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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879090

ABSTRACT

To analyze the study advance of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma, this study utilized CiteSpace 5.6.R5 software to conduct bibliometrics analysis on the Chinese literatures of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma from 1990 to 2020 included in the CNKI database retrieval platform. The analysis contents involved the number of published papers, co-authors, cooperative institutions, emergence, co-occurrence and clustering of keywords. A total of 808 Chinese literatures were included in the study, of which 17 were published by SUN Rong, the author with the most published papers, and formed a research team centered on SUN Rong; the analysis of the cooperation of publishing institutions showed that the Drug Safety Evaluation Research Center, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was the organization with the largest number of publications, with a total of 29 articles. It also formed a scientific research coorperation institution with Shandong Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine as the core, and formed a relatively close cooperative network relationship. The analysis of literature keywords showed that the research direction was concentrated on the traditional Chinese medicine of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma, pharmacological mechanism, and side effects, active ingredients, etc. Among them, the research on the efficacy and toxicity of the active ingredients of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma has become a hot trend.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome , Sophora
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879045

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of six common drying methods on the quality of different specifications of Sophorae Flos, in order to select their suitable drying methods. According to appearance and morphology, Sophorae Flos was divided into the following three specifications: flower bud type(HL), half-open type(BK) and blooming type(SK). All specifications of samples were treated with shade-drying method(25 ℃, natural temperature), sun-drying method, hot-air-drying method(60, 105 ℃), and drying method(60 ℃) after steaming. The contents of total flavonoids, rutin, narcissus, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and Fe~(3+) reducing ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, ABTS free radical scavenging ability and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) were detected by UV, HPLC and colorimetry, respectively. Principal component analysis(PCA), cluster analysis(CA) and correlation analysis were used to comprehensively evaluate the quality of samples. According to the results, there were significant differences in the effect of drying methods on different specifications of samples. The drying method(60 ℃) after steaming was suitable for HL and BK, while the hot-air-drying method(60 ℃) was suitable for SK. When the fresh medicinal materials could not be treated in time, they should be spread out in a cool and ventilated place. Under high and low temperature conditions, the quality of three specifications of Sophorae Flos would be reduced. The hot-air-drying method(105 ℃) and shade-drying method(25 ℃) were not suitable for the treatment of fresh flowers and flower buds of Sophora japonicus. There were obviously differences of chemical compositions and antioxidant activities among the three specifications of samples. Therefore, the specifications of medicinal materials should be controlled to ensure the uniform quality. The study provided the abundant data reference for the selection of appropriate drying methods for the three specifications of Sophorae Flos, and useful exploration for the classification and processing of medicinal materials of flowers.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Rutin , Sophora
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878789

ABSTRACT

Three phenylpropanoid glycosides were purified by extensive chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over microporous resin, MCI, diol, sephadex LH-20, reverse phase C_(18) from water-extracts of Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma. Their planar structures were elucidated by combination of various spectroscopic method, such as IR, UV, MS, and NMR. The absolute configuration of aglycone was determined by quantum chemical calculations. Their structures were elucidated as(8R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), kalopanaxin D(2),(E)-4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol 4-O-[2'-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl(1″→2')]-β-D-glucopyranoside(3). Compound 1 was undescribed previously. Compounds 2 and 3 were firstly isolated from Sophora genus.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ethanol , Glycosides , Rhizome , Sophora
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828009

