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1.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 69-73, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009111

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a foldable pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap to repair soft tissue defects in the shoulder and back.@*METHODS@#Between August 2018 and January 2023, the foldable pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps were used to repair soft tissue defects in the shoulder and back of 8 patients. There were 5 males and 3 females with the age ranged from 21 to 56 years (mean, 35.4 years). Wounds were located in the shoulder in 2 cases and in the shoulder and back in 6 cases. The causes of injury were chronic infection of skin and bone exposure in 2 cases, secondary wound after extensive resection of skin and soft tissue tumor in 4 cases, and wound formation caused by traffic accident in 2 cases. Skin defect areas ranged from 14 cm×13 cm to 20 cm×16 cm. The disease duration ranged from 12 days to 1 year (median, 6.6 months). A pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was designed and harvested. The flap was divided into A/B flap and then were folded to repair the wound, with the donor area of the flap being pulled and sutured in one stage.@*RESULTS@#All 7 flaps survived, with primary wound healing. One patient suffered from distal flap necrosis and delayed healing was achieved after dressing change. The incisions of all donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6 months to 4 years (mean, 24.7 months). The skin flap has a good appearance with no swelling in the pedicle. At last follow-up, 6 patients had no significant difference in bilateral shoulder joint motion, and 2 patients had a slight decrease in abduction range of motion compared with the healthy side. The patients' daily life were not affected, and linear scar was left in the donor site.@*CONCLUSION@#The foldable pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is an ideal method to repair the soft tissue defect of shoulder and back with simple operation, less damage to the donor site, and quick recovery after operation.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Myocutaneous Flap/surgery , Shoulder/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Superficial Back Muscles/transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Wound Healing , Treatment Outcome , Perforator Flap
2.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 62-68, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical application of high-frequency color Doppler ultrasound (HFCDU) in detecting perforators in the deep adipose layers for harvesting super-thin anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF).@*METHODS@#Between August 2019 and January 2023, 45 patients (46 sides) with skin and soft tissue defects in the foot and ankle were treated, including 29 males and 16 females, aged from 22 to 62 years, with an average of 46.7 years. The body mass index ranged from 19.6 to 36.2 kg/m 2, with an average of 23.62 kg/m 2. The causes of injury included traffic accident injury in 15 cases, heavy object crush injury in 20 cases, mechanical injury in 8 cases, heat crush injury in 1 case, and chronic infection in 1 case. There were 20 cases on the left side, 24 cases on the right side, and 1 case on both sides. After thorough debridement, the wound size ranged from 5 cm×4 cm to 17 cm×11 cm. All patients underwent free super-thin ALTF transplantation repair. HFCDU was used to detect the location of the perforators piercing the deep and superficial fascia, as well as the direction and branches of the perforators within the deep adipose layers before operation. According to the preoperative HFCDU findings, the dimensions of the super-thin ALTF ranged from 6 cm×4 cm to 18 cm×12 cm. The donor sites of the flaps were directly sutured.@*RESULTS@#A total of 55 perforators were detected by HFCDU before operation, but 1 was not found during operation. During operation, a total of 56 perforators were found, and 2 perforators were not detected by HFCDU. The positive predictive value of HFCDU for identifying perforator vessels was 98.2%, and the sensitivity was 96.4%. Among the 54 perforators accurately located by HFCDU, the orientation of the perforators in the deep adipose layers was confirmed during operation. There were 21 perforators (38.9%) traveled laterally and inferiorly, 12 (22.2%) traveled medially and inferiorly, 14 (25.9%) traveled laterally and superiorly, 5 (9.3%) traveled medially and superiorly, and 2 (3.7%) ran almost vertically to the body surface. Among the 54 perforators accurately located by HFCDU, 35 were identified as type 1 perforators and 12 as type 2 perforators (HFCDU misidentified 7 type 2 perforators as type 1 perforators). The sensitivity of HFCDU in identifying type 1 perforators was 100%, with a positive predictive value of 83.3%. For type 2 perforators, the sensitivity was 63.2%, and the positive predictive value was 100%. The surgeries were successfully completed. The super-thin ALTF had a thickness ranging from 2 to 6 mm, with an average of 3.56 mm. All super-thin ALTF survived, however, 1 flap experienced a venous crisis at 1 day after operation, but it survived after emergency exploration and re-anastomosis of the veins; 1 flap developed venous crisis at 3 days after operation but survived after bleeding with several small incisions; 3 flaps had necrosis at the distal edge of the epidermis, which healed after undergoing dressing changes. All 45 patients were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 13.6 months). Three flaps required secondary defatting procedures, while the rest had the appropriate thickness, and the overall appearance was satisfactory.@*CONCLUSION@#Preoperative application of HFCDU to detect the perforator in the deep adipose layers can improve the success and safety of the procedure by facilitating the harvest of super-thin ALTF.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Thigh/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Prospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Free Tissue Flaps , Burns , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Crush Injuries/surgery , Perforator Flap , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1552155

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una propiedad característica del tegumento humano es la viscoelasticidad. La piel y el tejido celular subcutáneo traccionados por una fuerza constante pueden llegar a cubrir áreas expuestas en lapsos relativamente breves. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar una serie de casos con defectos de cobertura de la pierna. Se realizó la síntesis tegumentaria con técnica de dermotracción mediante "bandas de tracción", con la finalidad de poder precisar qué lesiones pueden beneficiarse de este método. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, longitudinal realizado entre 2012 y 2019. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: 1) heridas con déficit de cobertura tegumentaria en la pierna, de etiología traumática diversa (dehiscencia de abordajes quirúrgicos, fasciotomías por síndrome compartimental, fracturas expuestas y heridas abiertas con déficit de partes blandas). Resultados: Se analizó a 36 pacientes (edad promedio 28 años) que tenían lesiones con pérdida de cobertura localizadas en distintas regiones de la pierna. En 27 pacientes (75%), se logró el cierre sin necesidad de procedimientos complementarios. En el 8,3%, se logró la reducción del área expuesta y fue necesario un procedimiento complementario (injerto de piel). Seis pacientes requirieron técnicas reconstructivas de partes blandas miocutáneas y fasciocutáneas. Conclusiones: Esta técnica es efectiva, simple y económica para lograr el cierre diferido de las heridas complejas o fasciotomías. La dermotracción permite el cierre diferido en pocos días luego del trauma. Nivel de Evidencia: IV


