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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Subject(s)
Soil , Seed Bank , Pakistan , Plants , Seeds , Ecosystem , Poaceae
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Water Samples , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256565, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360220

ABSTRACT

Liupan Mountains are an important region in China in the context of forest cover and vegetation due to huge afforestation and plantation practices, which brought changes in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries are rarely been understood. The study aims to explore the distribution of soil nutrients at 1-m soil depth in the plantation forest region. The soil samples at five depth increments (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 cm) were collected and analyzed for different soil physio-chemical characteristics. The results showed a significant variation in soil bulk density (BD), soil porosity, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and electric conductivity (EC) values. More soil BD (1.41 g cm-3) and pH (6.97) were noticed in the deep soil layer (80-100 cm), while the highest values of porosity (60.6%), EC (0.09 mS cm-1), and CEC (32.9 c mol kg-1) were reflected in the uppermost soil layer (0-20 cm). Similarly, the highest contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP), total nitrogen (TN), and available potassium (AK) were calculated in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm). With increasing soil depth increment a decreasing trend in the SOC and other nutrient concentration were found, whereas the soil total potassium (TK) produced a negative correlation with soil layer depth. The entire results produced the distribution of SOCs and TNs (stocks) at various soil depths in forestland patterns were 0→20cm > 20→40cm > 40→60cm ≥ 60→80cm ≥ 80→100 cm. Furthermore, the stoichiometric ratios of C, N, and P, the C/P, and N/P ratios showed maximum values (66.49 and 5.46) in 0-20 cm and lowest values (23.78 and 1.91) in 80-100 cm soil layer depth. Though the C/N ratio was statistically similar across the whole soil profile (0-100 cm). These results highlighted that the soil depth increments might largely be attributed to fluctuations in soil physio-chemical properties, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometries. Further study is needed to draw more conclusions on nutrient dynamics, soil stocks, and soil stoichiometry in these forests.


As montanhas de Liupan são uma região importante na China no contexto de cobertura florestal e vegetação devido às enormes práticas de florestamento e plantação, que trouxeram mudanças nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, e estoques e estequiometrias do solo raramente são compreendidos. O estudo visa explorar a distribuição de nutrientes do solo a 1 m de profundidade do solo na região da floresta plantada. As amostras de solo em cinco incrementos de profundidade (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 e 80-100 cm) foram coletadas e analisadas para diferentes características físico-químicas do solo. Os resultados mostraram uma variação significativa nos valores de densidade do solo (BD), porosidade do solo, pH, capacidade de troca catiônica (CEC) e condutividade elétrica (CE). Mais DB do solo (1,41 g cm-3) e pH (6,97) do solo foram observados na camada profunda do solo (80-100 cm), enquanto os maiores valores de porosidade (60,6%), CE (0,09 mS cm-1) e CEC (32,9 c mol kg-1) foram refletidos na camada superior do solo (0-20 cm). Da mesma forma, os maiores teores de carbono orgânico do solo (SOC), fósforo total (TP), fósforo disponível (AP), nitrogênio total (TN) e potássio disponível (AK) foram calculados na camada superficial do solo (0-20 cm). Com o aumento do incremento da profundidade do solo, uma tendência decrescente no SOC e na concentração de outros nutrientes foi encontrada, enquanto o potássio total do solo (TK) produziu uma correlação negativa com a profundidade da camada do solo. Todos os resultados produziram a distribuição de SOCs e TNs (estoques) em várias profundidades de solo em padrões de floresta 0 → 20cm> 20 → 40cm> 40 → 60cm ≥ 60 → 80cm ≥ 80 → 100 cm. Além disso, as relações estequiométricas de C, N e P, as relações C / P e N / P, apresentaram valores máximos (66,49 e 5,46) em 0-20 cm, e valores mais baixos (23,78 e 1,91) em solo de 80-100 cm profundidade da camada. Embora a relação C / N fosse estatisticamente semelhante em todo o perfil do solo (0-100 cm). Esses resultados destacaram que os incrementos de profundidade do solo podem ser amplamente atribuídos a flutuações nas propriedades físico-químicas do solo, estoques e estequiometrias do solo. Mais estudos são necessários para tirar conclusões adicionais sobre a dinâmica dos nutrientes, estoques de solo e estequiometria do solo nessas florestas.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Analysis , Forests , China
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468806

