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1.
Colomb. med ; 51(1): e3646, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124610

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Car painters are routinely exposed to organic solvents classified as carcinogenic and mutagenic substances. Objective: To characterize the population susceptibility and evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to organic solvents. Methods: A cross-sectional study comparing a group of car painters exposed to organic solvents with a non-exposed group. CYP2E1 polymorphisms and the presence of micronuclei in lymphocytes were determined. Results: One hundred twenty-two workers participated in the study: 62 who worked in car paint shops and were exposed to solvents, and 60 who were not exposed. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding micronucleated cells and nucleoplasmic bridges frequencies (p=0.042 and p=0.046, respectively; exact likelihood ratio). Significant differences were found at the interaction between the CYP2E1 genotype c1c1 and occupational exposure to solvents, with higher frequencies of micronuclei (p= 0.013) and micronucleated cells (p= 0.015). However, when the frequencies of micronuclei, micronucleated cells and nucleoplasmic bridges in the exposure group were compared between the c1c1 and c2c2/c1c2 allele groups of the CYP2E1 polymorphism, statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions: This study confirms that when workers with CYP2E1 polymorphisms, specifically the c1c1 genotype, are exposed to organic solvents, they are more likely to have somatic cell mutations, a condition associated with increased susceptibility to diseases such as cancer


Resumen Introducción: Los pintores de vehículos automotores están rutinariamente expuestos a agentes como los solventes orgánicos, capaces de producir efectos mutágenos y carcinógenos. Objetivo: Caracterizar la susceptibilidad poblacional y evaluar los efectos genotóxicos debidos a la exposición a solventes orgánicos. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal que comparó a un grupo de pintores de carros expuestos a solven tes orgánicos con un grupo de personas no expuestas. Fueron determinados tanto los polimorfismos de CYP2E1 como la presencia de micronúcleos en linfocitos. Resultados: Participaron 122 personas, 62 trabajadores de talleres de pintura de autos expuestos a solventes y 60 personas no expuestas. Con relación al cuestionario Q 16, 32% de los expuestos refirieron síntomas sugestivos de neurotoxicidad. Las frecuencias de células micronucleadas y de puentes nucleoplásmicos fueron significativamente mayores en los expuestos que en los no expuestos: p= 0.042 y p= 0.046, respectivamente, Razón de verosimilitud exacta). Fueron halladas diferencias significativas en la interacción de CYP2E1 (c1c1) y la exposición ocupacional a solventes, con mayores frecuencias de micronúcleos (p= 0.013) y de células micronucleadas (p= 0.015). Conclusiones: Este estudio reafirma que los trabajadores expuestos a solventes orgánicos con polimorfismos de CYP2E1, específicamente con genotipo c1c1, tienen mayor probabilidad de presentar mutaciones en las células somáticas, condición asociada con una mayor susceptibilidad a enfermedades como el cáncer


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paint/toxicity , Solvents/toxicity , Carcinogens/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Automobiles , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , Micronucleus Tests/methods , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Alleles , Personal Protective Equipment , Mutagenicity Tests
2.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 670-677, sep.-oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127330

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To assess neuropsychological performance among workers at a paint factory in Mexico City. Materials and methods: During 2004 and 2005 we assessed the neuropsychological performance of 208 workers who were exposed to organic solvents at a paint factory, mainly toluene and xylene. We categorized workers into low and high exposure groups using a cumulative index for toluene, based on times spent in different tasks. We evaluated cognitive and motor functions with 13 neuropsychological tests. Results: We found lower attention, longer time to complete the test β=5.5 (R2=12.3%), and a lower score in the motor-cognitive test β=-15.7 (R2=19.5%) in the high exposure group through multiple linear regression model analysis, with adjustment for age and education. Conclusion: Our results are similar to the ones reported in the literature, but the effects are less severe, probably due to lower exposure to organic solvents.


Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el desempeño neuropsicológico de los trabajadores de una fábrica de pintura en la Ciudad de México. Material y métodos: Se evaluó el desempeño neuropsicológico de 208 trabajadores expuestos a disolventes orgánicos, principalmente tolueno y xileno, en una fábrica de pintura en la Ciudad de México durante 2004 y 2005. Se categorizaron en grupos de baja y alta exposición con un índice acumulado de tolueno con base en el tiempo empleado por actividad. Se evaluaron funciones motoras y cognitivas con 13 pruebas neuropsicológicas. Resultados: Se registró un tiempo más largo para completar la prueba β=5.5 (R2=12.3%) y una puntuación baja en la prueba motor-cognitiva de β=-15.7 (R2=19.5%) en el grupo de alta exposición en los modelos de regresión lineal múltiple, ajustados por confusores. Conclusión: Los presentes resultados son similares a los reportados en la literatura, aunque los efectos son menos graves, probablemente debido a la baja exposición.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Paint/toxicity , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Attention/drug effects , Solvents/toxicity , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Time Factors , Toluene/toxicity , Xylenes/toxicity , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Educational Status , Mexico , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(3): 464-477, jul.-set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038807

