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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 484-494, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153343

ABSTRACT

Cotton crop, plays a significant role in Pakistan's economy by ruling a prominent place in edible oil and local textile industry. Phosphorus (P) inaccessibility and deficiency of soil organic matter are the key restraints for low crop productivity in cotton. Therefore, a two years field study was designed during 2014-15, to explore the influence of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), farmyard manure (FYM), poultry manure (PM) and inanimate sources of P on various physiological, growth, yield and quality parameters of cotton crop at CCRI Multan. Field responses of seeds inoculated with two distinctive phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) strains viz. S0 = control, S1 =strain-1, S2 = strain-2 and eight organic, inorganic P sources viz., P0= control, P1 = 80 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P2 = 80 kg ha-1 P from FYM, P3 = 80 kg ha-1 P from PM, P4 = 40 kg ha-1 P from FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P5 = 40 kg ha-1 P from PM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P6 = 80 kg ha-1 P from FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source, P7 = 80 kg ha-1 P from PM + 40 kg ha-1 P from inorganic source and P8 = 40 kg ha-1 P from FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P from PM were evaluated. Results revealed that inoculation of seeds with PSB and collective use of inorganic and organic sources of P had considerably increased the yield contributing attributes in cotton. However, the treatment P7 (80 kg P ha-1 from PM + 40 kg P ha-1 from inorganic source) in coincidence with seeds inoculated with PSB (S1) produced taller plant, maximum boll weight, significantly higher LAI and CGR. Significantly higher seed cotton yield, lint yield, fiber length and maximum BCR of 1.95 and 1.81 was also obtained from the P7 treatment during both crop-growing seasons. In conclusion, combined use of 80 kg P ha-1 from PM + 40 kg P ha-1 from inorganic source and cotton seeds inoculated with strain-1 improved phosphorus uptake ensuing in greater consumption of photo-assimilates for maximum growth and yield.


A safra de algodão, desempenha um papel significativo na economia do Paquistão, ao ocupar um lugar de destaque no óleo comestível e na indústria têxtil local. A inacessibilidade e a deficiência de fósforo (P) da matéria orgânica do solo são as principais restrições para a baixa produtividade das culturas em algodão. Portanto, um estudo de campo de dois anos foi desenvolvido durante 2014-15, para explorar a influência de bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato (PSB), esterco de capoeira (FYM), esterco de aves (PM) e fontes inanimadas de P sobre vários fatores fisiológicos, crescimento, rendimento e parâmetros de qualidade da cultura do algodão no CCRI Multan. Respostas de campo de sementes inoculadas com duas cepas distintas de bactérias solubilizantes de fosfato (PSB) viz. S0 = controle, S1 = cepa-1, S2 = cepa-2 e oito fontes orgânicas de P inorgânicas viz., P0 = controle, P1 = 80 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P2 = 80 kg ha-1 P de FYM, P3 = 80 kg ha-1 P de PM, P4 = 40 kg ha-1 P de FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P5 = 40 kg ha-1 P de PM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P6 = 80 kg ha-1 P de FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica, P7 = 80 kg ha-1 P de PM + 40 kg ha-1 P de fonte inorgânica e P8 = 40 Foram avaliados kg ha-1 P da FYM + 40 kg ha-1 P da PM. Os resultados revelaram que a inoculação de sementes com PSB e o uso coletivo de fontes inorgânicas e orgânicas de P aumentaram consideravelmente os atributos que contribuem para a produtividade no algodão. No entanto, o tratamento P7 (80 kg P ha-1 da PM + 40 kg P ha-1 da fonte inorgânica) em coincidência com sementes inoculadas com PSB (S1) produziu planta mais alta, peso máximo de cápsula, IAF e CGR significativamente maiores. Produtividade significativamente maior do algodão, rendimento de fiapos, comprimento da fibra e BCR máximo de 1,95 e 1,81 também foi obtida a partir do tratamento P7 durante as duas épocas de cultivo. Em conclusão, o uso combinado de 80 kg P ha-1 de PM + 40 kg P ha-1 de fonte inorgânica e sementes de algodão inoculadas com a cepa-1 melhoraram a captação de fósforo, resultando em maior consumo de foto assimilados para obter crescimento e produtividade máximos.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Phosphorus Compounds/analysis , Fertilizers , Pakistan , Crop Production , Manure
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190537, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142508

