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1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(11): 831-836, Nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1155016

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to do a brief review of enzootic calcinosis in sheep and to report two outbreaks of Nierembergia rivularis poisoning in sheep in Uruguay. The outbreaks occurred in farms located on an island (Outbreak A) and on the border (Outbreak B) of the Rincón del Bonete lake. Sheep of all ages were affected, with the exception of suckling lambs. The first clinical signs occurred in early October, and deaths occurred from December to February. Outbreaks A and B had morbidity of 10%, and the mortality was 7.2% and 2.8% in Outbreaks A and B, respectively. The clinical signs included weight loss, retracted abdomen, stiff gait, and kyphosis. An autopsy was performed on one sheep from each outbreak. Pulmonary and arterial calcification, nephrocalcinosis, and osteopetrosis were observed in gross and microscopic examination in both sheep. Thyroid C-cell hyperplasia and carcinoma was observed in sheep A. Sheep B showed thyroid C-cell hyperplasia and parathyroid chief cell atrophy. The parathyroid was not examined in the sheep from Outbreak A. The differential diagnosis of enzootic calcinosis in southern South America should consider four toxic plants in the Solanaceae family: Solanum glaucophyllum, Solanum stuckertii, Nierembergia veitchii, and Nierembergia rivularis.(AU)


Este trabalho faz uma breve revisão da calcinose enzoótica em ovinos e descreve dois surtos de intoxicação por Nierembergia rivularis em ovinos no Uruguai. Os surtos ocorreram em propriedades localizadas em uma ilha (Surto A), e nas margens (Surto B) do lago do Rincón del Bonete. Foram afetados ovinos de todas as idades, exceto cordeiros lactentes. Os primeiros sinais clínicos ocorreram no início de outubro e as mortes de dezembro a fevereiro. Morbidade de 10% foi observada nos Surtos A e B. A mortalidade foi de 7,2% e 2,8% nos Surtos A e B, respectivamente. Os sinais clínicos incluíram perda de peso, abdômen retraído, marcha rígida e cifose. Foram necropsiados um animal de cada rebanho. Observou-se mineralização arterial e pulmonar, nefrocalcinose e osteopetrose no exame macroscópico e histológico dos dois ovinos. Hiperplasia e carcinoma de células C da tireoide foram observados no ovino A. O ovino B apresentou hiperplasia de células C da tireoide e atrofia das células principais da paratireoide. As paratireoides do ovino A não foram examinadas. O diagnóstico diferencial da calcinose enzoótica no Sul da América do Sul deve considerar quatro plantas calcinogênicas da família Solanaceae: Solanum glaucophyllum, Solanum stuckertii, Nierembergia veitchii e Nierembergia rivularis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcinosis/etiology , Calcinosis/epidemiology , Solanaceae/poisoning , Sheep, Domestic , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Uruguay/epidemiology , Calcinosis/pathology , Solanum glaucophyllum/poisoning
2.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 205-217, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348154

ABSTRACT

La punta morada es una enfermedad que afecta la producción de algunas especies de solanáceas como la papa y el tomate, causando enrollamiento en las puntas de las hojas con una marcada coloración morada, decaimiento temprano de la planta y en la papa se observa tuberización aérea. Como patógenos asociados a la enfermedad se consideran al fitoplasma BLTVA y la bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Dada la similitud en la sin-tomatología foliar que generan ambos patógenos, es difícil precisar cuál de ellos está implicado en la enfermedad. En Guatemala, existen reportes de la sintomatología típica de punta morada en las principales zonas productoras de papa y tomate, desconociéndose el agente asociado. La investigación determinó cuál de los dos patógenos reportados está asociados a la enfermedad en 12 municipios productores de papa y/o tomate en el país. Se realizaron ampli-ficaciones de ADN con cebadores específicos para cada patógeno asociado a la enfermedad. Por la alta incidencia del fitoplasma BLTVA en las muestras de papa (73.9%), en comparación a C. Liberibacter solanacearum (26%), este es considerado como el patógeno asociado más importante en papa. En las muestras de tomate, la incidencia del fitoplasma BLTVA (29.8%) y C. Liberibacter solanacearum del (27.6%) fue similar. Además, sobresale el primer reporte de la detección del fitoplasma BLTVA afectando el cultivo de tomate en Guatemala. Se sugiere un monitoreo constante, mediante métodos moleculares, para un diagnóstico certero y establecer medidas de manejo de la enfermedad para evitar su diseminación hacia zonas aún no afectadas.


The potato purple top is a disease that affects the production of some solanaceous species such as potatoes and tomatoes, causing curl at the tips of the leaves with a marked purple coloration, early decay of the plant, and aerial tuberization is observed in the potato. BLTVA phytoplasma and Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum are considered as pathogens associated with the disease. Given the similarity in foliar symptoms generated by both pathogens, it is difficult to determine which one is involved in the disease. There are reports of the typical potato purple top symptoms in the main potato and tomato producing areas in Guatemala, being unknown the associated agent. The research determined which of the two reported pathogens is associated with the disease in 12 potatoes and/or tomato producing areas in the country. We performed DNA amplification with specific primers for each disease-associated pathogen. Due to the high incidence of BLTVA phytoplasma in potato samples (73.9%), com-pared to C. liberibacter solanacearum (26%), this is considered the most important associated pathogen in potatoes. In tomato samples, the incidence of BLTVA phytoplasma (29.8%) and C. liberibacter solanacearum (27.6%) was similar. Besides, the first report of the detection of the BLTVA phytoplasma affecting tomato cultivation in Gua-temala stands out. Using molecular methods, constant monitoring is suggested for an accurate diagnosis and to establish management measures for the disease to prevent its spread to areas not yet affected.


