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1.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 23: e71433, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar níveis de atividade física e comporta-mento sedentário entre estudantes de ensino médio e uni-versitários. Métodos: estudo transversal com 202 estudan-tes do ensino médio e 171 universitários. O Questionário Global de Atividade Física foi aplicado aos participantes. Porcentagens, os testes Qui-quadrado e Mann-Whitney, e regressão linear foram utilizados para a análise dos dados. Resultados: cerca de 63% e 32% dos estudantes de ensino médio e universitários, respectivamente, relataram níveis altos de atividade física, enquanto 84,7% e 71,9% deles, res-pectivamente, atenderam às diretrizes para comportamento sedentário. A pontuação dos estudantes de ensino médio foi significativamente maior que a dos alunos universitários em atividade física vigorosa (p=0,004), moderada (p<0,001), e total (p<0,001). As diferenças encontradas foram maio-res entre mulheres. Conclusão: os alunos do ensino médio apresentaram maiores escores de atividade física e despen-deram menos tempo em comportamentos sedentários. (AU)


Subject(s)
South Africa , Students , Exercise , Young Adult , Sedentary Behavior
2.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220014721, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To investigate how the choices of young people for public or private spaces during their leisure practices, regardless of gender and age group, can be a starting point for the definition of agendas for the constitution of governmental public policies. Methods: The empirical task was accomplished through the application of electronic questionnaires to young university students from Portugal (20%), Brazil (70%), and South Africa (10%). The sample consisted of 705 randomly chosen young people, with an average age of 24 years. The data were analyzed using SPSS and content analysis. The analysis was divided into three categories: comprising the student's profile; referring to leisure and relating to the provision of leisure and space. Results: The youngest people choose the public spaces for their leisure practices and conceive leisure as a moment when they can do whatever they want, without obligations, followed by leisure as fun and free time. There is no difference between men and women in the concept of leisure. The main conclusions highlighted that leisure means to 'do what I want without any obligation to do so', followed by 'fun' and 'free time, and young people like to 'go out with friends, 'play sports' and 'do nothing'. The public space is the most used for leisure. Conclusion: The meaning of leisure is loaded with subjectivities, so we understand that the demands for political actions that enable the use of public spaces safely and with quality are the way to guarantee the rights of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Public Policy , Urban Area , Pleasure , Leisure Activities , Portugal , South Africa , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Overcrowding in emergency department (ED) is a concerning global problem and has been identified as a national crisis in some countries. Several emergency sorting systems designed successfully in the world. Launched in 2004, a group of branches in South African triage scale (SATS) developed. The effectiveness of the case sorting system of SATS was evaluated to reduce the patient's length of stay (LOS) and mortality rate within the ED at Suez Canal University Hospital.@*METHODS@#The study was designed as an intervention study that included a systematic random sample of patients who presented to the ED in Suez Canal University Hospital. This study was implemented in three phases: pre-intervention phase, 115 patients were assessed by the traditional protocols; intervention phase, a structured training program was provided to the ED staff, including a workshop and lectures; and post-intervention phase, 230 patients were assessed by SATS. All the patients were retriaged 2 h later, calculating the LOS per patient and the mortality. Data was collected and entered using Microsoft Excel software. Collected data from the triage sheet were analyzed using the SPSS software program version 22.0.@*RESULTS@#The LOS in the ED was about 183.78 min before the intervention; while after the training program and the application of SATS, it was reduced to 51.39 min. About 15.7% of the patients died before the intervention; however, after the intervention the ratio decreased to 10.7% deaths.@*CONCLUSION@#SATS is better at assessing patients without missing important data. Additionally, it resulted in a decrease in the LOS and reduction in the mortality rate compared to the traditional protocol.


Subject(s)
Egypt , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , South Africa , Triage/methods
4.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-10, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1382255

ABSTRACT

Sextortion, a gendered form of corruption where sexual favours are the means of exchange, frequently occurs during migration.While the consequences of surviving sextortion are devastating, sextortion remains relatively understudied. Hence, this paper explores the experiences of sextortion of African migrants migrating to South Africa. Based on interviews with experts on migration, corruption, and gender in South Africa, this paper answers the research question: "What are the experiences of sextortion for African migrants migrating to South Africa and how are they gendered?". The results confirm irregular, female migrants are most vulnerable to experiencing sextortion both during their journeys and in South Africa. This is alarming as there are various psychical, mental, and sexual health consequences like trauma, STIs, pregnancies, and stigmatisation. These consequences have both short- and long-term consequences and will continue to exist without adjusted policy frameworks, improved support systems for survivors, and a broader discussion on gender norms. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:45-54).


