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Pap. avulsos zool ; 62: e202262062, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1419149


Lopesia pleromatis sp. nov. (Lopesiini, Cecidomyiidi) is described based on material collected in Atlantic Forest areas of Bertioga (São Paulo State, Brazil). Specimens were obtained from globoid leaf galls on Pleroma raddianum (DC.) Gardner (Melastomataceae), an endemic plant to Brazil. Lopesia pleromatis is compared to other congeneric species. The most important morphological characters are illustrated.(AU)

Diptera/classification , Myrtales , Species Specificity , Brazil
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e005722, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394895


Abstract This paper investigated information on monogenean species using 312 scientific papers, to search for infection and geographic distribution patterns in native freshwater fish from Brazil. We used 1,698 samples of 296 fish species of 28 families distributed into Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cichliformes, Gymnotiformes, Perciformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes and Clupeiformes, in addition to four hybrid fish. Among the hosts of the different orders and families, the greatest numbers of parasite-host associations were found for species of the families Serrasalmidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Curimatidae and Anostomidae. The 578 species of monogeneans used in parasite-host interactions were distributed in 86 genera of six five families (Dactylogyridae, Gyrodactylidae, Diplectanidae, Microcotylidae, Ancylodiscoididae and Ancyrocephalidae), but with great predominance of Dactylogyridae species. There was variation in prevalence, intensity and abundance levels of monogeneans species among host fish species, as well as in infection sites that occurred predominantly in external organs. Positive correlations of prevalence, intensity and abundance with body length of hosts were observed. There was geographic distribution pattern of monogeneans limited mostly to two hydrographic basins those being the Amazon River and Paraná River. Just approximately 6% of potential monogeneans have been explored thus far, showing a clear need for further studies on this interesting group of parasites.

Resumo Este estudo investigou informações sobre espécies de monogenéticos, usando 312 artigos científicos para buscar padrões de infecção e distribuição geográfica em peixes nativos de água doce do Brasil. Foram utilizadas 1.698 amostras de 296 espécies de peixes de 28 famílias, distribuídas em Characiformes, Siluriformes, Cichliformes, Gymnotiformes, Perciformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes e Clupeiformes, além de quatro peixes híbridos. Entre os hospedeiros das diferentes ordens e famílias, os maiores números de associações parasito-hospedeiro foram encontrados para espécies das famílias Serrasalmidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Curimatidae e Anostomidae. As 578 espécies de monogenéticos, utilizadas nas interações parasito-hospedeiro, foram distribuídas em 86 gêneros de seis famílias (Dactylogyridae, Gyrodactylidae, Diplectanidae, Microcotylidae, Ancylodiscoididae e Ancyrocephalidae), mas com grande predominância de espécie de Dactylogyridae. Houve variação nos níveis de prevalência, intensidade e abundância das espécies de monogenéticos entre as espécies de peixes hospedeiros, bem como nos locais de infecção que ocorreram predominantemente em órgãos externos. Correlações positivas de prevalência, intensidade e abundância com o comprimento corporal dos hospedeiros foram observadas. Houve padrão de distribuição geográfica dos monogenéticos limitados principalmente a duas bacias hidrográficas, sendo elas o Rio Amazonas e Rio Paraná. Apenas aproximadamente 6% dos potenciais monogenéticos são conhecidos até agora, mostrando uma clara necessidade de mais estudos sobre esse interessante grupo de parasitos.

Animals , Platyhelminths/physiology , Animal Distribution/physiology , Fishes/parasitology , Fresh Water/parasitology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Platyhelminths/classification , Species Specificity , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Trematode Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Fishes/classification , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Nematode Infections/epidemiology
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-7, 2022. map, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468431


Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) was previously accepted to be a subspecies of M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). However, it was later suggested that they are geographically isolated from each other. Although hybridological studies and differences in certain external characteristics support the idea that M. dahli is a separate species, there are still doubts on its species status, and the exact range of its distribution is not known. In this paper, we provide some taxonomic information about the species, and compare these with the information given in previous studies. We argue that some differences exist among Armenian population regarding external measurements. Recent studies indicate that M. dahli is currently only distributed in Turkey, as an endemic mammal species. We provide predictions about the distribution of M. dahli, and report the estimated population size to its maximum value. Food preference studies for this species, conducted under laboratory conditions, are also introduced for the first time. We discuss the ecological data obtained from field studies, and emphasize that the habitat of M. dahli is about to disappear. Consequently, the protection status of this species should urgently be changed to the CR category and conservation studies must be carried out immediately.