Subject(s)
Solanum tuberosum/virology , Solanaceae/virology , Phytoplasma Disease/microbiology , Plant Viruses/isolation & purification , Agricultural Cultivation , DNA, Plant/analysis , Liberibacter/pathogenicity
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 41: 48-55, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087162

ABSTRACT

Background: Plant gene homologs that control cell differentiation can be used as biotechnological tools to study the in vitro cell proliferation competence of tissue culture-recalcitrant species such as peppers. It has been demonstrated that SERK1 homologs enhance embryogenic competence when overexpressed in transformed tissues; therefore, cloning of a pepper SERK1 homolog was performed to further evaluate its biotechnological potential. Results: A Capsicum chinense SERK full-length cDNA (CchSERK1) was cloned and characterized at the molecular level. Its deduced amino acid sequence exhibits high identity with sequences annotated as SERK1 and predicted-SERK2 homologs in the genomes of the Capsicum annuum CM-334 and Zunla-1 varieties, respectively, and with SERK1 homologs from members of the Solanaceae family. Transcription of CchSERK1 in plant tissues, measured by quantitative RT-PCR, was higher in stems, flowers, and roots but lower in leaves and floral primordia. During seed development, CchSERK1 was transcribed in all zygotic stages, with higher expression at 14 days post anthesis. During somatic embryogenesis, CchSERK1 was transcribed at all differentiation stages, with a high increment in the heart stage and lower levels at the torpedo/cotyledonal stages. Conclusion: DNA sequence alignments and gene expression patterns suggest that CchSERK1 is the C. chinense SERK1 homolog. Significant levels of CchSERK1 transcripts were found in tissues with cell differentiation activities such as vascular axes and during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos. These results suggest that CchSERK1 might have regulatory functions in cell differentiation and could be used as a biotechnological tool to study the recalcitrance of peppers to proliferate in vitro.


Subject(s)
Capsicum/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , In Vitro Techniques , Biotechnology , Gene Expression , Cell Differentiation , Genes, Plant , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Solanaceae/genetics , Arabidopsis Proteins , Cell Proliferation , Embryonic Development , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(2): 137-143, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003686

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se evaluó químicamente el perfil de aminoácidos y contenido de vitaminas según la metodología oficial, las harinas crudas de batata y tratadas térmicamente por cocción. Se obtuvieron harinas crudas con contenidos de carbohidratos totales de 84,81%, almidón 50,65%, proteínas de 2,94%, contenidos de grasa cruda de 0,34%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p≤ 0,05) por efecto de los tratamientos aplicados. Se redujo el contenido de humedad, cenizas, carbohidratos totales y azúcares reductores. Se observó un incremento en el contenido de fibra cruda. Predominaron en todas las harinas los aminoácidos ácido glutámico y ácido aspártico, el aminoácido limitante fue triptófano. Por efecto de los tratamientos aplicados, hubo diferencias (p≤ 0,05) en la composición de la mayoría de los aminoácidos, incrementando su concentración. El contenido de vitaminas A y C disminuyó por efecto de los tratamientos aplicados (p≤ 0,05). Se concluye que las harinas crudas de batata y cocidas pueden ser empleadas en la formulación de alimentos ya que aportan buenas cantidades de nutrientes.


ABSTRACT The chemical composition, amino acid profile and vitamin content of sweet potato flour (raw and heat treated by cooking) were evaluated according to official methodology. Crude flours with total carbohydrate content of 84.81%, starch 50.65%, proteins 2.94% and crude fat contents 0.34% were used. Statistically significant differences were found (p≤ 0.05) due to the effect of the applied treatments. The content of humidity, ash, total carbohydrates and reducing sugars were reduced and an increase in crude fiber content was observed. The amino acids glutamic acid and aspartic acid predominated in all flours. We observed low levels of the amino acid tryptophan. There were statistically significant differences (p≤ 0.05) due to the effect of the treatments applied on the composition of most of the amino acids, increasing their concentration. Vitamin A and C content decreased due to the effect of the applied treatments (p≤ 0.05). Raw and cooked sweet potato flours can be used in food formulation because they provide good amounts of nutrients.


Subject(s)
Thermic Treatment , Solanaceae , Food Composition , Flour , Food Ingredients , Nutritive Value
5.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 45-57, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789073

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Solanum guaraniticum is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat gastric and liver diseases. However, there is no documented evidence corroborating its safety. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of S. guaraniticum leaf extract after acute administration in rats. Single doses of the extract (1.250, 2.500, and 5.000 mg/kg) were administered by gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 48 h and/or 14 days. Mortality, acute signs of toxicity, and general activity in the open field test were assessed as well as hematological and biochemical parameters, enzymatic activity (δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase and acetylcholinesterase), and oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation level, non-protein thiol content, tissue catalase activity, and serum ferrous reducing power). Phytochemical analysis was also performed by HPLC. The results showed that extract administration produced no deaths (LD50 > 5,000 mg/kg), and no significant adverse effects regarding food consumption, body weight gain, gross pathology, or other parameters. However, the open field tests showed a decrease in spontaneous activity (crossing and rearing) mainly at 48 h after treatment. The results suggest that S. guaraniticum extract is not acutely toxic, but causes alterations in central nervous system activity.