Introduction: Viscoelasticity is a distinctive characteristic of the human skin. A constant force pulling on the skin and subcutaneous tissue allows it to cover exposed areas in relatively short periods of time. The objective of this study is to analyze a series of cases with soft tissue leg defects where integumentary closure was accomplished with a skin stretching technique using 'traction bands' in order to determine which injuries can benefit from this treatment. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, longitudinal study carried out in the period between 2012 and 2019. The inclusion criteria for this study were: 1) wounds with a soft-tissue coverage deficit in the leg of diverse traumatic etiology (surgical wound dehiscence, fasciotomies due to compart-ment syndrome, open fractures, and open wounds with soft tissue deficit). Results: 36 patients (mean age: 28 years) with injuries with loss of coverage in different regions of the leg were analyzed. Closure was achieved in 27 patients (75%), without the need for additional procedures. In three patients (8.3%), the exposed area was reduced, requiring skin grafting as a complementary procedure. Six patients required myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous soft tissue reconstructive procedures. Conclusions: This technique is effective, simple, and economical for closing complex wounds and/or fasciotomies. Dermatotraction allows closure a few days after the trauma. Level of Evidence: IV


Subject(s)
Wound Healing , Soft Tissue Injuries , Leg Injuries
4.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(2): 380-388, 20230303. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425220

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las armas de energía cinética son diseñadas para generar lesiones dolorosas y superficiales. Sin embargo, las lesiones asociadas causan confusión al ser abordadas como heridas por proyectil de arma de fuego, convirtiendo el enfoque y el manejo correcto en un desafío. El caso presentado describe un paciente herido en el cuello por arma traumática con el objetivo de analizar factores que permitan identificar este tipo de heridas y sus implicaciones en el manejo. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino de 31 años que ingresó con intubación orotraqueal, remitido de una institución de nivel 2, con herida por aparente proyectil de arma de fuego con trayectoria transcervical. Se encontró hemodinámicamente estable, pero con dificultad para la valoración clínica, por lo que se realizaron exámenes complementarios que descartaron lesión aerodigestiva. La tomografía de cuello reportó proyectil alojado en musculatura paravertebral izquierda, descartando trayectoria transcervical. Discusión. El comportamiento de las lesiones asociadas a los proyectiles de armas depende de varios factores, como el tipo de material del proyectil, su velocidad y las propiedades del tejido impactado. Se presentó un caso en que inicialmente se sospechaba una lesión transcervical, pero con la evaluación se identificó el proyectil cinético en la musculatura paravertebral. Conclusión. En el abordaje de un paciente con sospecha de herida por proyectil de arma de fuego se debe considerar ante todo la respuesta clínica y la correlación del supuesto vector del proyectil con las lesiones sospechadas. La evaluación imagenológica permite identificar oportunamente los proyectiles y evitar procedimientos o terapias innecesarias que forman parte del manejo convencional del paciente con trauma penetrante


Introduction. Kinetic energy weapons are designed to produce superficial and painful injuries. Nevertheless, the approach of these patients in the emergency department can be confusing as they can be managed as gunshot wounds. This case describes a patient with an injury in the neck caused by kinetic energy gun. In addition, we analyzed factors that might identify these wounds and their implications in the management. Clinical case. A 31-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency department referred from a second level hospital with gunshot wound with suspected trans-cervical trajectory. They performed orotracheal intubation and transferred to our institution. Due to the patient ́s hemodynamic stability and impossibility for clinical evaluation, test and radiology tests were performed. These ruled out any aero-digestive injuries. The CT-scan reported a bullet hosted in the left paravertebral muscles, ruling out a trans-cervical trajectory. Discussion. Several factors contribute to the injuries produced by kinetic energy weapons. The injury patterns may vary according to the bullet material, muzzle velocity and impacted tissue characteristics. In this case, an initial trans-cervical injury was suspected and due to clinical evaluation we identified the bullet hosted in the paravertebral muscles. Conclusion. In the approach of a patient with suspicion of gunshot wound, as surgical team we must consider clinical manifestations and the correlation of the vector with suspected injuries. Evaluation of diagnostic imaging allows the identification of traumatic bullets, avoiding unnecessary procedures in the conventional management of patients with penetrating trauma


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds, Penetrating , Soft Tissue Injuries , Neck Injuries , Wounds, Gunshot , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
5.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 29(1): 43-47, 20230000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1428804

ABSTRACT

Los miembros inferiores están sujetos frecuentemente a traumas que ocasionan daño de estructuras vitales y que pueden dejar secuelas funcionales y estéticas en las personas. Las lesiones de tejidos blandos son las que asientan en la piel, tejido celular subcutáneo, aponeurosis, músculos, vasos y nervios. Del manejo oportuno y adecuado de las lesiones que se presenten posteriores a un trauma de tejidos blandos dependerá el resultado, el tiempo de recuperación, costos de hospitalización y sobre todo la preservación de las funciones de locomoción y sostén del miembro afectado


The lower limbs are frequently exposed to traumas that cause vital structures damage and can leave functional and aesthetic sequelae in patients. Soft tissue lesions are those that affect the skin, subcutaneous cellular tissue, fascia, muscles, vessels, and nerves. The result, recovery time, hospitalization costs and, above all, the preservation of the locomotion and support functions of the affected limb will depend on the timely and adequate management of injuries that occur after a soft tissue trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Soft Tissue Injuries/therapy , Lower Extremity/injuries , Locomotion
6.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 1005-1010, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011089

