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1.
Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online) ; 25(1): e2502, jan-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1372985

ABSTRACT

Solos de praças públicas são comumente contaminados por helmintos devido ao fácil acesso de cães e gatos infectados. Esses animais ao defecarem podem liberar ovos desses parasitos e, em condições ambientais favoráveis, tornam-se ovos embrionados ou larvas infectantes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a existência de larvas de helmintos no solo de duas praças públicas do município de Caxias, Maranhão, Brasil, durante a estação chuvosa e seca na região. A pesquisa foi realizada em março de 2018, considerado período chuvoso, e em outubro do mesmo ano, período seco, sendo que foram coletadas trinta amostras de areia, quinze de cada praça, nos dois períodos do ano. O material foi coletado e levado para o Laboratório de Parasitologia do Departamento de Parasitologia e Microbiologia da Universidade Federal do Piauí para análise. Na estação chuvosa, das quinze amostras analisadas na praça A, cinco foram positivas para larvas de ancilostomídeos e das quinze na praça B, três estavam contaminadas com os mesmos helmintos. No período seco, na praça A havia apenas uma amostra com essas larvas e na praça B não foram encontrados parasitos. Os resultados revelaram a presença de larvas de helmintos de caráter zoonótico no solo de praças públicas de Caxias, Maranhão, principalmente no período chuvoso, servindo de alerta à população local.(AU)


Soil in public squares is commonly contaminated by helminths due to the easy access of infected dogs and cats. These animals, when defecating, can release helminth eggs and, under favorable environmental conditions, those eggs can become embryonated or infective larvae. The purpose of this work was to investigate the existence of helminth larvae in the soil of two public squares in the city of Caxias, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, during the rainy and dry seasons in the region. The study was carried out in March 2018, which is considered the rainy season, and in October of the same year, the dry season. A total of thirty sand samples were collected, fifteen from each square, in both periods of the year. The material was collected and taken to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Department of Parasitology and Microbiology of the Federal University of Piauí for analysis. In the rainy season, from the fifteen samples analyzed in square A, five were positive for hookworm larvae; and from the fifteen samples collected from square B, three were contaminated with the same helminths. During the dry period, only one sample from square A presented these larvae while no parasites were found in square B. The results revealed the presence of zoonotic helminth larvae in the soil of public squares in Caxias, Maranhão, mainly in the rainy season, which can be used as a warning sign to the local population.(AU)


Los suelos de las plazas públicas son comúnmente contaminados por helmintos debido al fácil acceso de perros y gatos infectados. Esos animales, al defecar, pueden liberar huevos de esos parásitos y, en condiciones ambientales favorables, convertirse en huevos embrionados o larvas infectantes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la existencia de larvas de helmintos en el suelo de dos plazas públicas de la ciudad de Caxias, Maranhão, Brasil, durante la estación lluviosa y seca de la región. La investigación se realizó en marzo de 2018, considerada época de lluvias, y en octubre del mismo año, época seca, y se recolectaron treinta muestras de arena, quince de cada plaza, en ambos períodos del año. El material fue recolectado y llevado al Laboratorio de Parasitología del Departamento de Parasitología y Microbiología de la Universidad Federal de Piauí para su análisis. En época de lluvias, de las quince muestras analizadas en la plaza A, cinco resultaron positivas a larvas de anquilostomiasis y de las quince de la plaza B, tres estaban contaminadas con los mismos helmintos. En el período poco lluvioso, en la plaza A solo hubo una muestra con esas larvas y en la plaza B no se encontraron parásitos. Los resultados revelaron la presencia de larvas de helmintos zoonóticos en el suelo de las plazas públicas de Caxias, Maranhão, principalmente en la época de lluvias, sirviendo de alerta a la población local.(AU)


Subject(s)
Soil/parasitology , Larva Migrans/diagnosis , Helminths , Larva/parasitology , Brazil , Parasite Load/methods
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e004920, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soil samples collected near municipal schools (public/EMEI and private/EPEI schools), clubs (CLB), public squares (PS) and residential condominiums (CND) and samples of animal faeces from the Zoonosis Control Centre (CCZ) of the municipality of Votuporanga/SP were analysed using the Baermann method for the detection of zoonotic helminth larvae. The prevalence rates of the nematode genera identified were determined, and the results were compared using Fisher's exact and chi-square frequency tests. Information about cases of larvae migrans in the population were collected from the Family Health Units and the private health plans. All sites were positive for Ancylostoma spp. and, with the exception of EPEIs and dog faeces, for Strongyloides spp. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was 87.5% for CND samples, 74.29% for EMIEs, 63.64% for CLB, 61.76% for PS and 64.29% for dog's and 42.86% for cats at CCZ. The prevalence of Strongyloides spp. ranged from 14.29% (cats/CCZ) to 41.18% (PS). Cases of cutaneous larva migrans were reported during interviews. Thus, from the public health perspective, the risk of individuals that frequent recreational areas in the municipality, especially children, to be infected by helminth larvae is noteworthy, indicating the need to develop policies aimed at controlling this important zoonosis.


