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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237604, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285586

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study goal to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) and silver (Ag) on germination, initial growth and anatomical alterations of Lactuca sativa L. Plants use various mechanisms to reduce the impacts caused by anthropic action, such as xenobiotic elements of soils and water contaminated by heavy metals. These metals were supplied as lead nitrate and silver nitrate and the following treatments were established: control for both metals, maximum dose of heavy metals, for arable soils, allowed by the National Council of the Environment (Ag = 25 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg. Kg-1), double (Ag = 50 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg. Kg-1) and triple (Ag = 75 mg. Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg. Kg -1) of this dosage. Vigor and germination tests of the seeds and possible anatomical changes in the leaves and roots of lettuce plants were performed. The species showed a high capacity to germinate under Pb and Ag stress, and the germination was never completely inhibited; however, the germination decreased with increasing Pb concentrations, but not under Ag stress. The use of increasing doses of metals reduced seed vigor and increased chlorophyll content. An increase in biomass was also observed in plants from treatments submitted to Pb. The phytotoxic effects of metals were more pronounced at 15 days after sowing. Anatomically, L. sativa was influenced by metal concentrations, and had a reduction of up to 79.9% in root epidermis thickness at the highest Pb concentration, although some structures did not suffer significant changes. The results suggest that L. sativa presents tolerance to high concentrations of heavy metals, showing possible mechanisms to overcome the stress caused by these metals. In this research lettuce possibly used the mechanism of exclusion of metals retaining Pb and Ag in the roots preserving the photosynthetic apparatus in the aerial part of the plants. In general, the chemical element Pb was more toxic than Ag, in these experimental conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de chumbo (Pb) e prata (Ag) na germinação, crescimento inicial e alterações anatômicas de Lactuca sativa L. As plantas utilizam vários mecanismos para reduzir os impactos causados pela ação antrópica, como elementos xenobióticos de solos e água contaminada por metais pesados. Esses metais foram fornecidos como nitrato de chumbo e nitrato de prata e foram estabelecidos os seguintes tratamentos: controle para ambos os metais, dose máxima de metais pesados, para solos cultiváveis, permitida pelo Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (Ag = 25 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 180 mg.Kg-1), dobro (Ag = 50 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 360 mg.Kg-1) e triplo (Ag = 75 mg.Kg-1, Pb = 540 mg.Kg -1) desta dosagem. Foram realizados testes de vigor e germinação das sementes e possíveis alterações anatômicas nas folhas e raízes das plantas de alface. A espécie apresentou alta capacidade de germinar sob estresse de Ag e Pb, e a germinação nunca foi completamente inibida; entretanto, a germinação diminuiu com o aumento das concentrações de Pb, mas não sob estresse de Ag. O uso de doses crescentes dos metais, reduziu o vigor das sementes e aumentou o teor de clorofila. Também foi observado aumento da biomassa nas plantas a partir dos tratamentos submetidos ao Pb. Os efeitos fitotóxicos dos metais foram mais acentuados aos 15 dias após a semeadura. Anatomicamente, L. sativa foi influenciada pelas concentrações de metais, e teve uma redução de até 79,9% na espessura da epiderme radicular na maior concentração de Pb, embora algumas estruturas não tenham sofrido alterações significativas. Os resultados sugerem que L. sativa apresenta tolerância a altas concentrações de metais pesados, mostrando possíveis mecanismos para superar o estresse causado por esses metais. Nesta pesquisa a alface possivelmente utilizou o mecanismo de exclusão de metais retendo Pb e Ag nas raízes preservando o aparato fotossintético na parte aérea das plantas. De forma geral o elemento químico Pb se mostrou mais tóxico que Ag, nestas condições experimentais.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Silver Nitrate , Soil , Lettuce , Lead/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246979, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278466