ABSTRACT

To further study and fully exploit the medicinal plant Sophora alopecuroides, the molecular markers related with the phenotypic traits of alkaloid content in S. alopecuroides should be detected. In this study, SSR molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 23 S. alopecuroides populations, in combination with the association analysis between molecular markers and the alkaloid contents. The results showed that P, H, I, G_(st) and N_m values were 40.10%, 0.335 3, 0.504 5, 0.433 7 and 0.625 9 respectively, in 23 S. alopecuroides populations. This indicated that there was less gene exchange and higher genetic differentiation among different S. alopecuroides populations. The results of SSR unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means(UPGMA) cluster showed that the S. alopecuroides populations relationship from Xinjiang was far from the populations of other regions, but the populations of S. alopecuroides from Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Qinghai were closely relevant to those from Ningxia. The 23 populations were further divided into 2 genetic subpopulations by the population structure analysis. Through association analysis, a total of 26 loci in 13 SSR markers were found to be significantly associated(P<0.005)with the content of MA, OMA, SC and OSC, and the rate of explanation on the phenotype variance of related markers ranged from 36.45% to 77.93%. Among the locus, 1 each were related with MA and OSC content at interpretation rate reached as high as 50% with high threshold(P<0.000 1). These results could provide support for the discovery of important genes in the alkaloid biosynthetic and metabolic pathway of S. alopecuroides.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , China , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Phenotype , Plants, Medicinal , Sophora , Genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774604

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of essential oil from three kinds of pungent herbs,namely Menthae Haplocalycis Herba,Atractylodis Rhizoma and Cnidii Fructus,on the transdermal absorption in vitro of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix. The modified vertical Franz diffusion cell was used to conduct a transdermal experiment in vitro with the isolated abdominal skin of the SD rats as the transdermal absorption barrier. The effects of such three kinds of pungent essential oil on percutaneous absorption of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix were investigated by determining the content of 6 alkaloids( oxymatrine,oxysophocarpine,N-methylcytisine,sophoridine,matrine,and sophocarpidine) in the transdermal acceptor with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry( UPLC-TQ-MS) technique simultaneously. With enhancement ratio( ER) as the index,their effects on promoting penetration was as follows: 1% Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 1% Cnidii Fructus oil > 3% Azone ≈ 3% Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 5%Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 3% Cnidii Fructus oil ≈ 5% Cnidii Fructus oil > 3% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > 5% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > 1% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > Blank. The results showed that these three kinds of pungent essential oil could be used as enhancers for alkaloids of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix,providing scientific guidance for improving percutaneous absorption of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Metabolism , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Oils, Volatile , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Skin Absorption , Sophora , Chemistry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773184

ABSTRACT

Sugar-poison caused blood-heat is the pathological basis of many complications of diabetes. Advanced glycation end products( AGEs) are considered as the potential glycotoxic factor that can cause blood-heat. Sophorae Flos hold the effect of removing pathogenic heat from blood. In this study,chromatographic non-enzymatic glycation reaction system of bovine serum albumin( BSA)/methylglyoxal( MGO) and Sophorae Flos was established to identify active components in Sophorae Flos inhibiting AGEs formation. The HPLC was used to analyze chromatograms before and after the incubation of Sophorae Flos and methylglyoxal. Changes of chromatographic peaks of eight compounds was found. It is speculated that this change may be due to new substance produced by the reaction of active components in Sophorae Flos and methylglyoxal,and these active components may be flavonoid component rutin. Further investigation for the effects of rutin and MGO reaction( 1 ∶ 1,1 ∶ 3,3 ∶ 1) for 6 days on the formation of AGEs was performed. The results showed that the inhibition activity of rutin on AGEs production was most obvious when the reaction ratio was 1 ∶3,and the most inhibition was in 24 h and stabilized after 3 d. The product of the reaction of rutin with MGO was identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS,which indicated that the newly formed seven substances were the mono-and di-MGO adducts of rutin. This study showed that rutin is the active component on Sophorae Flos for removing pathogenic heat from blood by forming new compounds to inhibit the formation of sugar poison products,which provides reference for rational application of Sophorae Flos.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flowers , Chemistry , Glycation End Products, Advanced , Pyruvaldehyde , Rutin , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(5): 1379-1391, sept./oct. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967330