Resumo Amostras de solo colhidas em escolas municipais (ensino público/EMEI e privado/EPEI), clubes (CLB), praças públicas (PP), condomínios residenciais (CND) e de fezes de animais do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ) do município de Votuporanga/SP, foram submetidas ao método Baermann para detecção de larvas de helmintos zoonóticos. Foram determinadas as taxas de prevalência dos nematódeos identificados, e os resultados confrontados pelos testes Exato de Fisher e Qui-quadrado. Atendimentos de casos de larvas migrans na população foram levantados em entrevistas realizadas em Unidades de Saúde da Família e em planos de saúde privados. Todos os locais apresentaram positividade para Ancylostoma spp. e, com exceção de EPEIs e de fezes caninas, para Strongyloides spp. Prevalência de Ancylostoma spp. foi verificada em amostras de CNDs (87,50%), EMEIs (74,29%), CLBs (63,64%), PPs (61,76%) e em fezes de cães e gatos do CCZ (64,29% e 42,86%, respectivamente). As prevalências de Strongyloides spp. variaram de 14,29% (gatos/CCZ) a 41,18% (PP). Atendimentos de casos de larva migrans cutânea foram relatados nas entrevistas. Portanto, ressalta-se o risco de frequentadores de áreas de lazer do município, especialmente crianças, de adquirirem infecção por larvas de helmintos, indicando a necessidade da elaboração de propostas de políticas voltadas ao controle dessa importante zoonose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Soil/parasitology , Larva Migrans/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Ancylostoma/physiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Larva Migrans/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016419, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058009

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate environmental contamination by helminth eggs with zoonotic potential that were found in dog feces in the vicinity of elementary schools. Seventy-nine samples of dog feces were collected from 28 municipal schools located in five neighborhoods in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. The samples were processed using the Willis-Mollay technique and analyzed using an optical microscope (40X), to identify any parasite eggs present. All neighborhoods were positive and 74.7% of the samples exhibited one or more helminth genera. The agent with the highest prevalence was Ancylostoma spp. (93.2%), followed by Trichuris spp. (18.6%), Toxocara spp. (11.9%) and Toxascaris (1.7%). These data show that there is a need for greater care towards controlling these helminths with zoonotic potential, including responsible pet ownership and daily activities to clean and collect dog feces in the vicinity of schools, because these are places where children play and study.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação ambiental por ovos de helmintos com potencial zoonótico, diagnosticados em fezes caninas depositadas nas proximidades de escolas primárias. Setenta e nove amostras de fezes foram colhidas em 28 escolas municipais localizadas em cinco bairros da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brasil. As amostras foram processadas pela técnica de Willis-Mollay e analisadas em microscópio óptico (40X), para identificar quaisquer parasitos presentes. Todos os bairros foram positivos e 74,7% das amostras apresentaram um ou mais gêneros de helmintos. O agente com maior prevalência foi Ancylostoma spp. (93,2%), seguido por Trichuris spp. (18,6%), Toxocara spp. (11,9%) e Toxascaris (1,7%). Esses dados mostram que há necessidade de maior cuidado no controle desses helmintos com potencial zoonótico, incluindo a posse responsável dos animais e atividades diárias de limpeza e colheita de fezes de cães nas proximidades das escolas, porque esses são locais onde as crianças brincam e estudam.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Parasite Egg Count , Soil/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Schools , Brazil , Urban Health , Prevalence
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e021420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the factors that discourages farmers from raising small ruminants in cultivated pastures. To validate a soil treatment strategy to control the free-living stages of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN), castor cake (CC) was used as a fertilizer on a pasture where sheep grazed on guinea grass under continuous stocking. On day zero, the pasture was divided into three paddocks, contaminated by GIN and treated, respectively, with CC divided into two applications (2CC1/2), CC in a single application (CC1) and organic compost in a single application (control). On day 21, eight GIN-free sheep were placed in each paddock. On day 58, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed: reduction of up to 66.10% in larvae.g-1 of dry mass in pastures fertilized with CC, decrease of up to 60.72% in infection rates among the animals in the groups treated with CC, higher average daily weight gain (over 185 g.day-1) and packed cell volume (over 26%) in the groups treated with CC, when compared to the control (128 g.day-1; 20.9%). In view of the results, the use of CC, mainly CC1, as a fertilizer for guinea grass pastures, under continuous stocking, proved to be promising, with 63.41% effectiveness in controlling worm infestations.


Resumo O parasitismo gastrintestinal é um dos fatores que fragiliza a exploração de pequenos ruminantes em pastagens cultivadas. Objetivando validar a estratégia de tratamento do solo para o controle dos estágios de vida livre de nematoides gastrintestinais (NGI), a torta de mamona (TM) foi utilizada como adubo, com ovinos pastejando em capim-tanzânia sob lotação contínua. No dia zero, o pasto foi dividido em três piquetes, contaminados por NGI e tratados, respectivamente, com TM parcelada em duas aplicações (2TM1/2), TM em uma única aplicação (TM1) e composto orgânico em única aplicação (testemunha). No dia 21, cada piquete recebeu oito ovinos livres de NGI. No dia 58, observaram-se diferenças significativas (P<0,05): redução de até 66,10% de larvas.g-1 de massa seca nas pastagens adubadas com TM; redução de até 60,72% da infecção dos animais nos grupos tratados com TM; ganho de peso médio diário (acima de 185 g.dia-1) e volume globular (acima de 26%) superior nos grupos tratados com TM, quando comparados com a testemunha (128 g.dia-1; 20,9%). Diante dos resultados, o uso da TM, principalmente TM1, como adubo em pasto de capim-tanzânia, sob lotação contínua, mostrou-se promissor, com eficácia de 63,41% para controlar a verminose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/immunology , Sheep Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Husbandry/methods , Nematode Infections/immunology , Nematode Infections/prevention & control , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Soil/parasitology , Sheep , Weight Gain , Castor Bean/chemistry , Feces , Fertilizers/parasitology , Hematocrit , Nematoda
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 314-319, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042509