ABSTRACT

Abstract The influence of pharmaceutical residues and heavy metals on living organisms has received global attention. The present study assessed the interactive effect of antibiotic residues and heavy metals in soil, as contaminated food with cadmium (Cd) and oxytetracycline (OTC) on the isopod Porcellio leavis. It was fed on fresh plant leaves contaminated with different concentrations of cadmium, Cd+OTC1000 ppm, Cd+OTC2000 ppm and Cd+OTC3000 ppm for 4 weeks. The changes in the feeding patterns, protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase activity (CAT), and total free amino acids (TFAA) were recorded. There were significant differences in the obtained results where Cd reduced the egestion ratio (ER) however, OTC enhanced this ratio. Biochemical analysis illustrated that combination between OTC and Cd inhibits the toxic effects of Cd at low concentration (1000 ppm), while at high concentration (3000 ppm) raise the toxicity. Detailed studies are required for further understanding of the interaction between OTC and heavy metals, and also its impact on soil animals and for improving soil risk evaluation.


Resumo A influência de resíduos farmacêuticos e metais pesados ​​em organismos vivos tem recebido atenção global. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de resíduos de antibióticos e metais pesados ​​no solo, como alimentos contaminados com cádmio (Cd) e oxitetraciclina (OTC), sobre o isópode Porcellio laevis, o qual foi alimentado com folhas frescas de plantas contaminadas com diferentes concentrações de cádmio, Cd + OTC1000 ppm, Cd + OTC2000 ppm e Cd + OTC3000 ppm, por quatro semanas. As mudanças nos padrões de alimentação, proteína, peroxidação lipídica (LPO), atividade da catalase (CAT) e aminoácidos livres totais (TFAA) foram registradas. Houve diferenças significativas nos resultados obtidos, em que o Cd reduziu a taxa de excreção (ER), no entanto o OTC aumentou essa proporção. A análise bioquímica mostrou que a combinação entre OTC e Cd inibe os efeitos tóxicos do Cd em baixa concentração (1.000 ppm), enquanto, em alta concentração (3.000 ppm), aumenta a toxicidade. Estudos detalhados são necessários para uma maior compreensão da interação entre OTC e metais pesados, e seu impacto sobre os animais do solo, bem como para melhorar a avaliação de risco do solo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oxytetracycline/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Isopoda , Soil , Cadmium/toxicity
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153348

ABSTRACT

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Bacillus cereus/genetics , Cadmium/toxicity , Industrial Effluents/adverse effects , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 242-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878558

ABSTRACT

To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Cadmium/toxicity , China , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
5.
Biol. Res ; 50: 7, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Earthworms are sensitive to toxic chemicals present in the soil and so are useful indicator organisms for soil health. Eisenia fetida are commonly used in ecotoxicological studies; therefore the assembly of a baseline transcriptome is important for subsequent analyses exploring the impact of toxin exposure on genome wide gene expression. RESULTS: This paper reports on the de novo transcriptome assembly of E. fetida using Trinity, a freely available software tool. Trinotate was used to carry out functional annotation of the Trinity generated transcriptome file and the transdecoder generated peptide sequence file along with BLASTX, BLASTP and HMMER searches and were loaded into a Sqlite3 database. To identify differentially expressed transcripts; each of the original sequence files were aligned to the de novo assembled transcriptome using Bowtie and then RSEM was used to estimate expression values based on the alignment. EdgeR was used to calculate differential expression between the two conditions, with an FDR corrected P value cut off of 0.001, this returned six significantly differentially expressed genes. Initial BLASTX hits of these putative genes included hits with annelid ferritin and lysozyme proteins, as well as fungal NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and senescence associated proteins. At a cut off of P = 0.01 there were a further 26 differentially expressed genes. CONCLUSION: These data have been made publicly available, and to our knowledge represent the most comprehensive available transcriptome for E. fetida assembled from RNA sequencing data. This provides important groundwork for subsequent ecotoxicogenomic studies exploring the impact of the environment on global gene expression in E. fetida and other earthworm species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Ecotoxicology , Transcriptome , Oligochaeta/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Software , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Toxicogenetics/methods , Environmental Exposure , Gene Ontology
6.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2383-2398, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886775