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the diversity and clinical effect of supraclavicular island flap in repairing the defect after head and neck tumor surgery. Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 30 patients who received the repair of head and neck defects with supraclavicular island flaps at Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2017 to March 2023. The sites and types of defects, intraoperative blood loss, time of flaps preparation, areas of flaps, survival of the flaps and other complications were recorded. Results:A total of 30 patients were enrolled, including 26 males and 4 females, aged 36-82 years. Among them, 22 patients with hypopharyngeal partial defect were repaired (19 patients with ipsilateral defect and 3 patients with contralateral defect). In addition, 2 patients were repaired with contralateral pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap around the hypopharynx, the neck skin defect was repaired in 2 patients, the parotid skin defect was repaired in 2 patients, the temporal bone skin defect was repaired in 1 patient, and the cervical esophageal defect was repaired in 1 patient. The average blood loss during the operation was 8 ml, and the average time was 32 min. The flap areas ranged from 5.0 cm×4.0 cm to 20.0 cm×8.0 cm. 27 of 30 flaps survived(90.0%), and pharyngeal fistula occurred in 6 patients after operation(4 flaps survived after local dressing). One patient was complicated with venous thrombosis(the flap necrosis after local dressing). Shoulder and neck functions(lift, internal rotation and abduction) were not significantly affected in 29 patients, and the function of 1 patient with shoulder infection was not affected after treatment. Conclusion:Supraclavicular island flap is a highly vascularized axial fascial flap. It is easy to make, thin, and soft in texture, and can be used to repair different sites and types of postoperative head and neck tumor defects with a low donor site complication rate. Good results in post-operative repair of head and neck tumors are worth promoting.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Surgical Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery
7.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1501-1504, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of plantar medial thin skin flaps preserving plantar fascia with its superficial fascia tissue to repair skin defects in hands and feet.@*METHODS@#Between July 2017 and January 2023, 35 cases of hand and foot defects were repaired with plantar medial thin skin flaps preserving plantar fascia with its superficial fascia tissue (13 pedicled flaps and 22 free flaps). There were 18 males and 17 females, with an average age of 38.8 years (range, 8-56 years). Thirty cases of defects were caused by trauma, and the interval between injury and admission ranged from 2 to 6 hours (mean, 3.3 hours). Three cases were ulcer wounds with a course of 3.0, 3.8, and 7.0 months, respectively. Two cases were malignant melanoma. Eight cases of wounds located in the fingers, 13 cases in the palm, 12 cases in the heel, and 2 cases in the distal foot. The size of skin defects ranged from 4.0 cm×3.5 cm to 12.0 cm×10.0 cm, and the size of flap ranged from 5.0 cm×4.5 cm to 13.0 cm×11.0 cm. The donor sites were repaired with skin grafts.@*RESULTS@#All flaps were survived and the wounds healed by first intention after operation. The partial necrosis at the edge of the skin graft occurred in 1 case, which healed after dressing change; the other skin grafts survived successfully. All patients were followed up 6-24 months (mean, 18 months). The flaps exhibited similar color and thickness to the surrounding hand and foot skin. Two-point discrimination ranged from 7 to 10 mm in the flaps with an average of 8 mm. The donor sites had no painful scars or sensory abnormalities. Foot and ankle functions were good and gaits were normal.@*CONCLUSION@#Application of plantar medial thin skin flaps preserving plantar fascia with its superficial fascia tissue to repair skin defects in hands and feet had good flap shape, high survival rate of skin graft at the donor site, and no obvious complications.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Subcutaneous Tissue/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Skin Transplantation , Fascia , Free Tissue Flaps , Treatment Outcome , Perforator Flap
8.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1496-1500, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009089

