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1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 245-260, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971567

ABSTRACT

Defensive behaviors induced by innate fear or Pavlovian fear conditioning are crucial for animals to avoid threats and ensure survival. The zona incerta (ZI) has been demonstrated to play important roles in fear learning and fear memory, as well as modulating auditory-induced innate defensive behavior. However, whether the neuronal subtypes in the ZI and specific circuits can mediate the innate fear response is largely unknown. Here, we found that somatostatin (SST)-positive neurons in the rostral ZI of mice were activated by a visual innate fear stimulus. Optogenetic inhibition of SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI resulted in reduced flight responses to an overhead looming stimulus. Optogenetic activation of SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI induced fear-like defensive behavior including increased immobility and bradycardia. In addition, we demonstrated that manipulation of the GABAergic projections from SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI to the downstream nucleus reuniens (Re) mediated fear-like defensive behavior. Retrograde trans-synaptic tracing also revealed looming stimulus-activated neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) that projected to the Re-projecting SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI (SC-ZIrSST-Re pathway). Together, our study elucidates the function of SST-positive neurons in the rostral ZI and the SC-ZIrSST-Re tri-synaptic circuit in mediating the innate fear response.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Zona Incerta/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Fear/physiology , Somatostatin/metabolism
2.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 995-1000, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009837

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effects of somatostatin on the levels of gastrointestinal hormones and clinical outcomes in critically ill infants after gastrointestinal surgery.@*METHODS@#Using a random number table method, critically ill infants after gastrointestinal surgery who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Xuzhou Children's Hospital from June 2019 to June 2021 were randomly divided into an observation group (29 cases) and a control group (30 cases). The control group received routine treatment such as anti-infection and hemostasis after surgery, while the observation group received somatostatin in addition to the routine treatment [3.5 μg/(kg·h) infusion for 7 days]. The levels of serum gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) before surgery, on the 3rd day after surgery, and on the 7th day after surgery were compared between the two groups. The recovery progress and incidence of complications after surgery were also compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the levels of serum GAS, MTL, insulin, and GLP-1 between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). On the 3rd and 7th day after surgery, the levels of serum GAS, MTL, insulin, and GLP-1 in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the observation group, the levels of GAS, MTL, insulin, and GLP-1 on the 7th day after surgery were higher than those before surgery and on the 3rd day after surgery (P<0.05), and the levels on the 3rd day after surgery were higher than those before surgery (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the levels of serum GAS, MTL, and insulin before surgery, on the 3rd day after surgery, and on the 7th day after surgery in the control group (P>0.05). The level of GLP-1 on the 7th day after surgery was higher than that before surgery and on the 3rd day after surgery (P<0.05), and the level on the 3rd day after surgery was higher than that before surgery (P<0.05) in the control group. The observation group had shorter first time of anal exhaust, recovery time of bowel sounds, and first time of defecation after surgery compared to the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of complications after surgery in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (10% vs 33%, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Somatostatin can increase the levels of serum GAS, MTL, insulin, and GLP-1 in critically ill infants after gastrointestinal surgery, promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function, and reduce the incidence of postoperative complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Critical Illness , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Insulin , Prospective Studies , Somatostatin/therapeutic use
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468816

ABSTRACT

The work aims were to describe the histological and histochemical structure of the gastroesophageal tube of Iguana iguana and verify the occurrence and distribution of immunoreactive serotonin (5-HT) and somatostatin (SS) cells. Fragments of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of five iguanas were which underwent standard histological and immunohistochemistry technique. Immunoreactive cells for 5-HT and SS were quantified using the STEPanizer. The oesophagus has ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium with staining Alcian blue (AB) + and goblet cells highly reactive to periodic acid Schiff (PAS). In the cervical oesophagus, the numerical density of 5-HT cells per unit area (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) was 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 and celomatic oesophagus presented QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. The epithelium of the stomach is simple columnar, PAS and AB +. The cranial and middle regions of the stomach presented (QA [5-HT cells]/µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 and the caudal region, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. The SS cells were only observed in the caudal stomach, with numerical density (QA [SS cells]/µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9 In I. iguana, variation was observed in terms of the distribution of mucus secretions and the pattern of occurrence of serotonin and somatostatin-secreting enteroendocrine cells in the TGI, which possibly will result in an interspecific adaptive response.