Meriones dahli (Shidlovsky, 1962) foi previamente aceito como uma subespécie de M. meridianus (Pallas, 1773). No entanto, mais tarde, foi sugerido que eles estão geograficamente isolados um do outro. Embora estudos hibridológicos e diferenças em certas características externas apoiem a ideia de que M. dahli é uma espécie separada, ainda há dúvidas sobre o status de sua espécie, e a extensão exata de sua distribuição não é conhecida. Neste artigo, fornecemos algumas informações taxonômicas sobre as espécies e as comparamos com as informações fornecidas em estudos anteriores. Argumentamos que existem algumas diferenças entre a espécie armênia em relação às medidas externas. Estudos recentes indicam que M. dahli está atualmente distribuído apenas na Turquia como uma espécie endêmica de mamífero. Fornecemos previsões sobre a distribuição de M. dahli e relatamos o tamanho estimado da população em seu valor máximo. Estudos de preferência alimentar para essa espécie, conduzidos em condições de laboratório, também são introduzidos pela primeira vez. Discutimos sobre os dados ecológicos obtidos em estudos de campo e enfatizamos que o habitat de M. dahli está prestes a desaparecer. Consequentemente, o status de proteção dessa espécie deve ser alterado com urgência para a categoria CR, e estudos de conservação devem ser realizados imediatamente.

Animals , Mice , Population Growth , Species Specificity , Endangered Species , Gerbillinae/classification , Animal Population Groups
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 29-33, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291632


BACKGROUND: Agkistrodon acutus, a traditional Chinese medicine, clinically used in the treatment of rheumatism, tumor, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the unique medicinal value and the difficulty of artificial breeding of Agkistrodon acutus, the supply of Agkistrodon acutus on the market exceeds the demand, and a large number of its adulterants are found on the market. In this study, the cytb gene sequences of Agkistrodon acutus and 9 snakes were compared and analyzed, specific primers were designed, and specific PCR methods were established to detect Agkistrodon acutus medicinal samples on the market. RESULTS: This method was successfully applied to distinguish the snake from other adulterated species, and tested 18 Agkistrodon acutus samples randomly purchased from six cities. Twelve samples were counterfeit and six were genuine. The standard reference material of Agkistrodon acutus was cloned by molecular cloning and sequencing, and the gene sequence difference with other species was significant. It shows that the region could be used as the fingerprint region of the target species. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can be used as a species-specific marker and can be highly distinguished from other adulterated snake species, which is helpful to effectively avoid the problem of false sale of Agkistrodon acutus.

Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Agkistrodon/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Snakes , Species Specificity , DNA/analysis , Cloning, Molecular , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921343


Objective@#This study aims to investigate the infection of @*Method@#Infection of the definitive human host and intermediate fish host by @*Results@#In 2016-2020, the average population infection rate of Hunan was 1.38%, while in Tongdao County the rate was up to 26.90%, and the highest fish infection rate was detected in Qiyang County (99.44% in the dorsal fin of @*Conclusion@#The systematically study of

Animals , Cats , Dogs , Humans , Cat Diseases/parasitology , China/epidemiology , Clonorchiasis/veterinary , Clonorchis sinensis/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes , Incidence , Prevalence , Species Specificity
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887992