ABSTRACT

To characterize the structure and function of ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), we identified fulllength open reading frames (ORFs) of three RPS13 genes (RPS13-1, RPS13-2, and RPS13-3) of the Chinese medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens. The target genes were amplified by reverse transcription-olymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), ligated into the pET22b(+) vector, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 competent cells for protein expression. The physicochemical properties, protein motif, evolution, and structural organization of the three RPS13 genes were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. The full-length ORFs (453 bp) of the three RPS13 genes of S. flavescens were cloned, and each encodes a protein of 151 amino acids in length, and their expression was detected by Western blotting. Bioinformatics analysis showed that RPS13s are stable proteins that are closely related to the 40S RPS13s of Vigna radiate var. radiate. Their three-dimensional structures included three -helices at the C-terminal and four -helices at the N-terminal, and the two clusters of helices were connected by a long random coil, which may help maintain the dynamic bridging interactions between the large and small subunits of the ribosome. The full-length ORFs of three RPS13 genes of S. flavescens were successfully cloned and expressed in vitro. The study of the physicochemical properties, evolution, and secondary and three-dimensional structures of the three proteins will provide the theoretical basis for further studies on the function of RPS13s in plants.


Objetivo: Para caracterizar a estrutura e a função da proteína ribossomal S13 (RPS13), identificamos fases de leitura abertas (ORFs) completas de três genes RPS13 (RPS13-1, RPS13-2 e RPS13-3) da planta medicinal chinesa, Sophora flavescens. Métodos: Os genes alvo foram amplificados por reação em cadeia da polimerase por transcrição reversa (RT-PCR), ligados ao vetor pET22b(+), e então transformados em células competentes de Escherichia coli BL21 para expressão protéica. As propriedades físico-químicas, o motivo protéico, a evolução e a organização estrutural dos três genes RPS13 foram analisados utilizando ferramentas de bioinformática. Resultados: ORFs completos (453 pb) dos três genes RPS13 de S. flavescens foram clonados, e cada um codifica uma proteína de 151 aminoácidos de comprimento, e sua expressão foi detectada por western blotting. A análise de bioinformática mostrou que as RPS13s são proteínas estáveis que estão intimamente relacionadas com as 40S RPS13s de Vigna radiata var. radiate. Suas estruturas tridimensionais incluíam três -hélices no C-terminal e quatro -hélices no N-terminal, e os dois aglomerados de hélices eram conectados por uma longa bobina aleatória, o que pode ajudar a manter as interações de ponte dinâmicas entre o subunidades grandes e pequenas do ribossomo. Conclusões: As ORFs completas de três genes RPS13 de S. flavescens foram clonadas e expressas com sucesso in vitro. O estudo das propriedades físico-químicas, evolução e estruturas secundárias e tridimensionais das três proteínas fornecerão a base teórica para estudos adicionais sobre a função das RPS13s em plantas.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Sophora , Reverse Transcription , Escherichia coli , Genes
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773616

ABSTRACT

Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is an endemic leguminous dwarf shrub in Tibet, China. Decoctions of the seeds have been used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the constituent and biological effects of polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds (SMpol) were extracted with 60% ethanol and constituent was analyzed by GC-MS. SMpol was composed of glucose, galactose and inositol in the molar ratio of 35.7 : 1.3 : 17.0. Synchronized worms were treated with SMpol and then lifespan, motility, reproduction, stress resistance and antimicrobial activity were examined. Compared with the control group, the lifespan was increased to the average of 27.3 days and the number of laying eggs showed a 1.3-fold increase in nematodes treated with SMpol (4 mg·mL). In SMpol (4 mg·mL) treated worms, there was a 1.1-fold increase in 24-h survival of acute heat stress and a 1.6-fold increase in 2-h survival of oxidative stress The colonization of the bacteria in the SMpol treated nematode was significantly lower than that of the untreated group by 68.3%. In vivo studies showed SMpol significantly extended the life span, improved reproduction, increased stress resistance and antimicrobial capacity of C. elegans. In conclusion, those results indicated that the polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds were involved in a variety of biological activities leading to its modulatory effects on C. elegans which may be developed as a natural supplement agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , Longevity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Reproduction , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Stress, Physiological
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773573

