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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 72(1): 1-10, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1368331

ABSTRACT

Sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food consumption have been associated with non-communicable diseases. Objective. Was to analyze consumption of non-alcoholic beverage and fast-food consumption among first- and fourth-year nursing students. Materials and methods. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among first-and fourth-year nursing students in Madrid, Spain. Anthropometric data (weight and height) and demographic data were collected, as were data on consumption of specific foods and beverages. Results. The survey was completed by 436 students. Mean (SD) age was 22.0 (6.8) years, 84.1 % of were women.26.2 % of the students were underweight; 6.3 % were overweight. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet drinks was moderate. Slightly more than three-quarters of the students (75.5 %) purchased fast food in the previous month. Burger bars were the most frequently visited fast-food outlet (77.2 %). A direct relationship was observed between BMI and fast-food consumption (rho = 0.099; p = 0.042) and between BMI and consumption of diet cola or carbonated drinks (rho = 0.120; p = 0.013). Conclusion. We provide new epidemiological data from a specific university population that could be useful to promote more studies that help design appropriate strategies to increase a healthy lifestyle(AU)


Las bebidas azucaradas y el consumo de comida rápida se han asociado con enfermedades no transmisibles. Objetivo. Analizar el consumo de bebidas no alcohólicas y el consumo de comida rápida entre estudiantes universitarios de primer y cuarto curso de enfermería. Materiales y métodos. Cuestionario validado entre estudiantes de enfermería de primer y cuarto año en Madrid, España. Se recopilaron datos antropométricos (peso y altura) y demográficos, así como datos sobre consumo de alimentos y bebidas específicos. Resultados. La encuesta fue completada por 436 estudiantes. La edad media (DE) fue de 22,0 (6,8) años, el 84,1 % eran mujeres; el 26,2 % de los estudiantes tenían bajo peso y el 6,3% mostraban sobrepeso. El consumo de bebidas azucaradas y bebidas dietéticas fue moderado. Más de tres cuartas partes de estudiantes (75,5%) compraron comida rápida en el mes anterior. Las hamburgueserías fueron el restaurante de comida rápida más visitado (77,2%). Se observó una relación directa entre el IMC y el consumo de comida rápida (rho = 0,099; p = 0,042) y entre el IMC y el consumo de refrescos dietéticos o bebidas gaseosas (rho = 0,120; p = 0,013). Conclusión. Aportamos nuevos datos epidemiológicos de una población universitaria concreta, que podrían ser de utilidad para promover más estudios que ayuden a diseñar estrategias adecuadas para incrementar un estilo de vida saludable(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Students, Nursing , Fast Foods , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Spain , Universities , Weight by Height , Body Mass Index , Anthropometry , Surveys and Questionnaires , Overweight
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210070, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1346054

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo analisar os estilos e fatores intervenientes na gestão e liderança de enfermeiros em três países, Brasil, Portugal e Espanha, à luz da Burocracia Profissional. Método estudo exploratório e descritivo de abordagem qualitativa realizado em três hospitais universitários localizados em diferentes países: Brasil, Espanha e Portugal. Participaram da pesquisa 30 enfermeiros. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um roteiro de coleta de dados com questões sociodemográficas e entrevistas analisadas com auxílio do software WebQda. Resultados diferentes percepções sobre os elementos integradores da participação foram reveladas nos três países, destacando-se a comunicação em diversas óticas. Verificou-se algumas convergências em relação ao trabalho em equipe, sendo a confiança o elemento que impulsiona e motiva a equipe. Sinaliza-se para uma relação participativa no desenvolvimento do trabalho. Conclusão e implicações para a prática foi possível identificar, nos três países, a importância da comunicação no processo de gestão, bem como dos estilos de gestão e de liderança, como elementos que oportunizam a atuação da equipe. Também foi evidenciada a presença de fatores intervenientes de relevância, tais como escuta, clima organizacional, relação interpessoal, transparência no trabalho e delegação de funções, os quais envolvem a burocracia profissional em que o conhecimento do enfermeiro possibilita o exercício de suas habilidades de forma horizontalizada e participativa.


Resumen Objetivo analizar los estilos y factores implicados en la gestión y el liderazgo de enfermeros en tres países, Brasil, Portugal y España, a la luz de la Burocracia Profesional. Método estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo realizado en tres hospitales universitarios ubicados en diferentes países: Brasil, España y Portugal. Treinta enfermeros participaron en la investigación. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un script de recopilación de datos con preguntas sociodemográficas y entrevistas analizadas con la utilización del software WebQda. Resultados se revelaron diferentes percepciones sobre los elementos integradores de la participación en los tres países, destacando la comunicación desde diferentes perspectivas. Se constataron algunas convergencias en relación al trabajo en equipo, siendo la confianza el elemento que impulsa y motiva al equipo. Se advierte una relación participativa en el desarrollo del trabajo. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica se pudo advertir, en los tres países, la importancia de la comunicación en el proceso de gestión, así como los estilos de gestión y liderazgo, como elementos que permiten mejorar el desempeño del equipo. También se evidenciaron factores intervinientes relevantes, como la escucha, el clima organizacional, la relación interpersonal, la transparencia en el trabajo y la delegación de funciones, que conforman la burocracia profesional en la cual el conocimiento de los enfermos les permite el despliegue de sus competencias de manera horizontal y participativa.