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción. La exposición a solventes orgánicos y pinturas se ha asociado con efectos genotóxicos y mayor riesgo de neoplasias. Sin embargo, aún no se ha caracterizado bien el tipo de daño que esta exposición induce en el ADN humano, ni los mecanismos por los cuales se genera. Uno de los grupos con mayor exposición a dichos solventes y pinturas son los pintores de automóviles del sector informal que trabajan sin adecuadas prácticas de seguridad ocupacional. Objetivo. Determinar el daño oxidativo y por metilación del ADN de linfocitos de pintores de automóviles expuestos a solventes orgánicos y pinturas. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron linfocitos aislados de sangre periférica de 62 pintores y 62 sujetos no expuestos mediante el ensayo cometa de gran eficiencia acoplado a las enzimas Fpg y AlkA. Las categorías de daño en el ADN evaluadas fueron el daño basal (sin enzimas), el daño oxidativo y el daño por metilación, y el parámetro de medición, el porcentaje de ADN en la cola. Resultados. El porcentaje de ADN en la cola fue mayor en el grupo expuesto con respecto al no expuesto (p<0,05). En el grupo expuesto, dicho porcentaje fue mayor en la categoría de daño oxidativo comparado con la del basal (16,50 Vs. 12,87; p<0,001), en tanto que en el daño por metilación no se encontraron diferencias significativas (14,00 Vs. 12,87; p>0,05). Conclusión. La exposición a solventes orgánicos y pinturas se asoció con el aumento de las lesiones oxidativas del ADN de los linfocitos de pintores de automóviles, tales como la producción de 8-oxo-2'-desoxiguanosina (8-oxodG) y otros productos formamidopirimidina, los cuales se consideran considerablemente mutagénicos.


Abstract Introduction: The exposure to organic solvents and paints has been associated with genotoxicity and a greater risk of neoplasms. However, the type of DNA damage induced in humans by the exposure to these compounds, which would help explain the mechanisms of their genotoxicity, is still not fully characterized. Due to inadequate practices of occupational safety, car painters in the informal sector are a highly exposed group to organic solvents and paints. Objective: To identify the oxidative and methylating damage in the DNA of lymphocytes of car painters exposed to organic solvents and paints. Materials and methods: Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 62 painters and 62 unexposed subjects were analyzed by the modified high-throughput comet assay with the Fpg and AlkA enzymes. The categories used for the evaluation of the DNA damage were basal damage (without enzymes), oxidative and methylating damage. The measurement parameter used to establish the damage was the percentage of DNA in the tail. Results: The percentage of DNA in the tail was higher in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group (p<0.05). In the exposed group, this percentage was higher in the oxidative damage category than the baseline (16.50 vs. 12.87; p<0.001), whereas methylating damage did not show significant differences (14.00 vs. 12.87; p>0.05). Conclusion: In this study, exposure to organic solvents and paints was associated with an increase in oxidative lesions in the DNA of car painters' lymphocytes, such as the production of 8-oxodG and other formamidopyrimidine products which are considered highly mutagenic.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Paint/toxicity , Solvents/toxicity , DNA Damage , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress , DNA Methylation , Automobiles , DNA/drug effects , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Case-Control Studies , Cell Survival , Cross-Sectional Studies , Comet Assay , Mutagens/toxicity
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1009-1018, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769674

ABSTRACT

Abstract Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the utilization of rhodococci in the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated environments. This study investigates the response of Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 cells to 1% organic solvents (alkanes, aromatics). A combination of microbiology, biochemical, and molecular approaches were used to examine cell adaptation mechanisms likely to be pursued by this strain after 1% organic solvent exposure. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 was found to utilize 1% alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene) as the sole carbon source. Modifications in cell viability, cell morphology, membrane permeability, lipid profile, carotenoid pigments profile and 16S rRNA gene were revealed in R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells grown 1 and 24 h on minimal medium in the presence of 1% alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane) and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene). Due to its environmental origin and its metabolic potential, R. erythropolis IBBPo1 is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with crude oils and other toxic compounds. Moreover, the carotenoid pigments produced by this nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium have a variety of other potential applications.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological/drug effects , Adaptation, Biological/genetics , Adaptation, Biological/physiology , Adaptation, Biological/toxicity , Organic Chemicals/drug effects , Organic Chemicals/genetics , Organic Chemicals/physiology , Organic Chemicals/toxicity , /drug effects , /genetics , /physiology , /toxicity , Rhodococcus/drug effects , Rhodococcus/genetics , Rhodococcus/physiology , Rhodococcus/toxicity , Solvents/drug effects , Solvents/genetics , Solvents/physiology , Solvents/toxicity
5.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 95 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782493