Subject(s)
Humans , Sex Offenses , Human Migration , Sex , South Africa , Corruption
5.
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-9, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380571

ABSTRACT

Depression is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease, impacting social life, family life and occupational functioning if left untreated. Despite its high prevalence and morbidity, the evidence suggests that men are hesitant to seek help, with a large percentage remaining undiagnosed. This study aimed to determine the attitudes and perceptions related to depression and its treatment amongst black men in a rural district of South Africa.Methods: The design used was an exploratory descriptive qualitative design. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were subsequently analysed thematically to develop themes and subthemes.Results: Participants described depression as a psychological problem associated with lack of sleep, loneliness, feeling unwanted, increased stress, deep sadness, weight loss, forgetfulness, crying over small things and lack of concentration. Collectively, the interviews with participants showed a good understanding of the psychosocial determinants of depression but exposed a lack of awareness of its biological determinants. A large proportion (n = 13; 68.4%) of participants reported not having knowledge of available services in their area for people seeking treatment for depression. Barriers to help-seeking behaviours were fear of social stigma, fear of expressing their feelings, gender norms and stereotypes and lack of trust in others.Conclusion: Interventions such as support groups and mental health awareness programmes to counteract personal perceptions may help to improve and expand the effectiveness of depression treatment. The results highlight the future need to raise awareness of depressive symptoms and expand health outreach programmes.Keywords: depression; perceptions; attitudes; mental health; help-seeking; treatment; SouthAfrica.


Subject(s)
Perception , Mental Health , Depression , South Africa , Help-Seeking Behavior
7.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-10, 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397064

ABSTRACT

Caregivers of children with disabilities are vital stakeholders when it comes to safeguarding the health, well-being and overall survival of the children that they care for. Caregivers, however, face many challenging conditions that make it difficult for them to optimally fulfil their caregiving role. Understanding these challenges is crucial for developing empowerment programmes for caregivers, which will ensure that children with disabilities receive comprehensive, optimal care and that caregivers experience a good quality of life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of caregivers providing care to children with disabilities at non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in townships of Tshwane, South Africa. Method: This study followed an exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design within a qualitative methodology. The population in this study included caregivers who care for children with disabilities at NGOs (n = 10). Participants for the study were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by conducting semi structured interviews with caregivers. Data were analysed according to the six phases of thematic analysis proposed by. Results: The study revealed six themes that represent the challenges experienced by caregivers, namely (1) initial impressions, (2) rendering care, (3) stress, (4) lack of outside support, (5) coping and (6) poor community recognition. Conclusion: Support from the Departments of Health and Social Development and other institutions providing community rehabilitation services to townships should be provided to caregivers in order to empower them with skills and knowledge to effectively address the challenges they face so that they can render optimal care to the children they care for. Contribution: Results of this study could assist in ensuring improved recognition, resilience and supportive resources for caregivers in collaboration with community-based rehabilitation stakeholders in the community that would ultimately lead to improved care for children with disabilities in townships within South Africa.


Subject(s)
Organizations , Caregivers , Disabled Children , South Africa , Financial Stress
8.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-11, 2022. Figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397069

ABSTRACT

Disability, and everything it encompasses, presents major challenges to individuals, families and communities worldwide. Children with disabilities (CWD) are marginalised and excluded in most societies. Discrimination and prejudice towards CWD are compounded by poverty, lack of essential services and support and sometimes a hostile and inaccessible environment. Objectives: The study sought to examine the psychosocial challenges experienced by CWD in the Sekhukhune district of Limpopo province, South Africa. Based on the identified, articulated and expressed challenges, the study sought to recommend improvement of the existing Integrated National Disability Strategy (INDS) for greater responsiveness to the needs of CWD at both provincial and local levels. Method: The interpretivist qualitative mode of enquiry was the chosen methodology for this study. Phenomenology and descriptive research designs guided the study. Purposive sampling was employed, and data were collected from 36 participants using three triangulated methods: individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Thematic data analysis was used to analyze data. Results: The findings revealed that CWD in Sekhukhune experienced numerous challenges which affected their social functioning, development and general well-being. Aggravating factors included stigma, labelling and discrimination; disability-specific discrimination and bullying; exclusive education; sexual exploitation; lack of governmental support and poor implementation of disability-specific policies, amongst others. Conclusion: The provisions of the INDS to promote inclusion, integration, mainstreaming and equitable access to resources and services remained an ideal rather than a reality for CWD in Sekhukhune.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities , Disabled Children , Discrimination, Psychological , Intellectual Disability , Prejudice , South Africa
9.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 81-92, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401048