Os objetivos do trabalho foram descrever a estrutura histológica e histoquímica do tubo gastroesofágico da Iguana iguana e verificar a ocorrência e distribuição de células serotonina (5-HT) e somatostatina (SS) imunorreativas. Fragmentos do trato gastrointestinal (TGI) de cinco iguanas foram submetidos à técnica histológica e imunohistoquímica padrão. As células imunorreativas para 5-HT e SS foram quantificadas usando o STEPanizer. O esôfago apresenta epitélio pseudoestratificado colunar ciliado Alcian blue (AB) positivo, com células caliciformes altamente reativas ao ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS). No esôfago cervical, a densidade numérica de células 5-HT por unidade de área (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) foi de 4.6x10-2 ± 2.0 e o esôfago celomático apresentou QA = 4.0x10-2 ± 1.0. O epitélio do estômago é colunar simples, PAS e AB positivo. As regiões cranial e média do estômago apresentaram (QA [células 5-HT] / µm2) = 6.18x10-2 ± 3.2 e a região caudal, QA = 0.6x10-2 ± 0.2. As células SS foram observadas apenas no estômago caudal, com densidade numérica (QA [células SS] / µm2) = 1.4x10-2 ± 0.9. Em I. iguana, foi observada variações em termos da distribuição das secreções de muco e padrão de ocorrência das células enteroendócrinas secretoras de serotonina e somatostatina no TGI, o que possivelmente reflete uma resposta adaptativa interespecifica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Stomach , Esophagus , Iguanas/anatomy & histology , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Serotonin/analysis , Somatostatin/analysis , Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology
4.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 812-816, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939667

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the effect of somatostatin on postoperative gastrointestinal function and stress level in children with acute abdomen.@*METHODS@#A total of 102 children with acute abdomen who underwent surgery in Xuzhou Children's Hospital from August 2019 to June 2021 were enrolled as subjects and were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 51 children in each group. The children in the control group were given conventional treatment such as hemostasis and anti-infective therapy after surgery, and those in the observation group were given somatostatin in addition to conventional treatment. Peripheral blood samples were collected from both groups before surgery and on days 1 and 5 after surgery. The two groups were compared in terms of the serum levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, gastrin, and motilin, postoperative recovery, and the incidence rate of complications.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the serum levels of ET-1, ACTH, cortisol, gastrin, and motilin between the two groups before surgery (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly lower serum levels of ET-1, ACTH, and cortisol on days 1 and 5 after surgery (P<0.05) and significantly higher levels of motilin and gastrin on day 5 after surgery (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter time to first passage of flatus, first bowel sounds, and first defecation after surgery, as well as a significantly shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.05). The incidence rate of complications in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (6% vs 24%, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with acute abdomen, somatostatin can significantly reduce postoperative stress response, improve gastrointestinal function, and reduce the incidence rate of complications, thereby helping to achieve a good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Abdomen , Abdomen, Acute , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Gastrins , Hydrocortisone , Motilin , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Somatostatin/therapeutic use
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(5): 1459-1466, oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385497

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous ghrelin on pancreatic growth and development in African ostrich chicks. Sixteen 40-day-old African ostrich chicks (male or female) were randomly divided into four groups and injected intravenously metatarsal vein with saline (control) or ghrelin (10, 50, and 100 μg/kg) for 6 days. Body and pancreas weight were determined, structural characteristics were observed using HE staining, somatostatin-immunopositive cells were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: 1. The 50 and 100 μg/kg groups showed lower relative pancreas weight than the control group (P 0.05. Moreover, compared with the control, the islet cells in treatment groups were loosely arranged and showed reduced cytoplasm. In the exocrine pancreas, the volume of acinar cells in the 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg groups all decreased to varying degrees. 3. Somatostatin immunopositive cells were mainly located around the periphery of the islets and sporadically distributed in the center. The density of the somatostatin immunopositive cells in the 10, 50, and 100 μg/kg groups was higher than that in the control (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that exogenous ghrelin increases the area and number of islets and number of somatostatin immunopositive cells but reduces relative pancreas weight and effects the morphological and structural development of the pancreas, which may inhibit the pancreatic growth and development in African ostrich chicks.


