, the model group and the Yiqi Huoxue recipe group. Rats in the model group and Yiqi Huoxue group were provided with interruptable sleep deprivation for 7 days before the multiple cerebral infarction operation, and followed by another 4 weeks of sleep deprivation; rats in the Yiqi Huoxue group were intragastrically administrated with drug at a dose of 26 g·kg⁻¹, once a day for 4 weeks. The general state was observed, and the pathophysiological indexes were measured at 48 h, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after administration. The results showed that rats in the normal group and the sham group represented a good general state and behaviors, with a normal morphological structure of brain tissues; rats in the model group featured yellow fur, depression, accidie, loose stools and movement disorder, with obvious brain histomorphological damage, which became aggravated with the increase of modeling time; rats in the Yiqi Huoxue group showed release in the general state and above indexes. Compared with the sham group at three time points, rats in the model group showed decrease in body weight, exhaustive swimming time and RGB value of tongue surface image, and increase in whole blood viscosity of the shear rate under 5, 60 and 150 S⁻¹, reduction in cerebral cortex Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase, Ca²⁺-ATPase activity and contents of 5-HT, rise in TXB2 levels and decline in 6-keto-PGF1a in serum(<0.05, <0.01). Compared with the model group, rats in the Yiqi Huoxue group showed alleviations in the above indexes at 2 w and 4 w(<0.05, <0.01). The results showed that the characterization and pathophysiological indexes in the multiple cerebral infarction rat model with Qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome were deteriorated; Yiqi Huoxue recipe could significantly alliviate the abnormal conditions, which suggested of the model was stable and reliable and the pathophysiologic evolutionary mechanism might be related to energy metabolism dysfunction, vasoactive substance abnormality and changes in neurotransmitters.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Metabolism , Cerebral Infarction , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Energy Metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Qi , Rats , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. METHODS: In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T₄) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T4 levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. CONCLUSION: Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Erythrocytes , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Membrane Lipids , Membranes , Sodium , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 76(4): 204-207, Aug. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841577

ABSTRACT

With aging the kidney exhibits progressive deterioration, with a decrease in renal function. Most of the filtered Na+ is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubules through different transporters located in apical membrane. This process is possible because basolateral Na+/K+-ATP-ase generates electrochemical conditions necessary for energetically favorable Na+ transport. The α-subunit is the catalytic domain of Na+/K+-ATP-ase. There are three isoforms of the α/subunit present in rat kidney. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression pattern of rat α-Na+/K+-ATP-ase during senescence. We tested the impact of aging on mRNA expression of α-Na+/K+-ATP-ase in cortex and medulla of aged Wistar rats. We observed a significant expression decrease in mRNA levels and a possible change of isoform in the cortex of aged animals. These expression changes observed for αsubunit could be contributing to affect the renal function in conditions of water and salt stress.


Con el avance de la edad los riñones exhiben un deterioro funcional progresivo con disminución de la función renal. La mayor parte del sodio (Na+) filtrado es reabsorbido activamente en los túbulos proximales a través de diferentes transportadores ubicados en la membrana apical. Este proceso es posible por la existencia de la Na+/K+-ATP-asa basolateral, que genera las condiciones electroquímicas necesarias para que el transporte de Na+ sea energéticamente favorable. La subunidad αde la Na+/K+-ATP-asa es el dominio catalítico de la enzima. Existen tres isoformas de subunidad α, que están presentes en el riñón de la rata. En este trabajo se examinan los patrones de expresión de la α-Na+/K+-ATP-asa durante la senescencia. Se estudió así si el aumento de la edad incidía en la expresión del ARNm de la α-Na+/K+-ATP-asa en corteza y médula renal de ratas Wistar senescentes. Se observó una disminución en la expresión del ARNm de la subunidad αy un posible cambio de isoforma predominante en la corteza de los animales senescentes. Los cambios observados para la expresión de la subunidad αpodrían contribuir a afectar la función renal en condiciones de estrés hídrico y salino.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aging/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Kidney Cortex/enzymology , Kidney Medulla/enzymology , Sodium/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Base Sequence , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/analysis , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225579

