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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(6): 364-: I-369, II, dic. 2021. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1342777

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El dolor raquídeo es uno de los motivos principales de asistencia sanitaria; suele aparecer durante la etapa escolar, aumenta progresivamente con la edad y se relaciona con ciertos factores de riesgo. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la prevalencia de dolor raquídeo en escolares y examinar los factores asociados a su padecimiento. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal mediante un cuestionario realizado en escolares de 9 a 11 años. Se analizó la prevalencia del dolor, la actividad física, los autocuidados del raquis, el uso de la mochila y la utilización de dispositivos electrónicos. Resultados. Se analizaron 329 sujetos. La prevalencia de dolor raquídeo es del 34,3 %, sin diferencias entre sexos. Se considera de baja intensidad, con una media de dolor de 1,99 ± 2,54 sobre 10 según la escala Wong-Baker FACES®, y en más de la mitad de los casos, de corta duración, menos de 12 horas. El 22,2 % de los escolares refieren dolor cervical, mientras que el 14 % y 11,9 % refieren dolor dorsal y lumbar, respectivamente. Además, el 47,9 % refieren dolor en más de una región raquídea. El 73,3 % realiza actividad física fuera del horario escolar, y el 90,6 % de los estudiantes utiliza dispositivos electrónicos. Se observó relación entre la presencia de dolor y hábitos de higiene postural adecuados. Conclusiones. Los escolares refieren dolor raquídeo de baja intensidad y corta duración, con mayor frecuencia en la región cervical. La asociación con factores de riesgo revela que los que refieren dolor presentan mejores hábitos posturales.


Introduction. Spinal pain is one of the main reasons for seeking care; it usually appears during school age, increases with age, and is related to certain risk factors. The objective of this study is to analyze the prevalence of spinal pain among schoolchildren and examine associated factors. Population and methods. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire administered to schoolchildren aged 9-11 years. The prevalence of pain, physical activity, spine self-care, backpack use, and electronic device use were analyzed. Results. A total of 329 subjects were analyzed. The prevalence of spinal pain is 34.3 %, with no differences observed between sexes. Pain severity is considered mild, with a mean severity of 1.99 ± 2.54 over 10 according to the Wong-Baker FACES® scale; in more than 50 % of cases, pain had a short duration (less than 12 hours). Cervical pain was referred by 22.2 % of schoolchildren, whereas dorsal and lumbar pain were reported by 14 % and 11.9 %, respectively. In addition, 47.9 % referred pain in more than one region of the spine. Also, 73.3 % of schoolchildren did physical activity outside school hours and 90.6 % used electronic devices. An association was observed between the presence of pain and adequate postural hygiene habits. Conclusions. Schoolchildren referred spinal pain that was mild and short in duration, often in the cervical region. The association with risk factors indicates that children who referred pain have better postural habits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Spine , Low Back Pain , Schools , Spain/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(2): 99-105, abril 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1151488

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La obesidad infantil en España es preocupante y el entorno familiar puede influir en su desarrollo. Los objetivos fueron determinar la prevalencia de exceso de peso en adolescentes, evaluar variables familiares que pudieran condicionarla y determinar la percepción corporal de los padres.Población y métodos. Estudio transversal; se incluyeron alumnos de cinco centros de secundaria del Área V de Murcia. Se registró antropometría de los alumnos y se administró una encuesta a los padres con variables de peso, talla, ejercicio, estudios, tipo de familia y percepción corporal. Se realizó el análisis mediante tablas de contingencia y asociación con d de Somers.Resultados. Participaron 421 alumnos (edad: 12,8 ± 0,6 años); el 21,1 % tenían sobrepeso, y el 19,5 %, obesidad. Existió asociación entre padres e hijos con sobrecarga ponderal (d de Somers con p < 0,05). Si ambos padres eran sedentarios, sus hijos realizaban menos ejercicio. A mayor nivel de estudios parental, menor tasa de sobrepeso infantil (p < 0,05). El sobrepeso-obesidad en los hijos fue mayor en familias separadas o monoparentales. El 32 % de los padres no percibía el exceso de peso de sus hijos ni el 53 % en sí mismos.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en esta muestra fue del 40,6 %. El estado nutricional de los padres, el nivel de estudios y el tipo de familia se asociaron con la obesidad infantil. Influyó en mayor medida la figura materna. Existió una infraconsideración de la obesidad por parte de los padres.


Introduction. In Spain, childhood obesity is worrying, and its development might be influenced by the family setting. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of excess weight among adolescents, evaluate family variables that could affect it, and determine parents' body perception.Population and methods. Cross-sectional study; students from five secondary schools in health area V of the Region of Murcia were included. Students' anthropometric measurements were recorded and a survey was administered to parents, including variables such as weight, height, exercise, level of education, family structure, and body perception. The analysis was done using contingency tables and the association with Somers' D measures.Results. Four hundred and twenty one students participated (age: 12.8 ± 0.6 years old); 21.1 % were overweight and 19.5 %, obese. There was an association between parent and child excess weight (Somers' D with a p value < 0.05). If both parents had a sedentary lifestyle, their children would exercise less. The higher the level of parental education, the lower the rate of childhood overweight (p < 0.05). Overweight-obesity among children was higher in separated or single-parent families. In total, 32 % of parents misperceived their children's excess weight and 53 %, their own.Conclusions. In this sample, the prevalence of excess weight was 40.6 %. Parents' nutritional status, level of education, and family structure were associated with childhood obesity. Mothers had a greater influence on the development of their children's overweight. Parents underestimated obesity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Nutritional Status , Overweight , Life Style , Parents , Spain/epidemiology , Exercise , Family , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(1): 159-168, jan. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153761