ABSTRACT

No âmbito da saúde ocupacional, as exposições a agentes químicos recebem cada vez mais atenção. Pela análise de bioindicadores, se faz possível identificar e quantificar substâncias nocivas à saúde e seus efeitos. Trabalhadores de postos de revenda de combustíveis veiculares (PRCV) estão expostos a uma mistura de hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs) proveniente da gasolina, e nesta mistura encontra-se o benzeno, composto hematotóxico e carcinogênico, sem níveis seguros no ambiente, fato que corrobora para a importância de ações em vigilância ocupacional nesta área. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos genotóxicos, através do teste de Aberrações cromossômicas (ACs), de uma exposição ocupacional aos vapores de gasolina em frentistas da Zona Oeste do Rio de Janeiro. O projeto central foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Ensp/Fiocruz (CAAE17438013.5.0000.5240, parecer 434.418). 39 trabalhadores de seis PRCV da área programática 5.3 (bairros de Santa Cruz, Paciência e Sepetiba) responderam a dois questionários sobre fatores socioeconômicos, processo de trabalho e histórico de saúde; amostras de sangue e urina foram coletadas para determinação de hemograma, análises bioquímicas, ACs e ácido trans, trans-mucônico urinário (ATTM). Os voluntários não apresentaram histórico de doenças de possível associação com a exposição, assim os resultados de hemograma e bioquímica, em valores médios, ficaram dentro das faixas de normalidade. Os processos de trabalho e hábitos dos trabalhadores foram avaliados e não apresentaram relação com as ACs. (...) Os resultados sugerem que o teste de ACs não deve ser utilizado de forma isolada para avaliar exposições a baixas doses de benzeno por sua inespecificidade, mas ainda representa uma ferramenta útil na avaliação de dano precoce à saúde humana...


On the Occupational Health field, exposure to chemical agents is getting more attention, since technologies’ advances allow identification of health early effects caused by such exposures. By the use of bioindicator’s analysis, it is possible to identify and quantify harmful substances and their effects. Gas station workers are exposed to a hidrocarbon’s mixture from gasoline, in which can be found benzene, carcinogenic and hematotoxic substance, with no safe levels on environment, reinforcing the need of occupational vigilance actions. This study evaluated the genotoxic effecs, using the chromosomal aberration’s test (CAs), of an occupational exposure to gasoline fumes in gas station workers from Rio de Janeiro’s West Side. The main project was approved by Ensp/Fiocruz Research’s Ethics Committee (CAAE 17438013.5.0000.5240, case 434.418). Thirty-nine workers from six gas stations from the districts of Santa Cruz, Paciência and Sepetiba answered questionnaires concerning socio-demographic, work and health questions; blood and urine samples were taken to assess CBC, biochemical factors, trans, trans-muconic acid (TTMA) and chromosomal aberrations. The subjects did not report history of diseases that could be related to the exposure, so the results of CBC and biochemical factors were at normality ranges. Work processes and the subjects’habits were assessed and were not associated to CAs. TTMA measurement and statistical evaluation through ANOVA showed a correlation between this metabolite and smoking habit (...), and the high concentration gets along with literature. (...) The results suggest chromosomal aberrations test shall not be used as the only mechanism to evaluate benzene exposure at lower doses for its inespecificity, but the test is, for it self, a useful feature for early human health damage evaluation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromosome Aberrations/chemically induced , Benzene/toxicity , Genotoxicity , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Solvents/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring , Toxicokinetics , Toxicology
6.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(1): 86-93, Fev. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz), to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.


OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho das atividades diárias relacionadas a funções do sistema auditivo periférico e central entre trabalhadores expostos e não expostos a solventes. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 96 trabalhadores, sendo 48 expostos a solventes e 48 não expostos, pareados por escolaridade, idade e sexo. Os procedimentos de avaliação incluíram: audiometria de tons puros (500 a 8.000 Hz), para avaliar o sistema auditivo periférico; teste de Random Gap Detection, para avaliar o sistema auditivo central; e o Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, para estudar a performance em atividades da vida diária que envolvem a audição, por meio de autoavaliação. Teste t de student e a análise de covariância (ANCOVA) foram utilizados. Foram calculadas as correlações de Pearson entre os resultados dos três testes. RESULTADOS: Sujeitos expostos a solventes tiveram limiares auditivos significativamente piores na orelha direita que os sujeitos não expostos. Apresentaram também resultados significativamente piores no teste de Random Gap Detection e funcionamento autorreportado significativamente mais alterado que os sujeitos não expostos. Foi observada correlação significativa entre os resultados do Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap e a média binaural dos limiares auditivos e com os resultados do teste de Random Gap Detection. CONCLUSÕES: A exposição a solventes está associada com as dificuldades da vida diária relacionadas com as funções do sistema auditivo periférico e central.


