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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Herbicides , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Trees , Brazil , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Rhizosphere
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240015, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is required for optimum plant growth. It is present in soil in insoluble forms. Bacterial solubilization of soil unavailable form of Zn into available form, is an emerging approach to alleviate the Zn deficiency for plants and human beings. Zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB) could be a substitute for chemical Zn fertilizer. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize bacterial species from the contaminated soil and evaluate their Zn solubilizing potential. Zn resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Zn. Among the 13 isolated bacterial strains ZSB13 showed maximum MIC value upto 30mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Zn was selected for further analysis. Molecular characterization of ZSB13 was performed by 16S rRNA gene amplification which confirmed it as Pseudomonas oleovorans. Zn solubilization was determined through plate assay and broth medium. Four insoluble salts (zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), zinc sulphite (ZnS) and zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) were used for solubilization assay. Our results shows 11 mm clear halo zone on agar plates amended with ZnO. Likewise, ZSB13 showed significant release of Zn in broth amended with ZnCO3 (17 and 16.8 ppm) and ZnO (18.2 ppm). Furthermore, Zn resistance genes czcD was also enriched in ZSB13. In our study, bacterial strain comprising Zn solubilization potential has been isolated that could be further used for the growth enhancement of crops.


Resumo O zinco é um micronutriente essencial necessário para o crescimento ideal das plantas. Ele está presente no solo em formas insolúveis. A solubilização bacteriana da forma indisponível de Zn no solo para a forma disponível é uma abordagem emergente para aliviar a deficiência de Zn em plantas e seres humanos. Bactérias solubilizadoras de zinco (ZSB) podem ser um substituto para fertilizantes químicos de Zn. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e caracterizar espécies bacterianas de solo contaminado e avaliar seu potencial de solubilização de Zn. Bactérias resistentes ao Zn foram isoladas e avaliadas quanto ao seu MIC contra o Zn. Entre as 13 cepas bacterianas isoladas, ZSB13 apresentou valor máximo de MIC de até 30 mM/L. A cepa bacteriana com maior resistência ao Zn foi selecionada para análise posterior. A caracterização molecular de ZSB13 foi realizada por amplificação do gene 16S rRNA que o confirmou como Pseudomonas oleovorans. A solubilização do Zn foi determinada através de ensaio em placa e meio caldo. Quatro sais insolúveis (óxido de zinco (ZnO), carbonato de zinco (ZnCO3), sulfito de zinco (ZnS) e fosfato de zinco (Zn3 (PO4) 2) foram usados ​​para o ensaio de solubilização. Nossos resultados mostram uma zona de halo clara de 11 mm em placas de ágar corrigidas com ZnO. Da mesma forma, ZSB13 mostrou liberação significativa de Zn em caldo alterado com ZnCO3 (17 e 16,8 ppm) e ZnO (18,2 ppm). Além disso, os genes de resistência ao Zn czcD também foram enriquecidos em ZSB13. Em nosso estudo, a cepa bacteriana compreendendo potencial de solubilização de Zn foi isolada e poderia ser usada posteriormente para o aumento do crescimento de safras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil Pollutants , Pseudomonas oleovorans , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Zinc , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2612-2623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981219

ABSTRACT

Excessive levels of cadmium (Cd) in soil exert serious negative impacts on soil ecosystems. Microorganisms are a common component of soil and show great potential for mitigating soil Cd. This review summarizes the application and remediation mechanisms of microorganisms, microbial-plants, and microbial-biochar in Cd-contaminated soil. Microorganisms such as Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can change the biological validity of Cd through adsorption, mineralization, precipitation and dissolution. Different factors such as pH, temperature, biomass, concentration, and duration have significant effects on Cd bioavailability by microorganisms. Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Flavobacterium can promote the uptake of Cd2+ by hyperaccumulator through promotion and activation. Biochar, a soil amendment, possesses unique physicochemical properties and could act as a shelter for microorganisms in agriculture. The use of combined microbial-biochar can further stabilize Cd compared to using biochar alone.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Ecosystem , Soil Pollutants , Charcoal/chemistry , Soil/chemistry
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 713-723, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970402