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a known public health problem in South Africa. Maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality are known to be associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Very little is known from literature with regards to the progression of anaemia during the antenatal period of pregnancy. Objectives: To estimate haemoglobin levels, the prevalence and determinants of anaemia at different gestational ages and to show the trend. Method: A retrospective cohort (follow-up) study was conducted using the antenatal clinic register. Prevalence rates of anaemia (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl) at different gestational ages were measured. Factors associated with anaemia were assessed using chisquare test and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 801 pregnant women were enrolled at the booking visit and followed-up during their antenatal period. The prevalence of anaemia at the booking visit was 37%. The prevalence of anaemia at 20, 26, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation were 36.6%, 39.6%, 39.8% and 29.2% respectively. Binary logistic regression at the booking visit showed that teenage women were 2.5 times more likely to have anaemia (OR=2.5, p=0.005) than older women. Women who booked during the first trimester were 60% less likely to have anaemia (OR= 0.40, P=0.005) at the booking visit and 62% less likely to be anaemic at 36 weeks of gestation (OR=0.38, p=0.013) compared to those who booked late for antenatal care. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy was high. Early booking for antenatal care was a predictor for lower rate of anaemia. Thus, health education strategy should be encouraged for early antenatal booking


Subject(s)
Prenatal Care , Hemoglobins , Pregnancy , Anger Management Therapy , Anemia, Aplastic , South Africa , Prevalence
10.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 455-462, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401549

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Patients' non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment remains a public health concern in many developing countries, especially in South Africa. Objectives: The objective of the study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of patients' ART adherence in one health care facility in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive design was employed to collect data using a semi-structured interview guide through individual in-depth interviews among twenty (20) purposively selected patients. The thematic analysis approach was used to generate themes from the data. Results: A majority of the participants were female (n=12, 60%), married (n=13, 65%), and employed (n=12, 60%). Barriers to ART adherence include insufficient medical staff at the health center and waiting time being too long. Facilitators included service providers' positive attitude, clear instructions for taking medication, benefits of adhering to ART, and dangers of defaulting treatment. Conclusion: Barriers and facilitators for adherence included several factors related to the health system, health care workers, and the patients. Achievement of optimal adherence to ART requires the commitment of both patients and providers


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Patient Compliance , Anti-Retroviral Agents , South Africa , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Barriers to Access of Health Services
11.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 674-680, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401985

ABSTRACT

Background: The elements of job satisfaction can be categorized into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The presence of a higher level of intrinsic factors will result in increased motivation amongst employees, whilst extrinsic factors will result in job dissatisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction levels amongst healthcare professionals are known to create an intent to leave. Hence the need to explore these factors amongst radiographers employed by tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Objective: To determine the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction on intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey guided the study, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The sampling technique used for this study was disproportional stratified sampling. Results: The study had a response rate of 62%. A significant number of the participants (50%) were between the ages of 21-33 years. Also, worth noting that 51% of the participants were newly qualified, 28% were employed for a period of 10-20 years and only 20% were employed for a period greater than 20 years. Diagnostic radiography had the most number of participants at 55%, followed by radiation therapist at 24%, nuclear medicine radiographers at 13%, mammography radiographers at 5% and only 3% were sonographers. Pearson's correlation showed a significant negative correlation with the following extrinsic factors: supervision, r= -.344, p=.000; satisfaction with PMDS, r=-.302, p=.000; human resources processes, r=-.249, p=.001; infrastructure, r=-.236, p=.001; the OSD policy, r=-.233, p=.002; satisfaction with remuneration, r=-.202, p=.006; satisfaction with CPD activities, r=-.201, p=.007; and satisfaction with equipment, r=-.163, p=.029. Conclusion: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are associated with an intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province


Subject(s)
Trace Elements , Tertiary Care Centers , Radiologists , Job Satisfaction , South Africa
12.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021230, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349412