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers , Crop Production/methods , Manure , Phosphorus/analysis , Soybeans , Triticum , Carbon/analysis , Avena , Crops, Agricultural , Zea mays , Farms , Minerals/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190536, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Swine manure is applied in agricultural fields as a source of nutrients for plant growth, however, excessive application over the years can promote soil phosphorus (P) accumulation. The objective of this study was to establish the environmental soil P threshold based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), as well, to evaluate the soil P storage capacity. The experiment was carried out in an Oxisol (sandy clay loam texture), under no-tillage and crop rotation. Treatments consisted of four annual doses of liquid swine manure (0, 100, 200, and 300 m3 ha-1 year-1), and three doses of mineral fertilizer (0, 50, and 100% of the crop nutrients requirement), in a randomized block with split-plot design (four replications). Soil P content was analyzed by PMehlich-1, PCaCl2, water-soluble P (WSP) and total P. The application of swine manure and mineral fertilizer increased soil P contents mainly at 0-10 cm depth. The DPS corresponding to the change point was 14.9% at depth 0-10 and 8.6% at depth 0-20 cm with WSP and 18.7% at 0-10 cm and 8.9% at 0-20 cm depth with PCaCl2. The lowest change point value was DPS 8.6% which corresponds to 43 mg kg-1 of PMehlich-1, so, in practical terms, we suggest this value as the environmental soil P threshold. The soil P storage capacity indicated negative values with the higher doses of swine manure and mineral fertilizer which increases the vulnerability of P loss by surface and subsurface hydrological transfer pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Phosphorus/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis , Manure/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Swine , Crop Rotation , Models, Theoretical , Nitrogen/analysis
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200072, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142498

ABSTRACT

Abstract The response of two local maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes designated as Sahwal-2002 (salt-tolerant) and Sadaf (salt-sensitive) to salt stress was investigated under controlled growth conditions. The role of phenylalanine and seed priming under salt stress in maize with different morphological parameters were studied. The genotype Sadaf, being salt-tolerant, experienced more oxidative damage than the Sahiwall-2002 genotype under salt stress. The salinity affected both growth and physiological attributes of the maize species whereas the phenylalanine successfully increased the salinity tolerance in maize species at the seedling stage.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Zea mays/growth & development , Salinity , Salt Stress , Phenylalanine/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Zea mays/genetics , Genotype
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190492, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142514

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil management influences organic matter decomposition rates as well soil microbial community functional behavior. No-till (NT) is the most used management system by farmers due to its conservation practices and high productivity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of surface-applied lime, nitrogen (N) application, and black oat residues on soil microbial community of a Typic Hapludox under continuous NT. Therefore, soil chemical attributes, microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, most probable number of diazotrophs, as well as bacterial functional analysis were performed. The effect of liming and N fertilization amendments inputs were saw in soil respiration and metabolic quotient measurements, showing them to be good indicators of soil quality. Further studies should be carried out in order to molecularly identify microbial communities present in soils with different liming and N fertilization management to evaluate the behavior of specific bacterial taxa under such conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Soil Quality , Calcium Compounds/administration & dosage , Fertilizers , Nitrogen/administration & dosage , Soil Analysis , Microbiota
6.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190481, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132242

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass and essential oil production of nine populations of poejo (Cunila galioides) cultivated in five agroecological regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, under different edaphoclimatic conditions. The experiments were performed in field conditions in Erechim, Caxias do Sul, Pelotas, São Francisco de Paula, and Santa Vitoria do Palmar. The experimental design was completely randomized, with nine populations, eight plants per plot and four repetitions. The following were evaluated: biomass production and essential oil chemical composition and yield. The data underwent ANOVA, followed by Tukey's multiple range test. The adaptability and stability of the populations in the different environments were also evaluated by regression analysis. The results showed great differences between the populations and cultivation sites, with genotype vs. environment interaction. Most populations presented the best biomass production results at Erechim. Pelotas and Santa Vitória do Palmar were the worst locations for poejo production, mainly due to a water deficit occurred during the experiment. The Santa Lucia population presented broad stability and the greatest adaptability to the environments for biomass and essential oil production, but its average production was not satisfactory. The André da Rocha population presented the highest average production of essential oil, and was favored in favorable environments. Regarding essential oil chemical composition, the populations kept stable contents of the major compounds at all locations, with a few variations. In some populations, a higher concentration of sesquiterpenes was observed, which can be attributed to environmental stress.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Biomass , Lamiaceae/genetics , Sesquiterpenes , Soil/chemistry , Tropical Climate , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance , Genotype
7.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142513