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nematophagous fungi from the feces of water buffalo and soil from southeastern Mexico were isolated, and their in vitro predatory activity against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) (HcL3) was assessed. The fungi were isolated by sprinkling soil or feces on water agar plates. Six series of 10 Petri dishes containing a 7-day-old culture of each fungus and a series without fungi as the control were prepared. Five hundred HcL3 were added to each plate. The plates were incubated at room temperature. The average of recovered HcL3 was considered to estimate the larval reduction rate. Four nematophagous fungi isolates corresponding to Arthrobotrys oligospora, var microspora (strains 4-276, 269 and 50-80) and one identified as A. oligospora,var. oligospora (isolates 48-80) were obtained from water buffalo feces. From the soil, five isolates were isolated; three corresponded to A. musiformis (Bajío, Yumca and Macuspana isolates), and two isolates were identified as A. oligospora (Comalcalco and Jalapa de Méndez isolates). The predatory activity of isolates from water buffalo feces ranged between 85.9 and 100%. Meanwhile, the fungi from the soil ranged between 55.5 and 100% (p≤0.05). The nematophagous fungi obtained could have important implications in the control of parasites of importance in the livestock industry.


Resumo Fungos nematófagos das fezes de búfalo de água e do solo no sudeste do México foram isolados, e a atividade predatória in vitro contra larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus (L3) (HcL3) foi avaliada.Os fungos foram isolados por aspersão de solo e de fezes em placas de agar água. Foram preparadas seis séries de 10 placas de Petri contendo uma cultura de 7 dias de idade de cada fungo e uma série sem fungos como controle. Quinhentos HcL3 foram adicionadas a cada placa. As placas foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente. O número médio de HcL3 recuperadas foi considerado para estimar a taxa de redução larval. Quatro isolados de fungos nematófagos corresponderam a Arthrobotrys oligospora, var microspora (estirpes 4-276, 269 e 50-80) e um isolado identificado como A. oligospora, var. oligospora (isolados 48-80 de fezes de búfalo de água. Do solo, dos cinco isolados três corresponderam a A. musiformis (Bajío, Yumca e Macuspana isolados), e dois isolados foram identificados como A. oligospora (isolados de Comalcalco e Jalapa de Méndez). A atividade predatória de isolados de fezes de búfalo de água variou entre 85,9 e 100%. Enquanto isso, os fungos do solo variaram entre 55,5 e 100% (p≤0,05). Os fungos nematófagos obtidos podem ter importantes implicações nesse controle de parasitos de importância na indústria pecuária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Soil/parasitology , Buffaloes/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Haemonchus/physiology , Haemonchus/isolation & purification , Haemonchus/classification , Mexico
7.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 52(4): 441-449, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001068

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la situación epidemiológica de toxocariosis en un hábitat ribereño. Se determinaron anticuerpos anti-toxocara por ELISA en sueros de 34 niños y 64 adultos, y se hallaron seroprevalencias de 32,3% y 45,3%, respectivamente. Esta fue alta en adultos y en niños de 2 a 3 años. Se realizaron 217 análisis coproparasitológicos de caninos y 23,04% fueron positivos para huevos de Toxocara canis. La distribución de caninos positivos por rango etario fue de 66% entre 1 y 6 meses; de 20,7% entre 6 y 12 meses; y de 10,3% en mayores de 12 meses. El porcentaje de animales parasitados por T. canis fue significativamente menor en relación a otros parásitos y disminuyó marcadamente con el aumento de la edad. Se analizaron 104 muestras de suelo y 1,92% de las mismas fueron positivas para huevos de T. canis. La escasa cantidad de huevos en suelos podría deberse a que los cachorros no se encontraban libres en los espacios públicos. En este barrio podría inferirse que el suelo no actuó como diseminador de esta parasitosis, sino que fueron de mayor relevancia factores como la tenencia de caninos menores de 1 año, el contacto estrecho con los mismos en ámbitos domiciliarios y las condiciones higiénico-sanitarias poco saludables.


The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of toxocariasis in a coastal habitat. Blood samples of 34 children and 64 adults were analyzed in order to determinate antibodies anti-toxocara by ELISA method. Prevalences of 32.3% and 45.3% were obtained respectively. A total of 217 coproparasitological canine analyses were performed, and 104 soil samples were analyzed. In humans, the seroprevalence of 32.4% in children and 45.3% in adults was found. In dogs, 50 samples were positive for T. canis eggs (23.04%). The distribution of canine positive for each age range yielded the following results: from 1 to 6 months, 66%; from 6 to 12 months, 20.7% and over 12 months, 10.3%. In soils, only 2 samples (1.92%) were positive for T. canis eggs. Seroloprevalence in humans was high, especially in adults and children aged 2 to 3 years. The percentage of parasitized animals by Toxocara was significantly lower in relation to other canine parasites and the percentage of dogs parasitized diminished significantly by increasing the age range. The low number of eggs found in soils could be due to the absence of puppies in public spaces. In this neighborhood, it can be inferred that the ground of public spaces did not act as a disseminator of this parasitosis, but that there were more relevant factors such as the possession of canines under 1 year of age, the close contact with them in residential areas, and unhealthy sanitary conditions.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a situação epidemiológica da toxocaríase em um habitat ripícola. Os anticorpos anti-toxocara foram determinados por ELISA em soros de 34 crianças e 64 adultos, com soroprevalência de 32,3% e 45,3%, respectivamente. Ela foi alta em adultos e em crianças de 2 a 3 anos de idade. Foram realizadas 217 análises coproparasitológicas caninas e 23,04% foram positivas para os ovos de Toxocara canis. A distribuição de caninos positivos por faixa etária foi de 66%, entre 1 e 6 meses, de 20,7%, entre 6 e 12 meses, e de 10,3% em maiores de 12 meses. A porcentagem de animais parasitados por T. canis foi significativamente menor em relação a outras parasitas e diminuiu marcadamente com o aumento da idade. Foram analisadas 104 amostras de solo e 1,92% delas foram positivas para ovos de T. canis. A escassa quantidade de ovos nos solos pode ser o resultado do fato de que os filhotes não estivessem livres nos espaços públicos. Poderia ser inferido que, nesse bairro, o solo não atuou como disseminador dessa parasitose, mas fatores como a posse de caninos menores de 1 ano de idade, um contato próximo com eles em ambientes domésticos e condições higiênico-sanitárias insalubres foram fatores de maior relevância.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Dogs , Soil/parasitology , Toxocariasis/epidemiology , Toxocara canis/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Prevalence
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 457-463, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951582