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization declared Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic after two months of its propagation in China. The lack of coordination among people about the new Coronavirus threat is evident mainly due to the dearth of knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of people in the East London district of South Africa about Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The study was anchored on a quantitative method approach and adopted a descriptive research design. The sample consisted of 160 adults. Using the virtual snowball sampling technique, people who were 18 years and above of age and can read English were selected for the online survey. The data were collected using a 3-point Likert scale questionnaire which was uploaded in Google Form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The majority of the participants knew the myths and facts about the news. They were aware that wearing a face mask prevents Coronavirus transmission, drinking liquor and using hand dryers would not kill the virus. Some people were not sure whether eating garlic or rinsing the nose regularly with saline water would help to prevent from being affected by Coronavirus. The findings also showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) among different age groups of people on their knowledge about the Coronavirus. CONCLUSION: By comparing the overall findings with the facts issued by World Health Organization, people in the East London district of South Africa had sound knowledge about Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 on its transmission and what preventive measures should be taken.


Subject(s)
Humans , South Africa , Coronavirus , COVID-19
13.
West Indian med. j ; 69(2): 109-113, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341874

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the factors that influence physical activity (PA) participation among secondary school learners in the Hlanganani rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative approach was used to examine factors that influence PA involvement among 151 students (mean age: 18.14 ± 1.81 years) attending three rural public secondary schools in the Hlanganani rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa, who volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected using validated structured questionnaires. Results: Overall, the results indicated that preferring to do other things with their time, exercise is too hard, unsafe environment, and the lack of facilities and time to exercise were cited as major factors that deterred the students from participating in PA. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide practical implications for promoting students' participation in PA in rural schools. It is recommended that schools should be provided with sport facilities that are proximal and safe for students. Additionally, PA programmes should be promoted through campaigns that would motivate more students to participate in view of its potential health benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , South Africa , Exercise , Rural Population , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Primary and Secondary
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00172021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288068

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death worldwide caused by a single infectious disease agent. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) account for more than half of the world's TB cases. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the only vaccine available despite its variable efficacy. Promising antigen-based vaccines have been proposed as prophylactic and/or immunotherapeutic approaches to boost BCG vaccination. Relevant antigens must interact with the range of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules present in target populations; yet this information is currently not available. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published during 2013-2020 to measure the allelic frequencies of HLA-DRB1 in the BRICS. RESULTS: In total, 67 articles involving 3,207,861 healthy individuals were included in the meta-analysis. HLA-DRB1 alleles *03, *04, *07, *11, *13, and *15 were consistently identified at high frequencies across the BRICS, with a combined estimated frequency varying from 52% to 80%. HLA-DRB1 alleles *01, *08, *09, *10, *12, and *14 were found to be relevant in only one or two BRICS populations. CONCLUSIONS: By combining these alleles, it is possible to ensure at least 80% coverage throughout the BRICS populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , South Africa , Brazil , China , Russia , Alleles , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , India
15.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154140

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as medidas de contenção de tipo lockdown e a incidência da COVID-19 em sete países: África do Sul, Alemanha, Brasil, Espanha, Estados Unidos, Itália e Nova Zelândia. Métodos: Estudo ecológico descritivo, com dados da incidência diária dos casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 22 de fevereiro e 31 de agosto de 2020, e informações sobre medidas de lockdown implementadas pelo governo de cada país. Resultados: Os países que implementaram lockdown tiveram diminuição da incidência diária de COVID-19 (casos por milhão de habitantes) no período de três semanas, a contar do início da medida: África do Sul (3,7 a 1,7), Alemanha (37,5 a 33,7), Espanha (176,3 a 82,0), Itália (92,0 a 52,1) e Nova Zelândia (7,5 a 1,7). O Brasil e os Estados Unidos, que não implementaram lockdown, não apresentaram uma diminuição considerável. Conclusão: Após a implementação de lockdown, houve uma diminuição considerável do número de casos confirmados.


Objetivo: Describir las medidas de contención tipo lockdown y la incidencia de COVID-19 en los países de Sudáfrica, Alemania, Brasil, España, Estados Unidos, Italia y Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Estudio ecológico descriptivo con datos de la incidencia diaria de los casos confirmados de COVID-19, del 22 de febrero al 31 de agosto de 2020 e informaciones sobre medidas de contención lockdown implementadas por los gobiernos de cada uno de los países. Resultados: Los países que implementaron lockdown, desde el inicio de su implementación hasta tres semanas después, tuvieron una disminución en la incidencia diaria (casos por millón de habitantes): Sudáfrica (3,7 a 1,7), Alemania (37,5 a 33,7), España (176,3 a 82,0), Italia (92,0 a 52,1) y Nueva Zelanda (7,5 a 1,7). Brasil y Estados Unidos, que no implementaron lockdown, no tuvieron una disminución considerable Conclusión: Luego de la implementación del lockdown, hubo una disminución considerable en el número de casos confirmados.