ABSTRACT

Although richness and distribution of woody species in the Cerrado physiognomies have been extensively studied, the shifts of woody species from savanna physiognomies to dry forests have not yet been addressed. Here, we investigate the effect of soil physical-chemical traits on the woody species turnover between adjacent cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest physiognomies. Woody species were surveyed, and soil and topographic variables measured, in 30 10×40 m plots systematically distributed, with 15 plots in each physiognomy. We found a spatially structured distribution of woody species, and differences of soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest areas, mainly related to the aluminum saturation, base saturation, and available phosphorus. Aluminum saturation increased toward the savanna area, while base saturation increased toward the dry forest. Most woody species predominated in one physiognomy, such as Callisthene major in the cerrado stricto sensu and Anadenanthera colubrina in the dry forest. Only 20% of the species were widely distributed across both physiognomies or, not often, restricted to the intermediary values of the soil gradient. General results indicate that contrasting soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest produce a strongly spatially organized and sharp transition in terms of species distribution between these physiognomies.


Embora a distribuição e a riqueza em espécies arbóreas nas fitofisionomias do Cerrado venham sendo bastante estudadas, a transição entre savanas e florestas deciduais ainda não foi abordada. Investigamos o efeito de características físico-químicas do solo sobre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas em região de contato entre cerrado sentido restrito e floresta estacional decidual (FED). As espécies arbóreas foram amostradas sistematicamente, e variáveis de topografia e características do solo foram medidas em 30 parcelas de 10×40 m, sendo 15 parcelas em cada fisionomia. A distribuição das espécies arbóreas foi espacialmente estruturada, e as características do solo diferiram entre as áreas de cerrado sentido restrito e FED, principalmente relacionadas à saturação de alumínio, saturação de bases e teores de fósforo. A saturação de alumínio aumentou em direção ao cerrado sentido restrito, enquanto a saturação de bases aumentou em direção à FED. A maioria das espécies arbóreas predominou em uma das fisionomias, como Callisthene major em cerrado sentido restrito e Anadenanthera colubrina em FED. Apenas 20% das espécies foram amplamente distribuídas em ambas as fisionomias ou, em poucos casos, restritas aos valores intermediários do gradiente de solo. Os resultados indicam um forte contraste de características do solo entre o cerrado sentido restrito e a FED, assim como uma transição acentuada e espacialmente organizada quanto à distribuição de espécies arbóreas.


Subject(s)
Aluminum/analysis , Forests , Phosphorus/analysis , Grassland , Soil/chemistry
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468813

ABSTRACT

Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Subject(s)
Ants , Soil , Substrates for Biological Treatment/analysis , Turnera/growth & development
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2706-2718, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981227

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of the bioavailability of pollutants in soil is crucial to accurately assess the pollution risk, and whole-cell biosensor is one of the important tools for such evaluation. This study aimed to develop a novel whole-cell biosensor for the detection of methyl parathion in soil using. First, a whole-cell biosensor was constructed by the screened methyl parathion hydrolase mpd gene, the existing specific induction element pobR, and the pUC19 plasmid skeleton. Then, the detection method of methyl parathion in soil extracts was established using 96-well microtiter plate as carrier and five whole-cell biosensors as indicator. The method was applied in the detection of methyl parathion in tested and field soil extracts. Taking E. coli DH5α/pMP-AmilCP with the best detection performance as an example, this biosensor had a detection limit of 6.21-6.66 µg/L and a linear range of 10-10 000 µg/L for methyl parathion in four soil extracts. E. coli DH5α/pMP-RFP and E. coli DH5α/pMP-AmilCP methods have good detection performance for the analysis of methyl parathion in soil extract samples. This biosensor method can help to quickly assess the bioavailability of methyl parathion in soil, and thus help to understand the risk of soil pollution caused by organophosphorus pesticide methyl parathion.