ABSTRACT

Iron (Fe) deficiency and excess cadmium (Cd) in rice grain are important problems to be solved in agricultural production. Previous studies have shown that OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 are vacuolar iron transporters. In this study, wild-type ZH11 was selected as the background material and OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 were overexpressed in endosperm by using endosperm specific promoter Glb-1. Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 overexpression on Fe and Cd accumulation in different parts of rice. The results showed that OsVIT1 overexpression in endosperm significantly reduced Fe content in grain by about 50%, while significantly increased zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) contents in straw and Cu content in grain. OsVIT2 overexpression in endosperm significantly decreased Fe and Cd contents in grain by about 50%, and significantly increased Fe content in straw by 45%-120%. Overexpression of OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 in endosperm did not affect the agronomic traits of rice. In conclusion, OsVIT1 and OsVIT2 overexpression in endosperm reduced Fe accumulation in rice grain, which did not achieve the expected effect. OsVIT2 overexpression in endosperm also decreased Cd accumulation in grain and increased Fe accumulation in straw, which provided reference for iron biofortification and cadmium reduction in rice.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Endosperm/chemistry , Oryza/genetics , Iron , Zinc , Edible Grain , Soil Pollutants
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38071, Jan.-Dec. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397073

ABSTRACT

Saflufenacil is a herbicide recommended for use in the main agricultural crops in Brazil to control eudicotyledonous weeds. However, the application of saflufenacil has been carried out without previous knowledge of this herbicide interactions with soil colloids, which may increase environmental contamination risks. In this study, the leaching of saflufenacil in soil samples was estimated with different organic matter contents. Therefore, PVC columns were filled with samples of Xanthic Ferralsol (XF) and Ferralsol (F), with different physical and chemical attributes. Twelve hours after herbicide (70 g i.a. ha-1) application, the PVC columns were subjected to a rainfall of 60 mm. For the evaluation of saflufenacil leaching, the columns were sectioned in ten parts with 5-cm each. Saflufenacil leached up to 50 and 40 cm deep in the samples, with the lowest contents of organic matter of XF and F, respectively. The increase in organic matter content of Ferralsol and Xanthic Ferralsol samples reduced saflufenacil leaching and the symptoms of intoxication in the indicator species. There was an inverse relation between the content of organic matter and the leaching of the herbicide in both soils studied. It was observed that the application of saflufenacil in soils with low organic matter contents may represent a significant environmental contamination risk of soils and watercourses.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Percolation , Herbicides/adverse effects
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466

ABSTRACT

The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586

ABSTRACT

This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lactuca , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1915-1928, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927827

ABSTRACT

In this study, the effects of two plant growth-promoting bacteria Klebsiella michiganensis TS8 and Lelliottia Jeotgali MR2 on the growth and cadmium (Cd) uptake of Arabidopsis thaliana under Cd stress were explored. A wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as the experimental plant and was planted at different Cd concentrations. MR2 and TS8 bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the rhizospheric soil during the planting process. The initial Cd concentration of the bought soil was 14.17 mg/kg, which was used as the pot soil of the low-concentration Cd treatment group (LC). The concentration of soil Cd at high-concentration Cd treatment group (HC) were 200 mg/kg higher than that at LC group. Compared with the control group, MR2 suspension significantly promoted the growth of A. thaliana at both low and high concentrations, while TS8 strain and MR2_TS8 mixture only exhibited growth-promoting effect at high concentration. However, it was noteworthy that, TS8 suspension significantly reduced the Cd content in the underground parts of A. thaliana (60% and 59%), and significantly improved the Cd content in the aboveground parts of A. thaliana (234% and 35%) at both low and high concentrations. In addition, at low concentration, both single strain and mixed strains significantly improved the transformation from reducible Cd to acid-extractable Cd in soil, promoted Cd intake, and thereby reduced the total Cd content in soil. Therefore, the rational application of plant growth-promoting bacteria may improve crop yield and remediate Cd contamination in soil.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Bacteria , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil , Soil Pollutants
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 287-302, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927712