Objective: To describe lockdown-type containment measures and COVID-19 incidence in South Africa, Germany, Brazil, Spain, United States, Italy and New Zealand. Methods: This is a descriptive ecological study with data on daily incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases from February 22 to August 31 2020, as well as information on lockdown measures implemented by the governments of each country. Results: Daily COVID-19 incidence (cases per 1 million inhabitants) decreased within three weeks after lockdown started in the countries that implemented it: South Africa (3.7 to 1.7), Germany (37.5 to 33.7) Spain (176.3 to 82.0), Italy (92.0 to 52.1) and New Zealand (7.5 to 1.7). As for Brazil and the United States, which did not implement lockdown, there was no considerable decrease. Conclusion: After lockdown implementation, there was a considerable decrease in the number of confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychological Distance , Quarantine/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Health Policy/trends , Italy/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
16.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 20(2): 117-124, 2021. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284622

ABSTRACT

By the end of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, in February 2021, the numbers of cases and deaths in southern Africa were low in absolute and relative numbers. The BBC ran a story (which was later retracted) headlined "Coronavirus in Africa: Could poverty explain mystery of low death rate?". A heading in the New York Post said: "Scientists can't explain puzzling lack of coronavirus outbreaks in Africa". Journalist Karen Attiah concluded: "It's almost as if they are disappointed that Africans aren't dying en masse and countries are not collapsing". We wondered if the knowledge that southern African countries have acquired in their struggle against AIDS has contributed to a more effective approach against COVID-19. The viral origins of the diseases through zoonotic events are similar; neither has a cure, yet. In both diseases, behaviour change is an important prevention tool, and there are specific groups that are more vulnerable to infection. Equally, there are important differences: most people with COVID-19 will recover relatively quickly, while people living with HIV will need lifelong treatment. COVID-19 is extremely infectious, while HIV is less easily transmitted.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , South Africa , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections
17.
S. Afr. j. psychiatry (Online) ; 27(0): 1-8, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284404

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies exploring HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) have suggested their poorer knowledge about HIV. In KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa (SA), the epicentre of the country's HIV epidemic, improving KAP is essential for reduce its incidence amongst individuals with SMI. Comparing the KAP related to HIV between those with SMI and chronic medical illnesses (CMI) such as hypertension and diabetes may expose gaps in KAP related to HIV in the mentally ill who are more vulnerable to HIV. Aim: This study aimed to compare the KAP related to HIV between people living with SMI and CMI. Setting: Outpatient clinics in Durban, SA. Methods: A cross-sectional structured questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 214 adult outpatients with SMI and CMI attending two general public sector hospitals in Durban, KZN. The KAP questionnaire consisted of three sections: general information, prevention and transmission of HIV. Results: Interviews were conducted with 124 patients with SMI and 90 with CMI. Most were female (69.5%), single (57.5%) and unemployed (59.4%). The diagnosis of SMI was associated with poorer general information of HIV (p = 0.02), but not with its prevention and transmission compared with those with CMI. Educational level was associated with poorer performance in all three domains: general information of HIV (p = 0.01), prevention (p = 0.01) and transmission (p = 0.02) amongst all the participants. Conclusion: Gaps in the KAP of HIV amongst individuals with SMI compared with those with CMI suggested a need to provide focused health promotion regarding sexual health and HIV to the mentally ill at psychiatric facilities


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , South Africa , Chronic Disease , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mental Disorders
18.
S. Afr. j. psychiatry (Online) ; 27(0): 1-10, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284400