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We assessed elemental composition of the liver in mice subjected to one-time or chronic consumption of the juice of vegetables cultivated in a vegetable garden built over deposits of coal waste. Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Beta vulgaris L. (beet), Brassica oleracea L. var. italica (broccoli) and Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale) were collected from the coal-mining area and from a certified organic farm (control). Elemental composition was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. Concentrations of Mg, S, and Ca of mice subjected to one-time consumption of broccoli and concentrations of these same elements plus Si of mice receiving kale were higher in the coal-mining area. Concentrations of P, K, and Cu were increase after chronic consumption of lettuce from the coal-mining area, whereas the levels of Si, P, K, Fe, and Zn were higher in the group consuming kale from the coal-mining area. Our data suggests that people consuming vegetables grown over coal wastes may ingest significant amounts of chemical elements that pose a risk to health, since these plants contain both essential and toxic metals in a wide range of concentrations, which can do more harm than good.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Sewage/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Vegetables/chemistry , Food Contamination/analysis , Coal Mining , Liver/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Vegetables/toxicity , Waste Disposal, Fluid
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 119-125, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768220

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reclamation of copper contaminated sites using forest species may be an efficient alternative to reduce the negative impact. The aim of this study was to quantify the growth and evaluate the quality of seedlings of native species at different doses of copper in the soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with seven replications in a factorial arrangement (3×9), using three indigenous species of plants (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa scabrella and Apuleia leiocarpa) and nine doses of copper in the soil (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 and 480 mg kg–1).The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse which the seedlings were grown for 180 days. The experimental units were plastic pots of 125 cm3 filled with Oxisol. The results indicated that the levels of copper applied to the soil decreased the quality of seedlings and growth of Apuleia leiocarpato a lesser extent compared with Mimosa scabrella and Anadenanthera macrocarpa. Anadenanthera macrocarpa was the forest species that resulted in the lowest copper translocation from roots to shoots. In addition, the Apuleia leiocarpa exhibited high resistance and tolerance for copper in the soil and also, it is highlighted an ability for copper phytoremediation.


Resumo A recuperação de áreas contaminadas com cobre utilizando espécies florestais pode ser uma alternativa eficiente para reduzir o impacto negativo deste elemento nestas áreas. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar o crescimento e avaliar a qualidade de mudas de espécies nativas em diferentes doses de cobre no solo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete repetições, em um esquema fatorial (3×9), utilizando-se três espécies nativas de plantas (Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa scabrella e Apuleia leiocarpa) e nove doses de cobre no solo (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 e 480 mg kg–1). O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, onde as plantas foram cultivadas por 180 dias. As unidades experimentais foram vasos de plástico de 125 cm3, preenchidos com Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Os resultados indicaram que o nível de cobre aplicado ao solo reduziu a qualidade de plântulas e crescimento de Apuleia leiocarpa para um menor grau comparado com bracatinga e angico. Anadenanthera macrocarpa foi a espécie florestal que apresentou menor translocação de cobre a parte aérea das mudas. Além disso, a Apuleia leiocarpa exibiu elevada tolerância para o cobre no solo e também destaca-se mostrando uma capacidade para fitoremediação de áreas contaminadas com cobre.


Subject(s)
Copper/metabolism , Fabaceae/growth & development , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Trees/growth & development , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Copper/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fabaceae/drug effects , Random Allocation , Species Specificity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Trees/drug effects
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 57-62, May 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755020

ABSTRACT

In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant (Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions (Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepashowed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.

.