OBJETIVO: Comparar el desempeño de las actividades diarias relacionadas a funciones del sistema auditivo periférico y central entre trabajadores expuestos y no expuestos a solventes. MÉTODOS: Participaron del estudio, 96 trabajadores, siendo 48 expuestos a solventes y no expuestos, pareados por escolaridad, edad y sexo. Los procedimientos de evaluación incluyeron: audiometría de sonidos puros (500 a 8.000 Hz), para evaluar el sistema auditivo periférico; prueba de Random Gap Detection, para evaluar el sistema auditivo central; y el Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, para estudiar la performance en actividades de la vida diaria que envuelven la audición, por medio de auto-evaluación. Prueba t de Student y el análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA) fueron utilizados. Se calcularon las correlaciones de Pearson entre los resultados de las tres pruebas. RESULTADOS: Sujetos expuestos a solventes tuvieron umbrales auditivos significativamente peores en el oído derecho que los sujetos no expuestos. Se presentaron también resultados significativamente peores en la prueba de Random Gap Detection y funcionamiento auto-reportado significativamente más alterado que los sujetos no expuestos. Se observó correlación significativa entre los resultados del Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap y el promedio binaural de los umbrales auditivos y con los resultados de la prueba de Random Gap Detection. CONCLUSIONES: La exposición a solventes está asociada con las dificultades de la vida diaria relacionadas con las funciones del sistema auditivo periférico y central.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Occupational Diseases/chemically induced , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Solvents/toxicity , Audiometry , Auditory Perception , Auditory Threshold , Hearing Tests
7.
Iran Occupational Health. 2013; 9 (4): 80-88
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-133100

ABSTRACT

Hypertension [HTN] is a common disease with various complications for health. A number of studies suggested that some organic solvents can affect blood pressure and usually workers in work environments expose to mixtures of solvents. We decided to survey the effects of a mixture of organic solvents on blood pressure in workers of a car manufacturing company. In a cross-sectional study, systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP] of 179 workers of a car manufacturing plant was measured. Workers in the repair location as non-exposure group and workers in the paint location as exposure group were compared in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure [SBP and DBP] and prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the variables, age, employment duration, smoking and other confounding factors [p>0.05]. The mean values of SBP and DBP was significantly higher in exposure group than non-exposure group [p<0.001]. After logistic regression analysis with adjustment of confounding variables, prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension was significantly higher in exposure group than non-exposure group [p<0.05]. Further, in this study there was a significant association between hypertension and variables such as age, smoking, body mass index, regular exercise and shift work [p<0.05]. Our results suggested that, exposure to mixture of organic solvents can increase prevalence of hypertension in car manufacture workers. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such workers by prevention and periodic monitoring of blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Manufacturing Industry , Hypertension/epidemiology , Occupational Health , Solvents/toxicity , Automobiles , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 44(1): 35-38, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668338

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O xilol é necessário para a diafanização de amostras citopatológicas. Pode trazer problemas de ordem ocupacional, proteção ao meio ambiente e de custos. Objetivo:Avaliar o desempenho de várias concentrações da mistura verniz/xilol em relação à diafanização e conservação em amostras de citologia coradas com a técnica dePapanicolaou (CP). Material e métodos: Foram avaliadas 75 lâminas de raspado bucal (RB) e 8.773 esfregaços cérvico-vaginais (CV). As lâminas foram coradas pela CP, com a retirada das etapas de álcool/xilol e xilol e foram secas à temperatura ambiente porvinte minutos antes da montagem com lamínula. A montagem foi realizada com soluções de verniz/xilol de concentrações 75/25%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50% e 40/60%. As lâminas foram distribuídas de forma aleatória aos profissionais para avaliação da técnica, sendo conceituadas como boas, regulares ou ruins e reavaliadas após nove meses dearquivamento. A concentração de verniz/xilol que apresentou melhor qualidade final nas lâminas de RB foi aplicada também nos CV. Resultados: A concentração de 75/25% deverniz/xilol apresentou melhor desempenho para as duas situações, em RB e CV. Após nove meses, a qualidade foi mantida. Conclusão: A concentração de 75/25% apresentou melhor resultado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cell Biology , Industrial Oils , Staining and Labeling , Solvents/adverse effects , Solvents/toxicity , Transillumination , Vaginal Smears , Environment , Occupational Health
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 231-235, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145825

ABSTRACT

Trichloroethylene is commonly used as an industrial solvent and degreasing agent. The clinical features of acute and chronic intoxication with trichloroethylene are well-known and have been described in many reports, but hypersensitivity syndrome caused by trichloroethylene is rarely encountered. For managing patients with trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome, avoiding trichloroethylene and initiating glucocorticoid have been generally accepted. Generally, glucocorticoid had been tapered as trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome had ameliorated. However, we encountered a typical case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome refractory to high dose glucocorticoid treatment. A 54-year-old Korean man developed jaundice, fever, red sore eyes, and generalized erythematous maculopapular rashes. A detailed history revealed occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. After starting intravenous methylprednisolone, his clinical condition improved remarkably, but we could not reduce prednisolone because his liver enzyme and total bilirubin began to rise within 2 days after reducing prednisolone under 60 mg/day. We recommended an extended admission for complete recovery, but the patient decided to leave the hospital against medical advice. The patient visited the emergency department due to pneumonia and developed asystole, which did not respond to resuscitation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Fatal Outcome , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Solvents/toxicity , Trichloroethylene/toxicity
10.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 47(1)jan.-mar. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-589451