ABSTRACT

Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) is abundantly expressed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells, which is necessary for tight junction formation. The tight junction is an urothelial barrier between urine and the underlying bladder. Impairment of tight junctions allows migration of urinary solutes in patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). We evaluated NKA expression and activity in bladder samples from patients with IC/PBS. The study group consisted of 85 patients with IC/PBS, and the control group consisted of 20 volunteers. Bladder biopsies were taken from both groups. We determined the expression and distribution of NKA using NKA activity assays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemical staining, and immunofluorescent staining. The protein levels and activity of NKA in the study group were significantly lower than the control group (1.08 ± 0.06 vs. 2.39 ± 0.29 and 0.60 ± 0.04 vs. 1.81 ± 0.18 micromol ADP/mg protein/hour, respectively; P < 0.05). Additionally, immunofluorescent staining for detection of CK7, a marker of the bladder urothelium, predominantly colocalized with NKA in patients in the study group. Our results demonstrated the expression and activity of NKA were decreased in bladder biopsies of patients with IC/PBS. These findings suggest that NKA function is impaired in the bladders from patients with IC/PBS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cystitis, Interstitial/diagnosis , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Keratin-7/metabolism , Male , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Urinary Bladder/metabolism , Urothelium/metabolism
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 May; 53(5): 273-280
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158447

ABSTRACT

The decapod crustacean Penaeus monodon survives large fluctuations in salinity through osmoregulation in which Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity in the gills plays a central role. Adult P. monodon specimens were gradually acclimatized to 5, 25 and 35‰ salinities and maintained for 20 days to observe long term alterations in NKA expression. Specific NKA activity assayed in gill tissues was found to be 3 folds higher at 5‰ compared to 25‰ (isosmotic salinity) and 0.48 folds lower at 35‰. The enzyme was immunolocalized in gills using mouse α-5 monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with P. monodon NKA α-subunit. At 5‰ the immunopositive cells were distributed on lamellar tips and basal lamellar epithelium of the secondary gill filaments and their number was visibly higher. At both 25‰ and 35‰ NKA positive cells were observed in the inter-lamellar region but the expression was more pronounced at 25‰. Gill architecture was normal at all salinities. However, the 1.5 fold increase in NKA α-subunit mRNA at 5‰ measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) using EF1α as reference gene was not statistically significant. The study confirms the osmoregulating ability of P. monodon like other crustaceans at lower salinities. It is likely that significant increase in NKA transcript level happens at an earlier time point. At higher salinities all three methods record only marginal or no change from isosmotic controls confirming the hypothesis that the animal largely osmoconforms in hyperosmotic environment.


Subject(s)
Acclimatization/physiology , Animals , Gills/physiology , Ion Transport/physiology , Osmoregulation/physiology , Penaeidae/chemistry , /physiology , Salinity , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/physiology
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Apr; 52 (2): 119-124
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158207

ABSTRACT

The role of angiotensin II in regulating Na+/K+-ATPase activity has been investigated in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (BPASMCs). Our study reveals that angiotensin II inhibits the Na+/K+ATPase activity via glutathionylation of the pump with the involvement of an increase in NADPH oxidase-derived O2.-. Additionally, angiotensin II treatment to the cells increases the inhibitory potency of the 15.6 kDa inhibitor towards the Na+/K+ATPase activity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Glutathione/pharmacology , /enzymology , Oxidation-Reduction , Pulmonary Artery/enzymology , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/chemistry
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 143-151
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158399

ABSTRACT

In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5’-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/adverse effects , Animals , Antithyroid Agents/isolation & purification , Antithyroid Agents/toxicity , Arachis/chemistry , Drug Synergism , Glucosides/analysis , Glucosides/pharmacology , Glucosides/toxicity , Hyperplasia , Hypertrophy , Hyperthyroidism/blood , Hyperthyroidism/chemically induced , Iodide Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Iodine/urine , Male , Nitriles/analysis , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/toxicity , Ovule/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Thyroid Gland/enzymology , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Hormones/blood
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 96-98, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741540

ABSTRACT

Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Nervous System Diseases/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Databases, Bibliographic/statistics & numerical data , Hemiplegia/genetics , Models, Molecular , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239218