Abstract Objective to analyze the styles and factors involved in nurses' management and leadership in three countries, Brazil, Portugal and Spain, in the light of Professional Bureaucracy. Method a descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach carried out in three university hospitals located in different countries, namely: Brazil, Spain and Portugal. Thirty nurses participated in the research. Data was collected through a collection script with sociodemographic questions and interviews analyzed using the WebQda software. Results different perceptions about the integrating elements of participation in the three countries were revealed, highlighting communication from different perspectives. Some convergences in relation to teamwork were verified, where trust was the element that drives and motivates the team. It is a participatory relationship in the development of work. Conclusion and implications for the practice in the three countries, it was possible to identify the importance of communication in the management process, as well as the management and leadership styles, as elements that favor performance of the team. Presence of relevant intervening factors was also evidenced, such as choice, organizational climate, interpersonal relationships, transparency in work and delegation of functions, which involves professional bureaucracy in which the nurses' knowledge allows them to exercise their skills in a horizontal and participatory manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Management , Leadership and Governance Capacity , Leadership , Nurses , Patient Care Team , Portugal/ethnology , Professional Practice , Quality of Health Care , Spain/ethnology , Brazil/ethnology , Professional Autonomy , Communication , Qualitative Research , Education, Continuing , Integrality in Health , Interprofessional Relations
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Complementary and alternative medicine use and type of use may be influenced by sociodemographic and economic determinants through which we could identify characteristics of patients with greater trend to use it. This paper aims to describe the changes in the consumption of homeopathic and natural remedies in Spain for three time points in order to discern changes in rate of consumption, associated factors and whether their use has been affected by a period of economic recession.@*METHODS@#This study utilized 2006, 2011 and 2017 cross-sectional data from the Spanish National Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of the population aged more than 15 years old and resident in Spain. Independent bivariate and multivariate descriptive analyses for each of the 3 years studied were performed.@*RESULTS@#The rate of consumption of both homeopathic and natural remedies has decreased over the periods studied. In spite of this decrease, the consumer profile appears to remain stable over the three periods. The sociodemographic factors associated with their consumption were being female, being 30-64 years old, being separated/divorced, having higher education qualifications, being employed and belonging to a higher social class. Psychiatric morbidity, chronic health problems such as pain, mental health problems or malignant tumors, and absence of major cardiovascular events were the clinical factors associated.@*CONCLUSION@#It can be concluded that beyond the economic situation, the use of homeopathic and natural remedies obeys to the needs of the patients related to their state of health and the response they receive from the health system. It may be that women have different needs and expectations of the healthcare system and, given this breach of expectations, seek remedy to alleviate their needs outside the system and conventional medicine.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Homeopathy , Humans , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 386-393, dic. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342806

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El mobiliario escolar influye en la postura sedente que adopta el alumnado en el aula, con efectos en su salud y aprendizaje. Por ello, es preciso determinar la existencia de un posible desajuste entre las dimensiones del mobiliario escolar y la antropometría del alumnado, así como realizar una propuesta de tallas en base a la realidad del aula y las normativas de Galicia y la Unión Europea. Población y métodos. Un evaluador experto en antropometría realizó las mediciones de peso, talla, altura poplítea, hombro y codo sentado, con un antropómetro, comparándolas posteriormente con las sillas y mesas utilizadas actualmente. Las técnicas de análisis empleadas fueron: descriptivo (medidas de tendencia central), análisis de la varianza de un factor, prueba t, prueba de chi cuadrado (en software SPSS®) y tamaño del efecto (d de Cohen). El nivel de significación establecido fue de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados. La muestra se compuso de 108 estudiantes españoles de educación primaria (de entre 6 y 12 años). El 91,7 % y el 97,2 % del alumnado emplea, respectivamente, una silla y una mesa que no se ajusta a sus características antropométricas, y utiliza mobiliario con un tamaño superior al que le corresponde. La normativa de tallas de mobiliario que rige actualmente en la población estudiada no es apropiada, al no tener sillas y mesas adecuadas a los primeros cursos de primaria. Conclusiones. Existe un alto grado de desajuste entre el mobiliario y la antropometría del alumnado. Se propone seguir las tallas de la normativa europea, utilizando varias tallas por curso o mobiliario regulable, para adaptarse a las características antropométricas de todo el alumnado.


