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1.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 23: e71433, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: comparar níveis de atividade física e comporta-mento sedentário entre estudantes de ensino médio e uni-versitários. Métodos: estudo transversal com 202 estudan-tes do ensino médio e 171 universitários. O Questionário Global de Atividade Física foi aplicado aos participantes. Porcentagens, os testes Qui-quadrado e Mann-Whitney, e regressão linear foram utilizados para a análise dos dados. Resultados: cerca de 63% e 32% dos estudantes de ensino médio e universitários, respectivamente, relataram níveis altos de atividade física, enquanto 84,7% e 71,9% deles, res-pectivamente, atenderam às diretrizes para comportamento sedentário. A pontuação dos estudantes de ensino médio foi significativamente maior que a dos alunos universitários em atividade física vigorosa (p=0,004), moderada (p<0,001), e total (p<0,001). As diferenças encontradas foram maio-res entre mulheres. Conclusão: os alunos do ensino médio apresentaram maiores escores de atividade física e despen-deram menos tempo em comportamentos sedentários. (AU)


Subject(s)
South Africa , Students , Exercise , Young Adult , Sedentary Behavior
2.
Motriz (Online) ; 28: e10220014721, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394484

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aim: To investigate how the choices of young people for public or private spaces during their leisure practices, regardless of gender and age group, can be a starting point for the definition of agendas for the constitution of governmental public policies. Methods: The empirical task was accomplished through the application of electronic questionnaires to young university students from Portugal (20%), Brazil (70%), and South Africa (10%). The sample consisted of 705 randomly chosen young people, with an average age of 24 years. The data were analyzed using SPSS and content analysis. The analysis was divided into three categories: comprising the student's profile; referring to leisure and relating to the provision of leisure and space. Results: The youngest people choose the public spaces for their leisure practices and conceive leisure as a moment when they can do whatever they want, without obligations, followed by leisure as fun and free time. There is no difference between men and women in the concept of leisure. The main conclusions highlighted that leisure means to 'do what I want without any obligation to do so', followed by 'fun' and 'free time, and young people like to 'go out with friends, 'play sports' and 'do nothing'. The public space is the most used for leisure. Conclusion: The meaning of leisure is loaded with subjectivities, so we understand that the demands for political actions that enable the use of public spaces safely and with quality are the way to guarantee the rights of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Public Policy , Urban Area , Pleasure , Leisure Activities , Portugal , South Africa , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Afr. j. reprod. health ; 26(6): 1-10, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1382255

ABSTRACT

Sextortion, a gendered form of corruption where sexual favours are the means of exchange, frequently occurs during migration.While the consequences of surviving sextortion are devastating, sextortion remains relatively understudied. Hence, this paper explores the experiences of sextortion of African migrants migrating to South Africa. Based on interviews with experts on migration, corruption, and gender in South Africa, this paper answers the research question: "What are the experiences of sextortion for African migrants migrating to South Africa and how are they gendered?". The results confirm irregular, female migrants are most vulnerable to experiencing sextortion both during their journeys and in South Africa. This is alarming as there are various psychical, mental, and sexual health consequences like trauma, STIs, pregnancies, and stigmatisation. These consequences have both short- and long-term consequences and will continue to exist without adjusted policy frameworks, improved support systems for survivors, and a broader discussion on gender norms. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[6]:45-54).


Subject(s)
Humans , Sex Offenses , Human Migration , Sex , South Africa , Corruption
4.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-10, 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397064

ABSTRACT

Caregivers of children with disabilities are vital stakeholders when it comes to safeguarding the health, well-being and overall survival of the children that they care for. Caregivers, however, face many challenging conditions that make it difficult for them to optimally fulfil their caregiving role. Understanding these challenges is crucial for developing empowerment programmes for caregivers, which will ensure that children with disabilities receive comprehensive, optimal care and that caregivers experience a good quality of life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of caregivers providing care to children with disabilities at non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in townships of Tshwane, South Africa. Method: This study followed an exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design within a qualitative methodology. The population in this study included caregivers who care for children with disabilities at NGOs (n = 10). Participants for the study were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by conducting semi structured interviews with caregivers. Data were analysed according to the six phases of thematic analysis proposed by. Results: The study revealed six themes that represent the challenges experienced by caregivers, namely (1) initial impressions, (2) rendering care, (3) stress, (4) lack of outside support, (5) coping and (6) poor community recognition. Conclusion: Support from the Departments of Health and Social Development and other institutions providing community rehabilitation services to townships should be provided to caregivers in order to empower them with skills and knowledge to effectively address the challenges they face so that they can render optimal care to the children they care for. Contribution: Results of this study could assist in ensuring improved recognition, resilience and supportive resources for caregivers in collaboration with community-based rehabilitation stakeholders in the community that would ultimately lead to improved care for children with disabilities in townships within South Africa.