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo tiene como objeto analizar la crisis de la atención residencial en España en el contexto de la Covid-19 y su impacto en una elevada mortalidad y el abandono de la población usuaria. Se analizan sus causas inmediatas, mediatas y estructurales. De manera específica se analiza la precariedad en el empleo en las residencias a lo largo de la pasada década como una de las principales causas explicativas de la crisis estructural de las residencias. El enfoque teórico de análisis es el modelo de atención integral y centrada en la persona (AICP) basado en la autonomía de las personas y en la centralidad de sus derechos. La metodología combina el análisis cuantitativo en lo referente al empleo junto con una metodología cualitativa basada en el análisis de documentos y debates. El artículo concluye proponiendo una reforma integral de los cuidados de larga duración que incluya tanto un cambio en la atención residencial bajo la forma de pequeñas unidades de convivencia, como un reforzamiento de la atención en el domicilio y la comunidad en cuanto preferencia creciente la población mayor. La combinación óptima de la atención residencial y domiciliaria es la propuesta básica de este trabajo.


Abstract The objective of this study is to analyze the residential care crisis in Spain in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on high mortality and abandonment of the user population. The direct, indirect and structural causes are analyzed. Specifically, precarious employment in residences over the past decade was analyzed as one of the main explanatory causes of the structural crisis of nursing homes. The theoretical focus of analysis is the comprehensive and person-centered care (CPCC) model based on the autonomy of people and the centrality of their rights. The methodology combines a quantitative analysis of employment and a qualitative analysis of documents and debates. The study concludes by proposing a comprehensive reform of long-term care that includes both a change in residential care in the form of small cohabitation units and reinforcement of care in the home and the community as a growing preference for the elderly population. An optimal combination of residential and home care is the basic proposal of this work.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Homes for the Aged/legislation & jurisprudence , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/legislation & jurisprudence , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Age Distribution , Patient-Centered Care , Qualitative Research , Employment , Health Services for the Aged/organization & administration
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921342

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Previous studies have shown that meteorological factors may increase COVID-19 mortality, likely due to the increased transmission of the virus. However, this could also be related to an increased infection fatality rate (IFR). We investigated the association between meteorological factors (temperature, humidity, solar irradiance, pressure, wind, precipitation, cloud coverage) and IFR across Spanish provinces ( @*Methods@#We estimated IFR as excess deaths (the gap between observed and expected deaths, considering COVID-19-unrelated deaths prevented by lockdown measures) divided by the number of infections (SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals plus excess deaths) and conducted Spearman correlations between meteorological factors and IFR across the provinces.@*Results@#We estimated 2,418,250 infections and 43,237 deaths. The IFR was 0.03% in < 50-year-old, 0.22% in 50-59-year-old, 0.9% in 60-69-year-old, 3.3% in 70-79-year-old, 12.6% in 80-89-year-old, and 26.5% in ≥ 90-year-old. We did not find statistically significant relationships between meteorological factors and adjusted IFR. However, we found strong relationships between low temperature and unadjusted IFR, likely due to Spain's colder provinces' aging population.@*Conclusion@#The association between meteorological factors and adjusted COVID-19 IFR is unclear. Neglecting age differences or ignoring COVID-19-unrelated deaths may severely bias COVID-19 epidemiological analyses.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Weather , Young Adult
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3432, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1280471

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: to identify and compare burnout levels between Portuguese, Spanish and Brazilian nurses. Method: quantitative, descriptive, correlational, comparative and cross-sectional study conducted using a sample of 1,052 nurses working in hospitals and primary care centers. A sociodemographic questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory were applied to nurses in Porto, Portugal (n=306), Oviedo, Spain (n=269) and S. Paulo, Brazil (n=477). Data analysis was performed using descriptive, inferential and multivariate analysis. Results: approximately 42% of the nurses showed moderate/high levels of burnout, with no differences found between countries (Portugal and Brazil 42%, Spain 43%). Only depersonalization showed differences between countries, presenting Spain the highest level and Portugal the lowest one. Comparative analysis showed higher burnout levels in young nurses and those working by shifts. Considering job schedules, burnout was associated to shift work in Portugal, while in Spain and Brazil it was associated with fixed schedules. Conclusion: these results suggest that this syndrome among nurses is a global phenomenon. The daily stressors and higher demands of the nursing profession are crucial in the preparation of nurses to deal with complex situations, to avoid burnout, and to reduce the negative impact on nurses' health and on the quality of care they provide.


