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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1225-1236, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1345275

ABSTRACT

As an essential trace element for animals, copper significantly contributes to the growth and health of animals. Compared to inorganic trace elements, organic trace elements are better supplements; notably, they are acquired through microbial transformation. Therefore, we screened for copper-enriched microorganisms from high copper content soil to obtain organic copper. Sodium diethyldithio carbamate trihydrate was applied as a chromogenic agent for determining micro amounts of intracellular copper through spectrophotometry. In total, 50 fungi were isolated after the successful application of the screening platform for copper-rich microbes. Following morphological and molecular biology analyses, the N-2 strain, identified as Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrated showed better copper enrichment potential than others. Notably, the strain tolerance to copper was nearly thrice that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, up to 1600mg/L. The content of the organic bound copper was 22.84mg Cu/g dry cell. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) response surface method, we optimized the fermentation condition (inoculation amount, 13%; temperature, 28(C; pH, 5.0). Compared to the original strain results under the single factor fermentation condition, we reported an increase by 24.18% under the optimized conditions. Collectively, these findings provide a reference for uncovering new and low-cost organic copper additives.(AU)


Como elemento traço essencial para os animais, o cobre contribui significativamente para o crescimento e saúde dos animais. Comparado aos oligoelementos inorgânicos, os oligoelementos orgânicos são melhores suplementos; notavelmente, eles são adquiridos através de transformação microbiana. Portanto, nós selecionamos microorganismos enriquecidos com cobre de solos com alto teor de cobre para obter cobre orgânico. O carbamato de sódio diethyldithio trihidratado foi aplicado como agente cromogênico para a determinação de micro quantidades de cobre intracelular através da espectrofotometria. No total, 50 fungos foram isolados após a aplicação bem sucedida da plataforma de triagem para micróbios ricos em cobre. Após análises morfológicas e de biologia molecular, a cepa N-2, identificada como Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrou um melhor potencial de enriquecimento de cobre do que outras. Notavelmente, a tolerância da estirpe ao cobre foi quase três vezes maior que a da Saccharomyces cerevisiae, até 1600mg/L. O conteúdo de cobre ligado orgânico era de 22,84mg Cu/g de célula seca. Usando o método de superfície de resposta Central Composite Design (CCD), nós otimizamos a condição de fermentação (quantidade de inoculação, 13%; temperatura, 28C; pH, 5,0). Em comparação com os resultados da deformação original sob a condição de fermentação de fator único, relatamos um aumento de 24,18% sob as condições otimizadas. Coletivamente, estas descobertas fornecem uma referência para descobrir novos aditivos de cobre orgânico de baixo custo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Analysis , Copper , Food Additives , Aspergillus , Soil Microbiology , Soil Treatment , Sus scrofa
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878882