ABSTRACT

Abstract Conservation agriculture practices can contribute to changes in soil nutrient dynamics over time. This experiment evaluated the changes in total stocks and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur concentrations in soil, during 60 months, in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) due to anticipated fertilization of sources and doses phosphates applied in soil surface. The experiment was conducted over a period of five years, under Typic Dystrudept, using a randomized block design, in an incomplete factorial scheme (3×3+1), with four replications. Treatments consisted of three sources of P [triple superphosphate (TSP), rock phosphate - Arad (RP) and magnesium thermophosphate (MTP)], along with four doses of P (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 P2O5 total). Samples of soil were collected in 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm layers at 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after beggining of experiment where the following chemical attributes were evaluated: (i) total organic carbon (TOC); (ii) total nitrogen Kjeldahl (TNK); (iii) available P by ion exchange resin method (P-IER); and (iv) available S-SO4 2-. The ICLS conditions provided increased total stocks and concentrations of TOC, TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- over time. The applications of different phosphates had no influence on soil TOC concentrations during the five years of experimentation. The concentrations of TNK, P-IER and S-SO4 2- showed an increase in different layers of soil, with the application of sources and doses of P. The P fertilization practice that was anticipated can consist of an efficient management of soil fertility, using properly managed conservation systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phosphates/administration & dosage , Soil/chemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Soil Analysis , Fertilizers , Animal Husbandry , Phosphorus/analysis , Sulfur/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Nitrogen/analysis
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190603, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142511

ABSTRACT

Abstract The no-tillage system associated with crops rotation affects the dynamics of soil organic matter, influencing the formation, reorganization and stabilization of aggregates and the carbon content (C) into soil aggregates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop rotations under no-tillage system on C content and soil aggregation. The experiment was conducted at the Paraná Agronomic Institute in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. The treatments consisted of six crop rotations, in a 3-year cycle, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected at layers of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm. The aggregate classification was determined by the wet sieving methodology, and the Weighted Mean Diameter (WMD), Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD) and Aggregate Stability Index (ASI) were calculated. The C content in the aggregates was determined by wet oxidation. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no difference among crop rotations for aggregate classes and aggregation indexes, but were higher in surface, decreasing in depth. The carbon content in the aggregates did not differ among crop rotations, but presented stratification in the soil profile, decreasing in depth. The cycle of three years with crop rotation was insufficient to express possible changes in soil C content and aggregation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Soil/chemistry , Carbon/chemistry , Crop Rotation , Fertilizers , Brazil , Crops, Agricultural , Models, Theoretical
9.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63(spe): e20190507, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142510

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study examined the effects of liming on soil acidity and base saturation (V) in Italian ryegrass (ryegrass) and silage maize production systems over the medium-term. A split-plot design with four replications was employed on Humic Hapludox. The plots consisted of four soil management methods: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT) and chiselled NT (CNT). Within the split plots, ryegrass was used as cover crop (CC), silage (S), and integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system. Following ryegrass phytomass the maize was sowed. Once the maize had been cut with a silage machine, soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm at 24 and 60 months after liming. The attributes pH, H+Al, exchangeable aluminium (Al3+), and V were evaluated. The highest pH and V values were observed in the 0-5 cm layer in NT. The CNT did not result in improvement of acidity conditions or V. The ryegrass as S and ICL decreased soil acidity from 10 cm layer. NT combined with ICL provided soil acidity improvements 60 months after liming. Therefore, the exploration of winter with Italian ryegrass may elicit greater benefits in deep soil layers than cover crops.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Silage , Soil/chemistry , Lolium , Soil Acidity/prevention & control , Zea mays , Soil Analysis , Crop Production , Animal Husbandry
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 589-593, Nov. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001490

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.