ABSTRACT

As a non-essential metal, cadmium (Cd) pollution poses severe threats to plant growth, environment, and human health. Phytoextraction using nursery stocks prior to their transplantation is a potential useful approach for bioremediation of Cd contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was performed to investigate the growth, Cd accumulation, profiles of transcriptome as well as root-associated microbiomes of Photinia frase in Cd-added soil, upon inoculation of two types of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Sieverdingia tortuosa and Funneliformis mosseae. Compared with the control, inoculation of F. mosseae increased Cd concentrations in root, stem and leaf by 57.2%, 44.1% and 71.1%, respectively, contributing to a total Cd content of 182 μg/plant. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that hundreds of genes involved in 'Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway', 'plant hormone signal transduction', 'biosynthesis of secondary metabolites' and 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis' were enriched upon inoculation of F. mosseae. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was increased upon inoculation of S. tortuosa, while Chloroflexi and Patescibacteria were increased upon inoculation of F. mosseae, and the abundance of Glomerales increased from 23.0% to above 70%. Correlation analysis indicated that ethylene-responsive transcription factor, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, isoamylase and agmatine deiminase related genes were negatively associated with the relative abundance of Glomerales operational taxonomic units (OTUs) upon inoculation of F. mosseae. In addition, plant cysteine oxidase, heat shock protein, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and abscisic acid receptor related genes were positively associated with the relative abundance of Patescibacteria OTUs upon inoculation of F. mosseae. These finding suggested that AMF can enhance P. frase Cd uptake by modulating plant gene expression and altering the structure of the soil microbial community. This study provides a theoretical basis for better understanding the relationship between root-associated microbiomes and root transcriptomes of P. frase, from which a cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy for phytoextraction of Cd in Cd-polluted soil might be developed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cadmium , Microbiota , Mycorrhizae , Photinia , Soil Pollutants , Transcriptome
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1030-1035, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153419

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sheep manure in agricultural soils on the behavior of Folsomia candida and initial growth and development of Avena sativa. For this, an Oxisol was submitted to different doses of sheep manure and was subsequently evaluated for Folsomia candida survival and avoidance behavior through standardized ecotoxicological assays, the initial performance of oats by germination test and the soil basal respiration rate by respirometry methodology. There was an increase in the basal respiration rate of the soil by the application of sheep manure and this was consistent with the increase of the doses. The survival rate and avoidance behavior of springtails were not altered and there was no change in the initial performance of oats, indicating that this manure can be used for organic fertilization of soils with low soil pollutant potential.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do esterco de ovelha em solos agrícolas no comportamento de Folsomia candida e no crescimento e desenvolvimento inicial de Avena sativa. Para isso, um Latossolo foi submetido a diferentes doses de esterco de ovelha e posteriormente avaliado quanto ao comportamento de fuga e a sobrevivência de Folsomia candida por meio de ensaios ecotoxicológicos padronizados, desempenho inicial da aveia pelo teste de germinação e taxa respiratória basal do solo pela metodologia da respirometria. Houve um aumento na taxa de respiração basal do solo pela aplicação de esterco de ovelha e isso foi consistente com o aumento das doses. A taxa de sobrevivência e o comportamento de fuga dos colêmbolos não foram alterados e não houve alteração no desempenho inicial da aveia, indicando que esse esterco pode ser usado para fertilização orgânica de solos com baixo potencial poluente no solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods , Soil Pollutants , Soil , Sheep , Avena , Growth and Development , Manure
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4945-4949, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921631