ABSTRACT

The natural forest and artificial shed are the main cropping modes of Coptis chinensis. This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure difference between under tow C. chinensis cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed, and to assist us to completely understand soil quality condition,and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under tow cropping modes-natural forest and artificial shed were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the alpha diversity, community composition, community structure of soil bacteria under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil bacterial community structure. Through the analysis of species number, Shannon, Chao1 index and ACE index of bacterial community, it was found that the bacterial diversity of 1-year-old C. chinensis soil under natural forest cropping mode was significantly lower than that under artificial shed cropping mode, and the diversity of bacterial communities in soil of 2-5-years old C. chinensis were not significant different between two cropping modes. A total of 53 phyla,60 classes,140 orders and 266 families were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest, respectively. The rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of artificial shed included 54 phyla,65 classes,140 orders and 264 families, respectively. Under the two cropping modes, the top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance are the same, they are Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria,Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria, but there are differences in the abundance sequence. The top 10 dominant species of bacterial community abundance accounted for 74.36% to 74.30% of the total bacteria, and 3.15% to 3.92% of the bacteria are unclassified. The results of Metastat analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonadetes in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes the artificial shed was significantly higher than that under the natural forest cropping mode(P<0.05). MRPP analysis of community structure differences showed that under tow cropping modes, there were significant differences in the bacterial community structure of 1-4-year-old soil bacteria, among which the difference between 1-year-old soil samples was the largest. With the increase of cropping years, the difference gradually decreases, and there is no significant difference in the bacterial community structure between 5-year-old soil samples. RDA analysis and correlation analysis of bacterial community structure and soil physical and chemical properties showed that the order of environmental factors on the rhizosphere soil bacteria of Coptis chinensis was: pH>available P> total P> total K>bulk density>total N>available N>organic matter. The results are helpful to understand the soil health of C. chinensis and provide scientific basis and theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Coptis , Forests , Humans , Infant , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 46: 38-49, jul. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE), a unitary R configuration aromatic oxyphenoxypropionic acid ester (AOPP) herbicide, was widely used and had led to detrimental environmental effects. For finding the QPEdegrading bacteria and promoting the biodegradation of QPE, a series of studies were carried out. RESULTS: A QPE-degrading bacterial strain YC-XJ1 was isolated from desert soil and identified as Methylobacterium populi, which could degrade QPE with methanol by cometabolism. Ninety-seven percent of QPE (50 mg/L) could be degraded within 72 h under optimum biodegradation condition of 35°C and pH 8.0. The maximum degradation rate of QPE was 1.4 mg/L/h, and the strain YC-XJ1 exhibited some certain salinity tolerance. Two novel metabolites, 2-hydroxy-6-chloroquinoxaline and quinoxaline, were found by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. The metabolic pathway of QPE was predicted. The catalytic efficiency of strain YC-XJ1 toward different AOPPs herbicides in descending order was as follows: haloxyfop-pmethyl ≈ diclofop-methyl ≈ fluazifop-p-butyl N clodinafop-propargyl N cyhalofop-butyl N quizalofop-p-ethyl N fenoxaprop-p-ethyl N propaquizafop N quizalofop-p-tefuryl. The genome of strain YC-XJ1 was sequenced using a combination of PacBio RS II and Illumina platforms. According to the annotation result, one α/ß hydrolase gene was selected and named qpeh1, for which QPE-degrading function has obtained validation. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment with other QPE-degrading esterases reported previously, the QPEH1 was clustered with esterase family V. CONCLUSION: M. populi YC-XJ1 could degrade QPE with a novel pathway, and the qpeh1 gene was identified as one of QPE-degrading esterase gene.


Subject(s)
Propionates/metabolism , Quinoxalines/metabolism , Methylobacterium/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Methylobacterium/enzymology , Methylobacterium/genetics , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Esterases/analysis , Esterases/metabolism , Herbicides , Hydrolases/analysis , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hydrolysis
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e163783, mai. 2020. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1122177

ABSTRACT

Soil contamination by dog and cat feces can become a public health problem due to the transmission of various etiologic agents that cause zoonoses. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of geohelminths in the soil of some public square areas of the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon. Five public squares were selected, and soil samples collection was performed from April 2014 to March 2015. The samples were processed by using the Baermann-Moraes and centrifugal-flotation methods. Geohelminths positivity was of 25% for Tox o c ara spp., 6.6% for the Ancylostomatoidea Superfamily and 1.6 for Trichuris spp.. Measures should be implemented to prevent the free access of animals to these places, as well as deworming of stray dogs and cats and the implementation of population control and policies for such animals.(AU)


A contaminação do solo por fezes de cães e gatos pode se tornar um problema de saúde pública devido à transmissão de vários agentes etiológicos que causam zoonoses. Este estudo objetivou verificar a ocorrência de geohelmintos no solo de praças públicas do município de Rio Branco, estado do Acre, Brasil. Cinco praças públicas foram selecionadas e amostras de solo foram colhidas entre abril de 2014 e março de 2015. As amostras foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e centrífugo-flutuação. A positividade observada para geohelmintos foi de 25% para Tox o c ara spp., 6,6% para a Superfamília Ancylostomatoidea e 1,6% para Trichuris spp.. Medidas devem ser implementadas para prevenir a livre circulação de animais nestes locais, bem como a desverminação de cães e gatos de rua e a implementação de políticas de adoção e controle populacional de cães e gatos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Soil Microbiology , Toxocara/isolation & purification , Ancylostomatoidea/isolation & purification , Environmental Pollution , Brazil , Zoonoses , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Amazonian Ecosystem , Gardens
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 30-37, May 15, 2020. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, microbial genome sequencing has been restrained to the species grown in pure culture. The development of culture-independent techniques over the last decade allows scientists to sequence microbial communities directly from environmental samples. Metagenomics is the study of complex genome by the isolation of DNA of the whole community. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of metagenomic DNA gives information about the microbial and taxonomical characterization of a particular niche. The objective of the present research is to study the microbial and taxonomical characterization of the metagenomic DNA, isolated from the frozen soil sample of a glacier in the north western Himalayas through NGS. RESULTS: The glacier community comprised of 16 phyla with the representation of members belonging to Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The number of genes annotated through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GO, Pfam, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), and FIG databases were generated by COGNIZER. The annotation of genes assigned in each group from the metagenomics data through COG database and the number of genes annotated in different pathways through KEGG database were reported. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that the glacier soil taken in the present study, harbors taxonomically and metabolically diverse communities. The major bacterial group present in the niche is Proteobacteria followed by Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, etc. Different genes were annotated through COG and KEGG databases that integrate genomic, chemical, and systemic functional information.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cold Climate , Computational Biology , Ice Cover , Metagenomics , Genome, Microbial , India
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878801