ABSTRACT

Abstract Carabids are recognized worldwide as biological control agents of agricultural pests. The objective was to compare the life cycle of Abaris basistriata Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on three substrates: soil, fine vermiculite, or paper napkins. The biological cycle of A. basistriata presented different durations in soil and paper. The viability of eggs and larvae survival of the first and second instars were similar on all three substrates, while the third instar and pupa in the soil presented higher survival when compared with vermiculite and paper. The soil substrate was more favorable for the longevity of the carabid beetle. Abaris basistriata showed a shorter pre-oviposition period and a higher oviposition and post-oviposition period in the soil. Fecundity and fertility were higher when A. basistriata was reared on soil. The soil was most favorable substrate for rearing of A. basistriata in the laboratory. This information may make this species useful for the biological control.


Resumo Os carabídeos são reconhecidos mundialmente como agentes de controle biológico de pragas agrícolas. O objetivo foi comparar o ciclo de vida de Abaris basistriata Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) em três substratos: solo, vermiculita fina, ou guardanapos de papel. O ciclo biológico de A. basistriata apresentou diferentes durações no solo e no papel. A viabilidade dos ovos e a sobrevivência das larvas do primeiro e segundo instares foram semelhantes nos três substratos, enquanto que o terceiro instar e a pupa apresentaram maior sobrevivência no solo quando comparados com vermiculita e papel. O substrato solo foi mais favorável à longevidade do carabídeo. Abaris basistriata mostrou menor período de pré-oviposição e maior período de oviposição e pós-oviposição no solo. A fecundidade e a fertilidade foram maiores quando A. basistriata foi criado no solo. O solo foi o substrato mais favorável para a criação de A. basistriata no laboratório. Estas informações são importantes e podem tornar essa espécie útil para o controlo biológico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Soil/parasitology , Coleoptera/growth & development , Larva/growth & development , Life Cycle Stages/physiology , Coleoptera/physiology , Ecosystem , Agriculture , Longevity
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 327-337, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959196

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with vegetable contamination with zoonotic protozoan. Samples of water, soil and vegetables were collected from July/2014 to May/2016, totaling 83 samples, 21 properties of Londrina region, Paraná, Brazil. DNA amplification of Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in the samples was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR results were positive for T. gondii in 12.9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. in 11.3% (7/62) and G. intestinalis in 25.8% (16/62) of the samples. DNA sequencing identified C. parvum in five samples and G. intestinalis Assemblage E in three. The statistical associations demonstrated greater probability of positive samples for T. gondii and for at least one of the three protozoa when the source of irrigation water was the river; a greater chance of positive samples for Cryptosporidium spp. when deer were present on the property; and a smaller chance of positive samples for at least one of the three etiologic agents when soil was supplemented with limestone. The results expose some critical contamination points, providing support for training farmers on good management practices during the production process.


Resumo O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os fatores associados à contaminação de vegetais por protozoários zoonóticos. Amostras de água, solo e vegetais foram coletadas de julho/2014 a maio/2016, totalizando 83 amostras de 21 propriedades da região de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. A amplificação de fragmentos de DNA de T. gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia intestinalis foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Os resultados da PCR foram positivos para T. gondii em 12,9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. em 11,3% (7/62) e G. intestinalis. em 25,8% (16/62) das amostras. O sequenciamento de DNA identificou C. parvum em cinco amostras e G. intestinalis, Assemblage E em três amostras. As associações estatísticas evidenciaram maior probabilidade de amostras serem positivas para T. gondii ou para pelo menos um dos três protozoários quando a fonte de água de irrigação era o rio; uma maior chance de amostras positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. quando havia cervos na propriedade; e uma menor chance das amostras serem positivas para pelo menos um dos três agentes etiológicos quando o solo era suplementado com calcário. Os resultados expõem alguns pontos críticos de contaminação, fornecendo suporte para capacitar os agricultores em boas práticas de gestão durante o processo de produção.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Soil/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Water/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Cryptosporidium/genetics
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 55(2): 132007, 26 jul. 2018. mapas, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912905

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, a significant percentage of the population lives without basic sanitation, experiencing so-called social vulnerability. The fact that these people share the environment with animals promotes the establishment of zoonotic parasitic infections, as well as the resultant parasitic cycles. Thus, parasites present in the environment must be identified, so that control measures can be recommended. In this context, this study's objective was to evaluate environmental contamination by parasitic forms in a socially vulnerable community in southern Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 100 soil samples collected from the community were processed by a sodium dichromate centrifuge-flotation technique and analyzed by a compound microscope (40X objective) for the identification of parasite eggs, oocysts and cysts. All points were positive for two or more parasites, with the identification of 33.59% non-identified coccidian oocysts, Strongylida (25.4%), Ascaridida (21.31%), Trichuris spp. (8.19%), Toxocara spp. (3.27%), Amoebas (4.08%), Dioctophyma renale (2.45%), and Giardia spp.(1.63%). The presence of parasitic forms in all points analyzed surpasses other studies of environmental contamination carried out in the southern region of Brazil. In addition, the identification of several parasitic forms with zoonotic potential is concerning, since it shows the possibility of parasitic transmission to humans and other animals. In view of the results, the conclusion is that the environment analyzed is contaminated by parasitic forms, constituting a serious public health problem. Therefore, implementing educational and preventive measures in the community to control parasites is of crucial importance.(AU)