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effectiveness of finger reconstruction using nail flap anastomosing the nerve branch of the first toe nail bed.@*METHODS@#Between January 2016 and December 2022, 18 patients (18 fingers) with thumb or finger nail bed defects were admitted. There were 12 males and 6 females, with an average age of 32 years (range, 19-42 years). Four cases were finger tip tissue damage caused by machine compression, and 4 cases were distal tissue necrosis after finger replantation. There were 9 cases of thumb injury, 3 cases of index finger injury, 5 cases of middle finger injury, and 1 case of ring finger injury. There were 11 cases of distal nail damage and 7 cases of distal nail root (including nail root) damage. The time from injury to admission was 1-5 hours, with an average of 2 hours. After debridement and anti-infection treatment for 5-7 days, the wounds in size of 1 cm×1 cm to 4 cm×3 cm were reconstructed by using nail flaps anastomosing the nerve branches of the first toe nail bed. The size of the nail flaps ranged from 1.5 cm×1.5 cm to 4.5 cm×3.5 cm. The donor sites were repaired with the flaps in 16 cases and skin graft in 2 cases.@*RESULTS@#All nail flaps, flaps, and skin grafts survived after operation and the wounds healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6-12 months (mean, 10 months). The nails of 18 cases were all grown, in which 16 cases had smooth nails with satisfactory appearances, 1 case had uneven nails, and 1 case had obvious scar hyperplasia around the suture opening. At 6 months after operation, the two-point discrimination of the skin flap was 4-8 mm (mean, 6 mm). Meanwhile, the skin grafts and flaps at the donor sites regained protective sensation, good abrasion resistance, and had no negative effect upon walking and wearing shoes.@*CONCLUSION@#The application of a nail flap that anastomoses the nerve branch of the first toe nail bed for finger reconstruction has minimal damage and can achieve good nail bed repair results.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Nails/injuries , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Finger Injuries/surgery , Surgical Flaps/innervation , Skin Transplantation/methods , Toes/injuries , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1418-1422, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To conduct anatomical study on the iliac crest chimeric tissue flap and summarize its effectiveness of clinical application in repairing limb wounds.@*METHODS@#Latex perfusion and anatomical study were performed on 6 fresh adult cadaver specimens with 12 sides, to observe the initial location, distribution, quantity, and direction of the common circumflexa iliac artery, the deep circumflexa iliac artery, and the superficial circumflexa iliac artery, and to measure their initial external diameter. Between December 2020 and September 2022, the iliac crest chimeric tissue flap repair was performed on 5 patients with soft tissue of limbs and bone defects. There were 3 males and 2 females, with an average age of 46 years (range, 23-60 years). Among them, there were 3 cases of radii and skin soft tissue defects and 2 cases of tibia and skin soft tissue defects. The length of bone defects was 4-8 cm and the area of skin soft tissue defects ranged from 9 cm×5 cm to 15 cm×6 cm. The length of the iliac flap was 4-8 cm and the area of skin flap ranged from 12.0 cm×5.5 cm to 16.0 cm×8.0 cm. The donor sites were directly sutured.@*RESULTS@#Anatomical studies showed that there were 10 common circumflex iliac arteries in 5 specimens, which originated from the lateral or posterolateral side of the transition between the external iliac artery and the femoral artery, with a length of 1.2-1.6 cm and an initial external diameter of 0.8-1.4 mm. In 1 specimen without common circumflexa iliac artery, the superficial and deep circumflex iliac arteries originated from the external iliac artery and the femoral artery, respectively, while the rest originated from the common circumflex iliac artery. The length of superficial circumflex iliac artery was 4.6-6.7 cm, and the initial external diameter was 0.4-0.8 mm. There were 3-6 perforator vessels along the way. The length of deep circumflex iliac artery was 7.8-9.2 cm, and the initial external diameter was 0.5-0.7 mm. There were 3-5 muscular branches, 4-6 periosteal branches, and 2-3 musculocutaneous branches along the way. Based on the anatomical observation results, all iliac crest chimeric tissue flaps were successfully resected and survived after operation. The wounds at recipient and donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 8-24 months, with an average of 12 months. The tissue flap has good appearance and soft texture. X-ray film reexamination showed that all the osteotomy healed, and no obvious bone resorption was observed during follow-up.@*CONCLUSION@#The common circumflex iliac artery, deep circumflex iliac artery, and superficial circumflex iliac artery were anatomically constant, and it was safe and reliable to use iliac crest chimeric tissue flap in repairing the soft tissue and bone defects of limbs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Ilium/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Skin Transplantation/methods , Lower Extremity/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1266-1269, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of bilateral facial perforator artery flap in repairing large area defect in middle and lower part of nose.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 18 patients with large area defect in middle and lower part of nose repaired by bilateral facial perforator artery flap between January 2019 and December 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, there were 13 males and 5 females, the age ranged from 43 to 81 years, with an average of 63 years. There were 3 cases of nasal trauma, 4 cases of basal cell carcinoma, 8 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 1 case of lymphoma, and 2 cases of large area solar keratosis. The size of the defect ranged from 3.0 cm×3.0 cm to 4.5 cm×4.0 cm; the size of unilateral flap ranged from 3.0 cm×1.3 cm to 3.5 cm×2.0 cm, and the size of bilateral flaps ranged from 3.3 cm×2.6 cm to 4.5 cm×4.0 cm.@*RESULTS@#One patient developed skin flap necrosis after operation, and a frontal skin flap was used to repair the wound; 1 case gradually improved after removing some sutures due to venous congestion in the skin flap, and the wound healing was delayed after dressing change; the remaining 16 cases of bilateral facial perforator artery flaps survived well and all wounds healed by first intention, without any "cat ear" malformation. All 18 patients had first intention healing in the donor area, leaving linear scars without obvious scar hyperplasia, and no facial organ displacement. All patients were followed up 3-12 months, with an average of 6 months. Due to the appropriate thickness of the flap, none of the 18 patients underwent secondary flap thinning surgery. All flaps had good blood circulation, similar texture and color to surrounding tissues, symmetrical bilateral nasolabial sulcus, and high patient satisfaction.@*CONCLUSION@#The bilateral facial perforator artery flaps for repairing large area defect in middle and lower part of nose can achieve good appearance and function, and the operation is relatively simple, with high patient satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Arteries/surgery , Cicatrix/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Skin Neoplasms/surgery
11.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 1259-1265, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of using indocyanine green angiography in mapping the superficial temporal vessels and assisting design and harvesting of the superficial temporal artery based forehead flap.@*METHODS@#A clinical data of 14 patients with facial soft tissue defects repaired with superficial temporal artery based forehead flaps between October 2015 and November 2022 was retrospectively analyzed. There were 9 males and 5 females with a median age of 9.5 years (range, 3-38 years). The forehead flaps were used to reconstruct facial soft tissue defects following excision of facial scar (8 cases) or congenital melanocyte nevus (6 cases). The size of defects ranged from 3 cm×2 cm to 24 cm×9 cm. Before operation, the indocyanine green angiography was used to map the superficial temporal artery and vein, and to analyze the relationship of the arteries and veins. The forehead flaps with unilateral superficial temporal fascia as the pedicle was transferred to repair the small facial defect in 2 cases. The facial pedicle contained the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery and 2 cm of the superficial temporal fascia around the vessel, and the tiny accompanying vein of the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery was used as the outflow of the flap. The forehead flaps with the skin pedicle including bilateral or unilateral superficial temporal fascia and the overlying skin was pre-expanded and transferred to repair the large facial defect in 12 cases. The skin pedicle contained the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery and one of main branches of superficial temporal vein. Among the 12 cases, the frontal branch of superficial temporal vein was used as the outflow in 4 cases, and the parietal branch was used as the outflow in 8 cases. The size of the flaps ranged from 3 cm×2 cm to 30 cm×13 cm. The skin pedicles were divided at 3 weeks after the flap transfer.@*RESULTS@#Indocyanine green angiography could clearly showed the course and branching of the superficial temporal artery and vein. Individual differences existed in the location where the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery entered the forehead. The superficial temporal vein had great variability and did not follow the artery. One patient had expander-related complication, which resulted in 3-cm flap necrosis. The necrotic tissue was debrided and repaired with skin grafting. The other flaps totally survived and the incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 2-24 months, with a median of 11.5 months. The color, texture, and thickness of the flaps matched well with those of recipient sites. Hypertrophic scar was not observed in recipient or donor site. All patients were satisfied with the reconstructive outcomes.@*CONCLUSION@#Indocyanine green angiography can clearly visualize the course and the branches of the superficial temporal arteries and veins, which can help surgeons understand the position, distribution, and concomitant relationship of the superficial temporal vessels, and make a rational surgical plan of the forehead flap.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Temporal Arteries/surgery , Indocyanine Green , Forehead/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Angiography , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Perforator Flap/blood supply , Treatment Outcome
12.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 165-174, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971166