Subject(s)
Organizations , Caregivers , Disabled Children , South Africa , Financial Stress
5.
African Journal of Disability ; 11: 1-11, 2022. Figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397069

ABSTRACT

Disability, and everything it encompasses, presents major challenges to individuals, families and communities worldwide. Children with disabilities (CWD) are marginalised and excluded in most societies. Discrimination and prejudice towards CWD are compounded by poverty, lack of essential services and support and sometimes a hostile and inaccessible environment. Objectives: The study sought to examine the psychosocial challenges experienced by CWD in the Sekhukhune district of Limpopo province, South Africa. Based on the identified, articulated and expressed challenges, the study sought to recommend improvement of the existing Integrated National Disability Strategy (INDS) for greater responsiveness to the needs of CWD at both provincial and local levels. Method: The interpretivist qualitative mode of enquiry was the chosen methodology for this study. Phenomenology and descriptive research designs guided the study. Purposive sampling was employed, and data were collected from 36 participants using three triangulated methods: individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Thematic data analysis was used to analyze data. Results: The findings revealed that CWD in Sekhukhune experienced numerous challenges which affected their social functioning, development and general well-being. Aggravating factors included stigma, labelling and discrimination; disability-specific discrimination and bullying; exclusive education; sexual exploitation; lack of governmental support and poor implementation of disability-specific policies, amongst others. Conclusion: The provisions of the INDS to promote inclusion, integration, mainstreaming and equitable access to resources and services remained an ideal rather than a reality for CWD in Sekhukhune.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities , Disabled Children , Discrimination, Psychological , Intellectual Disability , Prejudice , South Africa
7.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 81-92, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401048

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is a known public health problem in South Africa. Maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality are known to be associated with anaemia in pregnancy. Very little is known from literature with regards to the progression of anaemia during the antenatal period of pregnancy. Objectives: To estimate haemoglobin levels, the prevalence and determinants of anaemia at different gestational ages and to show the trend. Method: A retrospective cohort (follow-up) study was conducted using the antenatal clinic register. Prevalence rates of anaemia (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl) at different gestational ages were measured. Factors associated with anaemia were assessed using chisquare test and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 801 pregnant women were enrolled at the booking visit and followed-up during their antenatal period. The prevalence of anaemia at the booking visit was 37%. The prevalence of anaemia at 20, 26, 32 and 36 weeks of gestation were 36.6%, 39.6%, 39.8% and 29.2% respectively. Binary logistic regression at the booking visit showed that teenage women were 2.5 times more likely to have anaemia (OR=2.5, p=0.005) than older women. Women who booked during the first trimester were 60% less likely to have anaemia (OR= 0.40, P=0.005) at the booking visit and 62% less likely to be anaemic at 36 weeks of gestation (OR=0.38, p=0.013) compared to those who booked late for antenatal care. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy was high. Early booking for antenatal care was a predictor for lower rate of anaemia. Thus, health education strategy should be encouraged for early antenatal booking


Subject(s)
Prenatal Care , Hemoglobins , Pregnancy , Anger Management Therapy , Anemia, Aplastic , South Africa , Prevalence
8.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 455-462, 2022-10-26. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401549

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Patients' non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment remains a public health concern in many developing countries, especially in South Africa. Objectives: The objective of the study was to explore the barriers and facilitators of patients' ART adherence in one health care facility in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive design was employed to collect data using a semi-structured interview guide through individual in-depth interviews among twenty (20) purposively selected patients. The thematic analysis approach was used to generate themes from the data. Results: A majority of the participants were female (n=12, 60%), married (n=13, 65%), and employed (n=12, 60%). Barriers to ART adherence include insufficient medical staff at the health center and waiting time being too long. Facilitators included service providers' positive attitude, clear instructions for taking medication, benefits of adhering to ART, and dangers of defaulting treatment. Conclusion: Barriers and facilitators for adherence included several factors related to the health system, health care workers, and the patients. Achievement of optimal adherence to ART requires the commitment of both patients and providers