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To prepare polyclonal antibodies against sodium pump alpha 2 subunit M1-M2 extramembrane fragment (NKAα2 EM1) for studying the pathogenesis of hypertension.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to the GenBank data, the amino acid sequence of NKAα2 EM1 was obtained and the target peptide (LAAMEDEPSNDN) was synthesized using a peptide synthesizer with Fmoc method and purified with high-performance liquid chromatography. The synthesized peptide was then coupled to KLH for immunizing New Zealand white rabbits for 4 times to obtain the antiserum. The IgG antibodies against the synthetic peptide, after affinity purification with Protein A, were used for detecting NKAα2 EM1 expression in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunocytochemistry (ICC).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The synthesized peptide fragment , which consisted of 13 amino acid residues including one derivatized cysteine residue in the N-terminal (LAAMEDEPSNDN-C), had a theoretical relative molecular mass of 1408.48 D with a measured relative molecular mass of 1407.90 D and a purity exceeding 85.5%. The titer of the antiserum was more than 1:512 000, and the purified IgG antibody concentration was 0.965 mg/ml after purification with Protein A. At a 1:1000 dilution (final concentration of 1 µg/ml), the titer of the purified IgG antibody was more than 1:256 000. The purified IgG antibody could be used at 1:100 to 1:200 dilutions for for immunocytological examination of formalin-fixed cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The anti-NKAα2 EM1 polyclonal antibodies obtained can be used in ELISA and immunocytochemistry for detecting the sodium pump alpha 2 subunit in formalin-fixed tissue or cells to facilitate investigation of the relationship between sodium pump and hypertension.</p>


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies , Chromatography, Affinity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hypertension , Immune Sera , Immunoglobulin G , Immunohistochemistry , Peptide Fragments , Rabbits , Rats , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Allergy and Immunology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232563

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in acute lung injury (ALI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty-eight healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, ALI model group and AVP treatment group. The pathological changes in the lungs, lung water content, alveolar permeability and AFC were observed, and the expressions of alveolar epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase were measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with those in the model group, the rats treated with AVP showed significantly decreased alveolar permeability (0.27 ± 0.15 vs 0.59 ± 0.19) and lung water content (5.01 ± 1.59 vs 8.67 ± 1.79) (P<0.05) and increased AFC (23.56 ± 4.51 vs 8.28 ± 3.57) and of α-ENaC expressions (1.296 ± 0.322 vs 0.349 ± 0.141) and α1-Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase (1.421 ± 0.389 vs 0.338 ± 0.186) (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>AVP can promote AFC in with ALI possibly by up-regulation of α-ENaC, α1-Na⁺, and K⁺-ATPase.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Drug Therapy , Animals , Arginine Vasopressin , Pharmacology , Epithelial Sodium Channels , Metabolism , Lung , Pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250390

ABSTRACT

Abnormal cholesterol metabolism is associated with an elevated risk of developing atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes etc. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was found to regulate cholesterol synthesis, distribution and trafficking. This study aimed to examine the effect of high-fat diet on cholesterol metabolism in rats and the role of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase/Src/ERK signaling pathway in the process. Forty male SD rats were evenly divided into high-fat diet group and control group at random. Animals in the former group were fed on high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and those fed on basic diet served as control. Blood lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesteral (LDL-C) levels, were detected at 3, 6 and 12 weeks. The ratio of cholesterol content in cytoplasm to that in cell membrane was detected in liver tissues. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to measure the expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes (HMG-CoA reductase and SREBP-2) after 12-week high-fat diet. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase/Src/ERK signaling pathway-related components (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1, Src-PY418 and pERK1/2) were also measured by Western blotting. The results showed that the serum TC, TG, and LDL-C levels were significantly higher in high-fat diet group than those in control group, while the HDL-C level was significantly lower in high-fat diet group at 6 weeks (P<0.01). High-fat diet led to an increase in the cholesterol content in the cytoplasm and cell membrane. The ratio of cholesterol content in cytoplasm to that in cell membrane was elevated over time. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase and SREBP-2 was significantly suppressed at mRNA and protein levels after 12-week high-fat diet (P<0.05). Moreover, high-fat diet promoted the expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1 but suppressed the phosphorylation of Src-PY418 and ERK1/2 at 12 weeks (P<0.05). It was concluded that high-fat diet regulates cholesterol metabolism, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase signaling pathway is involved in the process possibly by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-associated proteins HMG-CoA reductase and SREBP-2.