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Milhões de pessoas são expostas diariamente aos solventes. Inúmeros solventes podem causar intoxicação aguda. Menos clara é a associação da exposição crônica e em baixas doses poder produzir alteração neurológica. Diversas atividades ocupacionais estão envolvidas com a sua exposição. Condição bastante diferente é o seu uso inadvertido com intuito alucinógeno. Método: Trata-se de revisão atualizada da literatura a partir de pesquisa na base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS. Também utilizou-se livros e documentos publicados em formato eletrônico.Discussão: Distúrbios neuromusculares, distúrbios do movimento, alterações cognitivo-comportamentais e neurofisiológicas têm sido relacionados a inúmeros agentes tóxicos nos últimos anos. A proposta deste artigo é revisar os principais distúrbios neurológicos associados à exposição crônica por solventes orgânicos. A fim de facilitar a abordagem inicial no atendimento ambulatorial aos distúrbios neurotoxicológicos foram confeccionadas tabelas descrevendo os principais agentes tóxicos, as fontes de exposição envolvidas e suas principais manifestações neurológicas. Conclusão: Tolueno, bissulfeto de carbono e n-Hexano são alguns solventes envolvidos nos distúrbios neurotoxicológicos, Contudo, fica evidente nesta revisão que são necessários novos estudos a fim de determinar a real associação destes e outros solventes nos distúrbios crônicos do sistema nervoso central e periférico.


Introduction: Millions of peoples are exposed to solvents every day. Most solvents cause acute intoxication. Less evident is the association of chronic exposure and in low doses in producing neurological disorders. Innumerable occupational activities are involved in the exposure to solvents. Their inadvertent use with hallucinogenous intention is an entirely different condition. Method: The method consists of an updated review of the literature based on research in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, as well as books and documents published online. Discussion: Neuromuscular disorders, movement disorders, cognitive-behavioral and neurophysiological changes have been attributed to innumerable toxic agents in recent years. This article proposes to review the main neurological disorders associated with chronic exposure to organic solvents. To facilitate the initial approach to treatment of neurotoxicological disorders of outpatient, tables were devised to describe the main toxic agents, the sources of exposure involved and their main neurological manifestations. Conclusions: Toluene, carbon bisulfate and n-hexane are some of the solvents involved in neurotoxicological disorders. However, this review reveals the need for new studies to determine the real association of these and other solvents in chronic disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ambulatory Care , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/diagnosis , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Solvents/adverse effects , Solvents/toxicity , Brain Diseases , Hexanes/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure , Review Literature as Topic , Toluene/adverse effects
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 14(6): 2251-2260, dez. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-535992

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho, investigou-se a frequência de micronúcleos em células esfoliadas da mucosa bucal de trabalhadores de sapatarias, na cidade de Pelotas (RS). O estudo constou de 54 trabalhadores de sapatarias expostos à cola e solventes e 54 controles. Avaliou-se a incidência de células com micronúcleos(CMN), binucleadas(CBN), núcleos ligados(CNL) e total de anomalias(TA), em 2.000 células por indivíduo. Elaborou-se um banco de dados no programa SPSS "for Windows" pelo teste de Mann-Whitney U, p<0,05. A média de anomalias entre os sapateiros foi 8.69±6.49CMN; 8,85±4,92CBN; 5,78±4,78CNL; 23,31±10,01TA, e nos controles 4,00±61617; 5,05CMN; 4,63±61617; 4,35CBN; 4,76±61617; 5,00CNL; 13,39±61617; 9,43TA (p=0,0001; p=0,0001; p=0,144 e p=0,0001, respectivamente). Avaliou-se a influência da idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho, renda familiar, fumo, bebida alcoólica, doenças dermatológicas, oftalmológicas, respiratórias e sistema nervoso central (SNC) no número de anomalias celulares. Esses não influenciaram; apenas observou-se que, na faixa etária de 15 a 29, foi maior o número de CNL do que em 45 a 72 anos e no tempo de trabalho de 0,1 a 10 anos apresentou mais CMN do que as outras faixas.