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV , Patient Compliance , Anti-Retroviral Agents , South Africa , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Barriers to Access of Health Services
9.
African Health Sciences ; 22(3): 674-680, 2022-10-26. Figures, Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1401985

ABSTRACT

Background: The elements of job satisfaction can be categorized into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The presence of a higher level of intrinsic factors will result in increased motivation amongst employees, whilst extrinsic factors will result in job dissatisfaction. Decreased job satisfaction levels amongst healthcare professionals are known to create an intent to leave. Hence the need to explore these factors amongst radiographers employed by tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Objective: To determine the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction on intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey guided the study, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The sampling technique used for this study was disproportional stratified sampling. Results: The study had a response rate of 62%. A significant number of the participants (50%) were between the ages of 21-33 years. Also, worth noting that 51% of the participants were newly qualified, 28% were employed for a period of 10-20 years and only 20% were employed for a period greater than 20 years. Diagnostic radiography had the most number of participants at 55%, followed by radiation therapist at 24%, nuclear medicine radiographers at 13%, mammography radiographers at 5% and only 3% were sonographers. Pearson's correlation showed a significant negative correlation with the following extrinsic factors: supervision, r= -.344, p=.000; satisfaction with PMDS, r=-.302, p=.000; human resources processes, r=-.249, p=.001; infrastructure, r=-.236, p=.001; the OSD policy, r=-.233, p=.002; satisfaction with remuneration, r=-.202, p=.006; satisfaction with CPD activities, r=-.201, p=.007; and satisfaction with equipment, r=-.163, p=.029. Conclusion: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are associated with an intent to leave amongst radiographers employed by public tertiary hospitals in the Gauteng province


Subject(s)
Trace Elements , Tertiary Care Centers , Radiologists , Job Satisfaction , South Africa
10.
Afr. j. health prof. educ ; 14(4): 152-154, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1424856

ABSTRACT

Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented global health crisis, with impacts on many facets of the health system, including lack of access to regular training wards and the need for social distancing, which posed particular challenges to undergraduate teaching. Objectives. To explore the perceptions of students of the online surgical programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN). Methods. An online survey was administered to 258 final-year students. Data were collected on student demographics, the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the teaching programme, engagement and learning from live Zoom sessions, overall perceptions about the module and general feedback on students' experience of the programme. Results. Most students (84%, 77/91) supported the need to change to the virtual programme. The module was perceived as well-structured (89%, 81/91). Most students (87%, 79/91) regarded the online resource materials as beneficial. Analysis of open-ended responses showed that asynchronous delivery allowed students to review and revisit resources in their own time. Student challenges included poor internet connectivity, difficulty in concentrating where live sessions exceeded an hour, and lack of clinical exposure. Conclusion. Online teaching in medical education is a feasible option for remote learning. However, it cannot replace the benefits gained during clinical exposure. Findings from this study will help to set a benchmark for online surgical training at UKZN and develop best practices for blended teaching models. As we adapt to a new normal in the era of COVID-19, the disruptions and results of innovative teaching methods have the potential to change the future of medical education


Subject(s)
Perception , Students, Medical , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , South Africa , General Surgery , Pandemics
11.
South African Family Practice ; 64(3): 1-9, 19 May 2022. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380571

ABSTRACT

Depression is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease, impacting social life, family life and occupational functioning if left untreated. Despite its high prevalence and morbidity, the evidence suggests that men are hesitant to seek help, with a large percentage remaining undiagnosed. This study aimed to determine the attitudes and perceptions related to depression and its treatment amongst black men in a rural district of South Africa.Methods: The design used was an exploratory descriptive qualitative design. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were subsequently analysed thematically to develop themes and subthemes.Results: Participants described depression as a psychological problem associated with lack of sleep, loneliness, feeling unwanted, increased stress, deep sadness, weight loss, forgetfulness, crying over small things and lack of concentration. Collectively, the interviews with participants showed a good understanding of the psychosocial determinants of depression but exposed a lack of awareness of its biological determinants. A large proportion (n = 13; 68.4%) of participants reported not having knowledge of available services in their area for people seeking treatment for depression. Barriers to help-seeking behaviours were fear of social stigma, fear of expressing their feelings, gender norms and stereotypes and lack of trust in others.Conclusion: Interventions such as support groups and mental health awareness programmes to counteract personal perceptions may help to improve and expand the effectiveness of depression treatment. The results highlight the future need to raise awareness of depressive symptoms and expand health outreach programmes.Keywords: depression; perceptions; attitudes; mental health; help-seeking; treatment; SouthAfrica.