This study aims to investigate metabolic activities of psoralidin in human liver microsomes( HLM) and intestinal microsomes( HIM),and to identify cytochrome P450 enzymes( CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferases( UGTs) involved in psoralidin metabolism as well as species differences in the in vitro metabolism of psoralen. First,after incubation serial of psoralidin solutions with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate( NADPH) or uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronic acid( UDPGA)-supplemented HLM or HIM,two oxidic products( M1 and M2) and two conjugated glucuronides( G1 and G2) were produced in HLM-mediated incubation system,while only M1 and G1 were detected in HIM-supplemented system. The CLintfor M1 in HLM and HIM were 104. 3,and57. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively,while those for G1 were 543. 3,and 75. 9 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively. Furthermore,reaction phenotyping was performed to identify the main contributors to psoralidin metabolism after incubation of psoralidin with NADPH-supplemented twelve CYP isozymes( or UDPGA-supplemented twelve UGT enzymes),respectively. The results showed that CYP1 A1( 39. 5 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C8( 88. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C19( 166. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),and CYP2 D6( 9. 1 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) were identified as the main CYP isoforms for M1,whereas CYP2 C19( 42. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) participated more in producing M2. In addition,UGT1 A1( 1 184. 4 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A7( 922. 8 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A8( 133. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A9( 348. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) and UGT2 B7( 118. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) played important roles in the generation of G1,while UGT1 A9( 111. 3 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) was regarded as the key UGT isozyme for G2. Moreover,different concentrations of psoralidin were incubated with monkey liver microsomes( MkLM),rat liver microsomes( RLM),mice liver microsomes( MLM),dog liver microsomes( DLM) and mini-pig liver microsomes( MpLM),respectively. The obtained CLintwere used to evaluate the species differences.Phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation of psoralidinby liver microsomes showed significant species differences. In general,psoralidin underwent efficient hepatic and intestinal metabolisms. CYP1 A1,CYP2 C8,CYP2 C19,CYP2 D6 and UGT1 A1,UGT1 A7,UGT1 A8,UGT1 A9,UGT2 B7 were identified as the main contributors responsible for phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively. Rat and mini-pig were considered as the appropriate model animals to investigate phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively.

Animals , Dogs , Mice , Rats , Benzofurans , Coumarins , Glucuronides , Glucuronosyltransferase/metabolism , Kinetics , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Phenotype , Species Specificity , Swine , Swine, Miniature/metabolism
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 388-395, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249936


Resumen Introducción: La Ciudad de México no tiene presencia endémica de Aedes aegypti, por lo que está libre de enfermedades transmitidas por vector como dengue, Zika y chikunguña. Sin embargo, existe evidencia de la presencia de huevecillos en la urbe desde 2015. Objetivo: Reportar la presencia constante y en aumento de huevecillos de Aedes aegypti en la Ciudad de México de 2015 a 2018. Método: Se realizó vigilancia a través de ovitrampas; se contabilizaron y eclosionaron huevecillos para determinar la especie. Resultados: De 2015 a 2018 fueron identificados 378 organismos como Aedes aegypti. En total fueron colectadas 76 ovitrampas positivas a Aedes aegypti en 50 sitios distintos de 11 alcaldías. El noreste de la Ciudad de México fue el área con mayor positividad. Conclusiones: Los resultados pueden estar indicando un periodo de colonización incipiente y la probable la existencia de colonias crípticas del mosquito, por lo que la Ciudad de México podría estar en riesgo de presentar epidemias de enfermedades transmitidas por vector.

Abstract Introduction: Mexico City has no endemic presence of Aedes aegypti, and it is therefore free of vector-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, Zika and chikungunya. However, evidence has shown the presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in the city since 2015. Objective: To report the constant and increasing presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in Mexico City from 2015 to 2018. Methods: Surveillance was carried out using ovitraps. Eggs were counted and hatched in order to determine the species. Results: From 2015 to 2018, 378 organisms were identified as Ae. aegypti. In total, 76 Aedes aegypti-positive ovitraps were collected at 50 different places in 11 boroughs of the city. Northeastern Mexico City was the area with the highest number of positive traps. Conclusions: The results may be indicating a period of early colonization and the probable existence of cryptic colonies of the mosquito, and Mexico City could be therefore at risk of experiencing vector-borne epidemics.

Animals , Aedes/classification , Dengue , Eggs , Mosquito Vectors , Species Specificity , Cities , Aedes/growth & development , Larva/classification , Larva/growth & development , Mexico
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 372-378, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377328


Abstract: Objective: To determine the time of oogenic development and the length of the gonotrophic cycle of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in laboratory. Materials and methods: Bloodfed females of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were dissected every 4 h to determine the development status of the follicles according to the Christophers' stages. Results: The minimum time of oocyte maturation in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was 64-82 h and 52-64 h post-feeding, respectively. We found that the gonotrophic cycle of Ae. aegypti (3.7-4.2 d) is longer than that of Ae. albopictus (3.2-3.7 d). The follicle length showed significant differences between species at Christophers' stages 2" and 5, whereas follicle amplitude was different between the two mosquitoes at stages 2", 3 and 4. Conclusions: The study provided new evidence on the reproductive strategies of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females that coexist in the Neotropical region of Mexico.