Objetivo: identificar e comparar os níveis de burnout entre enfermeiros portugueses, espanhóis e brasileiros. Método: estudo quantitativo, descritivo, correlacional, comparativo e transversal, realizado com 1.052 enfermeiros em hospitais e unidades básicas de saúde. Um questionário sociodemográfico e o Maslach Burnout Inventory foram aplicados com enfermeiros de Porto-Portugal (n=306), Oviedo-Espanha (n=269) e São Paulo-Brasil (n=477). Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva, inferencial e multivariada. Resultados: aproximadamente 42% dos enfermeiros apresentaram níveis moderados/altos de burnout, não sendo encontradas diferenças entre os países (Portugal e Brasil com 42%, Espanha com 43%). Apenas a dimensão despersonalização apresentou diferenças entre os países, com um nível mais elevado na Espanha e mais baixo em Portugal. A análise comparativa mostrou níveis mais elevados de burnout em enfermeiros jovens e naqueles que trabalhavam em turnos. Em relação às escalas de trabalho, burnout foi associada ao trabalho por turnos em Portugal e aos horários fixos na Espanha e no Brasil. Conclusão: esses resultados sugerem que essa síndrome em enfermeiros é um fenômeno global. Estressores diários e maiores demandas da profissão de enfermagem são elementos cruciais para preparar os enfermeiros para lidar com situações complexas, evitar burnout e reduzir o impacto negativo na sua saúde e na qualidade dos cuidados que prestam.


Objetivo: identificar y comparar los niveles de burnout entre enfermeros portugueses, españoles y brasileños. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, correlacional, comparativo y transversal, realizado con 1.052 enfermeros de hospitales y unidades básicas de salud. Se aplicó un cuestionario sociodemográfico y el Maslach Burnout Inventory a enfermeras de Porto, Portugal (n=306), Oviedo, España (n=269) y São Paulo, Brasil (n=477). Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva, inferencial y multivariada. Resultados: aproximadamente el 42% de los enfermeros presentaban niveles moderados/altos de burnout y no se encontraron diferencias entre países (Portugal y Brasil 42%, España 43%). Solo la dimensión de despersonalización mostró diferencias entre países, con un nivel mayor en España y menor en Portugal. El análisis comparativo mostró mayores niveles de burnout en enfermeros jóvenes y en los que trabajaban por turnos. En cuanto a los horarios de trabajo, el burnout se asoció con el trabajo por turnos en Portugal y con horario fijo en España y Brasil. Conclusión: estos resultados sugieren que el síndrome de burnout en enfermeros es un fenómeno global. Los estresores cotidianos y las mayores exigencias de la profesión de Enfermería son elementos cruciales para preparar a los enfermeros para enfrentar situaciones complejas, evitar el burnout y reducir el impacto negativo en la salud de los enfermeros y la calidad de la atención que brindan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Portugal/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Spain/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Burnout, Psychological , Job Satisfaction , Nurses , Nurses, Male
6.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154140

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as medidas de contenção de tipo lockdown e a incidência da COVID-19 em sete países: África do Sul, Alemanha, Brasil, Espanha, Estados Unidos, Itália e Nova Zelândia. Métodos: Estudo ecológico descritivo, com dados da incidência diária dos casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 22 de fevereiro e 31 de agosto de 2020, e informações sobre medidas de lockdown implementadas pelo governo de cada país. Resultados: Os países que implementaram lockdown tiveram diminuição da incidência diária de COVID-19 (casos por milhão de habitantes) no período de três semanas, a contar do início da medida: África do Sul (3,7 a 1,7), Alemanha (37,5 a 33,7), Espanha (176,3 a 82,0), Itália (92,0 a 52,1) e Nova Zelândia (7,5 a 1,7). O Brasil e os Estados Unidos, que não implementaram lockdown, não apresentaram uma diminuição considerável. Conclusão: Após a implementação de lockdown, houve uma diminuição considerável do número de casos confirmados.


Objetivo: Describir las medidas de contención tipo lockdown y la incidencia de COVID-19 en los países de Sudáfrica, Alemania, Brasil, España, Estados Unidos, Italia y Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Estudio ecológico descriptivo con datos de la incidencia diaria de los casos confirmados de COVID-19, del 22 de febrero al 31 de agosto de 2020 e informaciones sobre medidas de contención lockdown implementadas por los gobiernos de cada uno de los países. Resultados: Los países que implementaron lockdown, desde el inicio de su implementación hasta tres semanas después, tuvieron una disminución en la incidencia diaria (casos por millón de habitantes): Sudáfrica (3,7 a 1,7), Alemania (37,5 a 33,7), España (176,3 a 82,0), Italia (92,0 a 52,1) y Nueva Zelanda (7,5 a 1,7). Brasil y Estados Unidos, que no implementaron lockdown, no tuvieron una disminución considerable Conclusión: Luego de la implementación del lockdown, hubo una disminución considerable en el número de casos confirmados.