No Brasil, uma parcela significativa da população não possui saneamento básico e vive em situação de vulnerabilidade social, compartilhando o ambiente com animais, possibilitando o estabelecimento de infecções parasitárias zoonóticas e a manutenção do ciclo dos parasitos. Assim, para que medidas de controle sejam preconizadas, torna-se necessário a identificação dos parasitos presentes no ambiente. Neste contexto, este trabalho avaliou a contaminação ambiental por formas parasitárias em comunidade de vulnerabilidade social no sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletadas cem amostras de solo da comunidade, que foram processadas pela técnica de centrifugo-flutuação em solução de dicromato de sódio e analisadas em microscópio composto (objetiva 40X) para a identificação dos ovos, oocistos e cistos de parasitos. Todos os pontos de coleta foram positivos para dois ou mais parasitos, sendo diagnosticados oocistos de coccídios não-identificados (33,59%), Strongylida (25,4%), Ascaridida (21,31%), Trichuris spp. (8,19%), Toxocara spp. (3,27%), Amebas (4,08%), Dioctophyma renale (2,45%), Giardia spp. (1,63%). A quantidade de formas parasitárias em todos os pontos analisados supera a contida em outros estudos de contaminação ambiental já realizados na região sul do Brasil. Além disso, a identificação de diversas formas parasitárias com potencial zoonótico é preocupante, pois evidencia a possibilidade de transmissão de parasitoses ao homem e a outros animais. Diante dos resultados, conclui-se que o ambiente em questão está contaminado por formas parasitárias, constituindo um sério problema de saúde pública. Ressalta-se a importância da implantação de medidas educativas e preventivas com a comunidade para o controle dos parasitos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Social Vulnerability , Soil/parasitology , Zoonoses/etiology , Basic Sanitation , Brazil/epidemiology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(9): 593-595, Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Paleoparasitology reveals the status of parasitic infections in humans and animals in ancient times based on parasitic particles found in biological remains from archaeological excavations. This line of research emerged in Iran in 2013. OBJECTIVE The identification of parasites from Neolithic times is an attractive subject that shows the oldest origins of parasitic infections in a given geographical region. From an archaeological point of view, this archaeological site is well-known for animal domestication and agriculture in ancient Iran. METHODS In this study, soil deposited on the surface and in the pores of a dog pelvic bone was carefully collected and rehydrated using trisodium phosphate solution. FINDINGS The results showed ascarid and taeniid eggs retrieved from the biological remains of a dog excavated at the East Chia Sabz archaeological site, which dates back to the Neolithic period (8100 BC). MAIN CONCLUSION The current findings clearly illustrate the natural circulation of nematode and cestode parasites among dogs at that time. These ancient helminth eggs can also be used to track the oldest parasitic infections in the Iranian plateau and contribute to the paleoparasitological documentation of the Fertile Crescent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Paleopathology , Ascaridia/isolation & purification , Soil/parasitology , Taenia/isolation & purification , Dogs/parasitology , Fossils , Ovum , History, Ancient , Iran
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 22-28, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839161

ABSTRACT

Abstract Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a promising alternative to integrated control in many fruit pests. Few studies were made on the relationship of Anastrepha fraterculus natural population with native EPNs population and other biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of endemic nematodes in an apple orchard, concerning environmental conditions and technical procedure, and access isolates virulence to A. fraterculus larvae. The experiment was conducted during a year taking monthly soil samples from an apple orchard, with and without fallen fruits just above the soil. Samples were baited with Tenebrium molitor and A. fraterculus larvae in laboratory. Canopy and fallen fruits were sampled to access the pest infestation. Seventy three EPN isolates were captured, in 23.2% soil samples, more with T. molitor than with A. fraterculus baits. From the 20 isolates tested against A. fraterculus, only five were pathogenic, and they were identified as Oscheius sp. The nematodes were captured during all seasons in a similar frequency. Soil and weather conditions, presence of fruit over the orchard soil, and A. fraterculus pupae in the fruits had no significant influence on the capture. As a conclusion, nematodes of the genera Oscheius are found in an apple orchard of Porto Amazonas constantly along the year, independently of fluctuations in A. fraterculus population, climate conditions and presence of fruit over the soil. Some of the isolates are pathogenic to A. fraterculus.