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to reveal the rhizosphere soil fungal community structure difference of Coptis chinensis cropping between natural forest and artificial shed modes, and provide theoretical guidance for soil improvement and C. chinensis planting. The rhizosphere soil samples of 1-5-year-old C. chinensis under natural forest and artificial shed modes were collected. Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the community structure and diversity of soil fungi under the tow cropping modes,and the effects of soil nutriment indices on soil fungal community structure. The results suggested that the abundance and diversity of fungal communities in soil of 2-5-year-old C. chinensis were not significant different in both two cropping modes, but it was significantly higher than that in the 1-year-old C. chinensis. Comparing soil samples from the same year-old C. chinensis under the two cropping modes, it was found that there was no significant difference in the abundance and diversity of fungal communities. The fungal community of the rhizosphere soil was different in composition and abundance between tow cropping modes, and between different planting years. The 17 phyla,59 classes and 155 orders,and 17 phyla,59 classes and 157 orders were detected in the rhizosphere soil of C. chinensis under the cropping modes of natural forest and the artificial shed, respectively. Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were dominant phyla in rhizosphere soil, and the average abundance of the 3 phyla accounted for 74.36% and 74.30% of the total fungi. The results of analysis of similarities showed that there were significant differences in the fungal community structure of 1-year-old and 2-year-old C. chinensis soil fungi, and there was no significant difference in the community structure of 3-5-year-old samples. Under the natural forest cropping mode, there were significant differences among the samples of different years. Under the artificial shed cropping, there were significant differences in fungal community structure between 1-year-old and 3-5-year-old C. chinensis soil, and between 2-year-old and 3-5-year-old C. chinensis soil. The results of canonical correlation analysis showed that soil pH and soil organic matter content were the main factors affecting the soil fungal community structure. Soil organic matter content was positively correlated with Basidiomycota and Cryptomycota, pH was negatively correlated with Basidiomycota and C. ryptomycota. The planting of C. chinensis has promoted the diversity and abundance of rhizosphere fungal community significantly. For the same year-old C. chinensis soil, abundance of fungal community was no significant difference between two cropping modes. There are significant differences in the rhizosphere soil fungal community structure between tow cropping modes in the first two years of planting. Through the interaction between the rhizosphere and the soil and the continuous selection of the rhizosphere to the fungal community, the fungal community structure tended to be the same between the two cropping modes in rhizosphere soil of 3-5-year old C. chinensis. The soil pH and orga-nic matter content were the main factors affecting the change of fungal community structure.


Subject(s)
Coptis , Forests , Fungi , Mycobiome , Plant Roots , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878780

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of Polygonum multiflorum-Andrographis paniculata intercropping system on rhizosphere soil actinomycetes of P. multiflorum, the community structure and diversity of soil actinomycetes were studied by using the original soil as the control group and the rhizosphere soil actinomycetes communities of P. multiflorum under monoculture and intercropping systems as the experimental group. In this study 655 221 effective sequences were obtained with an average length of 408 bp. OTU coverage and rarefaction curve showed that the sequencing could represent the real situation of soil actinomycetes. According to the results of alpha diversity analysis, the diversity soil actinomycetes varied as follows: original soil>intercropping soil>monoculture soil. The soil actinomycetes community structure and the relative abundance of dominant genera were significantly changed by both monoculture and intercropping, especially monoculture. OTU clustering and PCA analysis of soil samples showed that all the soil samples were divided into three distinct groups and the original soil was more similar to intercropping soil. In addition, intercropping increased the relative abundance of some beneficial actinomyces, such as Kitasatospora and Mycobacterium, which was beneficial to maintain soil health and reduce the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. The results show that, P. multiflorum-A. paniculata intercropping reduced the change of community structure and the decrease of diversity of soil actinomycetes caused by P. multiflorum monoculture, and made the actinomycete community in rhizosphere soil of P. multiflorum close to the original soil.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria , Actinomyces , Agriculture , Andrographis , Fallopia multiflora , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2657-2673, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878519