In this paper it was investigated the micronuclei frequency in exfoliated oral mucosa cells in shoe shop workers in the city of Pelotas, RS. The study counted on 54 shoe workers exposed to glue and solvents and 54 controls. It was evaluated the incidence of cells with micronucleus (CMN), bi-nucleus (CBN), linked nucleus (CLN) and total amount of anomalies (TAA), in 2000 cells per person. A database was created in the SPSS "for Windows" software using the Mann-Whitney U, p<0.05 test. The average of anomalies among shoe workers was 8.69±6.49CMN; 8.85±4.92CBN; 5.78±4.78CNL; 23.31±10.01TA, in the controlled 4.00±5.05CMN; 4.63±4.35CBN; 4.76±5.00CNL; 13.39±9.43TA (p=0.0001; p=0.0001; p=0.144 and p=0.0001 respectively). It was also evaluated the age, gender, time of work, family income, smoke, alcohol beverages, the influence of dermatological, ophthalmological, respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) diseases in the number of cell anomalies. These items did not have any influence. It was only observed that among the age group of 15 to 29 years old the number of CNL was bigger than among the age group of 45 to 72. Among those with time of work of 0.1 and 10 years presented a higher CNM than in the other group range.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adhesives/toxicity , Industry , Micronucleus Tests , Occupational Exposure , Solvents/toxicity , Brazil , Young Adult
12.
Córdoba; s.n; 2009. 76 p. ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-545204

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la situación socio-sanitaria, los síntomas respiratorios y la función pulmonar en una muestra de 60 ex trabajadores (47 por ciento hombres y 53 por ciento mujeres, de una edad promedio de 47 años) que fueron empleados en una fábrica de la industria del calzado en la localidad de La Calera, Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina. Los mismos estuvieron expuestos a irritantes de la víaaérea (solventes, polvos de cuero y vapores) durante el tiempo en que trabajaron en la empresa, pero luego de ser despedidos su situación socio-sanitaria empeoró aún más debido a las consecuencias de la falta de cobertura médicas y al impacto físico y moral surgido del desempleo. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio epidemiológico observacional analítico sobre la situación socio-sanitaria, síntomas respiratorios y función pulmonar medida por espirometría en extranbajadores de la industría del calzado, La Calera, Córdoba, Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Diagnosis of Health Situation , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena , Gas Poisoning , Gases/toxicity , Tanning/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Respiratory System , Sanitary Profiles , Solvents/adverse effects , Solvents/toxicity , Argentina , Sanitary Profiles/policies , Social Conditions , Socioeconomic Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 28(1): 126-138, mar. 2008. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-503144

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La exposición a solventes es uno de los mayores riesgos potenciales para millones de trabajadores en el mundo; los solventes generan contaminación ambiental y desencadenan problemas de salud pública. Objetivo. Determinar los niveles de los metabolitos benceno, tolueno y xileno, los polimorfismos de las enzimas CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1 y el daño del ADN mediante el ensayo del cometa. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal para la determinación de polimorfismos genéticos y prueba del cometa en 90 trabajadores pertenecientes a cinco empresas. Se aplicó una encuesta, se tomaron muestras de sangre y de orina, se midieron las concentraciones de fenol, ácido hipúrico orto y meta-metilhipúrico. Se hizo el análisis estadístico y se exploraron posibles asociaciones. Resultados. El 34,4 por ciento eran trabajadores con exposición directa a solventes. En este grupo se evidenciaron concentraciones superiores a los límites permisibles en 3,3 por ciento para fenol, en 6,6 por ciento para ácido hipúrico, en 3,3 por ciento para ácido orto-metilhipúrico y en 36,7 por ciento para ácido meta-metilhipúrico, mayor longitud promedio de la cola del cometa (19,5 µm) y un incremento del porcentaje de células con daño medio (19,0 por ciento) (p=0,0007). El porcentaje de individuos expuestos con genotipos ausentes para las enzimas GSTT1 y GSTM1 fue de 46,7 por ciento y de 56,8 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusión. El uso de biomarcadores de exposición, efecto y susceptibilidad, se ha convertido en una herramienta fundamental para la evaluación del riesgo asociado con la exposición a agentes tóxicos.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , Occupational Exposure , Solvents/toxicity , Public Health
15.
Ceylon Med J ; 2007 Jun; 52(2): 68
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-48766
16.
Journal of the Faculty of Medicine-Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2007; 31 (3): 279-283
in Persian, English | IMEMR | ID: emr-104702

ABSTRACT

Organic solvents are widely used in different industries and occupations. They have a central role in production and use of paints. This study was carried out to evaluate the hepatic damage due to solvent exposure. In this cross-sectional study 62 painters were selected as cases with at least one year exposure to solvents and 54 employees as controls with no exposure. Demographic and clinical information collected via questionnaire and physical examination and the results of liver function tests, [ALT, AST, ALP], were compared in the two groups. The mean levels of ALT, AST, and ALP were not significantly different between cases and controls; however the mean levels of ALT and AST in individuals with high exposure were significantly more elevated than in persons with low exposures, [subgroups of cases]. We concluded that routine hepatic enzyme tests are not suitable for early detection of hepatic damage in workers exposed to solvents and the use of more sensitive tests should be considered


Subject(s)
Humans , Solvents/toxicity , Occupational Exposure , Liver/enzymology , Liver/drug effects , Paint , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Alkaline Phosphatase , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2007. xiii,59 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-526667