Subject(s)
Perception , Mental Health , Depression , South Africa , Help-Seeking Behavior
12.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 95-101, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Overcrowding in emergency department (ED) is a concerning global problem and has been identified as a national crisis in some countries. Several emergency sorting systems designed successfully in the world. Launched in 2004, a group of branches in South African triage scale (SATS) developed. The effectiveness of the case sorting system of SATS was evaluated to reduce the patient's length of stay (LOS) and mortality rate within the ED at Suez Canal University Hospital.@*METHODS@#The study was designed as an intervention study that included a systematic random sample of patients who presented to the ED in Suez Canal University Hospital. This study was implemented in three phases: pre-intervention phase, 115 patients were assessed by the traditional protocols; intervention phase, a structured training program was provided to the ED staff, including a workshop and lectures; and post-intervention phase, 230 patients were assessed by SATS. All the patients were retriaged 2 h later, calculating the LOS per patient and the mortality. Data was collected and entered using Microsoft Excel software. Collected data from the triage sheet were analyzed using the SPSS software program version 22.0.@*RESULTS@#The LOS in the ED was about 183.78 min before the intervention; while after the training program and the application of SATS, it was reduced to 51.39 min. About 15.7% of the patients died before the intervention; however, after the intervention the ratio decreased to 10.7% deaths.@*CONCLUSION@#SATS is better at assessing patients without missing important data. Additionally, it resulted in a decrease in the LOS and reduction in the mortality rate compared to the traditional protocol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Egypt , Emergency Service, Hospital , Length of Stay , South Africa , Triage/methods
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 39(1): 134-137, feb. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385301

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The hyoid is a unique, 'U' shaped bone, located on the anterior aspect of the neck, between the mandible and thyroid cartilage. This bone displays morphological and morphometric characteristics that can assist in determination of age, sex and race of an individual.Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the morphology and morphometric parameters of the hyoid bone in a Black South African population of KwaZulu-Natal. The morphological and morphometric parameters of the 40 hyoid bones obtained from the Department of Clinical Anatomy, University of KwaZulu-Natal were classified in accordance with Deepak et al. (2013). In this s. tudy, 35 % of hyoid bones were 'U'- shaped and 65 % were 'V'- shaped in males, whereas in the female specimens, 70 % of hyoid bones were 'U'- shaped and 30 % 'V'- shaped. Furthermore, this study recorded a statistically significant relationship between the shape of the hyoid bone and sex. With regard to the morphometry, the width of the hyoid bone was greater in males than females however; the length of the hyoid bone was greater in females than males. In addition, this study concludes that these results may contribute to the existing knowledge on the morphology and morphometry of the hyoid bone and may assist forensic procedures.


RESUMEN: El hioides es un hueso singular en forma de "U", ubicado en la region del cuello anterior, entre la mandíbula y el cartílago tiroides, que presenta características morfológicas y morfométricas que pueden ayudar a determinar la edad, el sexo y la raza de un individuo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la morfología y los parámetros morfométricos del hueso hioides en una población sudafricana negra de KwaZulu-Natal. Los parámetros morfológicos y morfométricos de los 40 huesos hioides obtenidos del Departamento de Anatomía Clínica de la Universidad de KwaZulu-Natal se clasificaron de acuerdo con Deepak et al. En este análisis, en los hombres el 35 % (7/20) de los huesos hioides tenían forma de 'U' y el 65 % (13/20) tenían forma de 'V', mientras que en las mujeres, el 70 % (14/20) de los los huesos hioides tenían forma de 'U' y un 30 % (6/20) de 'V'. Además, se registró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la forma del hueso hioides y el sexo. En cuanto a la morfometría, el ancho del hueso hioides fue mayor en los hombres que en las mujeres; la longitud del hueso hioides fue mayor en mujeres que en hombres. Además, el estudio concluye que estos resultados pueden contribuir al conocimiento existente sobre la morfología y morfometría del hueso hioides y pueden ayudar a los procedimientos forenses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Black People , Hyoid Bone/anatomy & histology , South Africa
14.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021230, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349412