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar el tiempo de desarrollo oogénico y del ciclo gonotrófico de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus en laboratorio. Material y métodos: Hembras de Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus alimentadas con sangre fueron disecadas cada cuatro horas para determinar el estado de desarrollo folicular, según los estadios de Christophers. Resultados: El tiempo mínimo de maduración del oocito en Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus fue de 64-82 h y 52-64 h post-alimentación, respectivamente. El ciclo gonotrófico de Ae. aegypti (3.7-4.2 d) fue mayor que el de Ae. albopictus (3.2-3.7 d). La longitud folicular presentó diferencias significativas entre las especies en los estadios de Christophers 2" y 5, mientras que la amplitud folicular fue diferente entre ambos mosquitos en los estadios 2", 3 y 4. Conclusiones: El estudio proporcionó nueva evidencia sobre la estrategia reproductiva de las hembras de Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus que coexisten en la región neotropical de México.

Animals , Female , Oocytes/growth & development , Aedes/physiology , Ovarian Follicle/growth & development , Oviposition/physiology , Reproduction/physiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Animals, Laboratory/physiology , Mexico
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 388-401, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377330


Abstract: Objective: To determine the abundance and geographic distribution of the main malaria vectors, which are influenced by habitat characteristics and ecological factors that directly impact adult density and the dynamics of malaria transmission in Mexico. Materials and methods: Samples of larvae were collected from 19 states in Mexico. Each larval habitat was characterized in situ determining the following parameters: water depth, turbidity, percentage of vegetation cover, amount of detritus, presence of algae, light intensity, type of vegetation, amount of predators, habitat stability, altitude, and hydrologic type. Results: A total of 21 687 larvae corresponding to 13 anopheline species were obtained from 149 aquatic habitats. The most abundant species were Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (52.91%), An. albimanus (39.14%) and An. franciscanus (5.29%). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between An. pseudopunctipennis and water turbidity (ß=-1.342; Wald=6.122; p=0.013) and the amount of detritus (ß=-2.206; Wald=3.642; p=0.050). While in An. albimanus, there was a significant positive association with water turbidity (ß=1.344; Wald=4.256; p=0.039), a negative correlation was found with the altitude (ß=-3.445; Wald=5.407; p=0.020). The highest mosquito species diversity index was found in Chiapas (Fisher's α=1.20) and the lowest diversity in Chihuahua (Fisher's α=0.26). The greatest richness was found in streams (n=11). Conclusions: The two most abundant species were: An. albimanus and An. pseudopunctipennis. Detailed knowledge of the distribution and characteristics of their larval habitats will be useful for the effective implementation of control strategies in Mexico.

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la abundancia y la distribución geográfica de los principales vectores de la malaria, las cuales están influenciadas por las características del hábitat y los factores ecológicos que afectan directamente la densidad de los adultos y la dinámica de la transmisión de la malaria en México. Material y métodos: Se obtuvieron muestras de larvas de 19 estados de México. Cada hábitat larvario se caracterizó in situ determinando los siguientes parámetros: profundidad del agua, turbidez, porcentaje de cobertura vegetal, cantidad de detritus, presencia de algas, intensidad de luz, tipo de vegetación, cantidad de depredadores, estabilidad del hábitat, altitud y tipo hidrológico. Resultados: Se identificaron un total de 21 687 larvas pertenecientes a 13 especies de anofelinos, de 149 hábitats acuáticos. Las tres especies más abundantes fueron Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (52.91%), An. albimanus (39.14%) y An. franciscanus (5.29%). El análisis de regresión logística múltiple mostró una asociación negativa para An. pseudopunctipennis y la turbidez del agua (ß=-1.342; Wald= 6.122; p=0.013) y la cantidad de detritus (ß=-2.206; Wald= 3.642; p=0.050). Para An. albimanus se encontró una asociación positiva significativa con la turbidez del agua (ß=1.344; Wald= 4.256; p=0.039) y una correlación negativa con la altitud (ß=-3.445; Wald=5.407; p=0.020). El índice de diversidad más alto se encontró en Chiapas (α de Fisher=1.20) y la diversidad más baja en Chihuahua (α de Fisher=0.26). La mayor riqueza se encontró en los arroyos (n=11). Conclusiones: Las dos especies más abundantes fueron An. albimanus y An. pseudopunctipennis. El conocimiento detallado de la distribución y características de sus hábitats larvales será útil para la implementación efectiva de las estrategias de control en México.