Subject(s)
Acyl Coenzyme A , Genetics , Metabolism , Animals , Cell Membrane , Metabolism , Cholesterol , Blood , Cytoplasm , Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Gene Expression Regulation , Lipid Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Genetics , Metabolism , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2 , Genetics , Metabolism
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250342

ABSTRACT

This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that palytoxin acts as a hemolysin and alters the function of excitable cells through multiple mechanisms of action. Palytoxin selectively binds to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a Kd of 20 pM and transforms the pump into a channel permeable to monovalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 10 pS. This mechanism of action could have multiple effects on cells. Evaluation of palytoxin toxicity using various animal models revealed that palytoxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin following an intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intratracheal route of exposure. Palytoxin also causes non-lethal, yet serious toxic effects following dermal or ocular exposure. Most incidents of palytoxin poisoning have manifested after oral intake of contaminated seafood. Poisonings in humans have also been noted after inhalation, cutaneous/systemic exposures with direct contact of aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing Cnidarian zoanthids. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide.


Subject(s)
Acrylamides , Chemistry , Toxicity , Animals , Anthozoa , Virulence , Physiology , Dinoflagellida , Virulence , Physiology , Dogs , Guinea Pigs , Haplorhini , Humans , Lethal Dose 50 , Marine Toxins , Chemistry , Toxicity , Mice , Rabbits , Rats , Seaweed , Virulence , Physiology , Shellfish Poisoning , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
16.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 1129-1133, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304761

ABSTRACT

Asthenospermia accounts for about 30% of the causes of male infertility. Currently, most drugs for asthenospermia lack specificity and desirable therapeutic efficiency. An insight into the pathogenesis of asthenospermia is important for the development of specific therapies for this disease. The protein Na+/K(+)- ATPase α4 isoform (NKA4) presents in both mature testis tissue and the sperm tail, the absence or reduced activity of which may significantly decrease sperm motility. Ouabain is a natural inhibitor of NKA4, suppressing its activity by specifically binding the ouabain site in it. The hypothalamus and adrenal cortex excrete an ouabain-like steroid hormone called endogenous ouabain (EO), which may be associated with the pathogenesis of asthenospermia by inhibiting the activity of NKA4, affecting Na+/H+ exchange, Na+/Ca2+ exchange and sperm cell membrane potential, and eventually reducing sperm motility.


Subject(s)
Asthenozoospermia , Humans , Male , Membrane Potentials , Ouabain , Chemistry , Protein Isoforms , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Sperm Motility , Sperm Tail , Spermatozoa , Testis
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284831

ABSTRACT

Paeoniflorin is the main active ingredient of Chinese herbaceous peony. This study is to investigate the protective effect of paeoniflorin (Pae) on acute brain damage induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. The mice were randomly assigned to the normal control, model control (LPS), as well as groups of paeoniflorin and lipopolysaccharide (Pae + LPS). Then the mice were administered intraperitioneally with normal saline or Pae (10, 30 mg · kg(-1)) once daily for 6 d. One hour after intrapertioneally treatment on the seventh day, each group were injected LPS (5 mg · kg(-1)) to establish the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide inflammation model except the normal group. The mice were sacrificed after 6 h and the brain homogenates were prepared and measured. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), succinatedehydrogenase (SDH), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase were dectected by the colorimetric method. The levels of HO-1 and Nrf2 protein in subcellular fractions of brain tissue were detected by Western blot. The results demonstrated that the administration with paeoniflorin reduced the levels of the MDA production; significantly increase the activities of antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-PX). In addition, paeoniflorin could enhance the total antioxidant capacity, decrease the level of H2O2, and increase the activities of SDH, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase. Furthermore, paeoniflorin can increase the expression of HO-1 and activate the nuclear transfer of Nrf2. Taking together, these findings suggest that paeoniflorin alleviate the acute inflammation in mice brain damage induced by LPS, which is related with its antioxidant effect and improvement of energy metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Energy Metabolism , Glucosides , Pharmacology , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Genetics , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Male , Membrane Proteins , Genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Monoterpenes , Pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355249

