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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921631

ABSTRACT

The effects of four natural organic soil amendments on the quality and pesticide residues of Panax notoginseng were investigated through field experiments and the suitable dosage ratio of each soil amendment was selected to provide a new idea for the pollution-free cultivation of P. notoginseng. The four natural organic soil amendments used in this study were Jishibao, Jihuo, Fudujing, and omnipotent nutrients, which were produced by mixed fermentation of aboveground parts of different plants, biological waste residue, and biochar. During the experiments, only four soil amendments were applied to P. notoginseng instead of any pesticides and fertilizers. The experiment was designed as four factors and three levels. There were three dosage gradients(low, medium, and high) for Jishibao(A), Jihuo(B), Fudujing(C), and omnipotent nutrients(D). When the dosage of one soil amendment changed, the do-sage of the other soil amendments remained medium. There were 10 groups in addition to the soil amendment-free group as control(CK). The results showed that the four soil amendments could significantly improve the growth environment of P. notoginseng and increase the seedling survival rate and saponin content of P. notoginseng. The seedling survival rates of the treatment groups increased by 8.24%-30.05% as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of pesticide residues in P. notoginseng was too low to be detected, and that of heavy metals in P. notoginseng was far lower than the specified content in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2020). The optimal effect was achieved at medium dosage for all the soil amendments with the highest content of saponins, high seedling survival rate, and significantly reduced heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Panax notoginseng , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 757-769, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974306

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthropogenic activity, such as accidental oil spills, are typical sources of urban mangrove pollution that may affect mangrove bacterial communities as well as their mobile genetic elements. To evaluate remediation strategies, we followed over the time the effects of a petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium inoculated on mangrove tree Avicennia schaueriana against artificial petroleum contamination in a phytoremediation greenhouse experiment. Interestingly, despite plant protection due to the inoculation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from the total community DNA indicated that the different treatments did not significantly affect the bacterial community composition. However, while the bacterial community was rather stable, pronounced shifts were observed in the abundance of bacteria carrying plasmids. A PCR-Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated an increase in the abundance of IncP-9 catabolic plasmids. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of naphthalene dioxygenase (ndo) genes amplified from cDNA (RNA) indicated the dominance of a specific ndo gene in the inoculated petroleum amendment treatment. The petroleum hydrocarbon degrading consortium characterization indicated the prevalence of bacteria assigned to Pseudomonas spp., Comamonas spp. and Ochrobactrum spp. IncP-9 plasmids were detected for the first time in Comamonas sp. and Ochrobactrum spp., which is a novelty of this study.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Avicennia/microbiology , Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Petroleum/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Petroleum Pollution/analysis , Avicennia/metabolism , Rhizosphere
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 87-96, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Variations in microbial communities promoted by alterations in environmental conditions are reflected in similarities/differences both at taxonomic and functional levels. Here we used a natural gradient within mangroves from seashore to upland, to contrast the natural variability in bacteria, cyanobacteria and diazotroph assemblages in a pristine area compared to an oil polluted area along a timespan of three years, based on ARISA (bacteria and cyanobacteria) and nifH T-RFLP (diazotrophs) fingerprinting. The data presented herein indicated that changes in all the communities evaluated were mainly driven by the temporal effect in the contaminated area, while local effects were dominant on the pristine mangrove. A positive correlation of community structure between diazotrophs and cyanobacteria was observed, suggesting the functional importance of this phylum as nitrogen fixers in mangroves soils. Different ecological patterns explained the microbial behavior in the pristine and polluted mangroves. Stochastic models in the pristine mangrove indicate that there is not a specific environmental factor that determines the bacterial distribution, while cyanobacteria and diazotrophs better fitted in deterministic model in the same area. For the contaminated mangrove site, deterministic models better represented the variations in the communities, suggesting that the presence of oil might change the microbial ecological structures over time. Mangroves represent a unique environment threatened by global change, and this study contributed to the knowledge of the microbial distribution in such areas and its response on persistent contamination historic events.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Petroleum/analysis , Petroleum/metabolism , Biodiversity , Wetlands , Nitrogen/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889196