No presente trabalho, a toxicidade do lixiviado (chorume) de um aterro sanitário municipal, localizado na região do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, foi avaliada utilizando bioensaios em plantas. A toxicidade do chorume foi analisada pelo teste de germinação e crescimento radicular de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) e rúcula (Eruca sativa Mill.) e pelo teste de crescimento radicular em cebola (Allium cepa L.). Os bioensaios foram realizados com a exposição de sementes de L. sativa e E. sativa e raízes de A. cepa a amostras de chorume bruto, tratado por processo biológico e controle negativo (água de abastecimento público). Os níveis de metais detectados nas amostras de chorume foram baixos, e o chorume bruto apresentou valores elevados de nitrogênio amoniacal e nitrogênio Kjeldahl total. Ocorreu redução nos valores de vários parâmetros físico-químicos, demonstrando a eficiência do tratamento biológico. Os resultados indicam fitotoxicidade do chorume em L. sativa e A. cepa, evidenciada pela redução do crescimento radicular. Entretanto, as respostas destas duas espécies diferiram. O crescimento radicular foi significativamente inferior em A. cepa exposta ao chorume tratado quando comparado ao controle negativo, mas não apresentou diferença quando comparado ao chorume bruto. Em L. sativa, a exposição das sementes ao chorume bruto causou redução no crescimento radicular quando comparado com o chorume tratado e controle negativo. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos para o parâmetro germinação de sementes. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que as espécies de plantas estudadas são diferentes em suas respostas e que o chorume apresenta toxicidade, mesmo após o tratamento biológico.

.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/drug effects , Lettuce/drug effects , Onions/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Brazil , Waste Disposal Facilities , Waste Disposal, Fluid
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 263-269, May 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-519166

ABSTRACT

Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl. (Podocarpaceae) is native and a member of the Pinophyta (Gymnosperm) of southern Brazil, locally known as "pinheiro-bravo". The present work aims to investigate the effects of petroleum on the tracheids dimensions. Wood samples from twenty individuals were studied along the stem, ten being exposed to pollution and ten used as a control set. The wood samples were collected from incisions at three levels: at the ground level, and one and two metres above the ground level. From these samples, sub-samples were selected at the border of the growth layers in the vascular cambium-medulla direction. The methodology followed that traditionally recommended for plant anatomy studies, with analyses done by light microscopy (OLYMPUS - BX41) assisted by the software Image Pro-plus for measurements. Comparison of the individuals exposed to petroleum with the control set, showed that the length, diameter and cell wall width of the tracheids of the former were smaller, a trend which was statistically significant according to the Student's t-test. These traits were observed mainly on the tracheids of the last growth layer, corresponding to the year in which the individuals were exposed to petroleum.


Podocarpus lambertii Klotzsch ex Endl. (Podocarpaceae), popularmente conhecida por pinheiro-bravo, é uma espécie que pertence ao pequeno grupo de Pinophyta (Gimnospermas) nativas da região Sul do Brasil. O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos da poluição por petróleo nas dimensões das traqueídes que compõem o lenho dessa espécie. Para tanto, amostras do lenho de vinte indivíduos foram coletadas, dez deles expostos à poluição por petróleo e dez usados como controle (coletados em região livre de contaminação). As amostras foram obtidas por meio de incisões paralelas à superfície do solo em três alturas (nível do solo, 1 metro e 2 metros do nível do solo). As subamostras para o estudo da variação estrutural do lenho foram selecionadas no limite das camadas de crescimento no sentido câmbio-medula. A metodologia utilizada para desenvolver o trabalho foi aquela tradicionalmente recomendada para estudos em anatomia vegetal. As mensurações das traqueídes em material macerado, como comprimento, diâmetro e espessura da parede celular, foram feitas pelo software Image Pro-plus em Fotomicroscópio (OLYMPUS - BX41). Nos indivíduos expostos à poluição, o comprimento, diâmetro e espessura da parede das traqueídes foram menores quando comparados aos indivíduos controle e demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significativas pelo teste t-student. Essas tendências foram observadas, principalmente, nas traqueídes da última camada de crescimento, correspondente ao ano em que os indivíduos permaneceram expostos ao petróleo.