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of ouabain on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in thoracic aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Primary SD rat thoracic aorta VSMCs were cultured by tissue adherent method and identified by immunochemistry. The binding ability between ouabain and VSMCs was detected by autoradiography, and fluo 3-AM (a Ca(2+) fluorescent probe) was employed to investigate whether ouabain affected VSMCs within a short period of time. The effect of a truncated fragment of the sodium pump α2 subunit was assayed in antagonizing the effect of ouabain on [Ca(2+)]i in the VSMCs.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Within the concentration range of 0.1-100 nmol/L, ouabain was found to dose-dependently bind to the VSMCs. Different concentrations of ouabain (0-3200 nmol/L) caused a transient, dose-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)]i in the VSMCs, which was antagonized by the application of the truncated fragment of sodium pump α2 subunit.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Elevations in [Ca(2+)]i in the VSMCs can be the cytological basis of high ouabain-induced hypertension. The truncated fragment of the sodium pump α2 subunit can antagonize ouabain-induced increase of [Ca(2+)]i in the VSMCs, which provides a clue for understanding the pathogenesis of and devising a therapeutic strategy for high ouabain-induced hypertension.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Aorta, Thoracic , Cell Biology , Calcium , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cytoplasm , Metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Ouabain , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase
19.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 835-839, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351469

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the ATP1A3 mutations in patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) and recognize its value in diagnosing atypical cases.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Data of all AHC patients seen at Peking University First Hospital from August 2005 to November 2014 were prospectively collected. Clinical information of the AHC patients and their family members were collected and analyzed. Genomic DNAs were extracted from their peripheral blood. Mutations in ATP1A3 were screened by Sanger sequencing after PCR.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A total of 78 AHC patients were recruited, including 50 males and 28 females. Only three patients had family history of AHC. The first family case had affected mother with AHC; the second family case was the older one of a monozygotic male twins with AHC but their parents were normal; the third family case had a sister with AHC but their parents were normal. The age of onset ranged from six hours to eight years and six months (median: 4 months). According to the Aicardi's clinical diagnostic criteria, 72 patients were considered as typical AHC cases and the other six patients were considered as atypical AHC cases for their age of onset was older than 18 months. Twenty-seven different missense ATP1A3 mutations were detected in 71 (91.0%, 71/78) patients with AHC, including 66 typical and 5 atypical cases. 11 novel ATP1A3 mutations were first reported. ATP1A3 mutations were identified in the three AHC cases with family history. Parental analysis verified that the ATP1A3 mutation of 63 patients (95.5%, 63/66) were de novo origin except lack of five unavailable maternal or paternal genomic DNA. Mutation D801N was found in 20 cases (28.2%), and E815K in 12 cases (16.9%). In the six atypical AHC patients, ATP1A3 mutations were detected in five of them.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ATP1A3 was the major causative gene of AHC, and mutations were identified as de novo mostly. ATP1A3 mutations in AHC had mutational hotspot, and the most common mutations were D801N and E815K. ATP1A3 mutation screening is helpful for the genetic and definite diagnosis of the atypical AHC cases.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis , Female , Hemiplegia , Genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation, Missense , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Genetics
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Aug; 52(8): 787-792
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153760

ABSTRACT

Till date knowledge regarding the effects of high dietary magnesium on thyroid gland is incomprehensive though certain epidemiological studies reported development of thyroid gland dysfunctions in people with chronic exposure to hard water (especially with high magnesium) despite sufficient iodine consumption. The present study is to explore the effects of chronic high dietary magnesium exposure on thyroid morphology and functional status. Male adult albino Wistar strain rats were treated with graded doses of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g %) for 60 days and changes in different thyroid parameters were investigated. Significantly stimulated thyroid peroxidase and Na+–K+-ATPase and altered idothyronine 5/- deiodinase type I activities, enhanced serum thyroxine (T4) (both total and free), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone with decreased free T3 levels and T3/T4 ratio (T3:T4) along with enlargement of thyroid with associated histopathological changes were observed in the treated groups. The results clearly confirm that chronic high dietary magnesium exposure causes potential thyroid disruption as reported in earlier epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Iodide Peroxidase/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Magnesium/adverse effects , Male , Rats , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Thyroid Gland/cytology , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Thyroid Gland/enzymology , Thyrotropin/metabolism , Thyroxine/metabolism
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