Subject(s)
Methyl Parathion/analysis , Pesticides/analysis , Organophosphorus Compounds , Escherichia coli/genetics , Soil , Farms , Biosensing Techniques
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2612-2623, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981219

ABSTRACT

Excessive levels of cadmium (Cd) in soil exert serious negative impacts on soil ecosystems. Microorganisms are a common component of soil and show great potential for mitigating soil Cd. This review summarizes the application and remediation mechanisms of microorganisms, microbial-plants, and microbial-biochar in Cd-contaminated soil. Microorganisms such as Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can change the biological validity of Cd through adsorption, mineralization, precipitation and dissolution. Different factors such as pH, temperature, biomass, concentration, and duration have significant effects on Cd bioavailability by microorganisms. Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Flavobacterium can promote the uptake of Cd2+ by hyperaccumulator through promotion and activation. Biochar, a soil amendment, possesses unique physicochemical properties and could act as a shelter for microorganisms in agriculture. The use of combined microbial-biochar can further stabilize Cd compared to using biochar alone.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Ecosystem , Soil Pollutants , Charcoal/chemistry , Soil/chemistry
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1498-1509, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970621

ABSTRACT

To explore the changes and the reaction mechanisms between soil microecological environment and the content of secon-dary metabolites of plants under water deficit, this study carried out a pot experiment on the 3-leaf stage seedlings of Rheum officinale to analyze their response mechanism under different drought gradients(normal water supply, mild, moderate, and severe drought). The results indicated that the content of flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, and alkaloids in the root of R. officinale varied greatly under drought stresses. Under mild drought stress, the content of substances mentioned above was comparatively high, and the content of rutin, emodin, gallic acid, and(+)-catechin hydrate in the root significantly increased. The content of rutin, emodin, and gallic acid under severe drought stress was significantly lower than that under normal water supply. The number of species, Shannon diversity index, richness index, and Simpson index of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil were significantly higher than those in blank soil, and the number of microbial species and richness index decreased significantly with the aggravation of drought stresses. In the context of water deficit, Cyanophyta, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Streptomyces, and Actinomyces were the dominant bacteria in the rhizosphere of R. officinale. The relative content of rutin and emodin in the root of R. officinale was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Cyanophyta and Firmicutes, and the relative content of(+)-catechin hydrate and(-)-epicatechin gallate was positively correlated with the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In conclusion, appropriate drought stress can increase the content of secondary metabolites of R. officinale from physiological induction and the increase in the association with beneficial microbe.


Subject(s)
Rhizosphere , Rheum , Droughts , Soil , Catechin , Emodin , Bacteria/metabolism , Water/metabolism , Firmicutes , Soil Microbiology
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1175-1187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970431

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the changes of bacterial community structure and function in the early, middle and late stage of aerobic composting of chicken manure, high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods were used to determine and analyze the 16S rRNA sequence of samples at different stages of composting. Wayne analysis showed that most of the bacterial OTUs in the three composting stages were the same, and only about 10% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed stage specificity. The diversity indexes including Ace, Chao1 and Simpson showed a trend of increasing at first, followed by decreasing. However, there was no significant difference among different composting stages (P < 0.05). The dominant bacteria groups in three composting stages were analyzed at the phylum and genus levels. The dominant bacteria phyla at three composting stages were the same, but the abundances were different. LEfSe (line discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size) method was used to analyze the bacterial biological markers with statistical differences among three stages of composting. From the phylum to genus level, there were 49 markers with significant differences among different groups. The markers included 12 species, 13 genera, 12 families, 8 orders, 1 boundary, and 1 phylum. The most biomarkers were detected at early stage while the least biomarkers were detected at late stage. The microbial diversity was analyzed at the functional pathway level. The function diversity was the highest in the early stage of composting. Following the composting, the microbial function was enriched relatively while the diversity decreased. This study provides theoretical support and technical guidance for the regulation of livestock manure aerobic composting process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Manure/microbiology , Chickens/genetics , Composting , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil , Bacteria/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 500-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970388