Objective: To describe lockdown-type containment measures and COVID-19 incidence in South Africa, Germany, Brazil, Spain, United States, Italy and New Zealand. Methods: This is a descriptive ecological study with data on daily incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases from February 22 to August 31 2020, as well as information on lockdown measures implemented by the governments of each country. Results: Daily COVID-19 incidence (cases per 1 million inhabitants) decreased within three weeks after lockdown started in the countries that implemented it: South Africa (3.7 to 1.7), Germany (37.5 to 33.7) Spain (176.3 to 82.0), Italy (92.0 to 52.1) and New Zealand (7.5 to 1.7). As for Brazil and the United States, which did not implement lockdown, there was no considerable decrease. Conclusion: After lockdown implementation, there was a considerable decrease in the number of confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychological Distance , Quarantine/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Health Policy/trends , Italy/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
7.
Salud colect ; 17: e3303, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252145

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La infancia es el sur del virus, como ha visibilizado la pandemia de COVID-19: un mundo donde el cuidado no es un valor escogido desde el deseo, y donde la voz infantil es silenciada en virtud de una injusticia epistémica ancestral. Así, la transformación que las sociedades humanas están experimentando debido a la COVID-19 ha impactado significativamente en los derechos de la infancia, a niveles micro y macro. En España, como país especialmente golpeado por la pandemia, encontramos que tanto la primera infancia (a través especialmente de la violencia obstétrica) como ella misma en todas sus fases, están siendo víctimas de un paradigma adultocéntrico de control e injusticia epistémica basales. En este ensayo se analiza y discute algunas de las consecuencias negativas observadas en este país con relación al cuidado y el confinamiento de menores y sus familias, acaecidas a raíz de la pandemia, considerando que la crisis desencadenada por la COVID-19 puede ser una oportunidad para visibilizar situaciones de injusticia ancestral para con la niñez


ABSTRACT As the COVID-19 pandemic has made visible, childhood is the virus's proverbial south: a world where care is not a value chosen from a place of desire, and where children's voices are silenced at the hands of an ancestral epistemic injustice. Thus, the transformation that human societies are undergoing due to COVID-19 has significantly impacted the rights of children, both at the micro and the macro levels. In Spain - a country that has been particularly hard-hit by the pandemic - we find that both infancy (especially through obstetric violence) and childhood at all its stages fall victim to an adultcentric paradigm based on control and epistemic injustice. This essay analyzes and discusses some of the negative consequences observed in this country related to the care for and the confinement of minors and their families - which has occurred as a result of the pandemic - and considers that the crisis triggered by COVID-19 may be an opportunity to shed light on situations of ancestral injustice towards children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Child Welfare , Quarantine , Child Health , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Human Rights , Spain/epidemiology , Violence , Power, Psychological , Child Rearing , Pandemics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy
8.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

ABSTRACT

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50470, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146257

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar casos acumulados da COVID-19 em Brasil, Espanha, Itália, China e EUA. Métodos: estudo ecológico, com uso de dados secundários. Realizou-se série temporal de casos cumulativos de COVID-19 por 28 dias, após o 100º caso confirmado de cada país (baseado nas estatísticas do Worldometer 2020). Modelos de tendência linear, exponencial, potencial e logaritmo foram testados, sendo escolhido o melhor coeficiente de determinação (R²). No Brasil, a linha de tendência foi segmentada em 1º-14º dia e 15º-28º dia. Resultados: no 100º dia, os EUA possuíam maior número de casos e o Brasil, o menor. Houve linha de tendência em sua maioria exponencial, com maior velocidade de crescimento nos EUA. No Brasil, houve tendência de crescimento mais lento no segundo período. Conclusão: as linhas de tendência calculadas demonstraram pior prognóstico para os EUA. No Brasil, o crescimento do número cumulativo de casos foi mais lento na no segundo período do estudo.


Objective: to examine cumulative cases of COVID-19 in Brazil, Spain, Italy, China, and USA. Method: in this ecological study, secondary data were used to produce time series of cumulative cases of COVID-19 over 28 days after the 100th case confirmed in each country (from Worldometer 2020 statistics). Linear, exponential, potential and logarithmic trend models were tested, and the best coefficient of determination (R²) was chosen. In Brazil, the trend line was segmented into days 1-14 and 15-28. Results: on day 100, the USA had the highest number of cases and Brazil, the lowest. The trend lines were mostly exponential, with highest growth rate in the USA. In Brazil, the growth trend was slower in the second period. Conclusion: the calculated trend lines showed a worse prognosis for the USA. In Brazil, the cumulative number of cases grew more slowly in the second period of the study.


Objetivo: examinar casos acumulados de COVID-19 en Brasil, España, Italia, China y Estados Unidos. Método: en este estudio ecológico, se utilizaron datos secundarios para producir series de tiempo de casos acumulados de COVID-19 durante 28 días después del 100o caso confirmado en cada país (de las estadísticas del Worldometer 2020). Se probaron modelos de tendencia lineal, exponencial, potencial y logarítmica y se eligió el mejor coeficiente de determinación (R²). En Brasil, la línea de tendencia se segmentó en los días 1-14 y 15-28. Resultados: el día 100, EE.UU. tuvo el mayor número de casos y Brasil, el menor. Las líneas de tendencia fueron en su mayoría exponenciales, con la tasa de crecimiento más alta en los EE. UU. En Brasil, la tendencia de crecimiento fue más lenta en el segundo período. Conclusión: las líneas de tendencia calculadas mostraron un peor pronóstico para EE. UU. En Brasil, el número acumulado de casos creció más lentamente en el segundo período del estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Ecological Studies , Italy/epidemiology
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 72-76, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055367