Resumo Nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) são alternativa promissora para o controle integrado de várias pragas de frutíferas. Foram feitos poucos estudos ecológicos sobre a relação de populações naturais de Anastrepha fraterculus com a de NEPs nativos e outros fatores bióticos e abióticos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de nematoides endêmicos de um pomar de macieira, considerando condições ambientais e procedimentos técnicos, e testar a virulência de isolados para larvas de A. fraterculus. O experimento foi conduzido durante um ano coletando mensalmente amostras de solo de um pomar de macieira com e sem frutos acima do solo. Foram feitas armadilhas com larvas de Tenebrium molitor e de A. fraterculus em laboratório. Frutos na copa e caídos no solo foram amostrados para quantificar a infestação da praga. Setenta e três isolados de NEPs foram capturados em 23,2% das amostras de solo, mais em armadilhas de T. molitor do que em A. fraterculus. Dos 20 isolados testados contra A. fraterculus, apenas cinco foram patogênicos, e eles foram identificados como Oscheius sp. Os nematoides foram capturados durante todas as estações e em frequência similar. Condições edáficas e climáticas, presença do fruto acima do solo amostrado e de pupas de A. fraterculus nos frutos não tiveram influência significativa na captura. Como conclusão, nematoides do gênero Oscheius ocorrem em pomar de macieira de Porto Amazonas de forma constante ao longo do ano, independentemente de flutuações na população de A. fraterculus, condições climáticas e presença de fruto sobre a superfície do solo. Alguns isolados são patogênicos para A. fraterculus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Malus/parasitology , Tephritidae/parasitology , Larva/parasitology , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Pupa/parasitology , Soil/parasitology , Virulence , Brazil , Biological Control Agents , Nematoda/classification
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 89-91, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic parasite with worldwide distribution, although its occurrence is little known. The objective here was to evaluate the presence of parasite eggs in the environment and in the urine of dogs and cats in an urban area. Soil samples and urine were evaluated respectively by means of the Caldwell-Caldwell technique and urinalysis. Out of the 100 soil samples, 3% presented D. renale eggs, and out of the 43 urine samples, 18.6% were positive, including the feline samples. Thus, D. renale eggs are present in the urban environment, and dogs and cats are parasitized by this nematode, which therefore represents a risk to public health.


Resumo Dioctophyme renale é um parasito zoonótico com distribuição cosmopolita, entretanto sua ocorrência é pouco conhecida. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar a presença de ovos do parasito no ambiente e na urina de cães e gatos de zona urbana. As amostras de solo e urina foram avaliadas, respectivamente, pela técnica de Caldwell e Caldwell e por urinálise. Das 100 amostras de solo, 3% apresentaram ovos de D. renale, e das 43 amostras de urina, 18,6% foram positivas, incluindo a de felino. Conclui-se que ovos de D. renale estão presentes no ambiente urbano, assim como os caninos e felinos apresentam-se parasitados, representando um risco para a saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Soil/parasitology , Urine/parasitology , Dioctophymatoidea/isolation & purification , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1345-1350
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189704

ABSTRACT

We investigated the prevalence of geohelminth parasites in farmers, education concerned and shepherd of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1041 stool samples were examined from January 2006 to December 2008 using direct smear [Normal saline and Lugol,s Iodine solution] the concentration methods and procedures. Seven hundred and sixty three [73.2%] individuals were found infected with one or more than one geohelminth parasites. Four hundred and eighteen [54.7%] were infected with single parasite and three hundred forty five [45.3%] with multiple infections. Ascaris lumbricoides 460 [53.0%], Trichuris trichura 228 [26.2%], Enterobius vermicularis 123 [14.1%] and Ancylostoma duedenale 56 [6.45%] were detected. The adults were found more parasitized than children and males were more infected than females. Shepherds were found more infected than farmers and education concerned. Although Swat is an area with poor hygiene located in temperate zone near the border of Afghanistan and China. The prevalence of reported geohelminth parasites here compared with the same studies is unexpectedly high. These type of studies should continue time to time to know the hazardous of such parasitic infections for the betterment of the human health


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris , Trichuriasis , Ascariasis , Enterobius , Enterobiasis , Ancylostoma , Ancylostomiasis , Parasitic Diseases , Soil/parasitology
15.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(3): 252-258, set. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843170

ABSTRACT

Los microorganismos del suelo son vitales para el correcto funcionamiento de los ecosistemas, principalmente por su papel en el ciclado de nutrientes. La intensificación del uso del suelo y las prácticas agrícolas alteran negativamente la actividad microbiana. La biomasa fúngica es uno de los parámetros más utilizados para estudiar el impacto de las actividades agrícolas en la estructura y el funcionamiento del suelo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estimar la biomasa fúngica en un suelo del sudoeste bonaerense con el fin de obtener valores de referencia que permitan usar este parámetro como un indicador de cambios en el ecosistema y, por otro lado, demostrar que la metodología empleada es sensible a las variaciones en las condiciones climáticas. Se colectaron muestras de suelos durante 2 años consecutivos. Se prepararon frotis de suelo y se tiñeron con soluciones de distintas concentraciones de blanco de calcoflúor y luego se estimó la biomasa fúngica observando los frotis con microscopio de epifluorescencia. Los valores de biomasa fúngica estimados variaron entre 2,23 y 26,89 μg Cfúngico/g de suelo y estuvieron dentro del rango esperable para el tipo de suelo estudiado. La biomasa fúngica mostró una relación positiva con la temperatura y las precipitaciones. La metodología empleada resultó ser confiable, repetible y sensible a cambios en las condiciones climáticas. Los resultados podrían usarse como valores de referencia para estudiar la biomasa fúngica de suelos bajo distintas condiciones y emplearse como indicadores del impacto de las distintas prácticas agrícolas sobre el ecosistema.


Soil microorganisms are vital for ecosystem functioning because of the role they play in soil nutrient cycling. Agricultural practices and the intensification of land use have a negative effect on microbial activities and fungal biomass has been widely used as an indicator of soil health. The aim of this study was to analyze fungal biomass in soils from southwestern Buenos Aires province using direct fluorescent staining and to contribute to its use as an indicator of environmental changes in the ecosystem as well as to define its sensitivity to weather conditions. Soil samples were collected during two consecutive years. Soil smears were prepared and stained with two different concentrations of calcofluor, and the fungal biomass was estimated under an epifluorescence microscope. Soil fungal biomass varied between 2.23 and 26.89 μg fungal C/g soil, being these values in the range expected for the studied soil type. The fungal biomass was positively related to temperature and precipitations. The methodology used was reliable, standardized and sensitive to weather conditions. The results of this study contribute information to evaluate fungal biomass in different soil types and support its use as an indicator of soil health for analyzing the impact of different agricultural practices.