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effects of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) hydrogel loaded with nano silver on full-thickness skin defect wounds in rats. Methods: The experimental research method was adopted. The morphology, particle diameter, and distribution of silver nanoparticles in nano silver solution with different mass concentrations and the pore structure of silver-containing GelMA hydrogel with different final mass fractions of GelMA were observed by scanning electron microscope and the pore size was calculated. On treatment day 1, 3, 7, and 14, the concentration of nano silver released from the hydrogel containing GelMA with final mass fraction of 15% and nano silver with final mass concentration of 10 mg/L was detected by mass spectrometer. At 24 h of culture, the diameters of inhibition zone of GelMA hydrogel containing final mass concentration of 0 (no nano silver), 25, 50, and 100 mg/L nano silver against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected. Fibroblasts (Fbs) and adipose stem cells (ASCs) were isolated respectively by enzymatic digestion using the discarded prepuce after circumcision from a 5-year-old healthy boy who was treated in the Department of Urology of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine in July 2020, and the discarded fat tissue after liposuction from a 23-year-old healthy woman who was treated in the Department of Plastic Surgery of the Hospital in July 2020. The Fbs were divided into blank control group (culture medium only), 2 mg/L nano sliver group, 5 mg/L nano sliver group, 10 mg/L nano sliver group, 25 mg/L nano sliver group, and 50 mg/L nano sliver group, which were added with the corresponding final mass concentrations of nano sliver solution, respectively. At 48 h of culture, the Fb proliferation viability was detected by cell counting kit 8 method. The Fbs were divided into 0 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group, 10 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group, 50 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group, and 100 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group and then were correspondingly treated. On culture day 1, 3, and 7, the Fb proliferation viability was detected as before. The ASCs were mixed into GelMA hydrogel and divided into 3D bioprinting group and non-printing group. On culture day 1, 3, and 7, the ASC proliferation viability was detected as before and cell growth was observed by live/dead cell fluorescence staining. The sample numbers in the above experiments were all 3. Four full-thickness skin defect wounds were produced on the back of 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 4 to 6 weeks. The wounds were divided into hydrogel alone group, hydrogel/nano sliver group, hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver group, and hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group, and transplanted with the corresponding scaffolds, respectively. On post injury day (PID) 4, 7, 14, and 21, the wound healing was observed and the wound healing rate was calculated (n=6). On PID 7 and 14, histopathological changes of wounds were observed by hematoxylin eosin staining (n=6). On PID 21, collagen deposition of wounds was observed by Masson staining (n=3). Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, analysis of variance for repeated measurement, Bonferroni correction, and independent sample t test. Results: The sliver nano particles in nano silver solution with different mass concentrations were all round, in scattered distribution and uniform in size. The silver-containing GelMA hydrogels with different final mass fractions of GelMA all showed pore structures of different sizes and interconnections. The pore size of silver-containing GelMA hydrogel with 10% final mass fraction was significantly larger than that of silver-containing GelMA hydrogels with 15% and 20% final mass fractions (with P values both below 0.05). On treatment day 1, 3, and 7, the concentration of nano silver released from silver-containing GelMA hydrogel in vitro showed a relatively flat trend. On treatment day 14, the concentration of released nano silver in vitro increased rapidly. At 24 h of culture, the diameters of inhibition zone of GelMA hydrogel containing 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/L nano silver against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were 0, 0, 0.7, and 2.1 mm and 0, 1.4, 3.2, and 3.3 mm, respectively. At 48 h of culture, the proliferation activity of Fbs in 2 mg/L nano silver group and 5 mg/L nano silver group was both significantly higher than that in blank control group (P<0.05), and the proliferation activity of Fbs in 10 mg/L nano silver group, 25 mg/L nano silver group, and 50 mg/L nano silver group was all significantly lower than that in blank control group (P<0.05). Compared with the that of Fbs in 0 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group, the proliferation activity of Fbs in 50 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group and 100 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group was all significantly decreased on culture day 1 (P<0.05); the proliferation activity of Fbs in 50 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group was significantly increased (P<0.05), while the proliferation activity of Fbs in 100 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group was significantly decreased on culture day 3 (P<0.05); the proliferation activity of Fbs in 100 mg/L silver-containing GelMA hydrogel group was significantly decreased on culture day 7 (P<0.05). The proliferation activity of ASCs in 3D bioprinting group show no statistically significant differences to that in non-printing group on culture day 1 (P>0.05). The proliferation activity of ASCs in 3D bioprinting group was significantly higher than that in non-printing group on culture day 3 and 7 (with t values of 21.50 and 12.95, respectively, P<0.05). On culture day 1, the number of dead ASCs in 3D bioprinting group was slightly more than that in non-printing group. On culture day 3 and 5, the majority of ASCs in 3D bioprinting group and non-printing group were living cells. On PID 4, the wounds of rats in hydrogel alone group and hydrogel/nano sliver group had more exudation, and the wounds of rats in hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver group and hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group were dry without obvious signs of infection. On PID 7, there was still a small amount of exudation on the wounds of rats in hydrogel alone group and hydrogel/nano sliver group, while the wounds of rats in hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver group and hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group were dry and scabbed. On PID 14, the hydrogels on the wound surface of rats in the four groups all fell off. On PID 21, a small area of wounds remained unhealed in hydrogel alone group. On PID 4 and 7, the wound healing rates of rats in hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group were significantly higher than those of the other three groups (P<0.05). On PID 14, the wound healing rate of rats in hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group was significantly higher than the wound healing rates in hydrogel alone group and hydrogel/nano sliver group (all P<0.05). On PID 21, the wound healing rate of rats in hydrogel alone group was significantly lower than that in hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group (P<0.05). On PID 7, the hydrogels on the wound surface of rats in the four groups remained in place; on PID 14, the hydrogel in hydrogel alone group was separated from the wounds of rats, while some hydrogels still existed in the new tissue of the wounds of rats in the other three groups. On PID 21, the collagen arrangement in the wounds of rats in hydrogel alone group was out of order, while the collagen arrangement in the wounds of rats in hydrogel/nano sliver group, and hydrogel scaffold/nano sliver/ASC group was relatively orderly. Conclusions: Silver-containing GelMA hydrogel has good biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. Its three-dimensional bioprinted double-layer structure can better integrate with new formed tissue in the full-thickness skin defect wounds in rats and promote wound healing.


Subject(s)
Male , Rats , Animals , Humans , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Bioprinting , Metal Nanoparticles , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Silver/pharmacology , Soft Tissue Injuries , Anti-Bacterial Agents
13.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 65-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971151