RESUMEN: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto de la grelina exógena sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo del páncreas en polluelos de avestruz africana. Dieciséis pollos de avestruz africana de 40 días (machos o hembras) se dividieron al azar en cuatro grupos y se inyectaron por vía intravenosa con solución salina (control) o grelina (10, 50 y 100 μg / kg) durante 6 días. determinadas, se observaron las características estructurales mediante tinción Hematoxilina-Eosina, se detectaron células inmunopositivas a somatostatina mediante inmunohistoquímica. Los resultados fueron los siguientes: ¨Los grupos de 50 y 100 μg / kg mostraron un menor peso relativo del páncreas que el grupo de control (P <0,05). El área de islotes por unidad de área del páncreas fue mayor en los grupos de 10, 50 y 100 μg / kg grupos que en el grupo de control (P <0,05). El número de islotes por unidad de área del páncreas fue menor en el grupo de 10 μg / kg que en el control (P <0,05). Además, en comparación con el control, las células de los islotes en los grupos de tratamiento estaban dispuestas de forma holgada y mostraban un citoplasma reducido. En el páncreas exocrino, el volumen de células acinares en los grupos de 10, 50 y 100 μg / kg disminuyó en diversos grados. Las células inmunopositivas de somatostatina se ubicaron principalmente alrededor de la periferia de los islotes y se distribuyeron esporádicamente en el centro. La densidad de las células inmunopositivas a la somatostatina en los grupos de 10, 50 y 100 μg / kg fue mayor que la del control (P <0,05). Estos hallazgos sugieren que la grelina exógena aumenta el área y el número de islotes y el número de células inmunopositivas a la somatostatina, pero reduce el peso relativo del páncreas, lo que puede inhibir el crecimiento y desarrollo pancreático en los polluelos de avestruz africana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pancreas/drug effects , Struthioniformes , Ghrelin/administration & dosage , Pancreas/growth & development , Somatostatin/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Ghrelin/pharmacology , Injections, Intravenous
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 888-898, jun. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389542

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs) encompass a wide variety of tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells, which produce bioactive substances. The incidence of NETs increased significantly lately, becoming one of the most common tumors of the digestive tract. Their clinical presentation is as diverse as their capacity for hormone production. Carcinoid syndrome is the most common hormonal syndrome produced by NETs and is characterized by diarrhea, flushing and cardiac valvular lesions. New research brought multiple changes in the classification of these neoplasms and a new understanding about their diagnosis and treatment, promoting a multidisciplinary approach. Somatostatin analogues, radiation, biological, and cytotoxic drugs have improved the prognosis of these patients, which entails a great challenge for healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuroendocrine Tumors/diagnosis , Neuroendocrine Tumors/therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Somatostatin/therapeutic use , Diarrhea
7.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 94-98, 30 junio 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292976

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. El quilotórax resulta de un daño al conducto torácico por ruptura, laceración, desgarro o compresión. Es una patología rara de derrame pleural en la edad pediátrica, pero frecuente como complicación posterior a cirugía cardiotorácica. La base del tratamiento conservador se ha fundamentado en: drenaje inicial, modificación de la dieta, uso de somatostatina o análogos sintéticos como octreotide, cirugía, prevención y manejo de complicaciones. Fue preciso describir la experiencia institucional clínica así como su abordaje. CASO CLÍNICO. Paciente masculino de 4 meses de edad, que ingresó a la Unidad Pediátrica Área de Emergencias del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, el 13 de septiembre de 2019 con antece-dente quirúrgico de atresia de esófago corregida en etapa neonatal. Acudió con dificultad respiratoria, radiografía de tórax que evidenció derrame pleural derecho, toracentesis diagnóstica con salida de líquido de aspecto turbio y lechoso; se colocó tubo de tórax derecho. Se prescribió ayuno inicial, nutrición parenteral durante 4 semanas hasta comprobar resolución del quilotórax. Fue dado de alta en condición estable tras 43 días de hospitalización. DISCUSIÓN. La evidencia científica registró que el tratamiento conservador del quilotórax se basó en: drenaje, reposo digestivo inicial, nutrición parenteral, modificación cualitativa de la dieta enteral y uso de octreotide; el mismo que fue aplicado al paciente de este caso clínico con evolución favorable. CONCLUSIÓN. El tratamiento conservador y multidisciplinario en el abordaje del qui-lotórax fue exitoso y no necesitó manejo quirúrgico.