ABSTRACT

To investigate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the changes of rhizosphere microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil of Leymus chinensis during the remediation of PAHs contaminated soil by Comamonas testosteroni (C.t)-assisted Leymus chinensis, we evaluated the removal of PAHs in the rhizosphere of Leymus chinensis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analyzed the bacterial community and the diversity in Leymus chinensis rhizosphere soil by high-throughput sequencing technology, characterized the correlation among PAHs degradation and bacterial community components performing redundancy analysis (RDA) and network analysis, and predicted PAHs degradation potential via PICRUSt software in this paper. The degradation of PAHs in the rhizosphere of Leymus chinensis was promoted, the abundance and diversity of bacteria and the correlation among bacteria and PAHs were changed, and the degradation potential of PAHs in Leymus chinensis rhizosphere soil was enhanced in the later stage of phytoremediation (60-120 d) due to the incorporation of C.t. The accelerated degradation of three PAHs (Nap, Phe, BaP) was accompanied by the differ abundance and correlation of Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas, MND1, Nordella), Actinomycetes (Rubrobacter, Gaiella), Acidobacteria (RB41) and Bacteroides (Flavobacterium) affected by C.t. The results provide new insight into the microorganism choices for microbial assisted plant remediation of soil PAHs and the mechanisms of enhanced PAHs degradation via the combination of Comamonas testosteroni engineering bacteria and plants.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Comamonas testosteroni/genetics , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2644-2656, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878518

ABSTRACT

Continuous planting of muskmelon and excessive application of chemical fertilizers have caused a series of problems, such as imbalance of the soil micro-ecological environment, serious soil-borne diseases and yield loss. Application of Bacillus subtilis agent is an important way to improve soil micro-ecological environment, prevent soil-borne diseases, and promote plant growth. In this study, B. subtilis was used as experimental agent to analyze the effects of different application methods on the soil microbial diversity and growth of muskmelon in greenhouse. The number of culturable microorganisms in soil was measured by dilution-plate method. The diversity of soil uncultivated microorganisms was determined by Illumina Miseq sequencing technology. The yield of muskmelon was measured by weighing method. The number of culturable bacteria in the root irrigation, hole application and dipping root application groups was higher than that of the control in different muskmelon growth stages, but there was no significant difference among the three different application methods. The number of soil fungi from B. subtilis agent treatment groups in flowering stage was significantly lower in comparison to the control group. However, B. subtilis agent treatment did not cause significant difference on soil fungi number at the fruiting and pulling stage. Diversity analysis of uncultured microorganisms showed that the Shannon index values of bacteria were higher and Simpson index values were lower respectively in the three B. subtilis treatment groups than that in the control. Moreover, the dipping root treatment produced the lowest Shannon index value and the highest Simpson index value of fungi. NMDS and cluster analysis showed that B. subtilis agents dipping root treatment significantly affected the bacterial and fungal flora, both of which were clustered into one independent branch. The application of B. subtilis agents, especially dipping root treatment, significantly decreased the abundance of Bacteroidetes, increased the abundance of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. The B. subtilis agent treatment didn't produce significant effect on the diversity of fungal flora except Chytridiomycota. The height, stem diameter and leaf area of muskmelon increased by applying B. subtilis agents, and dipping root treatment produced the most significant effect. As a new type of environmental protection fertilizer, B. subtilis agent can increase the number of soil culturable microorganisms, improve soil microbial diversity, and promote growth and yield. This study would provide a scientific basis for the rational application of B. subtilis.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/genetics , Fertilizers , Fungi , Soil , Soil Microbiology
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200208, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135227

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioides spp. isolation from environmental samples is rare and hardly reproducible. Molecular techniques have facilitated the fungal detection. However, it can be still difficult. Some strategies to enhance the capacity of DNA detection have been adopted, including the analysis of soil samples belonging to the habitat of animals from which Paracoccidioides spp. have already been isolated, notably armadillo burrows. To date, the detection of Paracoccidioides spp. has not yet been reported from outbreak hotspots. Clusters and outbreaks of acute paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), usually a more severe clinical form, have currently occurred in urban areas being associated to climate changes, deforestation, and great constructions. These occurrences potentially signalise the fungus' environmental niche, a riddle not yet solved. The authors performed an environmental investigation in a deeply disturbed area, after a highway construction in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where a recent outbreak of acute PCM occurred. Specific DNA sequences of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were detected in shallow soil samples around the highway, reinforcing the association between the road construction and this PCM outbreak.