Animals , Ecosystem , Mosquito Vectors , Anopheles , Species Specificity , Water/parasitology , Regression Analysis , Population Density , Larva , Malaria/transmission , Mexico
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 439-446, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377336


Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia a insecticidas en Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus de Tapachula, Chiapas, México. Material y métodos: Se utilizaron ovitrampas para obtener huevos de mosquitos Aedes y se realizaron pruebas de susceptibilidad (CDC) y ensayos enzimáticos con la primera generación. Resultados: Aedes aegypti mostró resistencia a deltametrina, permetrina, malatión, clorpirifos, temefos y a bendiocarb (CARB), mientras que Aedes albopictus a malatión y en menor grado a cloripirifos, temefos, permetrina y deltametrina. Ambas especies mostraron altos niveles de enzimas como citocomo P450 y glutatión S-tranferasa, mientras que los niveles de esterasas variaron por especie y sitio muestreado. Se detectó acetilcolinesterasa insensible a insecticidas en ambas especies. Conclusión: En un hábitat urbano de Tapachula, Chiapas, México donde se aplica control con insecticidas Ae. aegypti y Ae. albopictus sólo son susceptibles al propoxur.

Abstract: Objective: To determine the insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Tapachula, México. Materials and methods: Mosquito eggs were collected with the use of ovitraps and CDC susceptibility bioassays and biochemical assays were conducted to determine resistance levels and resistance mechanisms, respectively. Results: Ae. aegypti showed resistance to deltamethrin and permethrin (PYRs), malathion, chlorpyrifos and temephos (OP), and to bendiocarb (CARB), while Ae. albopictus showed resistance to malathion and to a lesser intensity to chlorypirifos, temephos, permethrin and deltamethrin. Both species showed high levels of P450 and GSTs, while levels of esterases varied by species and collection site. Altered acethilcholinesterase was detected in both species. Conclusion: In an urban habitat from Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico where vector control using insecticides takes place, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are only susceptible to propoxur.

Animals , Insecticide Resistance , Aedes/drug effects , Mosquito Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/pharmacology , Propoxur , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Species Specificity , Aedes/enzymology , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/analysis , Mosquito Vectors/enzymology , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Mexico
Salud pública Méx ; 62(4): 447-449, jul.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377337


Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of Wolbachia infections in Aedes spp. field populations from cemeteries of Southern Mexico. Materials and methods: Six cemeteries were selected to be sampled in the central part of the Soconusco region, Chiapas. Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected during the rainy season of 2015. Females were analyzed individually by PCR to determine the presence of Wolbachia. Results: A field overall prevalence of 38% was found; only Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were positive. Conclusion: Local strains of Wolbachia were detected and have the potential to be applied as a biological method for vector control.

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la presencia de Wolbachia en poblaciones de campo de Aedes spp. en cementerios del Sur de México. Material y métodos: Se seleccionaron seis cementerios como sitios de colecta para las poblaciones silvestres de Aedes albopictus y Ae. aegypti, en la región del Soconusco, Chiapas, durante la época de lluvias 2015. Se determinó la infección por Wolbachia en hembras individuales por PCR. Resultados: Se obtuvo una infección de 38% por Wolbachia en Ae. albopictus. Conclusión: Existen cepas locales de Wolbachia en los mosquitos y poseen el potencial de aplicarse como medida de control biológico de vectores.