INTRODUCTION. Chylothorax results from damage to the thoracic duct by rupture, la-ceration, tear or compression. It is a rare pathology of pleural effusion in pediatric age, but frequent as a complication after cardiothoracic surgery. The basis of conservative treatment has been based on: initial drainage, diet modification, use of somatostatin or synthetic analogues such as octreotide, surgery, prevention and management of complications. It was necessary to describe the clinical institutional experience as well as its approach. CLINICAL CASE. A 4-month-old male patient was admitted to the Emergency Area Pediatric Unit of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital on september 13, 2019 with a surgical history of esophageal atresia corrected in the neonatal stage. He went with respiratory distress, chest X-ray that showed right pleural effusion, diagnostic thoracentesis with outflow of cloudy and milky fluid; a right chest tube was placed. Initial fasting was prescribed, parenteral nutrition for 4 weeks until resolution of the chylothorax was verified. He was discharged in stable condition after 43 days of hospitalization. DISCUSSION. The scientific evidence recorded that the conservative treatment of chylothorax was based on: drainage, initial digestive rest, parenteral nutrition, qualitative modification of enteral diet and use of octreotide; the same that was applied to the patient of this clinical case with favorable evolu-tion. CONCLUSION. Conservative and multidisciplinary treatment in the approach to chylothorax was successful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Thoracic Duct , Somatostatin , Chylothorax/surgery , Parenteral Nutrition , Pediatric Emergency Medicine , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Tracheoesophageal Fistula , Esophageal Atresia
8.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 78-84, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251552

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El mejor tratamiento para los tumores neuroendocrinos es la resección completa del tumor, los ganglios, e inclusive en casos seleccionados, las metástasis a distancia. En ocasiones, el tumor primario es pequeño y de difícil localización preoperatoria o sus recaídas pueden ser difíciles de localizar en el terreno de fibrosis por cirugías o tratamientos previos. La cirugía radioguíada ofrece una opción adicional de localización intraoperatoria que hasta ahora no ha sido muy utilizada en tumores neuroendocrinos. Presentación del caso: Paciente de 59 años con antecedente de resección atípica de duodeno y páncreas por tumor neuroendocrino grado 2 del duodeno un año antes. En la tomografía por emisión de positrones/tomografía computarizada (PET/CT) 68Ga-DOTANOC se encontró un ganglio con sobreexpresión de receptores de somatostatina en el mesenterio, sin otras lesiones a distancia. Por los antecedentes quirúrgicos y la dificultad de visualizar la lesión en las imágenes anatómicas (resonancia magnética [RM]) se decidió realizar la cirugía radioguíada. En el preoperatorio se administraron 15 mCi de tecnecio 99 metaestable-hidrazinonicotinilo-Tyr3-octreotida (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) y se verificó la buena captación en el ganglio. En cirugía, luego de la disección inicial se utilizó la sonda gamma, que detectó una actividad 5 veces mayor en el ganglio, comparado con los tejidos vecinos, lo que permitió su localización y resección. La evolución fue adecuada y un año después no hay evidencia de recaídas. Conclusión: La cirugía radioguíada no ha sido muy utilizada en la localización intraoperatoria de tumores neuroendocrinos, pero es una buena alternativa en casos seleccionados, como el presentado en este artículo, y permite la detección intraoperatoria y su resección completa.


Abstract Introduction: The best treatment for neuroendocrine tumors is complete resection of the tumor, lymph nodes, and even distant metastases in selected cases. Sometimes, the primary tumor is small and difficult to detect before surgery, or its relapses may be difficult to locate in the fibrosis field due to previous surgeries or treatments. Although radioguided surgery allows for additional intraoperative localization, it has yet to be widely used in neuroendocrine tumors. Case report: A 59-year-old patient with a history of atypical resection of duodenum and pancreas due to grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor of the duodenum one year earlier. On 68Ga-DOTANOC PET/CT, a node with somatostatin receptor overexpression was found in the mesentery, with no other distant lesions. Due to the surgical history and the difficulty in visualizing the lesion on anatomical images (MRI), it was decided to perform the radioguided surgery. During the preoperative period, 15 mCi of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC were administered verifying good uptake in the ganglion. Following the initial dissection, a gamma probe was used, detecting 5 times more activity in the ganglion than in adjacent tissues, allowing for localization and resection. The patient's progress was satisfactory, and one year later there is no evidence of relapse. Conclusion: Although radioguided surgery is not commonly used in the intraoperative location of neuroendocrine tumors, it is a viable option in some situations, such as the one presented here, because it allows for intraoperative detection and full resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Somatostatin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospecting Probe
9.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 295-305, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878258