ABSTRACT

Parasite infections of humans and animals remain a major global health problem, with limited choice of drugs being available to the treatment of parasitosis in the clinic. Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is a shrub that grows in Tibet Plateau of China. Decoction of the seeds has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to treat parasitosis for years. But the anti-parasitic effects of water-soluble fractions in the seeds need further investigation. In the present study, the water-soluble alkaloid fractions (E2) were obtained from S. moorcroftiana seeds by refluxing extraction with 60% ethanol and low polarity fraction (E2-a) and high polarity fraction (E2-b) were subsequently isolated from E2 using column chromatography. As a parasite model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with different fractions and their survivals were recorded. The results showed that that E2-a induced a lower survival rate in C. elegans than E2-b and E2. The protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) were cultured in the presence of E2-a. Compared with E2-b and E2, protoscoleces exhibited decreased survival rate following E2-a treatment. Furtherly, the effects of E2-a on the behavior, brood size, and lifespan of the worms were investigated. Body bend frequencies of the worms treated with the high concentration of E2-a were reduced by two-thirds compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with non-E2-a-treated group, exposure of nematodes to E2-a led to a decrease in head thrashes and pharyngeal pumps frequency (P < 0.01). E2-a treatment resulted in a significantly lower brood size (P < 0.01). Additional E2-a treatment induced a significantly shortened lifespan, compared with the control (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that water-soluble fraction E2-a from S. moorcroftiana seeds was a potential helminthic agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Echinococcosis , Drug Therapy , Parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus , Physiology , Humans , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776912

ABSTRACT

Sophorae Flavescentis Radix (Sophora flavescens Ait., SFR) and Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma (S. tonkinensis Gapnep., STR) are two commonly used traditional Chinese medicines from Sophora (Leguminosae) plants, which are believed to possess similar bioactive components with entirely different clinical applications. In order to find out the characteristic chemical constituents potentially leading to the unique medicinal properties claimed for each of the two closely related TCMs, an HPLC fingerprint method was developed for analyses of the alkaloid and flavonoid constituents of SFR and STR, respectively, which were further evaluated and compared through similarity calculation and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The results from the present study showed that the alkaloid fingerprints of the two herbs were similar, with many components co-existing in both drugs and various batches of samples from different species being mixed together in the HCA dendrogram. However, their flavonoid constituents were totally different with specific fingerprints being yielded for each herb, and further HCA analysis showed that the tested samples could almost be clearly divided into two groups based on their origins of species. The results from the present study indicated that the flavonoid constituents could serve as the differentially diagnostic constituents of SFR and STR and might potentially attributed to their distinct therapeutic effects.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Classification
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776408

ABSTRACT

It was aimed at exploring the potential pharmacological effects of alkaloids in Sophora alopecuroides by means of network pharmacology in this study. The main alkaloids in S. alopecuroides were collected for analysis of drug properties, prediction of potential targets and screening of signaling pathways. DAVID analysis tool combined with KEGG database was used to annotate and analyze the signaling pathway. The alkaloids-targets-signaling pathways network was built through Cytoscape software. Results showed that 17 alkaloids in S. alopecuroides involved 49 targets (170 times in all) and 22 important signaling pathways. Three nodes in model of network pharmacology were cross-linked, and the metabolic pathways were coordinated and regulated by each other. It indicated that alkaloids in S. alopecuroides may have therapeutic effect on diseases of cancer, metabolic disorder, endocrine system, digestive system, nervous system and so on.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Sophora , Chemistry
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812406

ABSTRACT

Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is an endemic leguminous dwarf shrub in Tibet, China. Decoctions of the seeds have been used in Chinese folk medicine for dephlogistication, detoxication, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the constituent and biological effects of polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds (SMpol) were extracted with 60% ethanol and constituent was analyzed by GC-MS. SMpol was composed of glucose, galactose and inositol in the molar ratio of 35.7 : 1.3 : 17.0. Synchronized worms were treated with SMpol and then lifespan, motility, reproduction, stress resistance and antimicrobial activity were examined. Compared with the control group, the lifespan was increased to the average of 27.3 days and the number of laying eggs showed a 1.3-fold increase in nematodes treated with SMpol (4 mg·mL). In SMpol (4 mg·mL) treated worms, there was a 1.1-fold increase in 24-h survival of acute heat stress and a 1.6-fold increase in 2-h survival of oxidative stress The colonization of the bacteria in the SMpol treated nematode was significantly lower than that of the untreated group by 68.3%. In vivo studies showed SMpol significantly extended the life span, improved reproduction, increased stress resistance and antimicrobial capacity of C. elegans. In conclusion, those results indicated that the polysaccharides from S. moorcroftiana seeds were involved in a variety of biological activities leading to its modulatory effects on C. elegans which may be developed as a natural supplement agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , Longevity , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Reproduction , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Stress, Physiological
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812362