Subject(s)
Tracheophyta/drug effects , Petroleum/toxicity , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Wood/drug effects , Wood/cytology
10.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2008; 5 (3): 409-414
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100391

ABSTRACT

The effects of heavy metals on soil microbial processes were investigated over a period of six weeks. Analytical grade [Sigma] sulphate salts of copper, zinc and nickel were added individually and in combinations to soil samples and incubated in different plastic pots. Samples were taken from the pots forthnightly and the rates of microbial carbon and nitrogen mineralization, microbial biomass carbon and respiration were measured. The results showed the effect of metals on the measured parameters were significant [P<0.05.]. By the 6[th] week postreatment, the rates of carbon accumulated were high in the copper [6.03%] and copper: zinc [5.80%] treatments but low in the nickel and zinc [4.93% and 5.02% respectively]. The rates of nitrogen mineralization were 0.41 and 0.44% in samples treated with copper and copper: zinc compared to 0.22%-0.24% obtained at the beginning of the experiments. Soil microbial biomass carbon declined from average value of 183.7- 185.6 micro g/g before treatment to as low as 100.8 and 124.6 micro g/g in samples treated with copper: zinc and copper respectively. The rate of respiration of the soil microbial populations was equally inhibited by the metals. From an average rate of 2.51-2.56 micro g of C/g respiration of the soil microbes declined to 0.98, 1.08 and 1.61 micro g of C/g in the copper: zinc, copper and zinc treated soils by the end of the experiment. The results suggest additive or synergistic effects of the metals


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Industrial Waste , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Carbon/analysis , Biomass
11.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jul; 28(3): 651-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113225

ABSTRACT

Greenhouse experiments were carried out for phytoremediation of the Pb/Zn abandoned tailings (pH 3.2 and high metal content) of Rampura-Agucha Mines, Rajasthan. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea) was chosen as a test crop. On unamended tailings, the seeds of the test plant showed no germination. The tailing was amended with lime (3% on weight basis), 3% lime + NPK (diammonium phosphate at 60 kg/ha, muriate of potash at 40 kg/ ha) and 3% lime + FYM at 15 t/ha and used for experiments. Quantification of various parameters viz. shoot-root length, shoot-root dry weight, chlorophyll contents (a', 'b' and total) and peroxidase activity of test crop revealed T+ S + 3% lime + NPK to be the most suitable amelioration followed by FYM. The above treatments helped in improving the growth and productivity of the test plants by providing a favorable environment.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Calcium Compounds/pharmacology , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , Fertilizers , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Manure , Mining , Oxides/pharmacology , Peroxidase/metabolism , Phaseolus/drug effects , Phosphates/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
12.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2): 209-12
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113751

ABSTRACT

Earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae, exposed to different concentrations of dump-site soil and petroleum effluents exhibited different morbidity and mortality responses. Lake sediments caused varied fluctuations in weight over a 20 day exposure period. Colour changes and mortality up to 15% were observed in earthworms cultured in 100% lake sediment, while weight loss, coiling and sluggish movement were observed in 50% lake water. The effects of 100% dump-site soils were more pronounced as 40% death, swelling, body lesions, stiffening, coiling and low reproduction were recorded. Earthworms were useful as an organism in testing the toxicity of dump-site soils and effluent from a petroleum industry. Dump-site soils and soils polluted with petroleum effluent reduced populations of earthworms and this could subsequently affect other components of the ecosystems associated with earthworm activities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Oligochaeta/drug effects , Petroleum/toxicity , Refuse Disposal , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
13.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2): 303-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113277

ABSTRACT

The effect of mercury (Hg) on the biochemical parameters of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill leaf was studied. Application of mercuric chloride in varying concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM HgCl2 kg(-1) sand) caused significant reduction that went up to 89% and 72% chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents respectively (at flowering stage), 69% in carotenoid content, 64% in total soluble protein content and 91% in nitrate reductase activity (all at post-flowering stage). The amounts of nitrate and proline increased maximally (151% and 143% respectively) at the flowering stage, whereas total soluble sugar enhanced by 57% at the post-flowering stage. Changes observed in most of the parameters, were concentration dependent. Such studies seem to be able to discover suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrate Metabolism/drug effects , Carotenoids/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Lycopersicon esculentum/drug effects , Mercury/toxicity , Nitrate Reductase/metabolism , Nitrates/metabolism , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Proline/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
14.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2 Suppl): 409-14
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113228