ABSTRACT

Objective: Depression has been associated with hepatitis C, as well as with its treatment with proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., interferon). The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have minimal adverse effects and high potency, with a direct inhibitory effect on non-structural viral proteins. We studied the incidence and associated factors of depression in a real-life prospective cohort of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with the new DAAs. Methods: The sample was recruited from a cohort of 91 patients with hepatitis C, of both sexes, with advanced level of fibrosis and no HIV coinfection, consecutively enrolled during a 6-month period for DAA treatment; those euthymic at baseline (n=54) were selected. All were evaluated through the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9-DSM-IV), at three time points: baseline, 4 weeks, and end-of-treatment. Results: The cumulative incidence (95%CI) of major depression and any depressive disorder during DAA treatment was 13% (6.4-24.4) and 46.3% (33.7-59.4), respectively. No differences were observed between those patients with and without cirrhosis or ribavirin treatment (p > 0.05). Risk factors for incident major depression during DAA treatment included family depression (relative risk 9.1 [1.62-51.1]), substance use disorder (11.0 [1.7-73.5]), and baseline PHQ-9 score (2.1 [1.1-3.1]). Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the importance of screening for new depression among patients receiving new DAAs, and identify potential associated risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C/psychology , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Middle Aged
11.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190271, 2020. tab, ilus, Graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056564

ABSTRACT

Ante el escaso número de estudios en este ámbito, el objetivo es analizar el contenido visual en la prensa durante la crisis sanitaria del Ébola en España que ocasionó gran alarma en la sociedad en 2014. En una muestra nacional de diarios, se identifica contenido visual en el 92% (n=160) de artículos sobre el Ébola y en el 87,5% (n=14) de portadas. La fotografía es el recurso más usado (69,2%), seguido de gráficos (9,2%) e infografías (8,8%), mientras que 'conflicto' es el encuadre más frecuente (42%). Se detecta un aumento rápido del contenido visual en los primeros dos días de la crisis que disminuye paulatinamente a partir del quinto día (p<.001). Este estudio puede abrir nuevas vías de investigación para profundizar en la investigación del contenido visual, especialmente durante la crisis sanitaria dada la gran importancia que adquiere la comunicación.(AU)


Considering the scarce number of studies in this sphere, the objective is to analyze the visual content published by the press during the health crisis of Ebola in Spain, which caused great alarm in that society in 2014. In a sample of Spanish newspapers, visual content was identified in 92% (n=160) of the articles about Ebola and in 87.5% (n=14) of front pages. Photography was the most used resource (69.2%), followed by graphs (9.2%) and infographics (8.8%), while 'conflict' was the most frequent framing (42%). A rapid increase in the use of visual content was detected in the first two days of the crisis, followed by a gradual decrease from the fifth day onwards (p <0.001). This study can open new research paths for further investigation of visual content, especially during a health crisis, due to the great importance communication acquires in this situation.(AU)


Considerando o número escasso de estudos neste âmbito, o objetivo é analisar o conteúdo visual na imprensa durante a crise sanitária do Ebola na Espanha, que causou um grande alarme na sociedade em 2014. Em uma amostra de diários nacionais, identifica-se conteúdo visual em 92% (n = 160) dos artigos sobre o Ébola e em 87,5% (n = 14) das capas. A fotografia é o recurso mais utilizado (69,2%), seguido por gráficos (9,2%) e inforgráficos (8,8%), enquanto 'conflito' é o enquadramento mais frequente (42%). Detecta-se um rápido aumento no conteúdo visual nos dois primeiros dias da crise, que diminui gradativamente a partir do quinto dia (p <0,001). Este estudo pode abrir novas vias de pesquisas que aprofundem na investigação do conteúdo visual, especialmente durante uma crise sanitaria devido à grande importância que a comunicação adquire.(AU)


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Photograph , Mass Media , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(4): e00054020, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100943

ABSTRACT

En marzo de 2020, el virus SARS-CoV-2 procedente de China ha llegado a España y desde el 14 de marzo se ha declarado el estado de alarma en todo el Estado español, llevando al confinamiento a toda la población. La presente investigación se contextualiza en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (situada al norte de España). Se han analizado los niveles de estrés, ansiedad y depresión a la llegada del virus y se han estudiado los niveles de sintomatología psicológica según edad, cronicidad y confinamiento. Se ha recogido una muestra de 976 personas y la medición de las variables ansiedad, estrés y depresión se ha hecho mediante la escala DASS (Escala de Depresión, Ansiedad y Estrés). Los resultados demuestran que, aunque los niveles de sintomatología han sido bajos en general al principio de la alarma, la población más joven y con enfermedades crónicas ha referido sintomatología más alta que el resto de población. También se ha detectado un mayor nivel de sintomatología a partir del confinamiento, donde las personas tienen prohibido salir de sus casas. Se prevé que la sintomatología aumentará según vaya transcurriendo el confinamiento. Se defienden intervenciones psicológicas de prevención y tratamiento para bajar el impacto psicológico que pueda crear esta pandemia.