Introduction. School furniture affects the sitting position of students in the classroom, as well as their health and learning. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the existence of a potential mismatch between school furniture dimensions and students' anthropometric characteristics, as well as to propose dimensions based on classroom actuality and the regulations in place in both Galicia and the European Union. Population and methods. An evaluator with experience in anthropometry measured weight, height, popliteal height, sitting shoulder height, and sitting elbow height using an anthropometer and then compared values with the chairs and desks currently used. Analysis techniques were descriptive (measures of central tendency), single-factor analysis of variance, t test, χ² test (using the SPSS® software), and effect size (Cohen's d test). The significance level was established at p ≤ 0.05.Results. The sample was made up of 108 Spanish children in primary school (aged 6-12 years). Of them, 91.7 % and 97.2 % use, respectively, a chair and a desk that do not adjust to their anthropometric characteristics and use furniture that is larger than what they need. The regulations for furniture dimensions currently in place for the studied population are not adequate because the chairs and desks included are not adequate for the first grades of primary school. Conclusions. There is a high mismatch level between school furniture and students' anthropometric characteristics. We propose the use of the European regulations for furniture dimensions, with varying heights per grade or adjustable furniture that can be adapted to the anthropometric characteristics of all students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Schools , Interior Design and Furnishings , Spain , Students , Pilot Projects , Anthropometry
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 364-: I-369, II, dic. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342777

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El dolor raquídeo es uno de los motivos principales de asistencia sanitaria; suele aparecer durante la etapa escolar, aumenta progresivamente con la edad y se relaciona con ciertos factores de riesgo. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la prevalencia de dolor raquídeo en escolares y examinar los factores asociados a su padecimiento. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal mediante un cuestionario realizado en escolares de 9 a 11 años. Se analizó la prevalencia del dolor, la actividad física, los autocuidados del raquis, el uso de la mochila y la utilización de dispositivos electrónicos. Resultados. Se analizaron 329 sujetos. La prevalencia de dolor raquídeo es del 34,3 %, sin diferencias entre sexos. Se considera de baja intensidad, con una media de dolor de 1,99 ± 2,54 sobre 10 según la escala Wong-Baker FACES®, y en más de la mitad de los casos, de corta duración, menos de 12 horas. El 22,2 % de los escolares refieren dolor cervical, mientras que el 14 % y 11,9 % refieren dolor dorsal y lumbar, respectivamente. Además, el 47,9 % refieren dolor en más de una región raquídea. El 73,3 % realiza actividad física fuera del horario escolar, y el 90,6 % de los estudiantes utiliza dispositivos electrónicos. Se observó relación entre la presencia de dolor y hábitos de higiene postural adecuados. Conclusiones. Los escolares refieren dolor raquídeo de baja intensidad y corta duración, con mayor frecuencia en la región cervical. La asociación con factores de riesgo revela que los que refieren dolor presentan mejores hábitos posturales.


Introduction. Spinal pain is one of the main reasons for seeking care; it usually appears during school age, increases with age, and is related to certain risk factors. The objective of this study is to analyze the prevalence of spinal pain among schoolchildren and examine associated factors. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire administered to schoolchildren aged 9-11 years. The prevalence of pain, physical activity, spine self-care, backpack use, and electronic device use were analyzed. Results. A total of 329 subjects were analyzed. The prevalence of spinal pain is 34.3 %, with no differences observed between sexes. Pain severity is considered mild, with a mean severity of 1.99 ± 2.54 over 10 according to the Wong-Baker FACES® scale; in more than 50 % of cases, pain had a short duration (less than 12 hours). Cervical pain was referred by 22.2 % of schoolchildren, whereas dorsal and lumbar pain were reported by 14 % and 11.9 %, respectively. In addition, 47.9 % referred pain in more than one region of the spine. Also, 73.3 % of schoolchildren did physical activity outside school hours and 90.6 % used electronic devices. An association was observed between the presence of pain and adequate postural hygiene habits. Conclusions. Schoolchildren referred spinal pain that was mild and short in duration, often in the cervical region. The association with risk factors indicates that children who referred pain have better postural habits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Spine , Low Back Pain , Schools , Spain/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(10): 4425-4437, out. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345707

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo foi analisar, em perspectiva comparada, estratégias e ações políticas adotadas em resposta à pandemia de COVID-19 na Alemanha e na Espanha em 2020. Baseando-se no institucionalismo histórico, o foco foi a institucionalidade da atuação governamental em cinco dimensões de atuação. Os resultados evidenciaram diferentes capacidades estatais na coordenação, implementação e efetividade de estratégias. Pontos fortes da gestão e governança da crise estão relacionados ao reconhecimento da sua gravidade e capacidade de negociação; capacidade de produção nacional de insumos e equipamentos; e amplo direcionamento de recursos fiscais e financeiros do governo central para as áreas sanitária, social e econômica. Esses aspectos variaram entre os casos, atuando como diferencial relevante na resposta governamental. Outros diferenciais foram: estrutura do sistema de saúde; disponibilidade de trabalhadores; e sistema nacional de ciência e tecnologia, destacando a importância de investimentos de médio e longo prazo.