Animals , Female , Aedes/microbiology , Wolbachia/isolation & purification , Cemeteries , Mosquito Vectors/microbiology , Rain , Species Specificity , Mexico
Salud pública Méx ; 62(1): 36-41, ene.-feb. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366002


Resumen: Con la introducción de las vacunas de rotavirus Rotarix (RV1) o RotaTeq (RV5) en programas nacionales de vacunación de diversos países, surgió la preocupación de que la presión inmune generada condujera al aumento en la prevalencia de genotipos virales no incluidos en las vacunas, o bien del surgimiento de nuevas cepas que pudieran escapar a la respuesta inmune protectora inducida por la vacunación. La variación natural de los rotavirus ha hecho que sea muy difícil distinguir si el cambio en las cepas circulantes se debe a la presión selectiva impuesta por las vacunas o bien a la fluctuación natural de las cepas. Si acaso ha habido una presión selectiva, ésta ha sido hasta ahora baja. Sin embargo, es importante mantener la vigilancia epidemiólogica y poner atención al surgimiento de cepas resistentes a la inmunidad, en particular en países en desarrollo en los que se ha descrito una mayor diversidad viral.

Abstract: With the introduction of rotavirus vaccines Rotarix (RV1) or RotaTeq (RV5) in the immunization programs of an increasing number of countries, there is concern that the immune selection pressure induced will cause an increase in the prevalence of virus genotypes not included in the vaccine formulation, or to the appearance of novel rotavirus strains that could evade the protective immune response. The natural fluctuation of rotaviruses makes it difficult to distinguish if the change in the circulating strains is due to the vaccine selective pressure or to the natural diversity fluctuation of viruses. If there has been a selective pressure, it has been low so far. However, it is important to keep an epidemiological surveillance and pay attention to the emergence of strains that are resistant to the vaccine, in particular in those countries where the viral diversity has been shown to be higher.

Animals , Humans , Genome, Viral , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/immunology , Rotavirus Vaccines/immunology , Genotype , Species Specificity , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Zoonoses/virology , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Vaccines/genetics , Diarrhea/virology , Immune Evasion , Mutation
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e020420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144231


Abstract This study aimed to report the first record of the occurrence of the parasite Livoneca guianensis in Leporinus fasciatus in Brazil. In September 2019, during surveys of the parasites in 12 specimens of L. fasciatus from the lower Jari River basin, in Amapá State, Brazil, one specimen of L. guianensis was found in the tongue of one host. The prevalence of L. guianensis was 8.3%, and it was observed that this parasite has a geographic distribution restricted to South America, parasitizing fish species from Guyana and Brazil. This study contributed to the first report on the occurrence of L. guianensis for L. fasciatus in Brazil. In addition, increased the knowledge on the geographic distribution of this parasite with morphometric data, which are scarce for this Cymothoidae.

Resumo Este estudo objetivou registrar a primeira ocorrência de Livoneca guianensis em Leporinus fasciatus no Brasil. Em setembro de 2019, durante uma pesquisa sobre parasitos em 12 espécimes de L. fasciatus do baixo Rio Jari, Estado do Amapá, norte do Brasil, um espécime de L. guianensis foi encontrado na língua de um hospedeiro. A prevalência de L. guianensis foi de 8,3% e foi observado que esse parasito tem distribuição geográfica restrita à América do Sul, parasitando espécies de peixes da Guiana e do Brasil. Este estudo contribuiu com o primeiro relato da ocorrência de L. guianensis para L. fasciatus no Brasil. Além disso, aumentou o conhecimento sobre a distribuição geográfica desse parasito, contribuindo com dados morfométricos que são escassos para esse Cymothoidae.

Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Isopoda/anatomy & histology , Isopoda/classification , Characiformes/parasitology , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , Rivers , Host Specificity , Animal Distribution
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e018320, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138144


Abstract The genus Cotylophoron belongs to the Paramphistomidae family and its definitive hosts are ruminants in general. This work describes the presence of a new species of the gender, a parasite in the rumen and reticulum of Bubalus bubalis, on Marajó Island in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon, using of light microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and molecular biology techniques. One hundred and ten animals were analyzed, of which 4.54% were parasitized by flukes in their adult forms. The helminths were found fixed to the ruminal mucosa and present Liorchis-type pharynx, Cotylophoron-type genital sucker, oblique testicles larger than the ovary, uterus in rings full of eggs and Cotylophoron-type acetabulum. These morphologic characters do not fit into any previously described species. Thus, it is proposed that this is a new species in the genus Cotylophoron. The present work expands the record of parasitism by helminths in Bubalus bubalis, this being the first record of trematoda from the genus Cotylophoron for this host in the Brazilian Amazon.