Resumo Este estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de degradar a matéria orgânica pela macrofauna edáfica (minhocas), a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N) e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH), durante o processo da vermicompostagem em diferentes resíduos orgânicos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por resíduos orgânicos de origem animal (esterco bovino, ovino e equino) e vegetal (resíduo de erva-mate e borra-de-café), os quais foram acondicionados em vasos plásticos com capacidade de 10 litros, compondo cinco tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado, com cinco repetições. Foram inoculadas 150 minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida, em cada recipiente. Após 87 dias, foi realizada a avaliação da multiplicação das minhocas, através da sua contagem manual e seus casulos. Os resíduos foram submetidos, ao inicio e ao final do experimento, a análises de umidade a 60 °C, pH, densidade volumétrica, análise química de macronutrientes e relação C/N. Houve uma dominância de minhocas e casulos no processo da vermicompostagem nos resíduos de esterco ovino e erva-mate. Observou-se para os macronutrientes (P, K e Mg) e para a relação C/N uma maior quantidade nos resíduos vegetais, enquanto que para N valores maiores foram encontrados nos tratamentos esterco ovino e borra-de-café, e para Ca o maior valor entre os tratamentos foi observado no tratamento com borra de café ao final e o menor valor no inicio. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram a importância da macrofauna edáfica para o processo da vermicompostagem por possibilitar maiores informações sobre sua influência na continuidade dos processos de decomposição da matéria orgânica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Composting , Garbage , Manure/analysis , Biodegradation, Environmental , Brazil , Cattle , Carbon/analysis , Sheep, Domestic , Horses , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/analysis
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 1-8, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053552

ABSTRACT

Background: The bioethanol produced from biomass is a promising alternative fuel. The lignocellulose from marginal areas or wasteland could be a promising raw material for bioethanol production because it is present in large quantities, is cheap, renewable and has favorable environmental properties. Despite these advantages, lignocellulosic biomass is much more difficult to process than cereal grains, due to the need for intensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient and cost-effective method for the degradation and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Results: The usefulness of lignocellulosic biomass from wasteland for the production of bioethanol using pretreatment with the aid of ionic liquids of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was evaluated in this study. The pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation lasted a total of 10 d. The largest amounts of bioethanol were obtained from biomass originating from agricultural wasteland, in which the dominant plant was fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium) and from the field where the common broom (Cytisus scoparius) was the dominant. Conclusions: The plants such as fireweed, common broom, hay and goldenrod may be useful for the production of liquid biofuels and it would be necessary in the further stage of research to establish and optimize the conditions for the technology of ethyl alcohol producing from these plant species. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from agricultural wastelands results in a large increase in fermentable sugars, comparable to the enzymatic hydrolysis of rye, wheat, rice or maize straw.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Biomass , Ethanol/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cellulases/analysis , Enzymes/metabolism , Ionic Liquids , Biofuels , Hydrolysis , Lignin/analysis
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 15-21, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984006

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.


Resumo As alterações de recursos geralmente promovem invasões de plantas, suscitando preocupações quanto às conseqüências potenciais da deposição de nitrogênio (N); No entanto, não está claro se os invasores se beneficiarão da deposição de N mais do que com os nativos. O crescimento é um dos traços inerentes mais fundamentais das plantas e, portanto, os bons invasores podem ter vantagens de crescimento superiores em resposta a alterações de recursos. Comparamos o crescimento e a alocação entre plantas invasivas e nativas em diferentes regimes de N, incluindo controles (concentrações ambientais de N). Descobrimos que as plantas invasivas sempre cresceram muito mais do que as plantas nativas em diferentes condições de N, independentemente das análises baseadas em crescimento ou filogenia, e que o primeiro atribuiu mais biomassa aos rebentos do que o segundo. Embora N aumentou o crescimento de plantas invasivas, esse aumento não aumentou com o aumento da adição de N. Através das espécies invasivas e nativas, as mudanças na alocação da biomassa do extrato foram correlacionadas positivamente com as mudanças na biomassa da planta inteira; e a inclinação desse relacionamento foi maior em plantas invasivas do que plantas nativas. Essas descobertas sugerem que o aumento do investimento em lançamentos faz com que as plantas invasivas mantenham uma vantagem de crescimento em altas condições de N em relação aos nativos, e também destacar que a futura deposição de N pode aumentar os riscos de invasões de plantas.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Introduced Species , Nitrogen/analysis , China , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974310

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Archaea/enzymology , Archaeal Proteins/genetics , Fungi/enzymology , Hydrolases/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soybeans/growth & development , Triticum/growth & development , Brazil , Archaea/isolation & purification , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Zea mays/growth & development , Agriculture , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 449-456, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951579

ABSTRACT

Abstract Edaphic macrofauna must be better studied if we want to take advantage of their full potential for the restoration of tropical ecosystems. We investigated changes in edaphic macrofauna density and diversity along a secondary succession chronosequence in the Atlantic Forest. Our results show some clear patterns of change in soil macrofauna along the chronosequence. Density did not increase along secondary succession, but was correlated with canopy cover. Diversity was characterized by high dominance of social insects and evenness among other groups. We conclude soil macrofauna has a high capacity to recolonize young forests and that its recovery is considerably fast compared to other ecosystem transformations.