ABSTRACT

As a widespread pollutant in the environment, research on microplastics have attracted much attention. This review systematically analyzed the interaction between microplastics and soil microorganisms based on existing literatures. Microplastics can change the structure and diversity of soil microbial communities directly or indirectly. The magnitude of these effects depends on the type, dose and shape of microplastics. Meanwhile, soil microorganisms can adapt to the changes caused by microplastics through forming surface biofilm and selecting population. This review also summarized the biodegradation mechanism of microplastics, and explored the factors affecting this process. Microorganisms will firstly colonize the surface of microplastics, and then secrete a variety of extracellular enzymes to function at specific sites, converting polymers into lower polymers or monomers. Finally, the depolymerized small molecules enter the cell for further catabolism. The factors affecting this degradation process are not only the physical and chemical properties of the microplastics, such as molecular weight, density and crystallinity, but also some biological and abiotic factors that affect the growth and metabolism of related microorganisms and the enzymatic activities. Future studies should focus on the connection with the actual environment, and develop new technologies of microplastics biodegradation to solve the problem of microplastic pollution.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Plastics , Soil , Polymers , Biodegradation, Environmental
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Turnera , Plants , Soil , Symbiosis , Ecosystem , Plant Leaves
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278539

ABSTRACT

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Urbanization , Rivers , Soil , Brazil , Ecosystem , Fishes
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243245, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although richness and distribution of woody species in the Cerrado physiognomies have been extensively studied, the shifts of woody species from savanna physiognomies to dry forests have not yet been addressed. Here, we investigate the effect of soil physical-chemical traits on the woody species turnover between adjacent cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest physiognomies. Woody species were surveyed, and soil and topographic variables measured, in 30 10×40 m plots systematically distributed, with 15 plots in each physiognomy. We found a spatially structured distribution of woody species, and differences of soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest areas, mainly related to the aluminum saturation, base saturation, and available phosphorus. Aluminum saturation increased toward the savanna area, while base saturation increased toward the dry forest. Most woody species predominated in one physiognomy, such as Callisthene major in the cerrado stricto sensu and Anadenanthera colubrina in the dry forest. Only 20% of the species were widely distributed across both physiognomies or, not often, restricted to the intermediary values of the soil gradient. General results indicate that contrasting soil traits between cerrado stricto sensu and dry forest produce a strongly spatially organized and sharp transition in terms of species distribution between these physiognomies.


Resumo Embora a distribuição e a riqueza em espécies arbóreas nas fitofisionomias do Cerrado venham sendo bastante estudadas, a transição entre savanas e florestas deciduais ainda não foi abordada. Investigamos o efeito de características físico-químicas do solo sobre a distribuição de espécies arbóreas em região de contato entre cerrado sentido restrito e floresta estacional decidual (FED). As espécies arbóreas foram amostradas sistematicamente, e variáveis de topografia e características do solo foram medidas em 30 parcelas de 10×40 m, sendo 15 parcelas em cada fisionomia. A distribuição das espécies arbóreas foi espacialmente estruturada, e as características do solo diferiram entre as áreas de cerrado sentido restrito e FED, principalmente relacionadas à saturação de alumínio, saturação de bases e teores de fósforo. A saturação de alumínio aumentou em direção ao cerrado sentido restrito, enquanto a saturação de bases aumentou em direção à FED. A maioria das espécies arbóreas predominou em uma das fisionomias, como Callisthene major em cerrado sentido restrito e Anadenanthera colubrina em FED. Apenas 20% das espécies foram amplamente distribuídas em ambas as fisionomias ou, em poucos casos, restritas aos valores intermediários do gradiente de solo. Os resultados indicam um forte contraste de características do solo entre o cerrado sentido restrito e a FED, assim como uma transição acentuada e espacialmente organizada quanto à distribuição de espécies arbóreas.