Em março de 2020, o vírus SARS-CoV-2, procedente da China, chegou à Espanha e desde 14 de março está declarado estado de emergência em todo o país, forçando toda a população ao confinamento. O presente estudo foi conduzido no País Basco (norte da Espanha). Foram analisados os níveis de estresse, ansiedade e depressão desde a introdução do vírus e os níveis de sintomas psicológicos segundo idade, comorbidades e confinamento. A amostra foi composta de 976 indivíduos e a medição das variáveis ansiedade, estresse e depressão foi realizada a partir do intrumento DASS (Escala de Depressão, Ansiedade e Estresse). Os resultados mostram que, ainda que os níveis de sintomas tenham sido baixos no início do confinamento, os indivíduos mais jovens e com comorbidades referiram mais sintomas que o restante da população. Também se detectou maior nível de sintomas desde o confinamento, quando a população foi proibida de sair de suas casas. Se prevê aumento dos sintomas conforme o confimaneto continuar. Intervenções psicológicas de prevenção e tratamento são necessárias para diminuir o impacto psicológico causado pela pandemia.


The SARS-CoV-2 virus reached Spain in March 2020, and a nationwide state of alert was declared on March 14th, leading to the confinement of the entire population. The current study was conducted in the Basque Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The authors analyzed stress, anxiety, and depression with the arrival of the virus and the levels of symptoms according to age, comorbidity, and confinement. Levels of anxiety, stress, and depression were measured in a sample of 976 adults, using the DASS scale (Depression Anxiety, and Stress Scale). Although levels of symptoms were generally low at the start of the alert, younger individuals with chronic diseases reported more symptoms than the rest of the population. The study also detected higher levels of symptoms after the stay-at-home order was issued. Such symptoms are predicted to increase as the confinement continues. The authors propose psychological interventions for prevention and treatment in order to mitigate the pandemic's psychological impacts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Quarantine/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Age Distribution , Depression/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Middle Aged
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(6): 495-500, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038698

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the relationship between pseudoexfoliation syndrome and incidence of complications and related clinical factors in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 503 of 551 patients who underwent phacoemulsification surgery over 2 years in a health care district in Northwest Spain. In total, 120 of 681 eyes undergoing the procedure had pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Data on the surgical procedure and associated complications were extracted from the medical record. Complications included any combination of posterior capsular rupture, vitreous loss, zonular dialysis, and nuclear or lens luxation. Results: We found a significant association between pseudoexfoliation syndrome and zonular dialysis (odds ratio [OR], 6.89; 95% CI, 2.27-20.93), intraoperative miosis (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.10-4.22), and lens luxation >1.5 mm (OR, 9.49; 95% CI, 0.85-105.54). However, when adjusting for the overall risk of complications in pseudoexfoliation syndrome patients in consideration of myopia, use of anticoagulants or α-agonists, previous mydriasis, and anterior chamber length, the OR decreased to 1.02 (95% CI, 0.47-2.21) and was therefore not significant. Conclusion: Zonular dialysis and intraoperative miosis were intraoperative complications in cataract surgery patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome when compared to controls.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a relação entre a síndrome de pseudoexfoliação e a prevalência de complicações e fatores clínicos relacionados em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de coorte de 503 de 551 pacientes que se submeteram à cirurgia de facoemulsificação durante 2 anos em um distrito de saúde no noroeste da Espanha. No total, 120 dos 681 olhos submetidos ao procedimento apresentavam síndrome de pseudoexfoliação. Dados sobre o procedimento cirúrgico e complicações associadas foram obtidos dos prontuários médicos. As complicações incluíram qualquer combinação de ruptura da cápsula posterior, perda de humor vítreo, diálise zonular e luxação do núcleo ou do cristalino. Resultados: Encontramos uma associação significativa entre síndrome de pseudoexfoliação e diálise zonular (razão de probabilidade [RP]: 6,89; IC 95%, 2,27-20,93), a miose perioperatória (RP: 2,15; IC 95%, 1,10-4,22) e luxação do cristalino >1,5 mm (RP: 9,49; IC 95%, 0,85-105,54). Porém, ao ajustar para o risco global de complicações em pacientes com síndrome de pseudoexfolição em consideração à miopia, uso de anticoagulantes ou α-agonistas, midríase prévia e comprimento da câmara anterior, a RP diminuiu para 1,02 (IC 95%, 0,47-2,21) e não foi, portanto, significativo. Conclusão: A diálise zonular e a miose intraoperatória foram complicações intraoperatórias em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata com síndrome de pseudoexfoliação quando comparados aos controles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract/complications , Exfoliation Syndrome/complications , Phacoemulsification/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Time Factors , Cataract/physiopathology , Cataract/epidemiology , Visual Acuity , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Exfoliation Syndrome/physiopathology , Exfoliation Syndrome/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
16.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(3): 170-174, jul. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006512