RESUMO Solanum guaraniticum é uma planta medicinal tradicionalmente usada para tratar doenças gástricas e hepáticas. Porém, não há evidências documentadas sobre sua segurança. O presente estudo avaliou a toxicidade do extrato das folhas de S. guaraniticum após administração aguda em ratos. Doses únicas do extrato (1.250, 2.500 and 5.000 mg/kg) foram administradas por gavagem e os animais foram monitorados por 48 h ou 14 dias. Mortalidade, sinais de toxicidade aguda e atividade geral, através do teste de campo aberto, foram analisados, assim como parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos, atividades enzimáticas (δ-aminolevulinato desidratase e acetilcolinesterase) e parâmetros de estresse oxidativo (nível de peroxidação lipídica, conteúdo de tióis não protéicos, atividade da catalase em tecidos e poder redutor em soro). A análise fitoquímica também foi realizada por HPLC. Os resultados mostraram que a administração do extrato não provoca mortes (LD50>5.000 mg/kg) ou efeitos adversos significativos com relação ao consumo de comida, ganho de peso corporal, análise patológica, entre outros. Entretanto, o teste de campo aberto mostrou uma diminuição na atividade espontânea geral (cruzamentos e levantadas), principalmente em 48 h após o tratamento. Portanto, nossos resultados sugerem que o extrato de S. guaraniticum não é agudamente tóxico, mas causa alterações na atividade do sistema nervoso central.


Subject(s)
Rats , Evaluation Studies as Topic/classification , Rats/physiology , Solanum/toxicity , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Solanaceae/classification
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110515

ABSTRACT

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury and pathologically characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the renal interstitium. Solanum nigrum (S. nigrum) is a medicinal plant member of the Solanaceae family. Although S. nigrum has been traditionally used to treat various ailments such as pain, inflammation, and fever, it has also been reported to have a toxic effect, resulting in anticholinergic symptoms. However, there have been no reports of AIN caused by S. nigrum. Here, we report the first case of biopsy-confirmed AIN after ingestion of S. nigrum. The patient was successfully treated using corticosteroid therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Eating , Fever , Humans , Inflammation , Nephritis, Interstitial , Plants, Medicinal , Solanaceae , Solanum nigrum , Solanum
7.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 67(3): 0-0, dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-777069

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el control de la malaria depende en gran medida de una terapia efectiva. Muchos de los anti-maláricos actuales son de origen natural. Especies de la flora cubana contienen metabolitos anti-Plasmodium. En este estudio, se identifican extractos de Solanaceae con actividad antiplasmodial promisoria. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad esquizonticida frente a Plasmodium berghei de 31 extractos de 7 especies, correspondientes a 5 géneros de plantas de Solanaceae, colectadas en el occidente de nuestro país y sin antecedentes de un estudio similar. Métodos: se prepararon 31 extractos hidroalcohólicos (90 y 30 por ciento etanol) de diferentes órganos de: Brunfelsia undulata Sw., Datura stramonium L. var. tatula (L.) Torr., Physalis solanaceus (Schltdl.) Axelius, Solandra longiflora Tuss., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum seaforthianum And. ySolanum umbellatum Mill.La actividad de los extractos se evaluó in vitro frente a P. berghei y se determinó su citotoxicidad frente a fibroblastos humanos MRC-5. Resultados: los extractos deB. undulata y S. umbellatumfueron inactivos.El extracto de tallos de S. seaforthianummostró la actividad antiplasmodial más potente (CI50 = 3,9µg/mL) con excelentes electividad (18,2). Conclusiones: se demostró la actividad anti-plasmodial in vitro de extractos de cinco especies de Solanaceae sin antecedentes de esta acción farmacológica. Se identificó un extracto con potente actividad esquizonticida frente a P. berghei y con excelente selectividad. Este resultado nos anima a continuar el estudio de la preparación vegetal de S. seaforthianum(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Solanaceae/parasitology , Schizonts/drug effects , Cuba
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(5): 448-450, May 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-759371

ABSTRACT

Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Metternichia princepsem caprinos no Estado da Bahia. De oito caprinos, três morreram, dos quais dois foram necropsiados; cinco não adoeceram. Os principais sinais clínicos caracterizaram-se por secreção nasal mucosa, emagrecimento, diarreia, apatia, debilidade leve, andar cambaleante, flexão dos membros torácicos e pélvicos, decúbito esterno-abdominal e decúbito lateral, seguidos de morte após aproximadamente dois dias de evolução clínica. Na necropsia foi observado edema pulmonar, hidrotórax, hidropericárdio, ascite, rins pálidos, edema perirrenal e hemorragias no tecido subcutâneo. Microscopicamente nos rins havia acentuada necrose de coagulação do epitélio tubular e túbulos com regeneração do epitélio. No pulmão havia acentuada congestão associada a edema interalveolar e interseptal. Na bioquímica sanguínea observou-se aumento na ureia, creatinina e creatinina fosfoquinase.