Subject(s)
Soil , Grassland , Trees , Brazil , Forests
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242676, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trees occurring on the margins of agricultural areas can mitigate damage from residual herbicides. Rhizospheric microbial activity associated with trees is one of the main remedial capacity indicators. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rhizospheric microbiological activity in tree species subjected to the herbicides atrazine and sulfentrazone via the rhizosphere. The experiment was designed in four blocks and a 6 × 3 factorial scheme. The first factor consisted of six tree species from Brazil and the second of atrazine, sulfentrazone, and water solutions. Four herbicide applications were performed via irrigation. The total dry mass of the plants, mycorrhizal colonization, number of spores, basal respiration of the rhizospheric soil, and survival rate of bioindicator plants after phytoremediation were determined. Trichilia hirta had higher biomass when treated with atrazine and sulfentrazone. Herbicides decreased the microbial activity in Triplaris americana and did not affect the microbiological indicators of Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba, and Toona ciliata. Fewer bioindicator plants survived in soil with Triplaris americana and sulfentrazone. Microbiological indicators were influenced in different ways between species by the presence of herbicides in the rhizosphere.


Resumo As árvores que ocorrem nas margens das áreas agrícolas podem mitigar os danos dos herbicidas residuais. A atividade microbiana rizosférica associada às árvores é um dos principais indicadores de capacidade corretiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade microbiológica rizosférica em espécies arbóreas submetidas aos herbicidas atrazina e sulfentrazone via rizosfera. O experimento foi estruturado em quatro blocos e esquema fatorial 6 × 3. O primeiro fator consistiu em seis espécies de árvores do Brasil e o segundo em soluções de atrazine, sulfentrazone e água. Quatro aplicações de herbicidas foram realizadas via irrigação. Foram determinados a massa seca total das plantas, colonização micorrízica, número de esporos, respiração basal do solo rizosférico e taxa de sobrevivência de plantas bioindicadoras após fitorremediação. Trichilia hirta apresentou maior biomassa quando tratada com atrazina e sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas diminuíram a atividade microbiana em Triplaris americana e não afetaram os indicadores microbiológicos de Myrsine gardneriana, Schizolobium parahyba e Toona ciliata. Menos plantas bioindicadoras sobreviveram no solo com Triplaris americana e sulfentrazone. Os indicadores microbiológicos foram influenciados de formas distintas entre as espécies pela presença dos herbicidas na rizosfera.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Mycorrhizae/chemistry , Herbicides , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Trees , Brazil , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seedlings , Rhizosphere
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aedes , Fusarium , Insecticides/pharmacology , Pakistan , Soil , Plant Extracts , Forests , Mosquito Vectors , Larva
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6361-6370, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008834

ABSTRACT

Moutan Cortex(MC) residues produced after the extraction of MC can be re-extracted for active components and used to produce organic fertilizer and animal feed. However, they are currently disposed as domestic waste, which pollutes the environment. This study analyzed the chemical composition of the medicinal material, residues, and residue compost of MC by UPLC-UV-Q-TOF-MS. Furthermore, the nutrient composition of MC residues and the residue compost was analyzed. The results showed that:(1)MC residues had lower content of chemicals than the medicinal material, and content of paeonol, gallic acid, and galloylglucose in MC residues were about 1/3 of that in the medicinal material. The content of chemicals were further reduced after residue composting, and the quantitative compounds were all below the limits of detection.(2)Compared with MC residues, the residue compost showed the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter content increasing by 122.67%, 31.32%, 120.39%, and 32.06%, respectively. Therefore, we concluded that the MC residues can be used to re-extract active compounds such as paeonol, gallic acid, and galloylglucose. The MC residue compost is a high-quality organic fertilizer containing minimal content of chemicals and can be widely used in the cultivation of Chinese medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Composting , Fertilizers , Soil/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins , Nutrients , Acetophenones , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Paeonia
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6030-6038, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008801