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Increased environmental pollution has necessitated the need for eco-friendly clean-up strategies. Filamentous fungal species from gold and gemstone mine site soils were isolated, identified and assessed for their tolerance to varied heavy metal concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and iron (Fe). The identities of the fungal strains were determined based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and ITS 2) regions. Mycelia growth of the fungal strains were subjected to a range of (0-100 Cd), (0-1000 Cu), (0-400 Pb), (0-500 As) and (0-800 Fe) concentrations (mgkg-1) incorporated into malt extract agar (MEA) in triplicates. Fungal radial growths were recorded every three days over a 13-days' incubation period. Fungal strains were identified as Fomitopsis meliae, Trichoderma ghanense and Rhizopus microsporus. All test fungal exhibited tolerance to Cu, Pb, and Fe at all test concentrations (400-1000 mgkg-1), not differing significantly (p > 0.05) from the controls and with tolerance index >1. T. ghanense and R. microsporus demonstrated exceptional capacity for Cd and As concentrations, while showing no significant (p > 0.05) difference compared to the controls and with a tolerance index >1 at 25 mgkg-1 Cd and 125 mgkg-1 As. Remarkably, these fungal strains showed tolerance to metal concentrations exceeding globally permissible limits for contaminated soils. It is envisaged that this metal tolerance trait exhibited by these fungal strains may indicate their potentials as effective agents for bioremediative clean-up of heavy metal polluted environments.


Subject(s)
Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Cadmium/analysis , Cadmium/metabolism , Copper/analysis , Copper/metabolism , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Gold/analysis , Gold/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Mining , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis
5.
Rev. salud pública ; 19(6): 795-799, nov.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962073

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Since sand is an important child means of contagion by enteroparasites, this study aimed to conduct a parasitological evaluation in recreation areas of elementary schools and early childhood education centers, in São Mateus-ES. Material and Methods Sand samples were collected in seven municipal elementary schools and in a municipal kindergarten and nursery center. For the recovery of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts, flotation and spontaneous sedimentation techniques were used. Results It was found that 77 % of the analyzed institutions were positive for helminth eggs and larvae. Among the eggs and larvae identified, the main were Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis. Pearson's chi-square test identified the best results when using the spontaneous sedimentation method. Conclusions Considering that individuals, especially children living in poor sanitation conditions, are more prone to enteroparasites, studies point to the need of the application of preventive and health education measures for the population enrolled in municipal schools in São Mateus.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivo Dado que la arena es un medio importante de contagio infantil por enteroparásitos, este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar una evaluación parasitológica en áreas recreativas de escuelas primarias y centros de educación infantil, en São Mateus-ES. Materiales y Métodos Se tomaron muestras de arena en siete escuelas primarias municipales, en un jardín de infantes y en una guardería municipal. Para la recuperación de huevos de helmintos y quistes de protozoos, se usaron las técnicas de flotación y de sedimentación espontánea. Resultados Se encontró que el 77 % de las instituciones analizadas dieron positivo para huevos y larvas de helmintos. Entre los huevos y larvas identificados los principales fueron Ascaris lumbricoides y Toxocara canis. La prueba de ji-cuadrado de Pearson identifica los mejores resultados cuando se usa el método de sedimentación espontánea. Conclusión Teniendo en cuenta que las personas, especialmente los niños que viven en malas condiciones de saneamiento, son más propensas a enteropatías, los estudios apuntan a la necesidad de la aplicación de medidas preventivas y de educación sanitaria para la población inscrita en las escuelas municipales de São Mateus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Parasites , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Child Health , Helminths/isolation & purification , Brazil , Sedimentation/methods
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2383-2398, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We assessed elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of the juice of vegetables cultivated in a vegetable garden built over deposits of coal waste. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Beta vulgaris L. (beet), Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli) and Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) were collected from the coal-mining area and from a certified organic farm (control). Elemental composition was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Concentrations of Mg, S, and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption of broccoli and concentrations of these same elements plus Si of mice receiving kale were higher in the coal-mining area. Concentrations of P, K, and Cu were increase after chronic consumption of lettuce from the coal-mining area, whereas the levels of Si, P, K, Fe, and Zn were higher in the group consuming kale from the coal-mining area. Our data suggests that people consuming vegetables grown over coal wastes may ingest significant amounts of chemical elements that pose a risk to health, since these plants contain both essential and toxic metals in a wide range of concentrations, which can do more harm than good.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sewage/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Vegetables/chemistry , Food Contamination/analysis , Coal Mining , Liver/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Vegetables/toxicity , Waste Disposal, Fluid
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 779-789, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843312