An outbreak of poisoning by Metternichia princepsis reported in goats from the State of Bahia. Out of eight goats three showed symptoms of poisoning and died; on two of them post-mortem examinations were performed. The main clinical signs were nasal mucous secretion, weight loss, diarrhea, lethargy, mild weakness, staggering gait, flexion of the fore and hind limbs, sternal recumbence, and lateral recumbence followed by death after approximately two days of clinical manifestations. The serum concentration of urea and creatinine and the serum activities of creatine phosphokinase were increased. At necropsy pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, ascites, pale kidneys, perirenal edema and hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue were observed. Microscopically the kidneys showed accentuated coagulation necrosis of the tubular epithelium and tubules and epithelial regeneration. In the lungs there was accentuated congestion associated with interalveolar and interseptal edema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Solanaceae/poisoning , Solanaceae/toxicity , Ascites/veterinary , Autopsy/veterinary , Pulmonary Edema/veterinary , Heartwater Disease , Hydrothorax/veterinary , Nephrosis/veterinary
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.2): 937-944, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-771169

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A espécie vegetal Solanum lycocarpum, Solanaceae, popularmente conhecida como lobeira, está distribuída por todo o Brasil, principalmente em áreas do cerrado. Estudos comprovam que os frutos possuem diversas atividades e, atualmente, estão sendo utilizados no tratamento da diabetes. As folhas são utilizadas popularmente contra afecções das vias urinárias, cólicas abdominais e renais, espasmos e epilepsia, porém são poucos os estudos científicos que verificam as atividades farmacológicas das folhas. Assim, torna-se necessária a determinação de parâmetros anatômicos, físico-químicos e fitoquímicos que auxiliarão em futuras identificações e controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. Neste estudo foi realizada a coleta, secagem e pulverização das folhas de Solanum lycocarpum para a obtenção da droga vegetal e posterior caracterização desta. As análises microscópicas do pecíolo, nervura central e mesofilo revelaram características típicas da família Solanaceae, observando-se um sistema vascular bicolateral e a presença de areia cristalina e tricomas estrelados. A triagem fitoquímica, constatou a presença de taninos, flavonoides, esteróides e triterpenos, cumarinas e saponinas. Obteve-se o teor médio de 9,90% de perda por dessecação, 7,91% de cinzas totais e de 0,37% de cinzas insolúveis em ácidos. Para as substâncias extraíveis por álcool, o teor médio encontrado foi de 14,479% para o método de extração por Soxhlet e 0,987% para o método de extração a frio. Assim, espera-se que esses dados possam ser utilizados na identificação e controle de qualidade da droga vegetal de Solanum lycocarpum para a produção de novos medicamentos fitoterápicos.


ABSTRACT The plant species Solanumlycocarpum, Solanaceae, most known as lobeira, are distributed throughout Brazil, especially in Cerrado areas. Studies show that the fruits own different properties and, currently, are being used in the treatment of diabetes. Even though the leaves are being used by the general population against urinary tract disorders, renal and abdominal cramps, spasms and epilepsy, there are few scientific studies that verify the possible pharmacological activities of leaves. This shows that it is necessary to research and determinate the anatomic, physical-chemicals and the phytochemicals parameters that are going to help in the identification and quality assurance of the drug. In this study the leaves of Solanum lycocarpum were collected, dried and pulverized in order to be obtained the plant drug for further characterization.. Microscopic analyzes of the petiole, midrib and mesophyll showed typical features of the Solanaceae family, by detecting a biocolateral vascular system and the presence of crystallines and and stellatetrichomes. In the phytochemical screening performed, the tanning, flavonoids, sterols and triterpenes, coumarins and saponins were found. We obtained an average grade of 9.90% loss on the drying, total ash of 7.91% and 0.37% of ash insoluble in acids. . For the substances extractable through alcohol, the average content found was 14.479% for the Soxhlet extraction method and 0.987% for the cold extraction method. This data can be used in the identification and quality assurance of the plant drugs of Solanum lycocarpum for the production of new herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Reference Parameters/analysis , Chemical Phenomena/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Solanaceae/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.3): 1103-1111, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-776603

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O gênero Brunfelsia possui ainda poucas informações a respeito de sua composição química ou confirmações científicas de suas propriedades medicinais, apesar do uso na medicina tradicional pelos povos amazônicos. Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a espécie Brunfelsia cuneifolia, cultivada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto a sua composição química e atividade biológica. Foram obtidos extratos aquosos a quente, a frio, e por ultrassom, a partir de folhas frescas. A caracterização química realizada por CLAE determinou a presença dos compostos fenólicos: ácido ferúlico e rutina, em todos os extratos, sendo as maiores quantidades apresentadas pela extração a frio. A análise por EMAR identificou a fórmula molecular de nove substâncias nos diferentes extratos, incluindo a presença do alcaloide brunfelsamidina em todos os extratos obtidos. Para a atividade biológica, devido à similaridade de resposta e teor nas diferentes formas de extração, foi possível correlacionar a atividade antioxidante, avaliada através da redução do radical DPPH*, com o teor de compostos fenólicos totais obtidos pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu. A toxicidade dos extratos avaliada pela utilização de Artemia salina revelou ausência de toxidez. Os resultados obtidos são os primeiros apresentados para a caracterização desta espécie, colaborando também para a pesquisa científica acerca dos usos popularmente atribuídos ao gênero.