Subject(s)
Soil Analysis , Mycobiome , Indicators and Reagents/analysis , Reference Values , Soil/parasitology , Land Use , Ecosystem , Biomass , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(4): 428-432, ago. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830113

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Squares and public areas are mentioned frequently as source of infections by Toxocara sp. for people. There is no study of the presence of Toxocara sp. eggs in soils of the city of Chillán, Chile. Aims: To assess the presence of toxocara eggs in the soils of public areas of Chillán. Material and Methods: 43 public areas were studied in January of 2014. Samples were processed by sedimentation-flotation method. In addition, two positive control assays were performed: one with feces contaminated with Toxocara eggs mixed with soil; and the other leaving the feces on the soil and then analyzing this soil. Results: No Toxocara eggs were detected in public areas, but they were found in both positive control assays. Discussion: Several factors, including seasonality (summer) and the frequency of the cleaning of the areas, may explain this result, which cannot be interpreted necessarily as a lack of risk, but instead as a low risk, if it exists, given the possibility that the load may be low enough as to be undetectable.


Introducción: Las áreas públicas se mencionan frecuentemente como fuente de infección por Toxocara sp. para la población. En la ciudad de Chillán no se han realizado estudios de la presencia de huevos de Toxocara sp. en suelos de áreas públicas. Objetivos: Evaluar la presencia de huevos de Toxocara en suelos de áreas públicas de la ciudad de Chillán. Material y Método: Se evaluaron 43 áreas públicas en enero de 2014, analizándose sus suelos mediante el método de sedimentación-flotación. Además se realizaron dos ensayos como controles positivos, uno con una mezcla de heces positivas a huevos de Toxocara y suelo, luego se analizó la mezcla, y el otro dejando heces positivas sobre el suelo, y luego analizando sólo el suelo. Resultados: No se detectaron huevos de Toxocara en las muestras de áreas públicas, pero sí se encontraron en ambos controles positivos. Discusión: Diversos factores, incluyendo la estacionalidad (verano) y la frecuencia de la limpieza en las áreas, pueden explicar este resultado, el que no debe ser interpretado necesariamente como una carencia de riesgo, sino más bien como un riesgo que de existir es escaso, dada la posibilidad que la carga sea lo suficientemente baja para no ser detectada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Parasite Egg Count/methods , Soil/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Toxocara/isolation & purification , Chile , Residence Characteristics , Urban Health
17.
Rev. salud pública ; 18(1): 117-128, ene.-feb. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-962025

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the frequency of intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco- Colombia and associated risks factors. Methods Analytical study in which 390 children between 2 and 12 years old from 10 neighborhoods of Turbaco were included, whose legal representatives gave informed consent. Three serial samples of feces and 10 soil samples were processed. Risk factors were determined through an interview. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of soils were also evaluated. Results Parasites were found in 30.5 % of children. 162 parasites were observed; the most frequent protozoan was Endolimax nana (30.3 %) and in terms of helminthes, the most frequent was Ascaris lumbricoides (4.9 %). No statistical association between age or sex and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) or between risk factors and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) was found. Low frequencies of intestinal parasites were encountered in soil samples, being more common Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp., and Ascaris lumbricoides. Neighborhoods of Turbaco had sandy dry soil with low content of ions, low conductivity and low organic matter. Conclusion This study showed a low frequency of intestinal parasites in feces and soils. Despite this, pathogenic parasites were found which can affect the health of the population. Besides this, a high percentage of intestinal parasites that are transmitted through feces were detected indicating fecal contamination and low level of hygiene.(AU)


Objetivo Determinar la frecuencia de parásitos intestinales en niños y suelos de Turbaco -Colombia y su asociación con factores de riesgo. Métodos Estudio analítico realizado en Turbaco-Colombia. Fueron Incluidos 390 niños entre 2 y 12 años de 10 barrios, cuyos representantes legales dieron un consentimiento informado. Fueron procesadas 3 muestras seriadas de heces fecales y 10 muestras de suelos. Los factores de riesgo fueron evaluados a través de una entrevista. Además se determinaron las características fisicoquímicas y estructurales de los suelos. Resultados Se encontraron parásitos en 30,5 % de los niños. Se observaron 162 parásitos, siendo Endolimax nana (30,3 %) el protozoo más frecuente y Ascaris lumbricoides (4,9 %) el helminto más frecuente. No se encontró asociación estadística entre la edad, el sexo y los factores de riesgo con la presencia de parásitos intestinales (p>0,05). Se encontró una baja frecuencia de parásitos en las muestras de suelo, siendo más comunes Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp. y Ascaris lumbricoides. Los barrios de Turbaco tuvieron suelo arenoso, seco con bajo contenido de iones, baja conductividad y poca materia orgánica. Conclusión Este estudio determinó una baja frecuencia de parásitos intestinales en heces y suelos. Sin embargo, se encontraron parásitos patógenos que pueden afectar la salud de la población. Se detectó un alto porcentaje de parásitos que son transmitidos a través de las heces indicando contaminación fecal y bajo nivel de higiene.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Parasitic Diseases/epidemiology , Soil/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Risk Factors , Colombia/epidemiology
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 35(3): 407-418, jul.-sep. 2015. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765469