Abstract This study aimed to analyze comparatively strategies and political actions adopted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany and Spain in 2020. Based on historical institutionalism, we focused on the institutionality of government action in five work dimensions. The results showed different state capacities in coordination, implementation, and effectiveness of strategies. Crisis management and governance strengths are related to recognizing its severity and negotiation skills; national production capacity of supplies and equipment; and broad targeting of fiscal and financial resources from central government to health, social, and economic areas. These aspects varied between cases, acting as a relevant differential in governmental response. Other differentials were health system's structure; availability of workers; and national science and technology system, highlighting the importance of medium and long-term investments.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Spain , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Germany
8.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 709-725, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339970

ABSTRACT

Resumen Entre 1935 y 1950 aconteció la introducción y desarrollo de la neurología en México. Esto se dio por medio de dos vías: el arribo de los neurocientíficos españoles a México tras su exilio provocado por la Guerra Civil; y la presencia de médicos mexicanos que salieron a especializarse en neurocirugía a EEUU. Se discuten algunas posiciones historiográficas que hablan de la importancia de los españoles exiliados en este acontecer, pero que no han expuesto el relevante papel de los nativos en el surgimiento de la neurología mexicana. Se afirma la existencia de un proceso de integración de ambas partes, donde los nativos buscaron satisfacer necesidades asistenciales mientras que los exiliados tuvieron que encontrar y crear espacios dónde insertarse.


Abstract Between 1935 and 1950 the neurology was presented and developed in Mexico. It happened by two ways: the arrival of Spanish neuroscience researchers in Mexico exiled due the Civil War; and the presence of Mexican doctors that had specialized in neurosurgery in the United States. The article discusses historiographic points of view that stress the importance of the Spanish exiled doctors, but neglect the important role of native doctors in the emergence of Mexican neurology. It states that there was an integration process by both parts, where Mexicans tried to satisfy care needs while the Spanish had to find or create working spaces to belong to.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Physicians/history , Neurology/history , Neurosurgery/history , Spain , Emigrants and Immigrants/history , Neurologists/history , Mexico
9.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(2): 413-435, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279132

ABSTRACT

Resumen Indagamos el derrotero de un personaje que, durante su estadía en Argentina, incidió en la vida porteña mediante los vínculos que trazó con la ciencia galénica, la esfera política y los medios de comunicación. Nos referimos a Fernando Asuero, especialista en nariz, garganta y oídos, oriundo de San Sebastián (España), figura cuyo itinerario por Buenos Aires en 1930 nos permite avizorar enfrentamientos propios del arte de curar, campo minado de competidores y cuantiosas tradiciones concomitantes y contrapuestas. A partir de una aproximación biográfica centrada en un estudio de caso mostraremos que, en ciertas oportunidades, los litigios imbricados al monopolio cognitivo terminaron por debatirse en el interior de un juzgado.


Abstract This article examines the activities of a well-known figure who, during his stay in Argentina, influenced life in Buenos Aires by cultivating his connections to medical science, the political sphere and the news media. The person in question was Fernando Asuero, an ear, nose and throat specialist from San Sebastián (Spain), whose activities in Buenos Aires in 1930 allow us to examine the conflicts within the healing arts, a field rife with competitors and numerous concurrent and opposing traditions. Using a biographical approach centered on a case study, this article shows that, at certain points, the disputes over cognitive monopoly ended up being debated within a courtroom.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , Physicians/history , Malpractice/history , Argentina , Physician-Patient Relations , Physicians/legislation & jurisprudence , Quackery/history , Quackery/legislation & jurisprudence , Spain , History of Medicine , Malpractice/legislation & jurisprudence
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 177-184, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222947

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los cambios sociales y culturales están alterando los hábitos de los jóvenes. Existen encuestas para medir dichas conductas, pero son de difícil interpretación. El objetivo del estudio fue diseñar y validar un cuestionario homogéneo para estudiar los hábitos en adolescentes de 12-14 años.Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo y transversal para validación de un cuestionario. Los ítems fueron seleccionados tras revisión de la literatura y evaluación por expertos. El pretest fue administrado a una muestra piloto. Se determinó la fiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach, y la validez del constructo, mediante un análisis factorial. Se aplicó a una muestra de padres de alumnos de cuatro centros de secundaria.Resultados. El coeficiente de Cronbach mostró valores próximos a 0,7 en tres de las cuatro subescalas y un valor global de 0,629, que demostró precisión y estabilidad. El análisis factorial determinó una validez de constructo adecuada, que mostró 4 factores: alimentación, actividad física, nuevas tecnologías y entorno. El cuestionario final tuvo 26 ítems y se aplicó a 421 participantes. Un 24,8 % presentaron hábitos deficientes, y un 3,4 %, muy poco saludables. Las adolescentes mostraron peores puntuaciones en actividad física (p < 0,001), y los adolescentes, en nuevas tecnologías, aunque no significativo.Conclusiones. Se obtuvo un instrumento válido, fiable y de fácil aplicación para evaluar conductas modificables en adolescentes. La inclusión de tecnologías y entorno adapta el cuestionario a los cambios actuales. Las dimensiones sobre uso de tecnologías y actividad física fueron las más deficitarias; las adolescentes se mostraron más sedentarias.