ABSTRACT

Durante as últimas décadas, biomarcadores citogenéticos em linfócitos de sangue periférico têm sido usados para avaliar a exposição ocupacional a agentes carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. A preocupação sobre os efeitos dos agentes genotóxicos nas populações humanas expostas ocupacionalmente, acidentalmente ou por estilo de vida tem crescido. Alterações cromossomiais induzidas em linfócitos humanos são biomarcadores bem estabelecidos de exposição ocupacional e ambiental a agentes genotóxicos. Participaram do estudo trabalhadores de um Estaleiro e de um Laboratório de Análises Tóxicológicas onde foram analisadas alterações citogenéticas em linfócitos de sangue periféricos, bem como indicadores biológicos de exposição aos metais chumbo e manganês. Os indicadores de exposição ao chumbo apresentaram as seguintes alterações: diferença significativa entre os grupos estudados nos níveis dos indicadores ALA-U, Pb-S, correlação significativa entre por cento de recuperação da ALAD e Pb-S no grupo Estaleiro e 22,2 por cento dos trabalhadores deste grupo que apresentaram por cento de recuperação da ALAD acima do Índice Biológico Máximo indicando que o grupo Estaleiro apresenta exposição ocupacional ao chumbo. A exposição ao manganês deve ser mais bem estudada, pois embora os resultados da exposição não sejam conclusivos, os trabalhadores do grupo Estaleiro apresentam uma diferença perto da significância (p=0,075) dos níveis de Mn em sangue em relação ao outro grupo e apresentam uma alta freqüência de pneumonia ocupacional, uma das doenças causadas pela exposição ao manganês. A alta freqüência de aneuploidias no grupo Estaleiro indica risco de desenvolvimento de processos de carcinogenicidade neste grupo. Com relação ao grupo Laboratório, os resultados do presente estudo não evidenciam uma forte associação das alterações citogenéticas versus exposição. É fundamental que um maior número de trabalhadores sejam avaliados, mas é importante ressaltar a necessidade de um programa de prevenção da exposição profissional e um controle efetivo dos aspectos ambientais. A aneuploidia se correlacionou fortemente com as outras alterações citogenéticas demonstrando ser importante ferramenta na avaliação da genotoxicidade. Existe uma evidência da relação da exposição ao metal chumbo com o aparecimento da alteração citogenética SPC no grupo Estaleiro, pois foi encontrada uma correlação bastante significativa entre o indicador de exposição ao chumbo por cento de rec de ALAD e esta alteração citogenética. Os resultados dos testes X2 revelam que os trabalhadores avaliados neste estudo apresentam alterações citogenéticas diferentes do controle do estudo de Major, Jakab e Tompa, 1999, indicando que estão expostos ocupacionalmente a substâncias clastogênicas, em especial o grupo Estaleiro. Os indicadores genotóxicos podem não analisar de forma específica a exposição a substâncias químicas, mas estabelecem fortes associações com a exposição a estas, devendo ser incluídos como uma ferramenta independente na avaliação de risco toxicológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , /analysis , Chromosome Aberrations , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Lead Poisoning/complications , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , Solvents/toxicity , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genotoxicity , Metals/toxicity
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 64(4): 937-940, dez. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-439746

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the investigation was to use electroencephalography (EEG) to study whether long-term thinner abuse may result in the slowing, disorganization and asymmetry of the EEG cortical rhythms. METHOD: Twenty-two patients attending with antecedent of thinner abuse only, and twenty two controls without alcohol, smoking, and drug abuse in the same age range and gender were studied. EEG recording were compared by means of the analyses of peak of frequency (POF), frequency of disorganization, and asymmetry of the background activity in patients and controls at rest eyes-closed condition in electrodes P3, P4, O1, and O2. RESULTS: Significant differences in POF among groups was observed in P3 and P4 location showing lower values in thinner abusers, but not in O1 and O2 locations. Frequencies of disorganization and asymmetry showed significantly higher proportions in thinner abusers. Bivariate correlations among POF at the four electrode location and time of thinner abuse showed significant values. However after partial correlation calculation correcting for age, significant values disappeared. CONCLUSION: Thus thinner abuse relates with slowing of POF in the EEG of patients with thinner abuse associated with disorganization, and asymmetry depending on time of abuse.