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El Salvador no cuenta con datos actualizados de prevalencia en menores de 15 años de la infección por helmintos transmitidos por contacto con el suelo. Además, al ser uno de los países en las Américas que reporta un número bajo de casos de malaria, se considera que su eliminación allí es factible. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia y la intensidad de la infección por geohelmintos y la prevalencia de Plasmodium spp. en escolares de 8 a 10 años de El Salvador. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de corte transversal en las cinco zonas eco-epidemiológicas del país (planicie costera, depresión central, cadena volcánica, cadena costera y zona montañosa). La presencia de geohelmintiasis se estudió en 1.325 estudiantes y, la de malaria, en 152. Se utilizó la técnica de Kato-Katz para la detección de geohelmintos, y para el diagnóstico de la malaria, una prueba rápida, el estudio mediante microscopía y la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados. La prevalencia total de geohelmintiasis fue de 7,9 % (IC 95% 6,6-9,5). En la planicie costera fue de 14,9 % (IC 95% 10,9-19,7); en la depresión central, de 9,4 % (IC 95% 6,5-13,3); en la cadena volcánica, de 6,6 % (IC 95% 4,2-10,5); en la cadena costera, de 5,9 % (IC 95% 3,8-9,4), y en la cadena montañosa, de 2,6 % (IC 95% 1,4-5,7). La proporción de infección de gran intensidad debida a cualquiera de las especies de geohelmintos fue de 0,3 %. No se encontraron escolares infectados con Plasmodium spp. Conclusión. La prevalencia de geohelmintos fue baja y la especie más prevalente fue Trichuris trichiura . La intensidad de la infección debida a cualquiera de las especies de geohelmintos fue leve (<1 %). Los factores de riesgo asociados a la infección por geohelmintos fueron la defecación al aire libre, no usar calzado y vivir en la planicie costera.


Introduction: El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. Objective: To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Results: The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Conclusion: Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (<1%). The risk factors associated with infection by soil-transmitted helminths were defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Soil/parasitology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , El Salvador/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Coinfection , Geography, Medical , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Helminthiasis/transmission , Helminths/isolation & purification , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/transmission
19.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(2): 170-176, mar.-abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754071

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Identificar la presencia de parásitos con potencial zoonótico en los principales parques de la ciudad de Tunja, Boyacá, Colombia. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 28 parques de la ciudad en los que se recogieron 124 muestras de materia fecal de perros y muestras de suelo con ayuda de una espátula; se reunieron aproximadamente 150 g por muestra. Cada una de las muestras fue procesada por el método de concentración de Ritchie modificado, con lo que se realizó la identificación de formas parasitarias en microscopía óptica. Resultados. 60.7% de los parques resultaron positivos a nematodos en muestras de materia fecal de canino y 100% en tierra. Los nematodos encontrados fueron huevos y larvas de Toxocara spp, Ancylostoma spp, Trichuris vulpis y Strongiloides spp. Conclusión. Este estudio demostró el riesgo potencial de la transmisión de zoonosis causadas por nematodos de caninos y la necesidad de reforzar las medidas de salud pública para disminuir el riesgo de la población expuesta a dichas zoonosis.


Objective. To identify the presence of parasites with zoonotic potential in major parks in the city of Tunja, Boyacá. Materials and methods. Twenty eight parks in the city were selected, where 124 samples of feces of dogs and soil were collected with the help of a spatula, gathering approximately 150 g per sample. They were processed by the method of concentration of Ritchie modified making the identification of parasitic forms in an optical microscope. Results. A 60.7% of the parks were positive to nematodes in samples of canine fecal material and 100% on soil. Found nematodes were eggs and larvae of Toxocara spp., Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris vulpis and Strongiloides spp. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the potential risk of transmission of zoonoses caused by nematodes in canines and for the need to strengthen public health measures to reduce the risk shows the population exposed to such zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Soil/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs , Urban Health , Feces/parasitology , Parks, Recreational/statistics & numerical data , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Ovum , Zoonoses/transmission , Cities , Colombia , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/therapy , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Larva , Nematoda/growth & development
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158472

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: One third of the world’s population is infected with one or more of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Albendazole (ALB) is being administered with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) in filariasis endemic areas to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) and helminth infections. In this study, the cumulative impact of seven annual rounds of mass drug administrations (MDA) of DEC and ALB on STH infection in school children in selected villages in southern India was determined. Methods: During 2001-2010, seven MDAs were implemented by the Tamil Nadu state health department, India. LF and STH infections were monitored in school children from 18 villages of the two treatment arms (viz, DEC alone and DEC+ALB). Kato-Katz cellophane quantitative thick smear technique was employed to estimate STH infections at three weeks, six months and one year post MDA. Results: Prior to treatment, an overall STH prevalence was 60 per cent. After each MDA, infection markedly reduced at three weeks post-treatment in both the arms. The prevalence increased at six months period, which was maintained up to one year. After seven rounds of MDA, the infection reduced from 60.44 to 12.48 per cent in DEC+ALB arm; while the reduction was negligible in DEC alone arm (58.77 to 52.70%). Interpretation & conclusions: Seven rounds of MDA with DEC+ALB reduced the infection load significantly, and further sustained low level of infection for 10 years. However, complete parasite elimination could not be achieved. To curtail STH infection in the community, MDA should be regularized and environmental sanitation measures need to be improved by effective community-based campaigns.


Subject(s)
Albendazole/administration & dosage , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Child , Diethylcarbamazine/administration & dosage , Diethylcarbamazine/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Helminthiasis/drug therapy , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminthiasis/transmission , Humans , India , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/transmission , Prevalence , Rural Population , Soil/parasitology
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