Subject(s)
Animals , Paracoccidioides/isolation & purification , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Armadillos , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Paracoccidioides/growth & development , Paracoccidioides/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Brazil , Base Sequence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Ecosystem
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200370, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Bacillus anthracis is the aetiologic agent of anthrax, a re-emerging, septicaemic, haemorrhagic and lethal disease that affects humans, domestic ruminants and wildlife. Plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 are attributes that confer pathogenicity to B. anthracis strains. This bacterium was used as biological weapon in the World Wars and in the biological attack in the United States of America at 2001. B. anthracis is classified as a Tier 1 bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Anthrax is recognised as a re-emerging disease. Several studies concerning the dynamics of B. anthracis cycle in soil revealed that nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains due to lack of pXO2 plasmid are commonly found in some types of soil. OBJECTIVES This study aimed isolation and identification of B. anthracis spores in soil samples of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Phenotypic and genotypic approaches were used to identify isolates including MALDI-TOF/MS, motility test, susceptibility to gamma phage and penicillin, survey for pag and cap genes as surrogates of pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids, respectively, and sequencing of 16SrRNA-encoding gene. Physicochemical analysis of the soil samples were carried out to describe soil characteristics. FINDINGS We observed the presence of one B. anthracis pXO1+ and pXO2- isolated from clay loam soil; one B. anthracis-like strain pXO1+ and pXO2-isolated from loamy sand; and 10 Bacillus spp. strains sensitive to phage-gamma that need better characterisation to define which their species were recovered from loamy sand. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This work showed promising results and it was the first study to report results from an active surveillance for B. anthracis in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmids/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Spores, Bacterial , Bacillus anthracis/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Virulence Factors/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Soil , Bacillus anthracis/genetics , Bacillus anthracis/pathogenicity , Bacterial Toxins , Virulence , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Antigens, Bacterial
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828430

ABSTRACT

Soil microorganisms are one of the important biological indictors of soil quality and can reflct the comprehensive ecological environment characteristics of the soil. The research of soil microbial diversity is the key to know the ecological functions and balance with soil. In this paper, high-throughput sequencing on PCR-amplified 16 S rRNA gene V3-V4 fragments was used to determine the bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil of A. macrocephala under the treatment with BZJN1 or streptoprofen. The results showed that there were no significant differences of the bacteria in A. macrocephala rhizosphere soil of the streptoprofen treatment group and the biocontrol BZJN1 treatment group. All the soil bacteria was classified into 25 categories,67 classes, 108 orders, 167 families and 271 generas, except some unidentified bacteria. Proteobacteria(30.7%-34.8%) was the dominant phylum, of which Alphaproteobacteria(16.8%-18.5%) was the dominant subgroup. Compared with the control group, the relative abundance of multiple phylums bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of A. macrocephala was significantly changed in the streptoprofen treatment group and the biocontrol BZJN1 treatment group. In addition, RDA analysis showed that there was connection with different environmental factors and microbial communities. The abundance of the three genera in the rhizosphere soil of A. macrocephala was significantly positively correlated with Invertase, Urease and AP. PICRUSt function prediction results showed that BZNJ1 could enhance some bacterial functions and promote the plant growth. Biocontrol is a new type of green and safety control pest method. BZNJ1 significantly enhances some bacterial functions on the basis of effectively preventing root rot of A. macrocephala and promoting plant growth, and has no significant effect on the soil bacterial community structure. All the results can provide theoretical support for popularization of BZNJ1.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Bacteria , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827985