ABSTRACT

Parasite infections of humans and animals remain a major global health problem, with limited choice of drugs being available to the treatment of parasitosis in the clinic. Sophora moorcroftiana (S. moorcroftiana) is a shrub that grows in Tibet Plateau of China. Decoction of the seeds has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to treat parasitosis for years. But the anti-parasitic effects of water-soluble fractions in the seeds need further investigation. In the present study, the water-soluble alkaloid fractions (E2) were obtained from S. moorcroftiana seeds by refluxing extraction with 60% ethanol and low polarity fraction (E2-a) and high polarity fraction (E2-b) were subsequently isolated from E2 using column chromatography. As a parasite model, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) were treated with different fractions and their survivals were recorded. The results showed that that E2-a induced a lower survival rate in C. elegans than E2-b and E2. The protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) were cultured in the presence of E2-a. Compared with E2-b and E2, protoscoleces exhibited decreased survival rate following E2-a treatment. Furtherly, the effects of E2-a on the behavior, brood size, and lifespan of the worms were investigated. Body bend frequencies of the worms treated with the high concentration of E2-a were reduced by two-thirds compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with non-E2-a-treated group, exposure of nematodes to E2-a led to a decrease in head thrashes and pharyngeal pumps frequency (P < 0.01). E2-a treatment resulted in a significantly lower brood size (P < 0.01). Additional E2-a treatment induced a significantly shortened lifespan, compared with the control (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that water-soluble fraction E2-a from S. moorcroftiana seeds was a potential helminthic agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anthelmintics , Caenorhabditis elegans , Physiology , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Echinococcosis , Drug Therapy , Parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus , Physiology , Humans , Seeds , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812334

ABSTRACT

Sophorae Flavescentis Radix (Sophora flavescens Ait., SFR) and Sophorae Tonkinensis Radix et Rhizoma (S. tonkinensis Gapnep., STR) are two commonly used traditional Chinese medicines from Sophora (Leguminosae) plants, which are believed to possess similar bioactive components with entirely different clinical applications. In order to find out the characteristic chemical constituents potentially leading to the unique medicinal properties claimed for each of the two closely related TCMs, an HPLC fingerprint method was developed for analyses of the alkaloid and flavonoid constituents of SFR and STR, respectively, which were further evaluated and compared through similarity calculation and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The results from the present study showed that the alkaloid fingerprints of the two herbs were similar, with many components co-existing in both drugs and various batches of samples from different species being mixed together in the HCA dendrogram. However, their flavonoid constituents were totally different with specific fingerprints being yielded for each herb, and further HCA analysis showed that the tested samples could almost be clearly divided into two groups based on their origins of species. The results from the present study indicated that the flavonoid constituents could serve as the differentially diagnostic constituents of SFR and STR and might potentially attributed to their distinct therapeutic effects.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Discriminant Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavonoids , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sophora , Chemistry , Classification
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 680-688, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sophora tomentosa is a pantropical legume species with potential for recovery of areas degraded by salinization, and for stabilization of sand dunes. However, few studies on this species have been carried out, and none regarding its symbiotic relationship with beneficial soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of Sophora tomentosa, and to analyze the occurrence of colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the roots of this legume in seafront soil. Thus, seeds, root nodules, and soil from the rhizosphere of Sophora tomentosa were collected. From the soil samples, trap cultures with this species were established to extract spores and to evaluate arbuscular mycorhizal fungi colonization in legume roots, as well as to capture rhizobia. Rhizobia strains were isolated from nodules collected in the field or from the trap cultures. Representative isolates of the groups obtained in the similarity dendrogram, based on phenotypic characteristics, had their 16S rRNA genes sequenced. The legume species showed nodules with indeterminate growth, and reddish color, distributed throughout the root. Fifty-one strains of these nodules were isolated, of which 21 were classified in the genus Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and especially Sinorhizobium. Strains closely related to Sinorhizobium adhaerens were the predominant bacteria in nodules. The other genera found, with the exception of Rhizobium, are probably endophytic bacteria in the nodules. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was observed colonizing the roots, but arbuscular mycorhizal fungi spores were not found in the trap cultures. Therefore Sophora tomentosa is associated with both arbuscular mycorhizal fungi and nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Sophora/microbiology , Symbiosis , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/physiology , Mycorrhizae/classification , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Mycorrhizae/physiology , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Sophora/physiology
16.
Mycobiology ; : 90-96, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729310