ABSTRACT

Background: How people perceive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and understand their risk can influence their health, behaviours and overall livelihood. The disease's novelty and severity have elicited a range of attitudes and perspectives countrywide, which consequently influence the public's adherence to public health prevention and treatment guidelines. Aim: To investigate perceptions, experiences and knowledge on COVID-19 in a communitybased cohort study. Setting: Adults living in Soweto in South Africa's Gauteng province during the first six weeks of the national lockdown regulations (i.e. Alert Level 5 lockdown from end of March to beginning of May 2020). Methods: Participants completed a series of surveys and answered open-ended questions through telephonic interviews (n = 391). We queried their perceptions of the origins of COVID-19, understandings of the disease, personal and communal risks and its relations with the existing disease burden. Results: Findings from our sample of 391 adults show that perceptions and knowledge of COVID-19 vary across several demographic characteristics. We report moderate levels of understanding about COVID-19, prevention methods and risk, as well as exposure to major physical, psychosocial and financial stressors. Depressive symptoms, perceived infection risk and concern about COVID-19 significantly predicted COVID-19 prevention knowledge. Conclusion: Public health communication campaigns should focus on continuing to improve knowledge and reduce misinformation associated with the virus. Policymakers should consider the mental health- and non-health-related impact of the pandemic on their citizens in order to curb the pandemic in a manner that maximises well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Perception , COVID-19 , South Africa , Risk Factors , Knowledge
19.
Afr. j. health prof. educ ; 13(3): 159-160, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1343868

ABSTRACT

Due to Covid-19 regulations, occupational therapy students' access to clinical platforms was restricted and they were unable to perform traditional work integrated learning at approved placements. This situation compelled lecturers to design creative and innovative alternative fieldwork training activities for third-year occupational therapy students in the paediatric domain. In person fieldwork was converted (in part) to six case studies, presented by experts in synchronous online sessions. A structured and systematic approach was implemented to ensure student participation during and after presentations. Students worked in small groups to complete i) a professional reasoning tool and ii) an intervention plan and session to conceptualise and put into writing their selected theoretical approach to each case. One group was given the opportunity to present their work on the case on the day following the case presentation. Continuous formative feedback was provided during the presentation and integration of prior knowledge was encouraged through debate. Assessment focused on metacognition - the students' ability to reflect on their learning during each case. Students experienced the case studies as rich learning opportunities. This approach will be adapted for use in the post-pandemic era to enhance occupational therapy students' learning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pediatrics , Occupational Therapy , Facility Regulation and Control , COVID-19 , South Africa , Virtual Reality
20.
S. Afr. med. j. (Online) ; 111(11): 1084-1091, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1344144

ABSTRACT

Background. There are limited in-depth analyses of COVID-19 differential impacts, especially in resource-limited settings such as South Africa (SA).Objectives. To explore context-specific sociodemographic heterogeneities in order to understand the differential impacts of COVID-19. Methods. Descriptive epidemiological COVID-19 hospitalisation and mortality data were drawn from daily hospital surveillance data, National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) update reports (6 March 2020 - 24 January 2021) and the Eastern Cape Daily Epidemiological Report (as of 24 March 2021). We examined hospitalisations and mortality by sociodemographics (age using 10-year age bands, sex and race) using absolute numbers, proportions and ratios. The data are presented using tables received from the NICD, and charts were created to show trends and patterns. Mortality rates (per 100 000 population) were calculated using population estimates as a denominator for standardisation. Associations were determined through relative risks (RRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p-values <0.001. Results. Black African females had a significantly higher rate of hospitalisation (8.7% (95% CI 8.5 - 8.9)) compared with coloureds, Indians and whites (6.7% (95% CI 6.0 - 7.4), 6.3% (95% CI 5.5 - 7.2) and 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 4.5), respectively). Similarly, black African females had the highest hospitalisation rates at a younger age category of 30 - 39 years (16.1%) compared with other race groups. Whites were hospitalised at older ages than other races, with a median age of 63 years. Black Africans were hospitalised at younger ages than other race groups, with a median age of 52 years. Whites were significantly more likely to die at older ages compared with black Africans (RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.06 - 1.08) or coloureds (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.33 - 1.54); a similar pattern was found between Indians and whites (RR 1.59; 95% CI 1.47 - 1.73). Women died at older ages than men, although they were admitted to hospital at younger ages. Among black Africans and coloureds, females (50.9 deaths per 100 000 and 37 per 100 000, respectively) had a higher COVID-19 death rate than males (41.2 per 100 000 and 41.5 per 100 000, respectively). However, among Indians and whites, males had higher rates of deaths than females. The ratio of deaths to hospitalisations by race and gender increased with increasing age. In each age group, this ratio was highest among black Africans and lowest among whites.Conclusions. The study revealed the heterogeneous nature of COVID-19 impacts in SA. Existing socioeconomic inequalities appear to shape COVID-19 impacts, with a disproportionate effect on black Africans and marginalised and low socioeconomic groups. These differential impacts call for considered attention to mitigating the health disparities among black Africans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Status Disparities , COVID-19 , Inpatients , South Africa , Mortality
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