OBJETIVO: Utilizar el electroencefalograma (EEG) para estudiar si el abuso o intoxicación crónica por tíner produce lentificación, desorganización y asimetría de la actividad eléctrica cortical. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 22 pacientes con antecedentes de intoxicación crónica por tíner y 22 sujetos sin antecedentes de abuso de tíner, alcohol, cigarro o drogas en el mismo rango de edad y en igual número de acuerdo al género. Se registro el EEG cuantitativo y se compararon: el promedio del pico de frecuencia (PoF), la frecuencia de desorganización de la actividad de fondo y la presencia de asimetría inter-hemisférica en la condición de reposo físico y mental entre las regiones de los electrodos P3, P4, O1 y O2. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el PoF entre los grupo estudiados en P3 y P4 observándose valores menores en el grupo con antecedente de intoxicación crónica con tíner, sin embargo estas diferencias no fueron observadas en O1 y O2. La frecuencia de desorganización y de asimetría fue mayor entre los pacientes con antecedente de intoxicación crónica con tíner. Las correlaciones bivariadas entre el PoF en las cuatro localizaciones y el tiempo de consumo de tíner mostraron valores significativos, sin embargo, cuando fueron corregidas por la edad desaparecieron. CONCLUSION: La intoxicación crónica por tíner se relaciona a una lentificación del PoF del EEG de estos pacientes asociada con desorganización y asimetría que dependen parcialmente del tiempo de consumo.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Solvents/toxicity , Substance-Related Disorders/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Electroencephalography/drug effects
19.
Noise Health ; 2006 Jul-Sep; 8(32): 114-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-122088

ABSTRACT

Industrial hearing loss has generally been associated with noise exposure, but there is a growing awareness that industrial solvents can have an adverse effect on the auditory and vestibular systems in man. Both animal experiments and human studies point to an ototoxic effect of industrial solvents, as well as some central auditory and vestibular disturbances. This review examines the research from the last four decades in an attempt to get an overview of the available evidence. Research shows that industrial solvents are ototoxic in rats. The majority of the solvents studied cause a loss of auditory sensitivity in the mid-frequencies in rats, affecting outer hair cells in the order OHC 3 > OHC 2 > OHC 1 . Inner hair cells are generally unaffected. Spiral ganglion cells are most vulnerable to trichloroethylene. Simultaneous exposure to solvents and noise results in a synergistic effect; the pattern of trauma mirrors that due to solvent exposure rather than noise, but is more enhanced. There is a critical level when synergy occurs. The effects of solvents on the vestibular system are neurotoxic and influence the vestibulo-oculomotor system in both animals and humans; humans also present with problems in postural sway. There is a strong suggestion from human studies that solvents are ototoxic in man, but findings show that both the peripheral and central auditory pathways can be affected. Hearing losses can be in the high frequency region or can affect a wider range of frequencies. Hearing loss and balance disturbances can occur at levels below permitted levels of exposure. The synergistic effect of combined exposure to solvents and noise has also been noted in humans, resulting in greater hearing losses than would be expected from exposure to noise and solvents alone. The findings from both human and animal studies indicate that exposure to industrial solvents or to industrial solvents and noise can have an adverse effect on hearing and balance. The implications for industry and hearing conservation are far reaching.


Subject(s)
Animals , Auditory Pathways/drug effects , Benzene Derivatives/toxicity , Carbon Disulfide/toxicity , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/drug effects , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Humans , Noise, Occupational/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Postural Balance/drug effects , Rats , Solvents/toxicity , Trichloroethylene/toxicity , Vestibule, Labyrinth/drug effects
20.
Braz. dent. j ; 17(3): 228-232, 2006. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-442372

ABSTRACT

Chloroform and eucalyptol are widely used in clinical dentistry as gutta-percha solvents. However, these compounds may represent a hazard to human health, especially by causing injury to genetic apparatus and/or inducing cellular death. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials associated with exposure to chloroform and eucalyptol were assessed on mouse lymphoma cells in vitro by the single cell gel (comet) assay and trypan blue exclusion test, respectively. Both gutta-percha solvents proved to be cytotoxic at the same levels in concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 muL/mL (p<0.05). On the other hand, neither of the solvents induced DNA breakage. Taken together, these results suggest that although both tested compounds (chloroform and eucalyptol) are strong cytotoxicants, it seems that they are not likely to increase the level of DNA damage on mammalian cells.


Clorofórmio e eucaliptol são amplamente utilizados na clínica odontológica como solventes de guta-percha. Entretanto, estes compostos podem representar um perigo à saúde humana, especialmente por causar danos ao aparelho genético e/ou induzir morte celular. Neste estudo, o potencial genotóxico e citotóxico associado à exposição ao clorofórmio e eucaliptol foram avaliados em células de linfoma murino in vitro pelo teste de células individualizadas (teste do cometa) e pelo teste do azul de tripan, respectivamente. Ambos os solventes de guta-percha provaram ser citotóxicos nos mesmos níveis em concentrações de 2,5, 5 e 10 miL/mL (p<0.05). Por outro lado, nenhum dos dois solventes induziu danos ao DNA. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que ambos os compostos testados (clorofórmio e eucaliptol) são potentes citotoxinas, mas não representam um fator que aumenta o nível de danos no DNA em células de mamíferos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chloroform/toxicity , Cyclohexanols/toxicity , Eucalyptus , /pathology , Monoterpenes/toxicity , Solvents/toxicity , Comet Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chloroform/administration & dosage , Coloring Agents , Cyclohexanols/administration & dosage , DNA , DNA Breaks , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Monoterpenes/administration & dosage , Mutagens/toxicity , Solvents/administration & dosage , Trypan Blue
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