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características y evolución de los pacientes que acudieron a las urgencias de nuestro hospital y fueron diagnosticados de cetoacidosis diabética (CAD) utilizando la novedosa herramienta de Big Data Savana. Método: Estudio retrospectivo descriptivo de los pacientes atendidos en urgencias del Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor durante los años 2011 al 2016 con diagnóstico de CAD. La búsqueda se realizó con Savana Manager. Resultados: Se diagnosticaron 95 episodios de CAD en 68 pacientes. Del total de episodios de CAD, 57 fueron en diabéticos tipo 1 (de ellos 4 LADA), 25 en diabéticos tipo 2, 2 en diabéticos postpancreatectomía y 12 fueron debuts diabéticos. Del total, 61 (64,2%) requirieron ingreso hospitalario, de ellos 23 (24,2%) ingresaron en UCI. La media de HbA1c fue de 10,6 ± 2,1%. Tres pacientes requirieron reingreso tras el alta. La mortalidad fue muy baja con el fallecimiento en 1 paciente diagnosticado simultáneamente de cáncer pulmonar. Los desencadenantes de la CAD fueron: 35 casos (36,8%) falta de adherencia al tratamiento, 31 (32,6%) infecciones, 12 (12,6%) debuts, 8 (8,4%) varias causas y 9 (9,5%) no se pudo determinar la causa. Se clasificaron como CAD de gravedad leve un 28%, un 38% como de gravedad moderada y 34% como graves. La duración del ingreso no se relacionó con la severidad de la cetoacidosis. Conclusiones: La CAD es una complicación grave que afecta tanto a diabéticos tipo 1 como a tipo 2 con elevado porcentaje de ingresos hospitalarios y en UCI, aunque con baja mortalidad en nuestro medio. La duración de los ingresos no se relaciona con la severidad del cuadro.


Objective: the study was designed to describe the clinical features and evolution of the diabetic patients attended in our hospital emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) using the novel Big Data tool Savana. Method: Retrospective descriptive study of the patients attended in the emergency room of the Infanta Leonor University Hospital during the years 2011 to 2016 with diagnosis of CAD. The search was made with Savana. Results: 95 episodes of DKA were diagnosed in 68 patients. Of the total episodes of CAD 57 were in type 1 diabetics (of which 4 were LADA), 25 in type 2 diabetics, 2 in diabetics postpancreatectomy and 12 were new onset of diabetes. Of the total, 61 (64.2%) required hospital admission, of which 23 (24.2%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean HbA1c was 10.6 ± 2.1%. Three patients required readmission after discharge. Mortality was very low with death in 1 patient simultaneously diagnosed of lung cancer. The triggers of CAD were: 35 cases (36,8%) lack of adherence to treatment, 31 (32.6%) infections, 12 (12.6%) new onset, 8 (8,4%) various causes and 9 (9.5%) the cause could not be determined. They were classified as mild DKA 28%, 38% as moderate and 34% as severe. The duration of admission was not related to the severity of ketoacidosis. Conclusions: DKA is a serious complication that affects both, type 1 and type 2 diabetics patients, with a high percentage of hospital and ICU admissions, although with low mortality in our environment. The lenght of the stay in hospital is not related to the severity of the DKA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Medical Informatics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology
17.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 79(2): 159-166, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014432

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La disfonía es un síntoma muy frecuente en la infancia, que genera mucha preocupación en los padres y que puede afectar negativamente en el desarrollo emocional de los niños. A pesar de esto en España carecemos de datos estadísticos de su prevalencia. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de disfonía en los niños de edad escolar matriculados en el Colegio "Ensanche" de Teruel. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Nuestra población de estudio fueron niños entre 6 y 12 años matriculados en el Colegio "Ensanche" de Teruel. Para la valoración de la voz utilizamos una escala visual analógica y el índice de discapacidad pediátrico modificado. Resultados: 200 niños cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, 103 fueron de sexo femenino (51,5%) y 97 masculinos (48,5%). El rango de edad fue de 7 a 12 años. El 57% de los padres identificaron alteraciones de la voz en sus hijos para un total de 114 niños, de los cuales 17 puntuaron en rango patológico (24 ±11) que representan el 8,5%. Conclusión: Detectamos trastornos de voz en 57% de los niños evaluados y de éstos el 8,5% obtuvo puntuaciones que ameritarían una visita al especialista.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Dysphonia is a frequent symptom in childhood, which generates concern in parents and can negatively affect the emotional development of children. Despite this, in Spain, we lack statistical data on its prevalence. Aim: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of dysphonia in school- age children enrolled in the "Ensanche" de Teruel school. Material and method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. Our study population was children between 6 and 12 years enrolled in the "Ensanche" de Teruel school. For the evaluation of the voice, we used an analogue visual scale and the modified index of pediatric disability. Results: 200 children met the inclusion criteria, 103 were female (51.5%) and 97 male (48.5%). The age range was 7 to 12 years, 50.5% were between 10 and 11 years old. 57% of the parents identified voice alterations in their children for a total of 114 children, of which 17 children scored in pathological range (24 ±11) representing 8.5% of the total. Conclusions: We detected voice disorders in 57% of the children evaluated and of these, 8.5% obtained scores that would warrant a visit to the specialist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Voice Disorders/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Age and Sex Distribution
18.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(2): 445-464, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012202

ABSTRACT

Resumen Tras la Guerra Civil, las deficientes condiciones higiénico-dietéticas de gran parte de la población española favorecieron la aparición de enfermedades epidémicas. El tifus exantemático puso en jaque a las autoridades sanitarias, especialmente durante la primavera de 1941, cuando el ciclo epidemiológico de la enfermedad y la falta de infraestructuras se aliaron para provocar una grave crisis sanitaria. El régimen franquista, consciente de que esta situación dificultaba su legitimación, no dudó en utilizar la exclusión social como parte de su política sanitaria contra esta epidemia. El artículo analiza en profundidad el caso de Valencia, una ciudad que durante la guerra, por hallarse en la retaguardia republicana, había acogido sucesivas oleadas de refugiados a medida que avanzaban las tropas franquistas.