ABSTRACT There is still not a lot of information about the Brunfelsiagenus. Its respective chemical composition and possible scientific proofs of its medicinal properties were not deeply researched, even though the use of the species is common in the traditional medicine of Amazonian populations. This study aimed to characterize the Brunfelsia cuneifolia species, grown in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, regarding its chemical composition and biological activity. Hot, cold and ultrasound aqueous extracts of fresh leaves were obtained. The chemical characterization performed by the HPLC determined the presence of phenolic compounds, ferulic acid and rutin in all extracts, with the largest amount presented by the cold extraction method. The HRMS analysis identified the molecular formula of nine substances in different extracts, including the presence of the alkaloid brunfelsamidina in all the extracts. For biological activity, it was possible to correlate the measured antioxidant activity through the reduction of DPPH * with the content of phenolic compounds obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, which exhibited similar response and content in the different forms of extraction. The toxicity of the extracts evaluated through the use of Artemia salina was negative. The obtained results are the first ones presented for the characterization of this species, also contributing to scientific research on the popular applications related to this genus.


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Franciscaea uniflora/analysis , Solanaceae/chemistry , Toxicity , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/classification
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330302

ABSTRACT

A quantitative HPLC-DAD method was developed for simultaneous determination of N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine and N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine in Solani Melongenae Radix from different cultivation regions in China The separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) at 30 degrees C with a gradient elution of methanol and 0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was 300 nm. The calibration curves of N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine and N-trans-p-coumaroyltyramine were linear over the ranges of 2.84-68.16, 3.10-74.40 mg x L(-1), and the average recoveries (n = 9) were 99.30% and 102.8%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of sixteen samples from different cultivation regions in China, which indicated that the method is simple, rapid, accurate, and reliable for quality evaluation of Solani Melongenae Radix.


Subject(s)
Amides , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Solanaceae , Chemistry , Classification
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 30(5 Supplement 2): 802-810, 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-947977

ABSTRACT

O cubiu (Solanun sessiliflorum Dunal) é uma solanacea rústica, com alta capacidade de produção e múltiplas possibilidades de aproveitamento, podendo ser utilizado na medicina popular e/ou como alimento. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos e profundidades de semeadura na emergência e desempenho inicial de plântulas de cubiu. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de laboratório (25 ± 2 °C), no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, Tabatinga ­ AM. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, duas profundidades de semeadura ("sobre" = 0 e "entre" = 1 cm) e cinco substratos (terra, areia, terra + areia (1:1), terra + esterco (1:1), terra + areia + esterco (1:1:1)). Foram avaliados: Índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE); Percentual de emergência (%E); Número de folhas (NF); Comprimento da raiz primária (CRP); Comprimento da parte aérea (CPA); Comprimento total (CT); Massa fresca da raiz primária (MFRP); Massa fresca da parte aérea (MFPA); Massa fresca total (MFT); Massa seca da raiz primária (MSRP); Massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA); e, Massa seca total (MST). A semeadura "sobre" os substratos favoreceu as características avaliadas para esta cultura. A combinação do substrato terra + areia + esterco (1:1:1), com a semeadura "sobre", destacou-se dentre os tratamentos, podendo ser citada como a mais eficiente para a produção de plântulas de cubiu.


Cocona (Solanun sessiliflorum Dunal) is a rustic solanaceae, with high capacity and multiple possibilities for use and can be used in folk medicine and/or as food. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates and sowing depth on emergence and early seedling performance of cocona. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions (25 ± 2 °C), at the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, Tabatinga ­ AM. Were used a completely randomized design with four replicates in a factorial 2 x 5, two sowing depths ("on" = 0 and "between" = 1 cm) and five substrates (soil, sand, soil + sand (1:1), soil + manure (1:1), soil + sand + manure (1:1:1)). Were evaluated: Emergence speed index (IVE); Percentage of emergency (% E); Number of leaves (NF); Length of primary root (CRP); Length of shoot (CPA); Total length (CT); Fresh mass of primary root (MFRP); Fresh mass of shoot (MFPA); Total fresh mass (MFT); Dry mass of the primary root (MSRP); Dry mass of shoot (DMAP); and, Total dry mass (MST). Sowing on the substrates, favored the characteristics assessed for this crop. The combination of substrate soil + sand + manure (1:1:1), with sowing "on", stood out among the treatments, and may be suggested as the most efficient for the production of cocona seedlings.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Substrates for Biological Treatment , Germination , Solanaceae , Seedlings
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(5): 431-445, sept. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726544

ABSTRACT

Physalis angulata is a specie of the Solanaceae family, which edible fruit is used in several countries of tropical and subtropical regions of the world as medicinal and fruit-tree. This review shows research over the last 30 years, about traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacology of this specie. The studies related to traditional uses show that P. angulata is known for its antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and post-partum treating properties. It presents the different pharmacological experiments in vitro and in vivo models that have been made, also the identification of phytochemical constituents with medicinal importance, the main being physalins and withanolides. Pharmacological studies have shown antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antinociceptive, antimalarial, antileishmanial, immunosuppressive, antiasthmatic diuretic, and antitumor activities, thus validating its traditional uses and demonstrating the great potential of this specie for further development within the pharmaceutical industry.