Introduction. Social and cultural changes are altering young people's habits. Some surveys measure such behaviors, but are hard to interpret. The objective of this study was to design and validate a homogeneous questionnaire to study habits among adolescents aged 12-14 years.Population and methods. Descriptive and cross-sectional study to validate a questionnaire. Items were selected after a bibliographic review and expert assessment. The pre-test was administered to a pilot sample. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and construct validity, using a factor analysis. It was administered to a sample of parents of students from 4 secondary schools.Results. Cronbach's coefficient showed values close to 0.7 in 3/4 subscales and an overall value of 0.629, showing accuracy and stability. Factor analysis determined an adequate construct validity, with 4 factors: eating, physical activity, new technologies, and environment. The final questionnaire included 26 items and was administered to 421 participants. Poor habits were observed in 24.8 % and very unhealthy, in 3.4 %. Girls had poorer scores in physical activity (p < 0.001), and boys, in new technologies, although it was not significant.Conclusions. The final instrument was valid, reliable, and easily administered to assess modifiable behaviors in adolescents. The inclusion of technologies and environment helps to adapt the questionnaire to current changes. The greatest deficit was observed in the technology use and physical activity domains; and girls were more sedentary.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Healthy Lifestyle , Parents , Primary Prevention , Spain , Child Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pediatric Obesity
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 99-105, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151488

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La obesidad infantil en España es preocupante y el entorno familiar puede influir en su desarrollo. Los objetivos fueron determinar la prevalencia de exceso de peso en adolescentes, evaluar variables familiares que pudieran condicionarla y determinar la percepción corporal de los padres.Población y métodos. Estudio transversal; se incluyeron alumnos de cinco centros de secundaria del Área V de Murcia. Se registró antropometría de los alumnos y se administró una encuesta a los padres con variables de peso, talla, ejercicio, estudios, tipo de familia y percepción corporal. Se realizó el análisis mediante tablas de contingencia y asociación con d de Somers.Resultados. Participaron 421 alumnos (edad: 12,8 ± 0,6 años); el 21,1 % tenían sobrepeso, y el 19,5 %, obesidad. Existió asociación entre padres e hijos con sobrecarga ponderal (d de Somers con p < 0,05). Si ambos padres eran sedentarios, sus hijos realizaban menos ejercicio. A mayor nivel de estudios parental, menor tasa de sobrepeso infantil (p < 0,05). El sobrepeso-obesidad en los hijos fue mayor en familias separadas o monoparentales. El 32 % de los padres no percibía el exceso de peso de sus hijos ni el 53 % en sí mismos.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en esta muestra fue del 40,6 %. El estado nutricional de los padres, el nivel de estudios y el tipo de familia se asociaron con la obesidad infantil. Influyó en mayor medida la figura materna. Existió una infraconsideración de la obesidad por parte de los padres.


Introduction. In Spain, childhood obesity is worrying, and its development might be influenced by the family setting. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of excess weight among adolescents, evaluate family variables that could affect it, and determine parents' body perception.Population and methods. Cross-sectional study; students from five secondary schools in health area V of the Region of Murcia were included. Students' anthropometric measurements were recorded and a survey was administered to parents, including variables such as weight, height, exercise, level of education, family structure, and body perception. The analysis was done using contingency tables and the association with Somers' D measures.Results. Four hundred and twenty one students participated (age: 12.8 ± 0.6 years old); 21.1 % were overweight and 19.5 %, obese. There was an association between parent and child excess weight (Somers' D with a p value < 0.05). If both parents had a sedentary lifestyle, their children would exercise less. The higher the level of parental education, the lower the rate of childhood overweight (p < 0.05). Overweight-obesity among children was higher in separated or single-parent families. In total, 32 % of parents misperceived their children's excess weight and 53 %, their own.Conclusions. In this sample, the prevalence of excess weight was 40.6 %. Parents' nutritional status, level of education, and family structure were associated with childhood obesity. Mothers had a greater influence on the development of their children's overweight. Parents underestimated obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Nutritional Status , Overweight , Life Style , Parents , Spain/epidemiology , Exercise , Family , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(4): 1429-1440, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285934

ABSTRACT

Resumo Em resposta aos impactos sanitário, social, econômico e político causados pela pandemia de COVID-19, diversos países assumiram o isolamento físico como medida preventiva. A preocupação com a alimentação "saudável" acentuou-se neste contexto e guias alimentares foram elaborados como uma estratégia de orientação sobre alimentação. Este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma análise crítica e comparativa de quatro guias alimentares publicados no Brasil e na Espanha neste período, a partir de três eixos: as concepções sobre o comer saudável, o lugar atribuído à multidimensionalidade do ato alimentar e a relevância da interseccionalidade. A comparação dos documentos efetuou-se a partir de uma abordagem qualitativa baseada na análise do discurso. Os documentos apresentam diferenças quanto ao formato e o conteúdo das recomendações, porém a construção discursiva de todos os guias é normativa e reproduz uma perspectiva fundamentalmente biomédica centrada nos nutrientes e na responsabilização individual, sem considerar com profundidade a multidimensionalidade do ato alimentar e as especificidades dos contextos micro e macrossociais. Revela-se também a necessidade da inclusão das dimensões interseccionais de gênero, raça, etnia e classe nas recomendações propostas.