ABSTRACT

Different endophytes isolated from the seeds of Sophora flavescens were tested for their ability to produce matrine production. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the medium components for the endophytic fungus. Results indicated that endophyte Aspergillus terreus had the ability to produce matrine. The single factor tests demonstrated that potato starch was the best carbon source and the combination of peptone and NH₄NO₃ was the optimal nitrogen source for A. terreus. The model of RSM predicted to gain the maximal matrine production at 20.67 µg/L, when the potato starch was 160.68 g/L, peptone was 24.96 g/L and NH₄NO₃ was 2.11 g/L. When cultured in the optimal medium, the matrine yield was an average of 20.63 ± 0.11 µg/L, which was consistent with the model prediction. This study offered an alternative source for the matrine production by endophytic fungus fermentation and may have far-reaching prospect and value.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Carbon , Endophytes , Fermentation , Fungi , Nitrogen , Peptones , Solanum tuberosum , Sophora , Starch
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129204

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the sedative effects of Sophora flavescens (SF) and its bioactive compound, matrine through performing locomotor activity test and the electroencephalography (EEG) analysis in the rat. The underlying neural mechanism of their beneficial effects was determined by assessing c-Fos immunoreactivity and serotonin (5-HT) in the brain utilizing immunohistochemical method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that SF and matrine administration had an effect on normalization of caffeine-induced hyperactivity and promoting a shift toward non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. c-Fos-immunoreactivity and 5-HT level in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), a sleep promoting region, were increased in the both SF and matrine-injected groups. In conclusion, SF and its bioactive compound, matrine alleviated caffeine-induced hyperactivity and promoted NREM sleep by activating VLPO neurons and modulating serotonergic transmission. It is suggested that SF might be a useful natural alternatives for hypnotic medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Electroencephalography , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eye Movements , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Methods , Motor Activity , Neurons , Preoptic Area , Rats , Serotonin , Sophora
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129189

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the sedative effects of Sophora flavescens (SF) and its bioactive compound, matrine through performing locomotor activity test and the electroencephalography (EEG) analysis in the rat. The underlying neural mechanism of their beneficial effects was determined by assessing c-Fos immunoreactivity and serotonin (5-HT) in the brain utilizing immunohistochemical method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that SF and matrine administration had an effect on normalization of caffeine-induced hyperactivity and promoting a shift toward non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. c-Fos-immunoreactivity and 5-HT level in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), a sleep promoting region, were increased in the both SF and matrine-injected groups. In conclusion, SF and its bioactive compound, matrine alleviated caffeine-induced hyperactivity and promoted NREM sleep by activating VLPO neurons and modulating serotonergic transmission. It is suggested that SF might be a useful natural alternatives for hypnotic medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Electroencephalography , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eye Movements , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Methods , Motor Activity , Neurons , Preoptic Area , Rats , Serotonin , Sophora
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 285-294, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753793

ABSTRACT

The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and non-treated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15ºC was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the subfamily Faboideae. Lignin and callose were found around all palisade layers and the water impermeability and ecological role of these substances are discussed in the work.