ABSTRACT

The effects of four natural organic soil amendments on the quality and pesticide residues of Panax notoginseng were investigated through field experiments and the suitable dosage ratio of each soil amendment was selected to provide a new idea for the pollution-free cultivation of P. notoginseng. The four natural organic soil amendments used in this study were Jishibao, Jihuo, Fudujing, and omnipotent nutrients, which were produced by mixed fermentation of aboveground parts of different plants, biological waste residue, and biochar. During the experiments, only four soil amendments were applied to P. notoginseng instead of any pesticides and fertilizers. The experiment was designed as four factors and three levels. There were three dosage gradients(low, medium, and high) for Jishibao(A), Jihuo(B), Fudujing(C), and omnipotent nutrients(D). When the dosage of one soil amendment changed, the do-sage of the other soil amendments remained medium. There were 10 groups in addition to the soil amendment-free group as control(CK). The results showed that the four soil amendments could significantly improve the growth environment of P. notoginseng and increase the seedling survival rate and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The seedling survival rates of the treatment groups increased by 8.24%-30.05% as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng was too low to be detected, and that of heavy metals in P. notoginseng was far lower than the specified content in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The optimal effect was achieved at medium dosage for all the soil amendments with the highest content of saponins, high seedling survival rate, and significantly reduced heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Panax notoginseng , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3696-3707, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921458

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of common environmental pollutants that pose threats to human health. In this study, a mesophilic bacterial strain CFP312 (grown at 15-37 °C, optimal at 30 °C) was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil samples. It was identified as Moraxella sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical test, and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny analysis. This is the first reported PAHs degrading strains in Moraxella. Degradation analysis showed that 84% and 90% of the loaded phenanthrene (400 mg/L) were degraded within 48 h and 60 h, and the degradation rates reached 1.21 and 1.29 mg/(L·h), respectively. During the degradation of phenanthrene, phenanthrene-3,4-dihydrodiol was detected as an intermediate. Based on this, it was proposed that double oxygenation at the positions 3 and 4 of phenanthrene was the first step of biodegradation. Adaptability of strain CFP312 to different enhanced phenanthrene-degradation systems was tested in aqueous-organic system, micellar aqueous system, and cloud point system. Strain CFP312 showed good adaptability to different systems. In addition, the bacterium can rapidly degrade the phenanthrene in contaminated soil in slurry-aqueous system, indicating great potential in environmental remediation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biodegradation, Environmental , Phenanthrenes , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3636-3652, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921453

ABSTRACT

With continuous improvement of people's living standards, great efforts have been paid to environmental protection. Among those environmental issues, soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons has received widespread concerns due to the persistence and the degradation difficulty of the pollutants. Among the various remediation technologies, in-situ microbial remediation enhancement technologies have become the current hotspot because of its low cost, environmental friendliness, and in-situ availability. This review summarizes several in-situ microbial remediation technologies such as bioaugmentation, biostimulation, and integrated remediation, as well as their engineering applications, providing references for the selection of in-situ bioremediation technologies in engineering applications. Moreover, this review discusses future research directions in this area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biodegradation, Environmental , Hydrocarbons , Petroleum , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3622-3635, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921452

ABSTRACT

Bioremediation is considered as a cost-effective, efficient and free-of-secondary-pollution technology for petroleum pollution remediation. Due to the limitation of soil environmental conditions and the nature of petroleum pollutants, the insufficient number and the low growth rate of indigenous petroleum-degrading microorganisms in soil lead to long remediation cycle and poor remediation efficiency. Bioaugmentation can effectively improve the biodegradation efficiency. By supplying functional microbes or microbial consortia, immobilized microbes, surfactants and growth substrates, the remediation effect of indigenous microorganisms on petroleum pollutants in soil can be boosted. This article summarizes the reported petroleum-degrading microbes and the main factors influencing microbial remediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Moreover, this article discusses a variety of effective strategies to enhance the bioremediation efficiency, as well as future directions of bioaugmentation strategies.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Petroleum , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3604-3621, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921451