Abstract In response to the health, social, economic and political impacts caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries have adopted social isolation as a preventive measure. The concern with "healthy" eating was accentuated in this context and food norms were developed as an orientation strategy related to eating habits. The scope of this article is to carry out a critical and comparative analysis of four food guidelines published in Brazil and Spain in this period, based on three principles: concepts regarding healthy eating; the place attributed to the multidimensionality of the act of eating; and the relevance of intersectionality. Comparison of the documents was conducted using a qualitative approach based on discourse analysis. The documents feature differences in terms of the format and content of the recommendations, but the discursive construction of all the guidelines is normative and reproduces a fundamentally biomedical perspective centered on nutrients and on individual responsibility, without taking into consideration the multidimensionality of the act of eating and the specificities of the micro- and macrosocial contexts. The analysis also reveals the need to include the intersectional dimensions of gender, race, ethnicity and class into the proposed recommendations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Diet, Healthy , COVID-19 , Spain , Brazil
13.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2266, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289577

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El envejecimiento poblacional, problema de relevancia mundial, requiere acción de parte de los organismos políticos y gobiernos. Objetivo: Exponer las principales políticas dirigidas a la atención del envejecimiento poblacional promulgadas en el contexto internacional, el europeo y en las comunidades autónomas españolas entre 1982 y 2017. Métodos: Se realizó un trabajo de revisión y análisis de documentos, que incluyó la búsqueda de fuentes primarias tales como: planes y estrategias oficiales, informes, bases de datos y legislaciones en relación con el tema del envejecimiento poblacional y el envejecimiento activo. La recogida de información se ejecutó de mayo a julio de 2017. Se utilizó la técnica de análisis de contenido para identificar las políticas en el contexto internacional. La ficha diagnóstica para el análisis de las estrategias, se confeccionó a partir de una adaptación de la ficha propuesta en la Estrategia Vasca de Envejecimiento Activo. Conclusiones: El paradigma de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre Envejecimiento Activo promulga la perspectiva de la salud, la participación y seguridad de las personas mayores. Marca un hito en la formulación de políticas y estrategias de trabajo a nivel internacional. Las comunidades autónomas españolas han proyectado diversas estrategias, pero se requiere lograr coordinación integrada de sus actuaciones(AU)


Introduction: Population ageing, a problem of global importance, requires actions by political bodies and governments. Objective: Present the main policies aimed to the care of the population aging enacted in the international, European and Spanish autonomous communities' contexts in the period from 1982 to 2017. Methods: A review and analysis of documents was carried out, which included the search for primary sources such as: official plans and strategies, reports, databases and legislation related to the issue of population ageing and active ageing. The information collection was carried out from May to July 2017. The content analysis technique was used to identify policies in the international context; the diagnostic sheet for the analysis of strategies was prepared on the basis of an adaptation of the card proposed in the Basque Active Ageing Strategy. Conclusions: The World Health Organization paradigm on Active Ageing promulgates the perspective of the health, participation and safety of the elderly. It marks a milestone in the formulation of policies and strategies for work at the international level. The Spanish Autonomous Communities have planned various strategies, but it is necessary to achieve integrated coordination of their actions(AU)


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Population Dynamics/trends , Residence Characteristics , Spain
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(1): 13-27, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283240

ABSTRACT

To analyze the influence of individual and household factors on eating behavior (EB) and other determinants related to eating during the home lockdown in the Covid-19 pandemic. Method: Online survey (April 17 to May 10, 2020) to collect sociodemographic information, health, and various EB attitudes. Statistical analysis of the factors: country, setting, sex, BMI classification, lockdown period, a household with children under 15 years, nutritional needs, age groups, type and size household, monthly income, and religion. Results: 1055 households participated. 75% have modified their eating habits, with differences due to being overweight or obese in the person surveyed (p <0.05). Changes in EB and other lifestyles are influenced by household structure (p <0.001) and the effects that the pandemic has had on the economy of families (p <0.001). Compared to those who do not have them, households with children tend to plan much more meals, spend more time eating, seek a healthier diet, increase the number of daily meals, and look more at labeling. In contrast, people who live alone have worsened the hourly routines of the main meals. Conclusions: Confinement has modified eating behavior differently depending on the individual and domestic factors analyzed(AU)