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical effects of island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps in the repair of sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter. Methods: The retrospective observational study was conducted. From December 2018 to December 2021, 23 patients with sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to Ganzhou People's Hospital, including 16 males and 7 females, aged 45 to 86 years. The size of pressure ulcers in ischial tuberosity ranged from 1.5 cm×1.0 cm to 8.0 cm×5.0 cm, and the size of pressure ulcers in greater trochanter ranged from 4.0 cm×3.0 cm to 20.0 cm×10.0 cm before debridement. After treatment of underlying diseases, debridement and vacuum sealing drainage for 5 to 14 days were performed. All the wounds were repaired by island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps, with area of 4.5 cm×3.0 cm-24.0 cm×12.0 cm, pedicle width of 3-5 cm, pedicle length of 5-8 cm, and rotation radius of 30-40 cm. Most of the donor site wounds were sutured directly, and only 4 donor site wounds were repaired by intermediate thickness skin graft from the contralateral thigh. The survival of composite tissue flaps, wound healing of the donor and recipient sites and the complications were observed. The recurrence of pressure ulcers, and the appearance and texture of flaps were observed during follow-up. Results: A total of 32 wounds in 23 patients were repaired by island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps (including 3 fascio subcutaneous flaps, 24 fascial flaps+fascio subcutaneous flaps, 2 fascial flaps+fascial dermal flaps, 2 fascial flaps+fascio subcutaneous flaps+femoral biceps flaps, and one fascial flap+fascio subcutaneous flap+gracilis muscle flap). Among them, 31 composite tissue flaps survived well, and a small portion of necrosis occurred in one fascial flap+fascio subcutaneous flap post surgery. The survival rate of composite tissue flap post surgery was 96.9% (31/32). Twenty-nine wounds in the recipient sites were healed, and 2 wounds were torn at the flap pedicle due to improper postural changes, and healed one week after bedside debridement. One wound was partially necrotic due to the flap bruising, and healed 10 days after re-debridement. Thirty-one wounds in the donor sites (including 4 skin graft areas) were healed, and one wound in the donor site was torn due to improper handling at discharge, and healed 15 days after re-debridement and suture. The complication rate was 12.5% (4/32), mainly the incision dehiscence of the flap pedicle and the donor sites (3 wounds), followed by venous congestion at the distal end of flap (one wound). During the follow-up of 3 to 24 months, the pressure ulcers did not recur and the flaps had good appearance and soft texture. Conclusions: The island posterior femoral composite tissue flaps has good blood circulation, large rotation radius, and sufficient tissue volume. It has a high survival rate, good wound healing, low skin grafting rate in the donor site, few postoperative complications, and good long-term effect in the repair of sinus cavity pressure ulcers in the areas of ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Skin Transplantation , Femur/surgery , Necrosis/surgery , Perforator Flap
14.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 35-44, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971147