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the correlation between rhizosphere soil microorganisms of wild Arnebia euchroma and the content of medicinal components to provide guidance for the selection of the ecological planting base. The total DNA of rhizosphere soil microorganisms of wild A. euchroma was extracted, and the microbial community structure of rhizosphere soil microorganisms was analyzed by IlluminaMiseq high-throughput sequencing technology. The content of total hydroxynaphthoquinone pigment and β,β'-dimethylacrylalkannin in medicinal materials was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The physicochemical pro-perties of rhizosphere soil of wild A. euchroma in main producing areas were determined, and the correlation of soil microbial abundance with index component content and soil physicochemical properties was analyzed by SPSS software. The results showed that the species composition of rhizosphere fungi and bacteria in A. euchroma from different habitats was similar at the phylum and genus levels, but their relative abundance, richness index(Chao1), and community diversity(Simpson) index were different. Correlation analysis showed that the content of available phosphorus in soil was positively correlated with the content of total hydroxynaphthoquinone pigment and β,β'-dimethylacrylalkannin, and the abundance of five fungal genera such as Solicoccozyma and six bacterial genera such as Pseudo-nocardia and Bradyrhizobium was positively correlated with the content of medicinal components in medicinal materials. The abundance of Bradyrhizobium was significantly positively correlated with the content of β,β'-dimethylacrylalkanin. The abundance of fungi such as Archaeorhizomyces was significantly positively correlated with the content of available phosphorus in rhizosphere soil, and Bradyrhizobium was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH. Therefore, the abundance of fungi and bacteria in the rhizosphere of A. euchroma has a certain correlation with the medicinal components and the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil, which can provide a scientific basis for the selection of ecological planting bases in the later stage.


Subject(s)
Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Phosphorus , Soil , Boraginaceae
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5750-5758, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008772

ABSTRACT

The growth environment of medicinal plants plays an important role in the formation of their medicinal quality. However, there is a lack of combined analysis studying the close relationship between the growth environment, chemical components, and related biological activities of medicinal plants. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of different soil moisture treatments on the efficacy to eliminate dampness and relieve jaundice and the flavonoid content of Sedum sarmentosum, and explored their correlation. The flavonoid content in the decoction of S. sarmentosum growing under field conditions with soil moisture levels of 35%-40%(T1), 55%-60%(T2), 75%-80%(T3), and 95%-100%(T4) was compared. The effects of these treatments on liver function parameters, liver inflammation, and oxidative damage in mice with dampness-heat jaundice were evaluated, and the correlation between pharmacological indicators and flavonoid content was analyzed. The results showed that the total flavonoid and total phenolic acid content in the decoction of S. sarmentosum were highest in the T1 treatment, followed by the T3 treatment. The content of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin was highest in the T2, T1, and T3 treatments, respectively. Among the different moisture treatments, the T3 group of S. sarmentosum effectively reduced the levels of serum ALT, AKP, TBIL, DBIL, TBA, as well as hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 in mice with jaundice, followed by T2 treatment, especially in reducing AST level. The T4 treatment had the poorest effect. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between AST, ALT, AKP levels in mice and the total content of quercetin and the three flavonoids. MDA showed a significant negative correlation with the total flavonoid content and kaempferol. TNF-α exhibited a significant negative correlation with the content of isorhamnetin. In conclusion, S. sarmentosum growing under field conditions with a soil moisture level of 75%-80% exhibited the best efficacy to eliminate dampness and relieve jaundice. This study provides insights for optimizing the cultivation mode of medicinal plants guided by pharmacological experiments.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Flavonoids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Quercetin , Sedum/chemistry , Kaempferols , Soil , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Jaundice/drug therapy
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