ABSTRACT

Cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurons are composed of three major classes, each expressing parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3A (Htr3a), respectively. Htr3a


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Interneurons/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Parvalbumins/metabolism , Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3/genetics , Serotonin , Somatostatin/metabolism
10.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(supl.2): 102-108, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341345

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El diagnóstico del síndrome de Sjögren se basa en los criterios del consenso americano y europeo (AECG), sin embargo, en muchas oportunidades no se alcanza a detectar el compromiso glandular o extraglandular. Presentamos la evidencia de la utilidad de la gammagrafía con los análogos de somatostatina radiomarcados como prueba novedosa en el acercamiento diagnóstico al compromiso glandular y extraglandular del síndrome de Sjögren.


ABSTRACT Sjögren syndrome is diagnosed using American European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria, although frequently these criteria are not enough to detect the glandular and extra-glandular compromise. Evidence is presented on the use of whole body somatostatin scintigraphy as a novel probe in the diagnostic approach to the glandular and extra-glandular compromise in Sjögren s syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Somatostatin , Sjogren's Syndrome , Diagnosis , Radionuclide Imaging , Consensus , Molecular Imaging
11.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 177-187, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare disease primarily caused by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, and its treatment is costly. Moreover, some patients are unresponsive to treatment. Hence, there are increasing efforts to develop new drugs with improved effectiveness for this disease. BIM23B065 is a novel chimeric molecule that acts on both somatostatin and dopamine receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BIM23B065 compared with those of a somatostatin receptor analog and a dopamine agonist.METHODS: The effects of BIM23B065 on the proliferation, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation of GH3 cells were investigated with MTS assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, respectively. The dosage and treatment duration of BIM23B065 were tested in animal models of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The effect of BIM23B065 (3 mg/kg/day) on changes in IGF-1 levels before and after treatment was further investigated.RESULTS: In vitro, BIM23B065 treatment decreased GH release in the culture media and downregulated ERK 1/2 and CREB phosphorylation to 22% and 26%, respectively. In vivo, IGF-1 expression decreased to 50 % after 4 weeks of treatment with BIM23B065 using an osmotic pump implant. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the tumor size decreased significantly following treatment with BIM23B065 for 4 weeks.CONCLUSION: The novel chimeric molecule was effective in decreasing IGF-1 and GH levels and may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for acromegaly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromegaly , Blotting, Western , Culture Media , Cyclic AMP , Dopamine Agonists , Dopamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Growth Hormone , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Animal , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rare Diseases , Receptors, Dopamine , Receptors, Somatostatin , Response Elements , Somatostatin
12.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 867-874, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880284

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the effects of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on the ejaculatory behaviors of male rats and its potential mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Male SD rats with normal ejaculation ability were mated with female ones in hormone-induced estrus. After bilateral PVN microinjection of D-Ala-2-Me-Phe-4-Gly-ol enkephalin (DAGO) or D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP) with an inserted catheter, the male animals were observed for mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), intromission latency (IL), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation latency (EL), ejaculation frequency (EF), post-ejaculation interval (PEI), and intromission ratio (IR). The lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) of the rats was recorded using the PowerLab data acquisition hardware device, and the levels of norepinephrine (NE) in the peripheral plasma were measured by ELISA following microinjection of saline or different doses of DAGO or CTAP.@*RESULTS@#Neither CTAP nor DGAO significantly affected the ML of the male rats (P > 0.05). DGAO remarkably increased IF (P < 0.01) and MF (P < 0.01), prolonged IL (P < 0.01), EL (P < 0.01) and PEI (P < 0.01), and reduced EF (P <0.01) and IR (P < 0.05). On the contrary, CTAP markedly decreased IF (P < 0.01) and MF (P < 0.01), shortened IL (P < 0.01), EL (P < 0.01) and PFI (P < 0.01), and elevated EF (P < 0.01) and IR (P < 0.01). Additionally, DAGO decreased LSNA in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the NE level in the peripheral plasma. CTAP, however, not only offset the effects of DAGO on LSNA, but also significantly increased LSNA.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MOR in PVN inhibits ejaculatory behaviors in male rats by weakening LSNA, which has provided some theoretical evidence for the use of highly selective opioids in the treatment of premature ejaculation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Ejaculation , Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-/pharmacology , Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/physiology , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Opioid, mu/physiology , Somatostatin/pharmacology , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 646-652, Nov.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Advances in combination medical treatment have offer new perspectives for acromegaly patients with persistent disease activity despite receiving the available medical monotherapies. The outcomes of combination medical treatment may reflect both additive and synergistic effects. This review focuses on combination medical treatment and its current position in acromegaly, based on clinical studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined medical treatment(s) and our own experiences with combination therapy. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):646-52