Physalis angulata, es una especie de la familia Solanaceae, de frutos comestibles, que en diferentes países de regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo utilizan como medicinal y frutal. La presente revisión muestra las investigaciones realizadas durante los últimos 30 años, sobre los usos tradicionales, componentes químicos y farmacología de esta especie. Los estudios referidos a los usos tradicionales, muestran que la especie es conocida por propiedades antimaláricas, antiinflamatorias y en el tratamiento de postparto. Se muestran los diferentes experimentos farmacológicos de ensayos in vitro y modelos in vivo que se han realizado, asimismo la identificación de sus constituyentes fitoquímicos con importancia medicinal, siendo los principales las fisalinas y los witanólidos. Los estudios farmacológicos revelan que tiene actividad antiparasitaria, antiinflamatoria, antimicrobiana, antinociceptiva, antimalárica, antileishmania, inmunosupresor, antiasmático, diurético y antitumoral, validando de esta manera sus usos tradicionales y demostrando el gran potencial que tiene esta especie para un mayor desarrollo dentro de la industria farmacéutica.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Physalis/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Secosteroids , Solanaceae/chemistry , Withanolides
14.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (5): 949-952
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138414

ABSTRACT

The present research investigation was aimed at the evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic [70%] extracts of whole plant of Pentanema vestitum and fruits of Pistacia integerrima, Withiana somniferra and Withiana coagulans on scavenging of 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] free radical. The rank of order of free antioxidant activity of the selected plants was; P. integerrima > P. vestitum > W. somniferra > W. coagulans as compared to standard Ascorbic acid. P. integerrima showed significantly higher activity at all concentrations as compared to Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. The percent inhibition caused by P. integerrima at lowest concentration [40 ppm] was 68.16 +/- 0.5 and that of Ascorbic acid was 62.00 +/- 0.5. The IC[50] value of P. integerrima was 5.75ppm as compared to ascorbic acid having 15.09 ppm. The percent inhibition at all concentrations caused by P. vestitum was not significantly different from Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. The IC[50] value of P. vestitum was 13.00ppm and that of Ascorbic acid was 15.09 ppm. The percent inhibitions caused by W. somniferra [IC[50]=46.85 ppm] and W. coagulans [IC[50]=84.40 ppm] were most significantly lower than Ascorbic acid at P<0.05. It is inferred from the current study that the methanolic [70%] extracts of the P. integerrima and P. vestitum could be used in preparation of potent antioxidant drugs


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry , Fruit , Methanol/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Picrates/chemistry , Pistacia/chemistry , Plant Preparations , Plants, Medicinal , Solanaceae/chemistry , Solvents/chemistry
15.
Trujillo; s.n; 2013. 34 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-915888

ABSTRACT

El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es el conocimiento sobre las plantas y sus utilidades en la cultura popular tradicional. Se documentó la importancia de las especies vegetales utilizadas por los pobladores de Berlín, ubicado en el Distrito de Bagua Grande, Provincia de Utcubamba, Departamento de Amazonas; ubicado entre los 2 000 - 2 500 m.s.n.m., desarrollado desde noviembre del 2011 a mayo del 2012. En la etapa de campo se realizaron excursiones y convivencia con los pobladores; la obtención de datos etnobotánicos se realizó en base a encuestas, se colectaron los ejemplares de interés, y se clasificó según el método clásico u ortodoxo. El trabajo de gabinete se realizó en el Herbario de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (HUT), además se realizaron análisis cuantitativos del Índice de Valor de Uso (IVU) y Sumatoria de Usos. Se determinaron especies pertecientes a las familias como Asteraceae, Fabacea, Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae, Piperaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, entre otros, donde Asteraceae fue la mejor representada seguida por Solanaceae y Rosaceae. Las especies registradas fueron clasificadas en 13 categorías de uso, la que presentó mayor número de especies fue la categoría de plantas medicinales con 60 especies del total registrado, seguida por plantas alimenticias con 29 y 11 de uso para la construcción.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asteraceae , Solanaceae , Rosaceae , Peru , Plants, Medicinal , Ethnobotany , Medicine, Traditional
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine the larvicidal and pupicidal activites of Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).@*METHODS@#The larvicidal and pupucidal was determined at five different concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 ppm. Percentage of larval mortality was assessed after 48 h.@*RESULTS@#Methanol extracts of S. trilobatum was found to be more susceptible against the larvae of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi at 250 ppm with a LC50 value of 125.43, 127.77 and 116.64 ppm respectively. Leaf methanol extracts of S. trilobatum also exhibited pupicidal and adult emergence properties.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These results suggested that the leaf extracts of S. trilobatum showed potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Ae. Aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Consumer Behavior , Culex , Disease Reservoirs , Drug Resistance , Female , Ghana , Epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Insect Repellents , Pharmacology , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Insecticides , Pharmacology , Larva , Malaria , Epidemiology , Male , Ovum , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Preparations , Pharmacology , Solanaceae , Chemistry , Urban Population
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294035