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere is the main place for the communication between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. Medicinal plants are closely related to the diversity and richness of rhizosphere microorganisms, and rhizosphere microorganisms in the rhizosphere of medicinal plants have important effects on the growth and development, yield, quality and resilience of medicinal plants. The reasonable and effective utilization of the principle of interaction between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms has practical guiding significance for promoting the growth of medicinal plants, enhancing the ability of resistance to diseases and resisting the invasion of pathogens. This paper reviewed the research status of medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms in recent years, including the influence of medicinal plants on rhizosphere microorganisms, the influence of rhizosphere microorganisms on medicinal plants and the mechanism of interaction between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. The problems existing in the study of medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms and the direction for further study were also pointed out.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1356-1364, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826841

ABSTRACT

Salinity is the most important factor for the growth of crops. It is an effective method to alleviate the toxic effect caused by salt stress using saline-alkali-tolerant and growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture. Seven salt-tolerant bacteria were screened from saline-alkali soil, and the abilities of EPS production, alkalinity reduction and IAA production of the selected strains were investigated. A dominant strain DB01 was evaluated. The abilities of EPS production, alkalinity reduction and IAA production of strain DB01 were 0.21 g/g, 8.7% and 8.97 mg/L, respectively. The isolate was identified as Halomonas aquamarina by partial sequencing analysis of its 16S rRNA genes, and had the ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp., Alternaria solani, Phytophthora sojae and Rhizoctonia cerealis. It also could promote root length and germination rate of wheat seedlings under salt stress. Halomonas aquamarina can provide theoretical basis for the development of soil microbial resources and the application in saline-alkali soil improvement.


Subject(s)
Alkalies , Metabolism , Bacteria , Genetics , Halomonas , Genetics , Plant Roots , Microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Genetics , Salt Tolerance , Genetics , Seedlings , Microbiology , Soil , Chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Triticum , Microbiology
15.
Biol. Res ; 53: 29, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124216

ABSTRACT

Abstract Arid environments are defined by the lack of water availability, which is directly related to the mean annual precipitation (MAP), and high values of solar irradiation, which impacts the community composition of animals, plants, and the microbial structure of the soil. Recent advances in NGS technologies have expanded our ability to characterize micro- biomes, allowing environmental microbiologists to explore the complete microbial structure. Intending to identify and describe the state-of-the-art of bacterial communities in arid soils at a global scale, and to address the effect that some environmental features may have on them, we performed a systematic review based on the PRISMA guideline. Using a combination of keywords, we identified a collection of 66 studies, including 327 sampled sites, reporting the arid soil bacterial community composition by 16S rDNA gene high-throughput sequencing. To identify factors that can modulate bacterial communities, we extracted the geographical, environmental, and physicochemical data. The results indicate that even though each sampled site was catalogued as arid, they show wide variability in altitude, mean annual temperature (MAT), soil pH and electric conductivity, within and between arid environments. We show that arid soils display a higher abundance of Actinobacteria and lower abundance of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Planctomycetes, compared with non-arid soil microbiomes, revealing that microbial structure seems to be strongly modulated by MAP and MAT and not by pH in arid soils. We observed that environmental and physicochemical features were scarcely described among studies, hence, we propose a reporting guideline for further analysis, which will allow deepening the knowledge of the relationship between the microbiome and abiotic factors in arid soil. Finally, to understand the academic collaborations landscape, we developed an analysis of the author's network, corroborating a low degree of connectivity and collaborations in this research topic. Considering that it is crucial to understand how microbial processes develop and change in arid soils, our analysis emphasizes the need to increase collaborations between research groups worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Plants , Soil , Proteobacteria
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180659, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132266