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization declared Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic after two months of its propagation in China. The lack of coordination among people about the new Coronavirus threat is evident mainly due to the dearth of knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of people in the East London district of South Africa about Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The study was anchored on a quantitative method approach and adopted a descriptive research design. The sample consisted of 160 adults. Using the virtual snowball sampling technique, people who were 18 years and above of age and can read English were selected for the online survey. The data were collected using a 3-point Likert scale questionnaire which was uploaded in Google Form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The majority of the participants knew the myths and facts about the news. They were aware that wearing a face mask prevents Coronavirus transmission, drinking liquor and using hand dryers would not kill the virus. Some people were not sure whether eating garlic or rinsing the nose regularly with saline water would help to prevent from being affected by Coronavirus. The findings also showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) among different age groups of people on their knowledge about the Coronavirus. CONCLUSION: By comparing the overall findings with the facts issued by World Health Organization, people in the East London district of South Africa had sound knowledge about Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 on its transmission and what preventive measures should be taken.


Subject(s)
Humans , South Africa , Coronavirus , COVID-19
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00172021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288068

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death worldwide caused by a single infectious disease agent. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) account for more than half of the world's TB cases. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the only vaccine available despite its variable efficacy. Promising antigen-based vaccines have been proposed as prophylactic and/or immunotherapeutic approaches to boost BCG vaccination. Relevant antigens must interact with the range of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules present in target populations; yet this information is currently not available. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published during 2013-2020 to measure the allelic frequencies of HLA-DRB1 in the BRICS. RESULTS: In total, 67 articles involving 3,207,861 healthy individuals were included in the meta-analysis. HLA-DRB1 alleles *03, *04, *07, *11, *13, and *15 were consistently identified at high frequencies across the BRICS, with a combined estimated frequency varying from 52% to 80%. HLA-DRB1 alleles *01, *08, *09, *10, *12, and *14 were found to be relevant in only one or two BRICS populations. CONCLUSIONS: By combining these alleles, it is possible to ensure at least 80% coverage throughout the BRICS populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis , South Africa , Brazil , China , Russia , Alleles , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , India
16.
West Indian med. j ; 69(2): 109-113, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341874

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the factors that influence physical activity (PA) participation among secondary school learners in the Hlanganani rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative approach was used to examine factors that influence PA involvement among 151 students (mean age: 18.14 ± 1.81 years) attending three rural public secondary schools in the Hlanganani rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa, who volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected using validated structured questionnaires. Results: Overall, the results indicated that preferring to do other things with their time, exercise is too hard, unsafe environment, and the lack of facilities and time to exercise were cited as major factors that deterred the students from participating in PA. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide practical implications for promoting students' participation in PA in rural schools. It is recommended that schools should be provided with sport facilities that are proximal and safe for students. Additionally, PA programmes should be promoted through campaigns that would motivate more students to participate in view of its potential health benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , South Africa , Exercise , Rural Population , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Primary and Secondary
17.
S. Afr. j. psychiatry (Online) ; 27(0): 1-10, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284400

ABSTRACT

Background: How people perceive the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and understand their risk can influence their health, behaviours and overall livelihood. The disease's novelty and severity have elicited a range of attitudes and perspectives countrywide, which consequently influence the public's adherence to public health prevention and treatment guidelines. Aim: To investigate perceptions, experiences and knowledge on COVID-19 in a communitybased cohort study. Setting: Adults living in Soweto in South Africa's Gauteng province during the first six weeks of the national lockdown regulations (i.e. Alert Level 5 lockdown from end of March to beginning of May 2020). Methods: Participants completed a series of surveys and answered open-ended questions through telephonic interviews (n = 391). We queried their perceptions of the origins of COVID-19, understandings of the disease, personal and communal risks and its relations with the existing disease burden. Results: Findings from our sample of 391 adults show that perceptions and knowledge of COVID-19 vary across several demographic characteristics. We report moderate levels of understanding about COVID-19, prevention methods and risk, as well as exposure to major physical, psychosocial and financial stressors. Depressive symptoms, perceived infection risk and concern about COVID-19 significantly predicted COVID-19 prevention knowledge. Conclusion: Public health communication campaigns should focus on continuing to improve knowledge and reduce misinformation associated with the virus. Policymakers should consider the mental health- and non-health-related impact of the pandemic on their citizens in order to curb the pandemic in a manner that maximises well-being.