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe use of direct response of animals to environmental challenges by production of biomarkers is a better tool to assess environmental pollution than the conventional methods. This study aimed to measure Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in earthworms as tools for assessing heavy metal pollution in abattoir soil. Five (5) replicates each of earthworm species (Libyodrilus violaceous, Eudrilus eugeniae and Alma millsoni), soil and rumen waste samples were collected from three (3) abattoir sites (Lafenwa, Gbonogun and Madojutimi abattoirs), and a control site located within Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, beside an undisturbed stream with no rumen waste. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Mn) concentrations in rumen waste, abattoir soils and earthworm tissues were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The pH and organic matter (OM) concentrations of the rumen waste and abattoir soils were determined by standard methods. GST activities in the earthworm tissues were determined through the conjugation of 1 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) with 1 mM 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). The rumen waste recorded significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) % OM, heavy metal concentrations and pH level than in their respective abattoir soils. The mean heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Mn were highest in the tissue of earthworm species obtained from Lafenwa abattoir. A significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher GST activities were recorded in the tissue of earthworm species obtained from Lafenwa and Gbonogun abattoirs. Libyodrilous violaceus obtained from Lafenwa abattoir recorded the highest GST activity (8.47±1.39) in their tissue followed by the ones from Gbonogun abattoir (8.21±0.85). A significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive correlations was observed between GST activities in earthworm tissues and heavy metal concentrations. GST activities can therefore be used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution in abattoir soils. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 779-789. Epub 2016 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/enzymology , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Environmental Biomarkers , Glutathione Transferase/biosynthesis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Abattoirs
8.
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2013; 7 (4): 945-956
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138329

ABSTRACT

This work investigates the effect of the application rate and type of sludge throughout the soil carbon cycle in a semiarid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. We study the two-year evolution of the various pools of soil organic and inorganic carbon and their influence on soil respiration. We applied three rates [40, 80 and 160 Mg/ha] of two types of sludge -aerobically and anaerobically digested sewage sludge- in a calcareous Mediterranean soil. The study area is located in the southeast of Madrid [Spain] and is characterised by a Mediterranean climate with a marked seasonal and daily contrast. We analysed soil organic carbon, CO[2] emissions, organic carbon fractions, soluble carbon, and inorganic carbon forms. Measurements were madeat three times over two years, and bimonthly for organic carbon and CO[2]. The results show that sludge type and rate of application exert a significant influence throughout the soil carbon cycle. Aerobic sludge has a greater effect over the short-term. Anaerobic sludge treatment appears to have less effect on the cycle at the beginning of the amendment, but is prolonged over time, as the differences with untreated soil persist even after two years. The application of organic amendments in calcareous Mediterranean soils also modifies the inorganic carbon pools and greatly increases the soil soluble hydrogen carbonates. All of these results are reflected in the rates of soil CO[2] emissions, with the highest values recorded in soils amended with aerobic sludge. Our data points to the advisability of a review of the European Union's recommendations regarding sludge and agriculture. We propose including a sludge stabilization process and recommended application ratesaccording to the effects on soil biogeochemical cycles


Subject(s)
Sewage , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Bicarbonates , Mediterranean Region , Risk Assessment , Metals/analysis , Soil/chemistry
9.
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 2013; 10 (4): 91-104
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-138538