ABSTRACT

Transgenic Atropa belladonna with high levels of scopolamine was developed by metabolic engineering. A functional gene involved in the rate limiting enzyme of h6h involved in the biosynthetic pathway of scopolamine was over expressed in A. belladonna via Agrobacterium-mediation. The transgenic plants were culturing till fruiting through micropropogating and acclimating. The integration of the h6h genes into the genomic DNA of transgenic plants were confirmed by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Analysis of the difference of plant height, crown width, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, branch number and fresh weight was carried out using SPSS software. The content of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in roots, stems, leaves and fruits was determined by HPLC. The investigation of the expression levels of Hnh6h by qPCR. Both Kan(r) and Hnh6h genes were detected in five transgenic lines of A. belladonna plants (A8, A11, A12, C8 and C19), but were not detected in the controls. The plant height, crown width, stem diameter, leaf length, leaf width, branch number and fresh weight of transgenic plants did not decrease by comparison with the non-transgenic ones, and furthermore some agronomic characters of transgenic plants were better than those of the controls. The highest level of scopolamine was found in leaves of transgenic A. belladonna, and the content of scopolamine was also higher than that of hyoscyamine in leaves. The contents of scopolamine of leaves in different transgenic lines were listed in order: C8 > A12 > C19 > A11 > A8, especially, the content of scopolamine in transgenic line C8 was 2.17 mg x g(-1) DW that was 4.2 folds of the non-transgenic ones (0.42 mg x g(-1) DW). The expression of transgenic Hnh6h was detected in all the transgenic plants but not in the control. The highest level of Hnh6h expression was found in transgenic leaves. Overexpression of Hnh6h is able to break the rate limiting steps involved in the downstream pathway of scopolamine biosynthesis, and thus promotes the metabolic flux flowing toward biosynthesis of scopolamine to improve the capacity of scopolamine biosynthesis in transgenic plants. As a result, transgenic plants of A. belladonna with higher level of scopolamine were developed.


Subject(s)
Atropa belladonna , Genetics , Metabolism , Atropine , Metabolism , Gene Expression , Mixed Function Oxygenases , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Genetics , Metabolism , Scopolamine , Metabolism , Solanaceae , Genetics
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(4): 1535-1542, Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662227

ABSTRACT

On a global scale, people have used plants to treat diseases and infections, and this has raised interest on the plant biodiversity potencial in the search of antimicrobial principles. In this work, 75 crude n-hexanes, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 25 plants belonging to four botanical families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae), collected at the Natural Regional Park Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia), were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial activities were assayed against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram-negative ones named, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, the same plant extracts were tested against the yeast Candida albicans and the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani. Overall, the plant extracts examined displayed better bactericide rather than fungicide activities. In general, the best antibacterial activity was showed by the plant extracts from the Rubiaceae family, followed in order by the extracts from the Euphorbiaceae and Solanaceae ones. It is important to emphasize the great activity displayed by the methanol extract of Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae) that inhibited four out of five bacteria tested (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli). Furthermore, the best Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for the extracts with antifungal activities were displayed by the dichloromethane extracts from Acalypha diversifolia and Euphorbia sp (Euphorbiaceae). The most susceptible fungus evaluated was F. Solani since 60% and 20% of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts evaluated inhibited the growth of this phytopathogenic fungus. The antimicrobial activity of the different plant extracts examined in this work could be related to the secondary metabolites contents and their interaction and susceptibility of pathogenic microorganism evaluated.


Alrededor del mundo, la gente ha usado las plantas para tratar enfermedades e infecciones, este potencial ha hecho que se incremente el interés en la biodiversidad vegetal como fuente de principios antimicrobianos. En este trabajo, se evaluaron 75 extractos crudos de n-hexano, diclorometano y metanol, obtenidos a partir de la parte aérea de 25 especies de plantas proveniente de cuatro familias botánicas (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae y Solanaceae), colectadas en el Parque Regional Natural Ucumari (Risaralda, Colombia); los cuales fueron evaluados por sus actividades antibacteriana y antifúngica a través del método de difusión en pozo. La actividad antibacteriana fue ensayada frente a las bacterias Gram-positivas Staphylococcus aureus y Bacillus subtilis, y las g-negativas Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adicionalmente, las mismas plantas fueron evaluadas frente a la levadura Candida albicans y los hongos Aspergillus fumigatus y Fusarium solani. En general, las plantas ensayadas mostraron mejor actividad antibacteriana que antifúngica; donde la familia Rubiaceae fue la que presentó mayor actividad antibacteriana, seguida por las familias Euphorbiaceae y Solanaceae. El extracto metanólico de Alchornea coelophylla (Euphorbiaceae) fue el que presentó mejor actividad antibacteriana al inhibir cuatro de las bacteria ensayadas (B. Subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus y E. coli); y los extractos de diclorometano de Acalypha diversifolia y Euphorbia sp. (Euphorbiaceae) fueron los que tuvieron la menor Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria en la actividad antifúngica. El hongo evaluado más susceptible fue F. Solani, el cual fue inhibido por el 60% y el 20% de los extractos de diclorometano y metanol, respectivamente. Se considera que la actividad biológica de estos extractos, se relaciona con los metabolitos secundarios que ellos contienen y las diferentes susceptibilidades de los microorganismos patogénicos evaluados.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Asteraceae/chemistry , Biodiversity , Colombia , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rubiaceae/chemistry , Solanaceae/chemistry
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(4): 381-388, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714893