ABSTRACT

The remediation of heavy-metal (HM) contaminated soil using hyperaccumulators is one of the important solutions to address the inorganic contamination widely occurred worldwide. Hyperaccumulators are able to hyperaccumulate HMs, but their planting, growth, and extraction capacities are greatly affected by HM stress. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the function of hyperaccumulators by combining the functional advantages of both, improving the efficiency of remediation, shortening the remediation cycle, and maintaining the stability and persistence of the remediation. Thus, the combined use of AMF with hyperaccumulators has broad prospects for application in the management of increasingly complex and severe HM pollution. This review starts by defining the concept of hyperaccumulators, followed by describing the typical hyperaccumulators that were firstly reported in China as well as those known to form symbioses with AMF. This review provides a systematic and in-depth discussion of the effects of AMF on the growth of hyperaccumulators, as well as the absorption and accumulation of HMs, the effects and mechanism on the hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis to absorb and accumulate HMs. AMF enhances the function of hyperaccumulators on the absorption and accumulation of HMs by regulating the physicochemical and biological conditions in the plant rhizosphere, the situation of elements homeostasis, the physiological metabolism and gene expression. Moreover, the symbiotic systems established by hyperaccumulators plus AMF have the potential to combine their abilities to remediate HMs-contaminated habitat. Finally, challenges for the combined use of remediation technologies for hyperaccumulator plus AMF symbiosis and future directions were prospected.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Metals, Heavy , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants , Symbiosis
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3535-3548, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921446

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent pollutants that are widely distributed in the environment. Due to their stable structure and poor degradability, PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic toxicity to the ecological environment and organisms, thus increasing attentions have been paid to their removals and remediation. Green, safe and economical technologies are widely used in the bioremediation of PAHs-contaminated soil. This article summarizes the present status of PAHs pollution in soil of China from the aspects of origin, migration, fate, and pollution level. Meanwhile, the types of microorganisms and plants capable of degrading PAHs, as well as the underlying mechanisms, are summarized. The features of three major bioremediation technologies, i.e., microbial remediation, phytoremediation, and joint remediation, are compared. Analysis of the interaction mechanisms between plants and microorganisms, selection and cultivation of stress-resistant strains and plants, as well as safety and efficacy evaluation of practical applications, are expected to become future directions in this field.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/toxicity , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
18.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3487-3504, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921443

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are widely used and prevalently distributed in the environment. The issue of antibiotic resistance genes has posed a huge threat to the global public health. Soil is an important sink of antibiotics in the environment. Antibiotic exposure may introduce adverse effects on soil organisms, and bring indirect but potential risks to human health. Therefore, it is urgent to take actions to remediate antibiotics-contaminated soil. This review summarized effects of antibiotics on phenotype growth of plants, physiological characteristics and community structure of animals, composition and structure of microbial communities, and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes among organisms in soil. Additionally, the potential and prospects of employing antibiotic-resistant soil plants, animals, microorganisms, and their combinations to treat antibiotics-contaminated soil were illustrated. Last but not least, the unaddressed issues in this area were proposed, which may provide insights into relevant research directions in the future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153348

ABSTRACT

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Cadmium/toxicity , Industrial Effluents/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2765-2778, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887839

ABSTRACT

Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are difficult to be degraded, and bioremediation has received increasing attention for remediating the hydrocarbon polluted area. This review started by introducing the interphase adaptation and transport process of hydrocarbon by microbes. Subsequently, the advances made in the identification of hydrocarbon-degrading strains and genes as well as elucidation of metabolic pathways and underpinning mechanisms in the biodegradation of typical petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants were summarized. The capability of wild-type hydrocarbon degrading bacteria can be enhanced through genetic engineering and metabolic engineering. With the rapid development of synthetic biology, the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted area can be further improved by engineering the metabolic pathways of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes, or through design and construction of synthetic microbial consortia.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , Hydrocarbons , Petroleum , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
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