Subject(s)
Humans , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Receptors, Somatostatin/administration & dosage , Receptors, Somatostatin/antagonists & inhibitors , Dopamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Quality of Life , Acromegaly/drug therapy , Somatostatin/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 320-327, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019363

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To describe the long term safety and efficacy of pegvisomant (PEGV), and the predictors of treatment response in patients with acromegaly in the real life setting. Subjects and methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical, hormonal and radiological data of acromegalic patients treated with PEGV in 17 Argentine centers. Results Seventy-five patients (age range 22-77, 51 females) with acromegaly have been treated with PEGV for up to 118 months (median 27 months). Before PEGV, 97.3% of patients had been treated with medical therapy, surgery and/or radiotherapy, two patients had no previous treatment. At that time, all patients had an IGF-1 above the upper normal limit (ULN) (mean 2.4 x ULN ± 0.98, range 1.25-7). At diagnosis of acromegaly 84% presented macroadenomas, prior to PEGV only 23,5% of patients remained with tumor remnant > 1 cm, the remaining showed normal or less than 1 cm images. Disease control (IGF-1 ≤ 1.2 x ULN) was achieved in 62.9% of patients with a mean dose of 11.8 mg/day. Thirty-four patients (45%) received PEGV monotherapy, while 41 (55%) received combined therapy with either somatostatin analogues and/or cabergoline. Adverse events related to PEGV were: local injection site reaction in 5.3%, elevated liver enzymes in 9.3%, and tumor size growth in 9.8%. Pre-PEGV IGF-I level was the only predictor of treatment response: 2.1 x ULN vs 2.8 x ULN in controlled and uncontrolled patients respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion this long term experience indicates PEGV treatment was highly effective and safe in our series of Argentine patients with acromegaly refractory to standard therapies. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(4):320-7


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Acromegaly/drug therapy , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Dopamine Agonists/therapeutic use , Human Growth Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Cabergoline/therapeutic use , Argentina , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dopamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Cabergoline/administration & dosage
15.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1284104

ABSTRACT

Los estudios de medicina nuclear permiten en tumor neuroendocrino (TNE) de origen desconocido la búsqueda del tumor primario y estadificación de la enfermedad


Nuclear medicine studies allow neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of unknown origin to search for the primary tumor and staging the disease


Estudos de medicina nuclear permitem o tumor neuroendócrino (NET) de origem desconhecida para a pesquisa do tumor primário e o estadiamento da doença


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Scalp/pathology , Somatostatin/analogs & derivatives , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/secondary , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine/diagnostic imaging , Radionuclide Imaging
16.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 124-131, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742151

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms arising from the pancreatic islet of Langerhans and can be functioning or non-functioning based on the clinical symptoms caused by hormonal secretions. PNETs are the second most common tumor of the pancreas and represent 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. The incidence of pNETs appears to be rising and the prognosis seems to be improving, likely due to the improved treatment options. Recent updates of the World Health Organization classification and grading separate pNETs into 2 broad categories according to the histopathologic criteria, including the Ki-67 proliferative index and mitotic counts: well-differentiated NET and poorly-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). The classification also incorporates a new subcategory of well-differentiated high-grade NEC (grade 3) to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of the clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management. The treatment of advanced or metastatic pNETs may include surgical resection, liver-directed therapies, and/or systemic treatments. In unresectable patients, the goals of these therapies are to palliate the tumor-related symptoms and prolong the lifespan. Systemic therapy consists of the following broad modalities: somatostatin analogues, molecular targeted therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. In conclusion, pNETs are diagnosed increasingly throughout the world, usually with metastatic disease and requiring systemic therapy. Each patient should be evaluated thoroughly and discussed individually by a multidisciplinary and dedicated NET-expert team, which might consider all treatment options, including ongoing clinical trials before selecting the appropriate treatment sequence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Classification , Drug Therapy , Incidence , Islets of Langerhans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Patient Care , Prognosis , Receptors, Peptide , Somatostatin , World Health Organization
17.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 53-62, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739219