ABSTRACT

Abstract One of the main challenges in pepper production is to enhance seed germination energy and germination, and to grow healthy nursery plants with strong root system. Trichoderma species colonize roots as they grow and provide season-long benefits to plants, which is why Trichoderma species are widely used as plant growth promoter agents and promoters of plant defence mechanisms. This study evaluated the effectiveness of seed biopriming with Trichoderma isolates for growth promotion of pepper plants in early stage and their effects on seedling physiology. Nine out of ten Trichoderma isolates positively affected root weight of pepper seedlings, while three out of ten positively affected shoot weight. Root and shoot lengths were mainly unaffected. Germination energy was positively affected by five isolates with up to 40% increase compared to the control, while germination was significantly enhanced by two isolates with up to 22% increase. Considering seedling physiology, two different strain-dependent modes of actions were expressed. Promising Trichoderma isolates induced formation and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which acted as signal molecules that increased germination energy and germination. Positive correlation was found between pyrogallol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity and germination in plants treated with these isolates.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Trichoderma/metabolism , Germination/physiology , Genus Pimenta/growth & development , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190492, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil management influences organic matter decomposition rates as well soil microbial community functional behavior. No-till (NT) is the most used management system by farmers due to its conservation practices and high productivity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of surface-applied lime, nitrogen (N) application, and black oat residues on soil microbial community of a Typic Hapludox under continuous NT. Therefore, soil chemical attributes, microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, most probable number of diazotrophs, as well as bacterial functional analysis were performed. The effect of liming and N fertilization amendments inputs were saw in soil respiration and metabolic quotient measurements, showing them to be good indicators of soil quality. Further studies should be carried out in order to molecularly identify microbial communities present in soils with different liming and N fertilization management to evaluate the behavior of specific bacterial taxa under such conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Soil Quality , Calcium Compounds/administration & dosage , Fertilizers , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Soil Analysis , Microbiota
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190651, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142512

ABSTRACT

Abstract To accelerate the recovery of degraded environments, it is necessary to use ecological restoration techniques, which require validation according to the ecosystem conditions where are implemented. This work aimed to evaluate soil microbiological attributes under different ecological restoration technologies in a subtropical forest. The study was conducted at UTFPR-DV, southwest of Paraná, in an ecotone between Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and on an Oxisol. In December 2010, a tillage area of at least 17 years old was isolated and the passive restoration, tree planting and nucleation treatments were installed in 40x54 m plots and four replications. In November 2018 the soil was sampled in these plots and in a native forest area as a reference. There were calculated soil organic carbon content (OCC) and microbiological attributes such as microbial biomass N and C (NMIC and CMIC), basal respiration, fungal spore content and the metabolic (qCO2) and microbial quotient (MICq). It can be concluded that nucleation technology can restore soil microbiological attributes but has not yet reached the conditions of a natural environment. Passive restoration is not a good technology for restoring soil microbiological attributes. The higher contents of CMIC, NMIC, OCC, MICq and fungal spores in the soil under native forest compared to ecological restoration technologies indicate that eight years of adoption of these techniques have not yet been enough to fully recover soil microbiological activity.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Spores, Fungal , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Carbazoles , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 72-80, sept. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087172

ABSTRACT

Background: Microbial community analysis of electronic waste (e-waste)-polluted environments is of interest to understand the effect of toxic e-waste pollutants on the soil microbial community and to evaluate novel microorganisms resisting the toxic environment. The present study aims to investigate the bacterial community structure in soils contaminated with e-waste from various sites of Loni and Mandoli (National Capital Region (NCR), India) where e-waste dumping and recycling activities are being carried out for many years. Results: Interferences to soil metagenomic DNA extraction and PCR amplification were observed because of the presence of inhibiting components derived from circuit boards. Whole-metagenome sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform showed that the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Deltaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were the most common classes under Proteobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that e-waste contamination altered the soil bacterial composition and diversity. There was a decrease in the number of predominant bacterial groups like Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but emergence of Actinobacteria in the contaminated soil samples. Conclusions: This is the first report describing the bacterial community structure of composite soil samples of ewaste-contaminated sites of Loni and Mandoli, Delhi NCR, India. The findings indicate that novel bacteria with potential bioremediating properties may be present in the e-waste-contaminated sites and hence need to be evaluated further.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Electronic Waste/analysis , Soil Pollutants , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Metals, Heavy , Proteobacteria/isolation & purification , Metagenomics , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , Microbiota , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , India
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774523

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere bacteria play a vital role in plant nutrition absorption,growth and disease resistance. In this study,high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the rhizosphere bacterial communities of Salvia miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba. Moreover,the function of dominant rhizosphere bacterial communities was analyzed. We found that Sphingobacteriales,Sphingomonadales and Nitrosomonadaceae were both dominant and specific bacteria in the rhizosphere of S. miltiorrhiza. The main functions of dominant rhizosphere bacteria communities in both species include promoting transformation of soil nutrients,improving plant immunity and ability of stress tolerance. This study was the first to compare rhizobacterial communities structure and function of S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alba,which provided a new theoretical reference for studing the rhizosphere mechanism of healthy S. miltiorrhiza planting in the future.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Classification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Rhizosphere , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Microbiology , Soil Microbiology
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