ABSTRACT

Problems related to conventional Fenton oxidation, including neccesity of having a low pH and production of considerable amounts of sludge, have prompted researchers to consider chelating agents to improve the pH operating range and iron nano-oxide particles to reduce excess sludge. The main objective of this study was to remove pyrene from contaminated soils by a modified Fenton oxidation method at neutral pH. Experiments were conducted using various concentrations of H2O2 [0-500 mM], iron nano-oxides [0-60 mM], reaction times [0.5-24 hours] and several chelating agents, namely, sodium pyrophosphate, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid, sodium citrate, fulvic and humic acids, to eliminate pyrene from soil [concentrations of 100-500 mg/kg]. The efficiency of removal of pyrene at an initial concentration of 100 mg/kg was 99% at the following reaction conditions: H2O2 and iron nano-oxide concentrations of 300 mM and 30 mM, respectively; pH=3; and a reaction time of 6 hours. The initial pyrene concentration of 100 mg/kg decreased to 7 mg/kg at optimum conditions using sodium pyrophosphate as the chelating agent at pH 7. The modified Fenton oxidation method, using iron nano-oxide at optimum conditions as defined in this research, is an efficient alternative for chemical remediation or pre-treatment of soils contaminated with pyrene at neutral pH


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/analysis , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Iron/chemistry , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Industrial Waste , Chelating Agents , Sewage , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
10.
Salud pública Méx ; 54(4): 383-392, jul.-ago. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-643242

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado de la exposición infantil al plomo en diversos tipos de sitios contaminados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó de junio 2008 a diciembre 2009 en cuatro sitios de México: metalúrgica de Ávalos, Chihuahua.; metalúrgica de Morales, San Luis Potosí (SLP); zona alfarera en La Trinidad, Tlaxcala, y sitio minero en Cedral, SLP. Se cuantificó plomo en polvo y se realizó un biomonitoreo humano en niños de la comunidad. RESULTADOS: Los valores obtenidos de plomo en polvo exterior superaron el límite establecido de 400 mg/kg para suelos residenciales en un intervalo de valores para los cuatro sitios de 62 a 5 187 mg/kg. En cuanto al monitoreo biológico, todas las poblaciones presentaron valores extremos, desde los 22 µg/dL en Cedral, 31 µg/dL en Morales, y 32 µg/dL en Ávalos, hasta los 52 µg/dL en La Trinidad. Es importante señalar que encontramos una correlación positiva y significativa entre los valores de plomo en polvo y plomo en sangre en todos los sitios de estudio (p<0.001). CONCLUSIÓN: Estos sitios son un ejemplo de los riesgos en salud relacionados con la exposición a plomo en México; por consiguiente, se requiere de un programa nacional de salud pública dirigido a reducir la exposición a este metal en poblaciones vulnerables.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP); Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. RESULTS: Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg) in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead levels and the lead concentrations in dust. CONCLUSION: These sites are an example of the health risks related to lead exposure in Mexico; therefore, there is an urgent need for a national public health program aimed at reducing lead exposure in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Environmental Exposure , Lead/analysis , Ceramics , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Health Services Needs and Demand , Industrial Waste , Inhalation Exposure , Lead/blood , Maximum Allowable Concentration , Metallurgy , Mexico , Quality Control , Risk , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Soil Pollutants/analysis
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(2): 267-277, June 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-548408

ABSTRACT

The presence of high level of heavy metals involves a human healthy risk that could induce chronic diseases. This work reports on the metal contamination due to heaps of steel-slag accumulated during more than 40 years in allotments and industrial areas in the southern part of Madrid (Spain). Several slag and soil samples were collected in an area of 10 km² and characterized by different conventional (XRD and XRF) and no so common methods (ESEM, thermoluminescence and EDS-WDS). The analysis reveal the presence of: (i) important amounts of Fe (43 percent), Mg (26 percent), Cr (1.1 percent), Mn (4.6 percent), S (6.5 percent) in the form of Fe-rich slag phases (wustite, magnetite...), Si and Ca-rich phases (larnite, ghelenite...), Cr (chromite), Mn (bustamite) and graphite, (ii) traces of some other contaminants such as Cr (7700 ppm), Zn (3500 ppm), Ba (3000 ppm), Pb (700 ppm) or Cu (500 ppm) on pathway soil samples that come from the steel slag, and (iii) Co (13 ppm), Pb (78 ppm) and V (54 ppm) in farmland soil samples. Although the existing heavy metals content is not appropriate for the current use, the extremely high metal contamination of the surrounding areas is more worrying. The properties of the soil farmlands (pH circa 7, 13 percent of clay, mainly illite, and 1-4 percent of organic matter content) show suitable conditions for the retention of cationic metals, but further studies on the movilization of these elements have to be performed to determine the possibility of severe human health risks. This sort of study can provide useful information for the politicians regarding the appropriate use of the territory to prevent possible health hazard for the population.