ABSTRACT

The experiment was performed to study the seed germination and seedling growth in wheat under the influence of different concentrations of copper. The germination %, plumule and radicle length, and number of lateral roots decreased with increase in copper concentration (5, 25, 50 and 100 mgl(-1)). Total chlorophyll contents declined on 14th day from 1.605 of control to 1.581, 1.242, 1.275 and 1.107 mg g(-1) fresh weight in respective treatments. Similarly, on 21st day the decline in total chlorophyll contents was 1.288, 1.123, 1.077 and 0.985 mg g(-1) fresh weight in respective treatments against 1.724 of control. Likewise the pheophytin contents also declined showing the same pattern. However, carotenoid contents increased in different treatments, ranging between 0.366 to 0.464 mg g(-1) fresh weight in comparison to control (0.328) on 14th day, but showed adverse effects on 21st day as the carotenoid contents decreased in different copper treatments. The activity of amylase was found to be gradually reduced 14th day from 29.73 of control to 27.80, 27.33, 21.86 and 20.00 mg g(-1) and at 21st day from 14.40 of control to 11.46, 11.01, 9.86 and 5.60 mg g(-1) fresh weight with increase in concentrations of copper The catalase activity increased 14th day from 97.33 of control to 134.66, 161.33, 216.00 and 232.00 and on 21st day from 140.00 of control to 245.33, 274.66, 278.66 and 300.66 ml H2O2 hydrolyzed/g fresh weight in different increased concentrations of copper Similarly the peroxidase activity was also increased with increase in copper concentration. Likewise fresh weight and moisture contents decreased with increase in copper concentration. The dry weight was increased with increase in concentration of copper treatment. Total protein contents were initially decreased on 14th day from 80.69 of control to 66.75, 60.41, 56.41 and 48.48 microg/mg and on 21st day 81.37 of control to 67.06, 62.31, 54.92 and 46.47 microg/mg fresh weight in different copper concentrations respectively Sugar contents were significantly decreased in all the doses of copper on both 14th and 21st days i.e. (5.53 of control to 4.76, 3.69, 3.68 and 2.86 microg/mg in different copper treatments on 14th day and 4.81 of control to 4.49, 3.40, 2.79 and 2.15 microg/mg on 21st day respectively.


Subject(s)
Amylases/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Copper/toxicity , Germination/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Seedlings/drug effects , Seeds/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Triticum/drug effects
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114029

ABSTRACT

The effects of different concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd singly as well as in the combination of zinc-lead, zinc-cadmium and lead-cadmium on the shoot root length and dry mass as well as chlorophyll contents of barley plants during early seedling growth were studied. The effects of different concentrations of Zn x Pb and Pb x Cd in combinations showed a synergistic relationship, while at higher concentrations the relationship was antagonistic. Lower as well as higher Zn x Cd concentrations showed antagonistic effects.


Subject(s)
Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Drug Interactions , Hordeum/drug effects , Lead/toxicity , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Zinc/toxicity
16.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(4): 1178-1189, 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520031

ABSTRACT

The family Poaceae includes over 10,000 species, among which are the most economically important cereals: maize, sorghum, rice, wheat, rye, barley, and oat. These cereals are very important components of human and animal food. Although divergence of the members of this family occurred about 40 million years ago, comparative genome analyses demonstrated that gene orders among species of this family remain largely conserved, which can be very useful for understanding their roles and evolution. Even with an intricate evolutionary history in which chromosome fragments, losses and duplications have to be considered at the ploidy level, grasses present a genetic model system for comparative genomics. The availability of mapped molecular markers, rice genome sequences and BAC and EST libraries from several grass species, such as rice, wheat, sorghum, and maize, facilitates biology and phylogeny studies of this group. The value of using information from different species in modern plant genetics is unquestionable, especially in the study of traits such as tolerance to aluminum in soils, which affects plant growth and development. Comparative genomic approaches to aluminum tolerance can identify genomic regions and genes responsible for aluminum tolerance in grasses.