Analizar la influencia de factores individuales y del hogar sobre el comportamiento alimentario (CA), y otros determinantes relacionados con la alimentación, durante el confinamiento domiciliario en la pandemia por Covid-19. Método: Encuesta online (17 abril al 10 de mayo de 2020) para recopilar información sociodemográfica, de salud y diversas actitudes del CA. Análisis estadístico sobre los factores: país, ámbito, sexo, IMC, tiempo de confinamiento, hogar con menores de 15 años, necesidades nutricionales, grupos de edad, tipo y tamaño del hogar, ingresos y religión. Resultados: Participaron 1055 hogares. El 75% ha modificado sus hábitos alimentarios, con diferencias por sobrepeso u obesidad de la persona encuestada (p<0.05). Los cambios en el CA y otros estilos de vida están influenciados por la estructura del hogar (p<0.001) y los efectos que la pandemia ha tenido sobre la economía de las familias (p<0.001). Los hogares que tienen hijos/as, respecto a los que no los tienen, tienden a planificar mucho más las comidas, dedicar más tiempo a la alimentación, procuran una alimentación más saludable, incrementan el número de comidas diarias y miran más el etiquetado. Por el contrario, las personas que viven solas han empeorado las rutinas horarias de las principales comidas. Conclusiones: El confinamiento ha modificado de manera diferenciada el comportamiento alimentario en función de los factores individuales y domésticos analizados(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Family , Quarantine , Feeding Behavior , COVID-19 , Housing , Life Style , Spain , Sex Factors , Nutrition Surveys , Eating , Nutritional Transition , Diet, Healthy
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 168-178, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249069

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. La legionelosis es una enfermedad respiratoria bacteriana de origen ambiental que puede ser adquirida en el ámbito comunitario u hospitalario, y suele estar asociada con equipos, instalaciones y edificios. La forma clínica más conocida es la neumónica, conocida como enfermedad del legionario. Objetivo. Determinar la evolución de los casos de legionelosis en España en el periodo de 2010 a 2015. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo de series temporales y se analizaron los casos de legionelosis notificados al Centro Nacional de Epidemiología del Gobierno de España. Se determinó la distribución de los casos según el sexo, la comunidad autónoma, el mes y los grupos de edad. Para el último se diferenció entre hombres y mujeres. Resultados. El recuento de casos en hombres fue superior al doble con respecto a las mujeres. La distribución en las comunidades autónomas presentó un aumento de los casos notificados al final del periodo en nueve de ellas, siendo notable en Castilla y León, Navarra y el País Vasco, y muy relevante en Castilla-La Mancha. Se estableció un patrón estacional con un pico epidémico en julio-septiembre y un mayor número de casos en torno a los 50 años de edad en ambos sexos. Conclusiones. A pesar de mostrar una prevalencia baja con respecto a otras enfermedades respiratorias, la legionelosis tiene gran impacto en la salud pública. Presenta una distribución global y heterogénea en el territorio español, con un aumento de casos en los dos últimos años, por lo que se requiere una mejor prevención y control de la enfermedad.


Abstract | Introduction: Legionellosis is a bacterial respiratory disease with an environmental origin in the community or in hospitals; it is usually associated with devices, facilities, and buildings. The most common clinical form is the pneumonic, known as legionnaires' disease. Objective: To determine the evolution of legionellosis cases in Spain from 2010 to 2015. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive study of time series with an analysis of the legionellosis cases notified to the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (Government of Spain). Case distribution was determined according to sex, the autonomous community of origin, month, and age groups differentiating in the latter between men and women. Results: Case count in men was more than double compared to that in women. The cases notified by nine of the autonomous communities showed an increase at the end of the period, especially in Castilla y León, Navarra, and the Basque Country but also notable in Castilla-La Mancha. A seasonal pattern was identified with an epidemic peak in July-September and a greater number of cases among 50-years old people from both sexes. Conclusion: Despite its low prevalence compared to other respiratory diseases, legionellosis has a great impact on public health. Its distribution in Spain is global and heterogeneous with cases increasing in the last two years. Therefore, better disease prevention and control measures are recommended.


Subject(s)
Legionellosis/epidemiology , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Spain , Case Reports
16.
Anon.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 29(1): 220-220, enero-mar. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251082
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 80-87, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279078

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Se han publicado varios estudios descriptivos de cohortes de pacientes afectados por COVID-19. Objetivo: Describir las características de pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 que ingresaron al Hospital Universitario de La Plana, Castellón, España. Métodos: Estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo, que incluyó pacientes de 18 años o mayores que ingresaron en forma consecutiva con infección confirmada por SARS-CoV2; se describen características demográficas, comorbilidades, síntomas clínicos, resultados de laboratorio y pruebas radiológicas. Resultados: El estudio incluyó 255 pacientes con edad promedio de 70 años; 54.9 % fue del sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (58 %), dislipemia (42.4 %), diabetes (25.5 %) y obesidad (24.3 %). La mediana de días del inicio de síntomas clínicos antes del ingreso fue de siete. Las manifestaciones más frecuentes previas al ingreso fueron fiebre (74.5 %), tos seca (61.2 %), malestar general (51.8 %) y disnea (51.0 %); 19 pacientes (7.4 %) ingresaron a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, donde la mortalidad fue de 50 %; la mortalidad total fue de 16.9 %. Conclusiones: Nuestra cohorte refleja características similares a las de otras series europeas. La mortalidad fue inferior a la de estudios similares.