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsive self-assembled nanomicelle loaded with pyroptosis inhibitor on full-thickness skin defects in diabetic rats. Methods: Experimental research methods were employed. A nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) 1/2 inhibitor (NOD-IN-1) was encapsulated with nanomicelle polyethylene glycol-block-polypropylene sulfide (PEG-b-PPS), and the resulting product was called PEPS@NOD-IN-1. The morphology and hydration particle size of PEG-b-PPS and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 were observed by transmission electron microscope and particle size analyzer, respectively, and the encapsulation rate and drug loading rate of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 to NOD-IN-1 and the cumulative release rate of NOD-IN-1 by PEPS@NOD-IN-1 in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) alone and hydrogen peroxide-containing PBS within 40 h were measured and calculated by microplate reader, and the sample number was 3. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6-7 weeks were injected with streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds were made on the back of each rat. The injured rats were divided into PBS group, NOD-IN-1 group, PEG-b-PPS group, and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group with corresponding treatment according to the random number table, with 6 rats in each group. The wound healing was observed on post injury day (PID) 3, 7, and 12, and the wound healing rate was calculated. The ROS levels in wound tissue were detected by immunofluorescence method on PID 3. On PID 7, the granulation tissue thickness in wound was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, the mRNA expressions of NOD1 and NOD2 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expressions of NOD1, NOD2, and GSDMD-N terminals were detected by Western blotting. Six wounds from different rats in each group were taken for detection of the above indicators. Wound tissue (3 samples per group) was taken from rats in PBS group and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group on PID 7, and transcriptome sequencing was performed using high-throughput sequencing technology platform. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly down-regulated in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group as compared with PBS group were screened, and the enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was performed. The DEG heatmap of the NOD-like receptor pathway, a pyroptosis-related pathway, was made. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of DEGs in heatmap was performed through the STRING database to screen key genes of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 regulating the NOD-like receptor pathway. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey test. Results: PEG-b-PPS and PEPS@NOD-IN-1 were in spherical structures of uniform size, with hydration particle sizes of (134.2±3.3) and (143.1±2.3) nm, respectively. The encapsulation rate of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 to NOD-IN-1 was (60±5)%, and the drug loading rate was (15±3)%. The release of NOD-IN-1 from PEPS@NOD-IN-1 in PBS alone was slow, and the cumulative release rate at 40 h was only (12.4±2.3)%. The release of NOD-IN-1 from PEPS@NOD-IN-1 in hydrogen peroxide-containing PBS within 10 h was very rapid, and the cumulative release rate at 10 h reached (90.1±3.6)%. On PID 3 and 7, the wounds of rats in the four groups were gradually healed, and the healing in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group was better than that in the other three groups. On PID 12, the wound scab area in PBS group was large, the wound epithelialization in NOD-IN-1 group and PEG-b-PPS group was obvious, and the wound in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group was close to complete epithelialization. Compared with those in PBS group, NOD-IN-1 group, and PEG-b-PPS group, the wound healing rates on PID 7 and 12 in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group were significantly increased (P<0.05), the level of ROS in wound tissue on PID 3 was significantly decreased (P<0.05), the thickness of granulation tissue in wound on PID 7 was significantly thickened (P<0.05), and the mRNA expressions of NOD1 and NOD2 and the protein expressions of NOD1, NOD2, and GSDMD-N terminals in wound tissue on PID 7 were significantly decreased (P<0.05). KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs significantly down-regulated in PEPS@NOD-IN-1 group as compared with PBS group were significantly enriched in NOD-like receptors, hypoxia-inducible factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathways. In the DEG heatmap of NOD-like receptor pathway, the genes regulating pyroptosis mainly involved NOD1, NOD2, NOD-like receptor thermoprotein domain-related protein 3, Jun, signal transduction and transcriptional activator 1 (STAT1), TNF-α-induced protein 3. The PPI results showed that NOD1, NOD2, and STAT1 were the key genes of PEPS@NOD-IN-1 regulating the NOD-like receptor pathway. Conclusions: PEPS@NOD-IN-1 can down-regulate the level of local ROS in wounds and the expression of NOD1, NOD2, and GSDMD-N terminals, the key regulators of pyroptosis, thereby promoting the repair of full-thickness skin defect wounds in diabetic rats. PEPS@NOD-IN-1 can also significantly down-regulate the pyroptosis, inflammation, and hypoxia-related pathways of wounds, and regulate NOD-like receptor pathways by down-regulating key genes NOD1, NOD2, and STAT1.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species , Wound Healing , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pyroptosis , Skin Abnormalities , Soft Tissue Injuries , NLR Proteins , Hypoxia , RNA, Messenger
15.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 15-24, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of interleukin-4-modified gold nanoparticle (IL-4-AuNP) on the wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental research methods were adopted. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and IL-4-AuNP were synthesized by improving the methods described in published literature. The morphology of those two particles were photographed by transmission electron microscopy, and their particle sizes were calculated. The surface potential and hydration particle size of the two particles were detected by nanoparticle potentiometer and particle size analyzer, respectively. The clearance rate of IL-4-AuNP to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion was measured by hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion kits, respectively. Mouse fibroblast line 3T3 cells were used and divided into the following groups by the random number table (the same below): blank control group, hydrogen peroxide alone group treated with hydrogen peroxide only, hydrogen peroxide+IL-4-AuNP group treated with IL-4-AuNP for 0.5 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide. After 24 h of culture, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels of cells were detected by immunofluorescence method; cell count kit 8 was used to detect relative cell survival rate. The macrophage Raw264.7 mouse cells were then used and divided into blank control group and IL-4-AuNP group that treated with IL-4-AuNP. After 24 h of culture, the expression of arginase 1 (Arg-1) in cells was observed by immunofluorescence method. Twelve male BALB/c mice (mouse age, sex, and strain, the same below) aged 8 to 10 weeks were divided into IL-4-AuNP group and blank control group, treated accordingly. On the 16th day of treatment, whole blood samples were collected from mice for analysis of white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin level, or platelet count and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), urea, or creatinine. The inflammation, bleeding, or necrosis in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney tissue of mice were detected by hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Another 36 mice were selected to make diabetic model, and the full-thickness skin defect wounds were made on the back of these mice. The wounds were divided into blank control group, AuNP alone group, and IL-4-AuNP group, with 12 mice in each group, and treated accordingly. On the 0 (immediately), 4th, 9th, and 15th day of treatment, the wound condition was observed and the wound area was calculated. On the 9th day of treatment, HE staining was used to detect the length of neonatal epithelium and the thickness of granulation tissue in the wound. On the 15th day of treatment, immunofluorescence method was used to detect ROS level and the number of Arg-1 positive cells in the wound tissue. The number of samples was 6 in all cases. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, corrected t test, Tukey test, or Dunnett T3 test. Results: The size of prepared AuNP and IL-4-AuNP were uniform. The particle size, surface potential, and hydration particle size of AuNP and IL-4-AuNP were (13.0±2.1) and (13.9±2.5) nm, (-45.8±3.2) and (-20.3±2.2) mV, (14±3) and (16±4) nm, respectively. For IL-4-AuNP, the clearance rate to hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion were (69±4)% and (52±5)%, respectively. After 24 h of culture, the ROS level of 3T3 in hydrogen peroxide alone group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (q=26.12, P<0.05); the ROS level of hydrogen peroxide+IL-4-AuNP group was significantly lower than that in hydrogen peroxide alone group (q=25.12, P<0.05) and close to that in blank control group (P>0.05). After 24 h of culture, the relative survival rate of 3T3 cells in hydrogen peroxide+IL-4-AuNP group was significantly higher than that in hydrogen peroxide alone group (t=51.44, P<0.05). After 24 h of culture, Arg-1 expression of Raw264.7 cells in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly higher than that in blank control group (t'=8.83, P<0.05).On the 16th day of treatment, there were no significant statistically differences in WBC, RBC, hemoglobin level, or platelet count and the level of AST, ALT, urea, or creatinine of mice between blank control group and IL-4-AuNP group (P>0.05). No obvious inflammation, bleeding or necrosis was observed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney of important organs in IL-4-AuNP group, and no significant changes were observed compared with blank control group. On the 0 and 4th day of treatment, the wound area of diabetic mice in blank control group, AuNP alone group, and IL-4-AuNP group had no significant difference (P>0.05). On the 9th day of treatment, the wound areas both in AuNP alone group and IL-4-AuNP group were significantly smaller than that in blank control group (with q values of 9.45 and 14.87, respectively, P<0.05), the wound area in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly smaller than that in AuNP alone group (q=5.42, P<0.05). On the 15th day of treatment, the wound areas both in AuNP alone group and IL-4-AuNP group were significantly smaller than that in blank control group (with q values of 4.84 and 20.64, respectively, P<0.05), the wound area in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly smaller than that in AuNP alone group (q=15.80, P<0.05); moreover, inflammations such as redness and swelling were significantly reduced in IL-4-AuNP group compared with the other two groups. On the 9th day of treatment, compared with blank control group and AuNP alone group, the length of neonatal epithelium in the wound of diabetic mice in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly longer (all P<0.05), and the thickness of the granulation tissue in the wound was significantly increased (with q values of 11.33 and 9.65, respectively, all P<0.05). On the 15th day of treatment, compared with blank control group, ROS levels in wound tissue of diabetic mice in AuNP alone group and IL-4-AuNP group were significantly decreased (P<0.05). On the 15th day of treatment, the number of Arg-1 positive cells in the wounds of diabetic mice in IL-4-AuNP group was significantly more than that in blank control group and AuNP alone group, respectively (all P<0.05). Conclusions: IL-4-AuNP is safe in vivo, and can improve the oxidative microenvironment by removing ROS and induce macrophage polarization towards M2 phenotype, thus promote efficient diabetic wound healing and regeneration of full-thickness skin defects in diabetic mice.


Subject(s)
Mice , Male , Animals , Interleukin-4 , Gold/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Creatinine , Hydrogen Peroxide , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxides , Metal Nanoparticles , Soft Tissue Injuries , Antibodies , Inflammation , Necrosis , Hemoglobins
16.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 9-14, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971144

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous wounds are one of the commonest clinical diseases. At present, there are still many challenges in how to repair wounds quickly with high quality. With the rapid development and cross-integration of materials science and biomedicine, hydrogels that can integrate various excellent properties through flexible structural modification and combination of different functional components are widely applied in wound management and research. This paper attempted to summarize the role of hydrogel in promoting wound repair from the respects of matrix materials, special structures, and diverse functions of hydrogel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Wound Healing , Soft Tissue Injuries
17.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 27-32, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970962