A presença de altos niveis de metais pesados envolve riscos à saúde humana e pode induzir doenças crônicas. Este trabalho relata a contaminação metálica causada por pilhas de escória siderúrgica acumulada durante mais de 40 anos em áreas industriais na parte sul de Madrid (Espanha). Amostras de escória e solo foram coletadas em uma área de 10 km² e caracteri-zada por diferentes métodos, convencionais (XRD, XRF) ou não (ESEM, termoluminescência e EDS-WDS). A análise revela a presença de: i) quantidades importantes de Fe (43 por cento), Mg (26 por cento), Cr (1,1 por cento), Mn (4,6 por cento), S (6,5 por cento) formando várias fases ricas em Fe (wüstita, magnetita), Si e Ca (larnita, guelenita), Cr (cromita), Mn (bustamita) e grafite; (ii) tiajos de outros contaminantes, como Cr (7700 ppm), Zn (3500 ppm), Ba (3000 ppm), Pb (700 ppm) e Cu (500 ppm), no solo dos caminhos para as pilhas de resíduos e (iii) Co (13 ppm), Pb (78 ppm) e V (54 ppm) em amostras de solo agrícola. Embora os teores de metais pesados não sejam apropriados para uso corrente, a elevada contaminação de areas adjacentes é mais preocupante. Os solos adjacentes (pH ca. 7, 13 por cento de argila - principalmente ilita) e 1-4 por cento de matéria orgânica mostram condições adequadas para a retenção de cátions, mas outros estudos deverão ser realizados para determinar a possibilidade de riscos à saúde humana. Este tipo de trabalho pode fornecer informaçãoo útil para gestores públicos, com relação ao uso do território e prevenção de riscos à saúde da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Industrial Waste/analysis , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/adverse effects , Spain , Soil Pollutants/adverse effects
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Mar; 47(3): 210-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62871

ABSTRACT

Fifty-two soil samples were collected from various location of the Hisar city. These samples were analysed for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Total mean concentration of six PAHs varied from 51.79 to 148.82 mg kg(-1) dry weight of the soil, PAH concentration was higher in soil samples from local auto market while lower concentration was recorded in agricultural soil. Effect ofpH (5.0 to 9.0), temperature (20 degrees to 40 degrees C), and concentration of PAHs (5 to 20 mg kg(-1)) on biodegradation were optimized. Biodegradation of phenanthrene (3-ring) and pyrene (4-ring) was evaluated using two acclimatized microbial strains Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas paucimobilis. Biodegradation was maximum in sterilized artificial spiked soil with phenanthrene (5 mg kg(-1)) and pyrene (5 mg kg(-1)) at pH 7.0 and at 30 degrees C (optimized conditions) than the native unsterilized contaminated soil (without optimized conditions) in 42 days of incubation period with Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas paucimobilis. Phenanthrene was completely disappeared after 28 days with P. putida and after 35 days with P. paucimobilis. Whereas, pyrene was disappeared up to 97.40% with P. putida and 95.5% with P. paucimobilis after 42 days incubation period at optimum conditions. Under unoptimized conditions, disappearance of phenanthrene was 65.89% with P. putida and 57.81% with P. paucimobilis after 42 days, whereas the % disappearance of pyrene was 59.80% with P. putida and 52.07% with P. paucimobilis.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Environmental Monitoring , India , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Pseudomonas putida/growth & development , Soil/analysis , Soil/standards , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/analysis
14.
Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2009; 5 (2): 55-60
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91700