Resumo A macrofauna edáfica deve ser mais bem estudada se quisermos aproveitar todo o seu potencial para a restauração de ecossistemas tropicais. Nós investigamos as mudanças de densidade e diversidade da macrofauna edáfica em uma cronossequência durante a sucessão secundária na Mata Atlântica. Nossos resultados mostram padrões claros de mudança. A densidade não aumentou ao longo da sucessão secundária, mas foi correlacionada com a cobertura de dossel. A diversidade foi caracterizada pela alta dominância de insetos sociais e equidade entre os demais grupos. Nós concluímos que a macrofauna edáfica tem alta capacidade de recolonizar florestas jovens e que sua recuperação é relativamente rápida se comparada a outras transformações ecossistêmicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Microbiology/standards , Trees/growth & development , Adaptation, Physiological , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Soil/chemistry , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Ecosystem , Biodiversity
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 625-635, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951589

ABSTRACT

Abstract The water quality is related to the hydrologic and limnologic properties of ground and surface water, and significant efforts have been made to monitor water sources to understand the effects of land use changes in agricultural areas, with significant socioeconomic activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the qualitative aspects of surface water in subbasins related to land use. Samples were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical parameters on monthly discrete water quality sampling in four representative sites at first order subbasin streams, located at the Polo Regional Centro Norte, Pindorama County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The land use classification was made by visual detection technique in a multispectral satellite data obtained from LandSat8- spectral bands of the OLI sensor. The watershed was classified into major land cover/use classes and overlay maps generated in ArcGIS 10 indicated a significant shift from natural vegetation to agriculture activities. Water quality monitoring was according to the brazilian protocol and the results were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The values obtained differ significantly at each sampling point - subbasins, reflecting the effects of land use on water quality. Soil conservation management is important to optimize soil use in order to contribute to the control of water pollution and the formulation of a public policy is necessary for the conservation of water and soil resources.


Resumo A qualidade da água está relacionada com as propriedades hidrológicas e limnológicas das águas subterrâneas e superficiais, e esforços significativos devem ser realizados para monitorar as nascentes no intuito de compreender os efeitos das mudanças no uso da terra em áreas agrícolas, com atividades socioeconômicas significativas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os aspectos qualitativos das águas superficiais de bacias hidrográficas e correlacionar com o uso do solo. As amostras foram analisadas em termos dos parâmetros físicos e químicos na amostragem mensal discreta da qualidade da água, em quatro locais representativos de nascentes em microbacias de primeira ordem, localizadas no Polo Regional Centro Norte, Pindorama, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A classificação do uso do solo foi feita por técnica de detecção visual em uma imagem multiespectral de satélite LandSat8- bandas espectrais, sensor OLI. O uso do solo foi classificado nas principais classes de uso e os mapas de sobreposição gerados no ArcGIS 10 indicaram uma mudança significativa da vegetação natural para as atividades agrícolas. O monitoramento da qualidade da água foi realizado de acordo com o protocolo brasileiro e os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA). Os valores obtidos diferem significativamente em cada ponto de amostragem, refletindo os efeitos do uso do solo sobre a qualidade da água. A gestão do solo e da água é importante para aperfeiçoar as práticas agrícolas, no intuito de contribuir para o controle da poluição da água e para a formulação de uma política pública necessária para a conservação dos recursos hídricos e do solo.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Water Pollutants/chemistry , Water Quality/standards , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Conservation of Natural Resources , Rivers/chemistry , Policy Making , Urbanization , Water Movements , Water Pollution , Brazil , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Industry
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 906-913, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975620