Abstract Background: Several descriptive cohort studies of patients affected by COVID-19 have been published. Objective: To describe the characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted to Hospital Universitario la Plana, Castellón, Spain. Methods: Retrospective, observational cohort study that included 18-year-old or older patients who were consecutively admitted with SARS-CoV2 confirmed infection. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, laboratory results and radiological tests are described. Results: The study included 255 patients, with a mean age of 70 years; 54.9 % were males. Most common comorbidities were high blood pressure (58 %), dyslipidemia (42.4 %), diabetes (25.5 %) and obesity (24.3 %). Median number of days from the onset of clinical symptoms prior to hospital admission was seven. Most common manifestations prior to admission were fever (74.5 %), dry cough (61.2 %), malaise (51.8 %) and dyspnea (51.0 %); 19 patients (7.4 %) were admitted to the intensive care unit, where mortality was 50 %; overall mortality was 16.9 %. Conclusions: Our cohort reflects similar characteristics to those of other European series. Mortality was lower than that in similar studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Spain , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(1): 41-45, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156074

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze relapse rates and patterns in patients with endometrial cancer with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of current follow-up procedures in terms of patient survival, as well as the convenience of modifying the surveillance strategy. Methods Retrospective descriptive study including all patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer relapse at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Complejo Hospitalario Insular-Materno Infantil de Canarias, between 2005 and 2014. Results Recurrence was observed in 81 patients (10.04% of the sample); 66.7% of them suffered relapse within 2 years and 80.2% within 3 years after the termination of the primary treatment; 41.9% showed distant metastases while the rest corresponded to local-regional (40.7%) or ganglionar (17.4%) relapse; 42% of these were symptomatic; 14 patients showed more than 1 site of relapse. Relapse was detected mainly through symptoms and physical examination findings (54.3%), followed by elevated serummarker levels (29.6%), computed tomography (CT) images (9.9%) and abnormal vaginal cytology findings (6.2%). No differences in global survival were found between patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic relapse. Conclusion Taking into account that the recurrence rate of endometrial cancer is low, that relapse occurs mainly within the first 3 years post-treatment and that symptom evaluation and physical examination are the most effective follow-up methods, we postulate that a modification of the current model of hospital follow-up should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Clinical Protocols/standards , Endometrial Neoplasms/mortality , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/mortality , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/mortality , Spain , Women's Health Services , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/diagnostic imaging , Disease-Free Survival , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Staging
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 159-168, jan. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153761

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo tiene como objeto analizar la crisis de la atención residencial en España en el contexto de la Covid-19 y su impacto en una elevada mortalidad y el abandono de la población usuaria. Se analizan sus causas inmediatas, mediatas y estructurales. De manera específica se analiza la precariedad en el empleo en las residencias a lo largo de la pasada década como una de las principales causas explicativas de la crisis estructural de las residencias. El enfoque teórico de análisis es el modelo de atención integral y centrada en la persona (AICP) basado en la autonomía de las personas y en la centralidad de sus derechos. La metodología combina el análisis cuantitativo en lo referente al empleo junto con una metodología cualitativa basada en el análisis de documentos y debates. El artículo concluye proponiendo una reforma integral de los cuidados de larga duración que incluya tanto un cambio en la atención residencial bajo la forma de pequeñas unidades de convivencia, como un reforzamiento de la atención en el domicilio y la comunidad en cuanto preferencia creciente la población mayor. La combinación óptima de la atención residencial y domiciliaria es la propuesta básica de este trabajo.


Abstract The objective of this study is to analyze the residential care crisis in Spain in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on high mortality and abandonment of the user population. The direct, indirect and structural causes are analyzed. Specifically, precarious employment in residences over the past decade was analyzed as one of the main explanatory causes of the structural crisis of nursing homes. The theoretical focus of analysis is the comprehensive and person-centered care (CPCC) model based on the autonomy of people and the centrality of their rights. The methodology combines a quantitative analysis of employment and a qualitative analysis of documents and debates. The study concludes by proposing a comprehensive reform of long-term care that includes both a change in residential care in the form of small cohabitation units and reinforcement of care in the home and the community as a growing preference for the elderly population. An optimal combination of residential and home care is the basic proposal of this work.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Homes for the Aged/legislation & jurisprudence , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/legislation & jurisprudence , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Age Distribution , Patient-Centered Care , Qualitative Research , Employment , Health Services for the Aged/organization & administration
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921342

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( @*Methods@#We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces.@*Results@#We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population.@*Conclusion@#The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Weather , Young Adult
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