ABSTRACT

Fourteen bacterial strains were isolated from metal contaminated sites close to the automobile and welding workshops. These strains were checked for tolerance against heavy metals both in enriched media and minimal media. All the strains showed tolerance against heavy metals but most promising results were given by strain GESQA002 which showed multiple stress tolerance as its maximum tolerable concentration [MTC] against cadmium chloride [CdCI2] was 6mM in enriched media and 1.4mM in minimal media, against copper sulphate [CuSO4] was 3.5mM in enriched media and 1.8mM in minimal media, and against nickel chloride [NiCI2] it was 1mM in enriched media and 0.8mM in minimal media was observed. GESQA002 was also tested against antibiotics kanamycin [Km], and streptomycin [Sm] and it showed elevated MTCs against Sm [100 microg/ml] and Km [25 microg/ml]. Plasmids were detected in GESQA002 which could be a ssign of stress tolerance genes being plasmid borne


Subject(s)
Metals, Heavy , Maximum Allowable Concentration , Kanamycin , Streptomycin , Plasmids , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/analysis
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114191

ABSTRACT

Chromium is one of the toxic and hazardous pollutants in industrial wastewaters leading to soil contamination. In this study, the feasibility of remediating chromium contaminated soil using indigenous microorganisms and Pseudomonas fluorescens was evaluated. The contaminated soil sample was collected from Vellore and the pH, moisture content and chromium content were found to be 8.4, 22.5% and 5.1 mg/kg respectively. The effect of chromium on engineering properties showed decrease in permeability by 45.15%. For Pseudomonas fluorescens, the optimum pH, moisture content, biomass concentration and carbon source were found as 6.5, 20%, 10 mL and 10 mL/100 g respectively and for isolated mixed culture, the optimum parameters were found as 8.4, 25%, 15 mL and 15mL / 100 g respectively. Under optimum conditions, the reactor study showed 71.7% chromium reduction after 20 days. From the study, the bioremediation of chromium-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms was found to be a promising solution and after bioremediation, the engineering properties of the soil were found to be improved.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biomass , Bioreactors , Biotechnology/methods , Carbon/analysis , Chromium/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Pollution , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism , Soil/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Time Factors
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114017

ABSTRACT

The present study has been undertaken to know the effect of concentrations of lead (Pb) and different organic materials on the maize yield, concentrations of lead on maize plants and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) extractable lead (Pb) on the post harvested soils. The results revealed that growth of maize increased by adding lead (Pb) upto 25 mg kg(-1) soil and thereafter the growth decreased. Application of organic matter increased the growth of maize in Pb-contaminated soil. With the increase in Pb concentration in soil, the concentration of Pb in plants also increased, however, application of organic material decreased Pb concentration in maize. The concentration of DTPA extractable lead (Pb) in post harvested soil samples significantly and consistently increased with increase in Pb. The addition of organic manure decreased the DTPA extractable Pb in soil which might be due to complexation/chelation of Pb with organic matter.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Carbon/analysis , Chemistry, Organic , Chemistry, Physical/methods , Industrial Waste , Lead/analysis , Models, Chemical , Organic Chemicals/analysis , Pentetic Acid/analysis , Sewage , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Water Purification , Zea mays/drug effects
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69844

ABSTRACT

To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. beta2-microglobulin, alpha1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone mineral density were measured. Surface soil in the study area showed 2-10 times higher levels of metals compared to that of the control area. Metal concentrations in the groundwater and air did not show any notable differences between groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and copper in rice and barley from the study area were significantly higher than those of the control area (p<0.05). Geometric means of blood and urine cadmium in the study area were 2.9 microgram/L and 1.5 microgram/g Cr, respectively, significantly higher than those in the control area (p<0.05). There were no differences in the levels of urinary markers of early kidney dysfunction and bone mineral density. The authors conclude that the residents near the abandoned mine were exposed to higher levels of metals through various routes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cadmium/blood , Copper/blood , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Food Contamination , Hordeum , Humans , Korea , Lead/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Mining , Oryza , Risk Factors , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Zinc/blood
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114063

