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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e20918, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429951


Abstract Solubility of pharmaceutical drugs in organic solvents is one of the important parameters to understand the equilibrium concentration of solute-solvent, which helps optimize and design crystallization conditions to obtain the desired product crystals. In the present study, Chlorzoxazone (CHZ) is used as a model pharmaceutical compound to investigate the equilibrium solubility, the influence of solvent and the operating conditions on the shape, and the size distribution. The solubility of CHZ is determined in organic solvents like Isopropanol, Ethanol, and 2-Ethoxyethylacetate, Ethylacetate and Ethyllactate using shake flask method from -5ºC to 60ºC. The solubility of CHZ in these solvents shows an increasing trend as the temperature increases in the following order: ethyllactate + water (0.5+0.5) < ethylacetate < isopropanol < ethanol < 2-ethoxyethylacetate < ethyllactate + water (0.75+0.25). The solvents, isopropanol, ethanol, and ethyl lactate, produce needle-shaped crystals, while 2-ethoxyethylacetate and ethyl acetate tend to produce plate shaped crystals. CHZ crystals obtained from 2-ethoxyethylacetate tend to have plate shaped crystals with a lower aspect ratio and are selected for batch cooling crystallization experiments performed at different cooling rates, and agitation. It is found that the agitation at 300 rpm and the cooling rate 0.2ºC/min produce more uniform crystal size distribution

Solvents/classification , Chlorzoxazone/analysis , Crystallization/classification , Solubility , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 48(4): 683-690, Oct.-Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-665863


Naproxen, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor aqueous solubility, which limits the pharmacological effects. The present work was carried out to study the effect of agglomeration on micromeritic properties and dissolution. Naproxen agglomerates were prepared by using a three solvents system composed of acetone (good solvent), water (non-solvent) and dichloromethane (bridging liquid). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results showed no change in the drug after crystallization process. X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) studies showed the sharp peaks are present in the diffractograms of spherical agglomerates with minor reduction in height of the peaks. The residual solvents are largely below the tolerated limits in the agglomerates. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that agglomerates were spherical in structure and formed by cluster of small crystals. The agglomerates exhibited improved solubility, dissolution rate and micromeritic properties compared to pure drug. Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted in Wistar strain male albino rats and naproxen agglomerates showed more significant activity than the pure drug.

Naproxeno, fármaco anti-inflamatório, apresenta baixa solubilidade em água, o que limita os efeitos farmacológicos. O presente trabalho foi realizado para estudar o efeito da aglomeração nas propriedades micromeríticas e na dissolução. Aglomerados de naproxeno foram preparados por meio da utilização de sistema de três solventes composto de acetona (bom solvente), água (não-solvente) e diclorometano (líquido de ligação). A DSC não resulta mostrou nenhuma mudança na droga depois de processo de cristalização. Estudos de difração de Raios X do Pó (XRPD) mostraram picos agudos nos difratogramas de aglomerados esféricos, com redução mínima dea altura dos picos. Os solventes residuais estão amplamente abaixo dos limites tolerados nos aglomerados. Os estudos de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (SEM) mostraram que esses aglomerados eram de estrutura esférica e formados por grupos de pequenos cristais. Os aglomerados apresentaram solubilidade, taxa de dissolução e propriedades micromeríticas aprimoradas em comparação com o fármaco puro. Estudos anti-inflamatórios foram conduzidos em ratos Wistar albinos masculinos e os aglomerados de naproxeno mostraram atividade mais significativa do que o fármaco puro.

Dissolution/methods , Naproxen/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/classification , Methylene Chloride/analysis , Solvents/classification
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 47(2): 127-30, jun. 1997. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-217605


Dried guajillo peppers were first extracte with four different solvents: ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate and hexane with the aim of obtaining oleoresins which were futher fractionated into red and paprika extracts. Results showed that as the polarity of the solvent increased the amount of pigment extracted also increased. Acetone had good affinity for pungent (capsaicin) compounds. Utilization of these solvents alone did not produce red and paprika oleoresins that meet commercial specifications. Fractionation of acetone extracted oleoresins with ethanol: water (90:10) yielded a precipitate and a solution. The precipitate and solution produced red and paprika extracts that meet pungency and color specifications. It was possible to obtain red and paprika oleoresins from mild guajillo peppers

Acetone , Ethanol , Hexanes , Solvents/classification