ABSTRACT

The Korean Endocrine Society (KES) published clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acromegaly in 2011. Since then, the number of acromegaly cases, publications on studies addressing medical treatment of acromegaly, and demands for improvements in insurance coverage have been dramatically increasing. In 2017, the KES Committee of Health Insurance decided to publish a position statement regarding the use of somatostatin analogues in acromegaly. Accordingly, consensus opinions for the position statement were collected after intensive review of the relevant literature and discussions among experts affiliated with the KES, and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group. This position statement includes the characteristics, indications, dose, interval (including extended dose interval in case of lanreotide autogel), switching and preoperative use of somatostatin analogues in medical treatment of acromegaly. The recommended approach is based on the expert opinions in case of insufficient clinical evidence, and where discrepancies among the expert opinions were found, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Consensus , Expert Testimony , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Octreotide , Somatostatin
18.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 485-494, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786308

ABSTRACT

Acromegaly is a chronic disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. In most cases, the excess GH originates from GH-producing pituitary adenomas. Surgery is the preferred first-line treatment for patients with acromegaly, but medical management is considered when the disease persists after surgery or in cases where patients refuse surgery or are poor candidates for surgery. Somatostatin analogues are commonly used to treat acromegaly. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Neuroendocrine Study Group have developed a position statement for the use of somatostatin analogues in the medical treatment of acromegaly. This position statement is based on evidence from the current literature and expert opinions. In the case of discrepancies among expert opinions, the experts voted to determine the recommended approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acromegaly , Expert Testimony , Growth Hormone , Octreotide , Pituitary Neoplasms , Somatostatin
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(5): 560-565, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983797

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a heterogenous disease caused by insulin secretion regulatory defects, being ABCC8/KCNJ11 the most commonly affected genes. Therapeutic options include diazoxide, somatostatin analogues and surgery, which is curative in focal CHI. We report the case of two siblings (born two years apart) that presented themselves with hypoketotic hyperinsulinemic persistent hypoglycemias during neonatal period. The diagnosis of diffuse CHI due to an ABCC8 compound mutation (c.3576delG and c.742C>T) was concluded. They did not benefit from diazoxide therapy (or pancreatectomy performed in patient number 1) yet responded to somatostatin analogues. Patient number 1 developed various neurological deficits (including epilepsy), however patient number 2 experienced an entirely normal neurodevelopment. We believe this case shows how previous knowledge of the firstborn sibling's disease contributed to a better and timelier medical care in patient number 2, which could potentially explain her better neurological outcome despite their same genotype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Siblings , Congenital Hyperinsulinism/genetics , Congenital Hyperinsulinism/therapy , Sulfonylurea Receptors/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Pancreatectomy/methods , Phenotype , Somatostatin/analysis , Treatment Outcome , Diazoxide/therapeutic use , Genotype
20.
Acta méd. colomb ; 43(3): 161-164, jul.-set. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-983699

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los tumores neuroendocrinos son neoplasias infrecuentes y de abordaje complejo. Actualmente se necesitan más ensayos clínicos aleatorizados para establecer el manejo óptimo de los pacientes afectados por metástasis hepáticas no resecables. Aportamos un caso de TNE metastásico en el que se indicó trasplante hepático por sintomatología derivada del síndrome carcinoide no controlable con el tratamiento médico habitual. (Acta Med Colomb 2018; 43: 161-164).


Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors are infrequent neoplasms with a complex approach. Currently, more randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the optimal management of patients affected by unresectable liver metastases. A case of metastatic NET in which hepatic transplantation was indicated due to symptoms derived from the carcinoid syndrome that cannot be controlled with the usual medical treatment is provided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Carcinoid Tumor , Neurosecretory Systems , Somatostatin , Liver Transplantation , Neoplasm Metastasis
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