ABSTRACT

The effect of irrigation by sugar factory effluent (spentwash) and the well water from adjoining area has been studied in Wardha district, Maharashtra. The effluent had high TDS (422-608 mgL(-1)), COD (1152-17680 mgL(-1)) and BOD(380-650 mgL(-1)) than well water (TDS 240 mgL(-1), COD 3.8 mgL(-1) and BOD 1.2 mgL(-1)). There found some nutrients, viz. N, P, K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn in surface layer of soil in different seasons. Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb) were found to be within the permissible limits.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates/chemistry , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Hazardous Waste , India , Industrial Waste , Industry , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Refuse Disposal/methods , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Trace Elements/analysis , Water/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Supply
19.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Oct; 28(4): 707-15
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113339

ABSTRACT

Turkey is a country rich in wetlands (250 wetlands, approximately one million hectares). As it is in many countries, the wetlands in Turkey are threatened by the agricultural activities, loss of habitats due to these activities and by pesticide contamination. After 1940, large quantities of pesticides, especially DDT were used intensively against mosquitoes and pests in most of the wetlands in Turkey causing considerable contamination. In the beginning of 1980's, production, import and use of DDT was forbidden due to its toxicity on non-target organisms, environmental persistence, and accumulation in food chains. The scientific studies made in Turkey on the level of contamination in various environs and organisms by DDTand its metabolites, are limited These limited studies, especially the ones made after 1990's, have shown that we still observe DDT contamination in many wetlands (including internationally important ones like Goksu Delta and Meric Delta) and in organisms like birds and fishes. The data on the concentrations of DDTand its metabolites in the organisms and the biological magnification levels are not adequate since in most of the studies only water and sediment samples were analyzed. Besides, in the few studies made on the organisms, standard methods and suitable indicator organisms were not used. Because of these reasons, it is very difficult to make reliable evaluations on the DDT levels and its effects in the wetlands of Turkey. It is interesting that DDTlevels are higher than its metabolites in water sediment and organism samples in some wetlands which imply the possible use of DDT recently The aim of this review is to summarize the studies made so far on DDT and its residues in the wetlands of Turkey and to shed light on the possible hazardous effects and to propose approaches for future studies.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pesticide Residues/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Species Specificity , Turkey , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Wetlands
20.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jul; 28(3): 685-90
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113397

ABSTRACT

In the present study, impact of tannery and other industrial effluents on the physico-chemical characteristics of loamy drain water and their consequent impact on soil and plants irrigated with effluent have been studied. The study reveals most of the parameter pH, BOD5 and COD at sampling station I was higher than station II. Waste water quality at both Stations I and II exceeded prescribed limits (BIS) for safe disposal of effluents into the surface water Samples of soil and vegetables from the land irrigated with loamy drain water has been collected and analyzed for Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr Pb and Cd. The different metals showed different enrichment factor for loamy drain water irrigated soil and are as follows: Cd 30% (max), Pb 26%, Zn 18%, Cr 5%, Cu 5%, Ni 2% (min). For plant samples collected at polluted sites are Ni 46% spinach (whole plant) (max), Zn 42% spinach (whole plant), Cr 39% spinach (whole plant), Cu 33% spinach (whole plant), Pb 20% potato tuber, Cd 20% potato tuber (min). The levels of Zn 145, Cu 5.25, and Ni 39.25 microg/ g in spinach, Pb 29.25, Cr 38. 25 and Cd 3.2 microg/g in potato tuber grown on polluted soil irrigated with contaminated drain water were found more than the reference value, which may create chronic health hazard problem to human and cattle through food chain in long run. Accumulation of toxic heavy metals may be build up in the agriculturally productive land where it is treated with contaminated effluent enrich with metals in turn bio-concentrated in the edible fodder/plants.


Subject(s)
Food Contamination , Industrial Waste , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Solanum melongena/metabolism , Solanum tuberosum/metabolism , Spinacia oleracea/metabolism , Tanning , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
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