Subject(s)
Aluminum/toxicity , Genome, Plant , Poaceae , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial , Expressed Sequence Tags , Species Specificity , Gene Duplication , Genomics , Ploidies , Poaceae/classification , Poaceae/growth & development , Poaceae/genetics , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Quantitative Trait Loci
17.
J Environ Biol ; 2006 May; 27(2 Suppl): 441-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113145

ABSTRACT

17-day-old bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Strike) were used to analyze the effects of Co2+ and Zn2+ on the time course of proline, total protein, chlorophyll and abscisic acid (ABA) levels in leaves. Controls, Co2+ and Zn2+-treated plants were grown for 8 days in Hoagland solution. Samples were taken at 2 day intervals. Proline, chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein contents of 17 day old primary leaves were determined by a spectrophotometer. ABA contents in roots and leaves of the seedlings were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The presence of Zn2+ and Co2+ significantly increased the ABA contents in roots and leaves (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). The increase of the abscisic acid content in the leaves was related to the content of the roots. This was further substantiated by enhanced accumulation of proline in the leaves of seedlings exposed to zinc and cobalt. The contents of chlorophyll (a+b) and total protein decreased with the concentration of both metals (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Cobalt proved to be comparatively more toxic than zinc.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Cobalt/toxicity , Phaseolus/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Proline/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Zinc/toxicity
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114133

ABSTRACT

Four cultivars of blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were grown in soil amended with nickel (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg) and analysed on the 45th day. Nickel at all levels tested reduced the length of root and shoot, number of nodules, area of leaves and dry matter yield of root and shoot of blackgram cultivars. The reduction was lower in AB-1903 and ADT-3 than in ADT-4 and ADT-5. Cultivars AB-1903 and ADT-3 were less sensitive than ADT-4 and ADT-5. The accumulation of nickel was higher in roots than in shoots. The increase of nickel content in roots of blackgram did not differ with cultivars. However, the accumulation of nickel in shoots of blackgram differed with cultivars. The sensitive cultivar ADT-4 and ADT-5 accumulate more nickel in their shoots than the other cultivars, AB- 1903 and ADT-3.


Subject(s)
Fabaceae/growth & development , Nickel/toxicity , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Roots/growth & development , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
19.
J Environ Biol ; 2004 Apr; 25(2): 151-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113491

ABSTRACT

The effect of three herbicides namely Agroxone, Atranex 50SC and 2,4-Damine on Azotobacter vinelandii, Rhizobium phaseoli and Bacillus subtilis were studied. These bacteria were isolated from a bean-garden in Lagos. The results revealed that 2, 4-Damine was the most toxic of the three herbicides studied and Azotobacter vinelandii was found to be most sensitive to the herbicides. There was a reduction in LC50 of herbicides with increased number of days. The percentage survival decreased with increased concentration of herbicides and days for Rhizobium phaseoli and Azotobacter vinelandii while an initial reduction in population was followed by increased percentage survival of organisms for Bacillus subtilis.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Azotobacter vinelandii/growth & development , Bacillus subtilis/growth & development , Herbicides/toxicity , Lethal Dose 50 , Nigeria , Rhizobium phaseoli/growth & development , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Survival Analysis
20.
J Environ Biol ; 2004 Jan; 25(1): 75-80
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113186

ABSTRACT

Intramuscular administration of two doses: 0.50 LD50 (14.70 mg/kg b w) and 0.75 LD50 (22.30 mg/kg b w) of heptachlor in Rattus norvegicus for 14 days induced significant hypocalcemia without altering serum inorganic phosphate value. Parathyroid chief cells of the experimental rats exhibited degranulation, vacuolation, loss of secretory granules and lipid droplets, reduction in chromatin, and degenerative changes in endoplasmic reticulum and cristae of the mitochondria. Not much of histological and ultrastructural changes could be seen in C cells of the heptachlor treated rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium/blood , Chromatin/drug effects , Cytoplasmic Granules/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects , Golgi Apparatus/drug effects , Heptachlor/administration & dosage , Lipids , Male , Mitochondria/drug effects , Parathyroid Glands/cytology , Phosphates/blood , Rats , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
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