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In approximately 50% of cases of bladder carcinoma, an associated predisposing factor can be established. The main factors are exposure to tobacco, arsenic (As) ore and aromatic compounds. Arsenic is a metalloid with a low average concentration in the earth's crust, and one of the most dangerous substances for human health. The present study aims to evaluate the incidence of hospitalization and mortality from bladder neoplasia and its possible association with As concentration in water and soil in two of the most critical regions of Brazil: the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. We have investigated bladder cancer hospitalization and mortality in the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais during 2010-2014. Water and soil samples were analyzed and As concentrations were established. Data were obtained through the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Correlation was made with water samples from São Paulo and with data on soil analysis from Minas Gerais. The results revealed no direct association in the distinctive municipalities. Areas with high environmental As concentration had a low bladder cancer rate, while areas with normal as levels had similar cancer rates. The quantitative variables did not present a normal distribution (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we did not observe a correlation between as concentration in water or soil and bladder cancer's hospitalization and mortality rates in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Arsenic/adverse effects , Soil/chemistry , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/chemically induced , Water/chemistry , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Arsenic/analysis , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Middle Aged
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 443-451, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951793

ABSTRACT

Abstract As a glacier retreats, barren areas are exposed, and these barren areas are ideal sites to study microbial succession. In this study, we characterized the soil culturable bacterial communities and biochemical parameters of early successional soils from a receding glacier in the Tianshan Mountains. The total number of culturable bacteria ranged from 2.19 × 105 to 1.30 × 106 CFU g-1 dw and from 9.33 × 105 to 2.53 × 106 CFU g-1 dw at 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The number of culturable bacteria in the soil increased at 25 °C but decreased at 4 °C along the chronosequence. The total organic carbon, total nitrogen content, and enzymatic activity were relatively low in the glacier foreland. The number of culturable bacteria isolated at 25 °C was significantly positively correlated with the TOC and TN as well as the soil urease, protease, polyphenoloxidase, sucrase, catalase, and dehydrogenase activities. We obtained 358 isolates from the glacier foreland soils that clustered into 35 groups using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. These groups are affiliated with 20 genera that belong to six taxa, namely, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroides, and Deinococcus-Thermus, with a predominance of members of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in all of the samples. A redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial succession was divided into three periods, an early stage (10a), a middle stage (25-74a), and a late stage (100-130a), with the total number of culturable bacteria mainly being affected by the soil enzymatic activity, suggesting that the microbial succession correlated with the soil age along the foreland.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Ice Cover/microbiology , Ice Cover/chemistry , Phylogeny , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteria/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , China , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 522-528, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039267

ABSTRACT

Abstract We used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the archaeal communities across a gradient of Cerrado. The archaeal communities differed across the gradient. Crenarcheota was the most abundant phyla, with Nitrosphaerales and NRPJ as the predominant classes. Euryachaeota was also found across the Cerrado gradient, including the classes Metanocellales and Methanomassiliicoccaceae.


Subject(s)
Plants/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Archaea/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Plants/classification , Soil/chemistry , Brazil , Archaea/classification , Archaea/growth & development , Archaea/genetics , Biodiversity , Plant Development
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 45-53, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889199

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium), and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa). Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g) and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa), as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbita/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Fungi/physiology , Soil/chemistry , Water/analysis , Water/metabolism , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Biomass , Cucurbita/growth & development , Cucurbita/physiology , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/classification , Desert Climate , Salinity , Droughts , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mexico
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 87-96, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Variations in microbial communities promoted by alterations in environmental conditions are reflected in similarities/differences both at taxonomic and functional levels. Here we used a natural gradient within mangroves from seashore to upland, to contrast the natural variability in bacteria, cyanobacteria and diazotroph assemblages in a pristine area compared to an oil polluted area along a timespan of three years, based on ARISA (bacteria and cyanobacteria) and nifH T-RFLP (diazotrophs) fingerprinting. The data presented herein indicated that changes in all the communities evaluated were mainly driven by the temporal effect in the contaminated area, while local effects were dominant on the pristine mangrove. A positive correlation of community structure between diazotrophs and cyanobacteria was observed, suggesting the functional importance of this phylum as nitrogen fixers in mangroves soils. Different ecological patterns explained the microbial behavior in the pristine and polluted mangroves. Stochastic models in the pristine mangrove indicate that there is not a specific environmental factor that determines the bacterial distribution, while cyanobacteria and diazotrophs better fitted in deterministic model in the same area. For the contaminated mangrove site, deterministic models better represented the variations in the communities, suggesting that the presence of oil might change the microbial ecological structures over time. Mangroves represent a unique environment threatened by global change, and this study contributed to the knowledge of the microbial distribution in such areas and its response on persistent contamination historic events.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Petroleum/analysis , Petroleum/metabolism , Biodiversity , Wetlands , Nitrogen/metabolism
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