Requisitos para romper la latencia en semillas de Sophora tomentosa y Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae). La latencia física de las semillas ha sido poco estudiada en las especies de los bosques tropicales, como el bosque atlántico. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar el efecto de las temperaturas moderadas alternantes en romper la latencia física de las semillas, la anatomía y la histoquímica de la cubierta de las semillas, y la localización de la estructura o región responsable de la entrada de agua, después de romper la latencia física de las semillas de Sophora tomentosa y Eythrina speciosa, dos especies leñosas de Fabaceae (subfamilia Faboideae) que presentes en el bosque atlántico de Brasil. Para cumplir con el primer objetivo se incubaron las semillas a varias temperaturas que se dan en el bosque atlántico. Para los estudios morfológicos e histoquímicos se fijaron secciones de semillas sometidos a diferentes reactivos y se observaron usando luz o microscopía de epifluorescencia para analizar la anatomía y la histoquímica de la cubierta de la semilla. Semillas tratadas y no tratadas se analizaron también usando un microscopio electrónico de barrido (MDB) o microscopio estereoscópico (ME) para observar la morfología de la cubierta de la semilla. Para localizar el sitio específico de la entrada de agua, las semillas fueron bloqueadas con pegamento en diferentes regiones y también sumergidas en tinta. En el presente trabajo se aplicó una fluctuación de temperatura máxima de 15°C durante un período de 20 días y estas condiciones no aumentó la germinación de S. tomentosa o E. speciosa. Estos resultados pueden indicar que estas semillas requieren mayor fluctuación de la temperatura que la aplicada y/o un período más largo de exposición a la fluctuación de la temperatura. Experimentos de bloqueo de entrada de agua combinada con el análisis de las estructuras de la cubierta de la semilla para ambas especies (SEM) mostró que, a pesar de la lente, el hilio y micropilo están implicados en la absorción de agua en las semillas escarificadas con agua caliente. En las semillas de E. speciosa la inmersión de semillas escarificadas en una solución acuosa de anilina mostró que la solución entró por primera vez a la semilla a través del hilio. Ambas especies mostraron características morfológicas y anatómicas de semillas con cubierta de la subfamilia Faboideae. La lignina y callosa se encontraron alrededor de todas las capas de empalizada y la impermeabilidad al agua y en el trabajo se discute el papel ecológico de estas sustancias.


Subject(s)
Erythrina/growth & development , Germination/physiology , Plant Dormancy/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Sophora/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
20.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2015; 14 (55): 58-65
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-173951

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidences show that Aloe vera [A. vera], Camellia sinensis, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Sophora alopecuroides may prevent gastric ulcer induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]


Objective: To examine the protective potential of these plants against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in the rat


Methods: Saline, A. vera leaf gel powder and 70% alcoholic extracts of the other 3 plants [100, 400, 800 mg/kg] and omeprazole [30 mg/kg] were gavaged to the groups of 10 animals for 4consecutive days. Gastric ulcers were induced by the onetime gavage of indomethacin [30mg/kg]. On the fifth day, each group was pretreated with physiological saline as control, extract[100, 400 or 800 mg/kg] or omeprazole [30 mg/kg] 30 min before the indomethacin administration. The animals were killed 6 h after the indomethacin administration. The stomachs were removed, opened along the greater curvature and washed in physiological saline. A person unaware of the type of treatment received by the animals examined the stomachs under a 3-fold magnifier. The areas and lengths of hemorrhagic lesions induced by indomethacin were measured using a dial caliper and the sum of measurements for each animal was referred to as the ulcer index


Results: All doses of the A. vera leaf gel powder and extracts reduced the ulcer index significantly compared to the control group [p < 0.05]


Conclusion: These plants have protective effect against NSAID-induced gastric ulcer in the rat. The A. vera leaf gel seems noticeably more effective than the other 3 plants in this respect


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Aloe , Camellia sinensis , Hibiscus , Sophora , Rats, Wistar , Indomethacin , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Protective Agents
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