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#There are many infectious and inflammatory causes for elevated core-body temperatures, though they rarely pass 40 ℃ (104 ℉). The term "quad fever" is used for extreme hyperpyrexia in the setting of acute cervical spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The traditional methods of treating hyperpyrexia are often ineffective and reported morbidity and mortality rates approach 100%. This study aims to identify the incidence of elevated temperatures in SCIs at our institution and assess the effectiveness of using a non-invasive dry water temperature management system as a treatment modality with mortality.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of acute SCI patients requiring surgical intensive care unit admission who experienced fevers ≥ 40 ℃ (104 ℉) were compared to patients with maximum temperatures < 40 ℃. Patients ≥18 years old who sustained an acute traumatic SCI were included in this study. Patients who expired in the emergency department; had a SCI without radiologic abnormality; had neuropraxia; were admitted to any location other than the surgical intensive care unit; or had positive blood cultures were excluded. SAS 9.4 was used to conduct statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#Over the 9-year study period, 35 patients were admitted to the surgical intensive care unit with a verified SCI. Seven patients experienced maximum temperatures of ≥ 40 ℃. Six of those patients were treated with the dry water temperature management system with an overall mortality of 57.1% in this subgroup. The mortality rate for the 28 patients who experienced a maximum temperature of ≤ 40 ℃ was 21.4% (p = 0.16).@*CONCLUSION@#The diagnosis of quad fever should be considered in patients with cervical SCI in the presence of hyperthermia. In this study, there was no significant difference in mortality between quad fever patients treated with a dry water temperature management system versus SCI patients without quad fever. The early use of a dry water temperature management system appears to decrease the mortality rate of quad fever.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Hyperthermia , Retrospective Studies , Cervical Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Neck Injuries , Soft Tissue Injuries , Hyperthermia, Induced
18.
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 415-423, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982256

ABSTRACT

Soft tissue is an indispensable tissue in human body. It plays an important role in protecting the body from external physical, chemical or biological factors. Mild soft tissue injuries can self-heal, while severe soft tissue injuries may require related treatment. Natural polymers (such as chitosan, hyaluronic acid, and collagen) and synthetic polymers (such as polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid) exhibit good biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity. It can be used for soft tissue repairs for antibacterial, hemostatic and wound healing purposes. Their related properties can be enhanced through modification or preparation of composite materials. Commonly used soft tissue repairs include wound dressings, biological patches, medical tissue adhesives, and tissue engineering scaffolds. This study introduces the properties, mechanisms of action and applications of various soft tissue repair medical materials, including chitosan, hyaluronic acid, collagen, polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid, and provides an outlook on the application prospects of soft tissue repair medical materials and products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Hyaluronic Acid , Tissue Scaffolds/chemistry , Collagen/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols , Soft Tissue Injuries
19.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 564-569, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore a surgical method for the reconstruction of volar soft tissue defect and sensory and vascular repair in middle and far phalangeal digits.@*METHODS@#From January 2016 to January 2020, a total of 14 patients , 9 males and 5 females, ages ranging from 22 to 69 years old, and with volar soft tissue defects in the middle and distal digits 2 to 4, underwent surgical reconstruction using the V-Y shaped flap with digital artery and nerve at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The defect area was (2.0~2.5) cm×(1.5 ~2.0) cm. The procedure involved the harvest of a V-Y shaped flap with the digital artery and nerve from the metacarpophalangeal joint. Flap design, dissection of blood vessels and nerves, and anastomosis with the digital artery and nerve were performed according to a standardized protocol., Functional exercise of affected finger was initiated 3 weeks postoperatively. Subsequent assessments were conducted to evaluate finger pulp sensation, shape and other relevant parameters. According to the upper extremity functional evaluation standard set up by Hand Surgery Branch of Chinese Medical Association, the surgical outcomes were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#All 14 cases demonstrated successful tissue transplantation, , with immediate recovery of sensation observed in 10 cases with distal finger pulp defects. Four patients with middle phalangeal defects experienced gradual sensory recovery within 2 to 3 months postoperatively. Thirteen patients were followed up for a mean duration of (8.8 ± 4.49) months, during which satisfactory outcomes were observed. The average two-point resolution of the finger pulp was 4-6mm, and sensory function evaluation yielded a score of S3 or above. Patients exhibited realistic finger shape, normal skin color and temperature, good wear resistance, and cold resistance. Furthermore, finger joint function was essentially normal.@*CONCLUSION@#The V-Y shaped flap with digital artery and nerve at the metacarpophalangeal joint offers a suitable solution for repairing the defect of the middle or distal phalangeal finger. This technique is characterized by its simplicity, low risk, and favorable outcomes, including restored finger shape, blood supply and sensation. Moreover, high patient satisfaction was achieved.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation , Finger Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Fingers/surgery , Ulnar Artery/surgery , Metacarpophalangeal Joint/surgery
20.
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery ; (12): 717-720, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effectiveness of neurovascular staghorn flap for repairing defects in fingertips.@*METHODS@#Between August 2019 and October 2021, a total of 15 fingertips defects were repaired with neurovascular staghorn flap. There were 8 males and 7 females with an average age of 44 years (range, 28-65 years). The causes of injury included 8 cases of machine crush injury, 4 cases of heavy object crush injury, and 3 cases of cutting injury. There were 1 case of thumb, 5 cases of index finger, 6 cases of middle finger, 2 cases of ring finger, and 1 case of little finger. There were 12 cases in emergency, and 3 cases with finger tip necrosis after trauma suture. Bone and tendon exposed in all cases. The range of fingertip defect was 1.2 cm×0.8 cm to 1.8 cm×1.5 cm, and the range of skin flap was 2.0 cm×1.5 cm to 2.5 cm×2.0 cm. The donor site was sutured directly.@*RESULTS@#All flaps survived without infection or necrosis, and the incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 6-12 months, with an average of 10 months. At last follow-up, the appearance of the flap was satisfactory, the wear resistance was good, the color was similar to the skin of the finger pulp, and there was no swelling; the two-point discrimination of the flap was 3-5 mm. One patient had linear scar contracture on the palmar side with slight limitation of flexion and extension, which had little effect on the function; the other patients had no obvious scar contracture, good flexion and extension of the fingers, and no dysfunction. The finger function was evaluated according to the total range of motion (TAM) system of the Hand Surgery Society of Chinese Medical Association, and excellent results were obtained in 13 cases and good results in 2 cases.@*CONCLUSION@#The neurovascular staghorn flap is a simple and reliable method to repair fingertip defect. The flap has a good fit with the wound without wasting skin. The appearance and function of the finger are satisfactory after operation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Cicatrix/surgery , Contracture/surgery , Crush Injuries/surgery , Finger Injuries/surgery , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Skin Transplantation/methods , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Treatment Outcome
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