Abstract After the Spanish Civil War, poor hygiene and nutritional deficiencies among a large part of Spain's population contributed to the rise of epidemic diseases. Exanthematic typhus posed a challenge to the health authorities, especially during the spring of 1941, when the epidemiological cycle of the disease and the lack of infrastructures combined to create a serious health crisis. The Franco regime, aware that this situation posed a threat to its legitimacy, promptly used social exclusion as part of its health policy against the epidemic. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the case of Valencia, a city that was behind Republican lines during the war, and therefore received successive waves of refugees as Franco's troops advanced.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/history , Communicable Disease Control/history , Epidemics/history , Spain/epidemiology , Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/prevention & control , Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/epidemiology , Quarantine/history , Hygiene/history , Epidemics/prevention & control
19.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(2): 161-165, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013280

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate how symptoms vary according to the appendiceal position in pediatric patients and to demonstrate that the laparoscopic approach is safe and effective in any appendiceal location by comparing each location to another. Methods: The medical records of 1,736 children aged 14 or younger who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy over a period of 14 years were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided according to the position of the appendiceal tip into four groups: anterior, pelvic, retrocecal and subhepatic. The Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used with the Bonferroni correction, with a significant p<0.05. Results: The appendiceal location was anterior in 1,366 cases, retrocecal in 248 cases, pelvic in 66 cases and subhepatic in 56 cases. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of patient age and gender. Abdominal pain was the only symptom with statistically significant differences between the groups. The rate of perforated appendicitis was higher in the subhepatic and pelvic positions. Intraoperative complications and conversions were not statistically significant. Technical difficulties and operative time were higher in subhepatic position. The rate of postoperative complications was similar between the different locations, except for bowel obstruction, which was higher in pelvic appendicitis. Conclusions: The clinical symptoms of appendicitis hardly ever change with the position of the appendix. The laparoscopic approach is safe and effective, regardless the appendiceal location.


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar como os sintomas variam de acordo com a posição do apêndice em pacientes pediátricos e demonstrar que a laparoscopia é segura e eficaz em qualquer posição do apêndice, comparando-as. Métodos: Os prontuários de 1.736 pacientes pediátricos com idade ≤14 anos submetidos à apendicectomia laparoscópica em um período de 14 anos foram analisados retrospectivamente. Os pacientes foram divididos de acordo com a posição do apêndice: anterior, pélvica, retrocecal e sub-hepático. Os testes de Kruskal-Wallis e do qui-quadrado foram usados com a correção de Bonferroni, sendo significante p<0,05. Resultados: A posição do apêndice era anterior em 1.366 casos, retrocecal em 248 casos, pélvica em 66 casos e sub-hepática em 56 casos. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto às variáveis idade e sexo. A dor abdominal foi a única variável com diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos. A taxa de apêndice perfurado foi superior nas posições sub-hepática e pélvica. As complicações intraoperatórias e a taxa de conversão não foram estatisticamente significativas. As dificuldades técnicas e o tempo cirúrgico foram superiores em posição sub-hepática. A taxa de complicações pós-operatórias foi semelhante entre as diferentes posições, exceto a obstrução intestinal, que foi superior em posição pélvica. Conclusões: Os sintomas da apendicite dificilmente variam com a posição do apêndice. A laparoscopia é segura e eficaz, independentemente da posição do apêndice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/pathology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Appendectomy/adverse effects , Appendectomy/methods , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/physiopathology , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Operative Time , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 4-9, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002597

ABSTRACT

Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) engloban a un grupo heterogéneo de trastornos del neurodesarrollo que tienen en común la presencia de problemas para la interacción/comunicación social y la tendencia a mostrar intereses restringidos o conductas repetitivas. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos realizados en diferentes países en los últimos años han mostrado de forma consistente dos características: el incremento progresivo en la prevalencia de los TEA a nivel mundial y la existencia de una gran variabilidad geográfica entre territorios y dentro de un mismo territorio. En el presente artículo analizamos los datos de prevalencia más recientemente publicados en EE.UU. y en diversos países de Europa (incluyendo España), que muestran tasas de prevalencia muy variables, con un rango que abarca desde 1/59 niños con trastornos del espectro autista en EE. UU., hasta 1/806 en Portugal. En un segundo tiempo describimos brevemente algunas de las principales hipótesis que intentan explicar esta variabilidad.


Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share the presence of two core symptoms: problems in social interaction / communication and the tendency to present restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Over the last years, several epidemiologic studies have been published by different authors in diverse countries, having all of them shown two common characteristics: a global increase in the prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorders, and the existence of a great geographical variability no only between geographical areas, but also within the same geographical areas. At the present manuscript, we analyze some of the most recent prevalence data published in USA and some European countries (including Spain). All of them show different prevalence rates, ranging from 1/59 children with autism spectrum disorders in the USA to 1/806 in Portugal. In a second part, we briefly describe some of the current scientific hypotheses that try to explain this variability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Research Design/standards , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Demography/trends , Prevalence , Age Factors , Europe/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis
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