ABSTRACT

El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es apreciado por sus cualidades nutritivas y ser fuente de compuestos antioxidantes, calcio, fósforo, potasio y hierro, azúcares, ácidos orgánicos, pectinas y flavonoides. En este estudio se determinaron parámetros físicos (peso, tamaño, fuerza compresión, humedad) y químicos (°Brix, acidez titulable, pH, proteína, fibra dietaria, cenizas, minerales y bioaccesibilidad de minerales, pectina, compuestos antioxidantes) del fruto procedente del Estado Aragua, Venezuela, como una contribución para incentivar y diversificar su consumo. La caracterización reflejó que los frutos estaban en estado de madurez para su consumo (°Brix 10,51, pH 3,5, acidez 0,02 g/100 ml y fuerza de compresión 4,32 Kgf/cm2), con rendimiento de pulpa del 74%. Los resultados del análisis de la pulpa madura reflejan un aporte de 30 Kcal/100g, fibra dietaria (4,10g/100g) y valores de fósforo, calcio, magnesio potasio y hierro de 331,32; 21,25; 21,18; 17,03; 7,44 mg/100g respectivamente. Se obtuvo 6,71 y 1,86 % de bioaccesibilidad para calcio y hierro. La pectina extraída (1,00 g/100g) resultó ser de alto metoxilo y alto grado de esterificación. La capacidad antioxidante de la pulpa madura (EC50 de 165 g /g DPPH y poder reductor de 0,07 mmol Fe +2/100g) pudiera atribuirse a la presencia de ácido ascórbico (23,32 mg/100g), licopeno (1,22 mg/100g), compuestos fenólicos (1,39 mg EAG/ g), antocianinas (0,29 mg cianidina/g) y taninos (0,40 mg catequina/ 100g). Los resultados obtenidos pueden ser utilizados para promover los beneficios sobre la salud y sugerir su uso como ingrediente funcional en el desarrollo de productos.


Physical, chemical and bioactive compounds of tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) is appreciated for its excellent nutritional qualities, being considered a good source of antioxidants compounds, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, sugars, organic acids, pectins and flavonoids. In this study, were evaluated physical parameters (weight, size, compression strength and humidity) and chemical (°Brix, titratable acidity, pH, protein, dietary fiber, ash, minerals and their bioaccesibility, pectin, antioxidants compounds) of the fruit from the Aragua State, Venezuela, as a contribution to stimulate and diversify the consumption of the tree tomato. The characterization showed that the fruits were at the ripening stage for consumption (°Brix 10.51, pH 3.5, acidity 0.02 g/100ml and 4.32 Kgf/cm2 compression strength) gave a yield of 74% pulp. The analytical results of the ripped pulp showed a content of 30 Kcal/100g, dietary fiber (4.10g/100g), and minerals such as phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron (331.32, 21.25, 21.18, 17.03 and 7.44 mg/100g, respectively). Bioaccesibility values of 6.71 and 1.86% were reported for calcium and iron. The extracted pectin (1.00 g/100g) was classified as high methoxyl with high degree of esterification. The antioxidant capacity of the ripped pulp (EC50 of 165.00 g /g DPPH and reducing power of 0.07 mmol Fe +2/100g), could be attributed to the presence of ascorbic acid (23.32 mg/100g), lycopene (1.22 mg/100 g), and phenolic compounds (1.39 mg GAE/g), anthocyanins (0.29 mg cyanidin/ g) and tannins (0.40 mg catechin/100g).The results obtained encourage the nutritional benefits and suggest applications as a functional ingredient in food product development.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Solanaceae/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Functional Food/analysis , Nutritive Value , Pectins/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Solanum/chemistry , Tannins/analysis , Venezuela
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(10): 1017-1022, out. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654393

ABSTRACT

Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122) and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507) were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.


As intoxicações por Senecio spp. estão entre as principais causas de morte de bovinos no sul do Brasil; portanto, o controle dessas plantas é prioridade para a pecuária local. Depois de uma roçada, o pastejo por 16 ovinos controlou, eficientemente, populações de Senecio brasiliensis e Senecio madagascariensis em uma área de 5,5 hectares, a qual havia se mantido, por oito anos consecutivos, severamente, infestada por essas espécies. Um total de 28.629 plantas, entre S. brasiliensis (10.122) e S.madagascariensis (18.507) foi, virtualmente, eliminado em um período de dois anos. O número de ovelhas foi mantido em três unidades /hectare, mas variáveis lotações de bovinos foram associadas com a disponibilidade de forragem. As principais práticas de manejo sanitário aplicadas aos ovinos foram administrações de anti-helmínticos. Biópsias hepáticas, colhidas antes e após o período de estudo, não revelaram qualquer alteração associável com seneciose. Os níveis de desempenho dos ovinos foram comparáveis aos observados em rebanhos manejados em sistemas extensivos tradicionais no sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Pasture , Sheep , Solanaceae/toxicity , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage
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