Resumo O gênero Cotylophoron pertence à família Paramphistomidae e possui como hospedeiros definitivos ruminantes em geral. Este trabalho descreve a presença de uma espécie nova do gênero, parasito do rúmen e retículo de Bubalus bubalis, na Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia oriental brasileira, a partir das técnicas de microscopia de luz, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e biologia molecular. Foram analisados 110 animais, dos quais 4,54% estavam parasitados por trematódeos na sua forma adulta. Os helmintos foram encontrados fixados à mucosa ruminal, apresentando faringe do tipo Liorchis, ventosa genital do tipo Cotylophoron, testículos oblíquos maiores que o ovário, útero em alças repleto de ovos, e acetábulo do tipo Cotylophoron. Estes caracteres morfológicos não se enquadram em nenhuma espécie previamente descrita. Assim, propõe-se uma nova espécie ao gênero Cotylophoron. O presente trabalho amplia o registro do parasitismo por helmintos em Bubalus bubalis, sendo este o primeiro registro de trematódeos do gênero Cotylophoron nesse hospedeiro para a Amazônia brasileira.

Animals , Male , Female , Paramphistomatidae/classification , Paramphistomatidae/genetics , Paramphistomatidae/ultrastructure , Trematode Infections/parasitology , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Trematode Infections/epidemiology , Buffaloes/parasitology , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Helminth/genetics
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1334-1345, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826843


Lycopene, as a high value-added terpene compound, has been widely concerned by researchers at home and abroad. Firstly, the ability of lycopene synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model strains S288c and YPH499 was analyzed and compared. The results showed that YPH499 was more suitable for lycopene synthesis as yeast chassis. Subsequently, the effects of constitutive promoters GPDpr, TEF1pr and inducible promoters GAL1pr, GAL10pr on Lycopene synthesis were compared. The results showed that when GPDpr and TEF1pr were used as promoters of crtE, crtB and crtI in lycopene synthesis pathway, the production of lycopene was 15.31 mg/L after 60 h fermentation in shaking flask. When GAL1pr and GAL10pr were used as promoters, the production was 123.89 mg/L, which was 8.09 times higher. In addition, the methylvaleric acid (MVA) pathway was further modified to overexpress the key enzyme gene of N-terminal truncation, tHMG1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The lycopene production was 265.68 mg/L, and the yield per cell was 72.79 mg/g. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain designed and constructed in this study can express lycopene in high yield per cell, thus could be used in the industrial production of lycopene after further construction and optimization.

Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Fermentation , Industrial Microbiology , Lycopene , Metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Genetics , Metabolism , Species Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829001


Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.@*Methods@#Ninety isolates were obtained from Ma'anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing.@*Results@#The 90 isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes , , , and found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new variant.@*Conclusions@#Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.

Aeromonas , Genetics , Virulence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Species Specificity , Virulence
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880484


The dynamic activity of transposable elements (TEs) contributes to the vast diversity of genome size and architecture among plants. Here, we examined the genomic distribution and transposition activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and three of its relatives, Arabidopsis lyrata (Aly), Eutrema salsugineum (Esa), and Schrenkiella parvula (Spa), in Brassicaceae. Our analyses revealed the distinct evolutionary dynamics of Gypsyretrotransposons, which reflects the different patterns of genome size changes of the four species over the past million years. The rate of Gypsy transposition in Aly is approximately five times more rapid than that of Ath and Esa, suggesting an expanding Aly genome. Gypsy insertions in Esa are strictly confined to pericentromeric heterochromatin and associated with dramatic centromere expansion. In contrast, Gypsy insertions in Spa have been largely suppressed over the last million years, likely as a result of a combination of an inherent molecular mechanism of preferential DNA removal and purifying selection at Gypsy elements. Additionally, species-specific clades of Gypsy elements shaped the distinct genome architectures of Aly and Esa.

Brassicaceae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome Size , Genome, Plant , Genomics , Phylogeny , Retroelements , Species Specificity