Subject(s)
Humans , Social Perception , COVID-19 , South Africa , Risk Factors , Knowledge
18.
S. Afr. j. psychiatry (Online) ; 27(0): 1-8, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284404

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies exploring HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) have suggested their poorer knowledge about HIV. In KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa (SA), the epicentre of the country's HIV epidemic, improving KAP is essential for reduce its incidence amongst individuals with SMI. Comparing the KAP related to HIV between those with SMI and chronic medical illnesses (CMI) such as hypertension and diabetes may expose gaps in KAP related to HIV in the mentally ill who are more vulnerable to HIV. Aim: This study aimed to compare the KAP related to HIV between people living with SMI and CMI. Setting: Outpatient clinics in Durban, SA. Methods: A cross-sectional structured questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 214 adult outpatients with SMI and CMI attending two general public sector hospitals in Durban, KZN. The KAP questionnaire consisted of three sections: general information, prevention and transmission of HIV. Results: Interviews were conducted with 124 patients with SMI and 90 with CMI. Most were female (69.5%), single (57.5%) and unemployed (59.4%). The diagnosis of SMI was associated with poorer general information of HIV (p = 0.02), but not with its prevention and transmission compared with those with CMI. Educational level was associated with poorer performance in all three domains: general information of HIV (p = 0.01), prevention (p = 0.01) and transmission (p = 0.02) amongst all the participants. Conclusion: Gaps in the KAP of HIV amongst individuals with SMI compared with those with CMI suggested a need to provide focused health promotion regarding sexual health and HIV to the mentally ill at psychiatric facilities


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , South Africa , Chronic Disease , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Mental Disorders
19.
Afr. j. AIDS res. (Online) ; 20(2): 117-124, 2021. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1284622

ABSTRACT

By the end of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, in February 2021, the numbers of cases and deaths in southern Africa were low in absolute and relative numbers. The BBC ran a story (which was later retracted) headlined "Coronavirus in Africa: Could poverty explain mystery of low death rate?". A heading in the New York Post said: "Scientists can't explain puzzling lack of coronavirus outbreaks in Africa". Journalist Karen Attiah concluded: "It's almost as if they are disappointed that Africans aren't dying en masse and countries are not collapsing". We wondered if the knowledge that southern African countries have acquired in their struggle against AIDS has contributed to a more effective approach against COVID-19. The viral origins of the diseases through zoonotic events are similar; neither has a cure, yet. In both diseases, behaviour change is an important prevention tool, and there are specific groups that are more vulnerable to infection. Equally, there are important differences: most people with COVID-19 will recover relatively quickly, while people living with HIV will need lifelong treatment. COVID-19 is extremely infectious, while HIV is less easily transmitted.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , South Africa , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections
20.
Afr. j. health prof. educ ; 13(3): 159-160, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1343868

ABSTRACT

Due to Covid-19 regulations, occupational therapy students' access to clinical platforms was restricted and they were unable to perform traditional work integrated learning at approved placements. This situation compelled lecturers to design creative and innovative alternative fieldwork training activities for third-year occupational therapy students in the paediatric domain. In person fieldwork was converted (in part) to six case studies, presented by experts in synchronous online sessions. A structured and systematic approach was implemented to ensure student participation during and after presentations. Students worked in small groups to complete i) a professional reasoning tool and ii) an intervention plan and session to conceptualise and put into writing their selected theoretical approach to each case. One group was given the opportunity to present their work on the case on the day following the case presentation. Continuous formative feedback was provided during the presentation and integration of prior knowledge was encouraged through debate. Assessment focused on metacognition - the students' ability to reflect on their learning during each case. Students experienced the case studies as rich learning opportunities. This approach will be adapted for use in the post-pandemic era to enhance occupational therapy students' learning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pediatrics , Occupational Therapy , Facility Regulation and Control , COVID-19 , South Africa , Virtual Reality
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