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Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 29-33, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291632


BACKGROUND: Agkistrodon acutus, a traditional Chinese medicine, clinically used in the treatment of rheumatism, tumor, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the unique medicinal value and the difficulty of artificial breeding of Agkistrodon acutus, the supply of Agkistrodon acutus on the market exceeds the demand, and a large number of its adulterants are found on the market. In this study, the cytb gene sequences of Agkistrodon acutus and 9 snakes were compared and analyzed, specific primers were designed, and specific PCR methods were established to detect Agkistrodon acutus medicinal samples on the market. RESULTS: This method was successfully applied to distinguish the snake from other adulterated species, and tested 18 Agkistrodon acutus samples randomly purchased from six cities. Twelve samples were counterfeit and six were genuine. The standard reference material of Agkistrodon acutus was cloned by molecular cloning and sequencing, and the gene sequence difference with other species was significant. It shows that the region could be used as the fingerprint region of the target species. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can be used as a species-specific marker and can be highly distinguished from other adulterated snake species, which is helpful to effectively avoid the problem of false sale of Agkistrodon acutus.

Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Agkistrodon/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Snakes , Species Specificity , DNA/analysis , Cloning, Molecular , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887992


This study aims to investigate metabolic activities of psoralidin in human liver microsomes( HLM) and intestinal microsomes( HIM),and to identify cytochrome P450 enzymes( CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferases( UGTs) involved in psoralidin metabolism as well as species differences in the in vitro metabolism of psoralen. First,after incubation serial of psoralidin solutions with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate( NADPH) or uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronic acid( UDPGA)-supplemented HLM or HIM,two oxidic products( M1 and M2) and two conjugated glucuronides( G1 and G2) were produced in HLM-mediated incubation system,while only M1 and G1 were detected in HIM-supplemented system. The CLintfor M1 in HLM and HIM were 104. 3,and57. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively,while those for G1 were 543. 3,and 75. 9 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1),respectively. Furthermore,reaction phenotyping was performed to identify the main contributors to psoralidin metabolism after incubation of psoralidin with NADPH-supplemented twelve CYP isozymes( or UDPGA-supplemented twelve UGT enzymes),respectively. The results showed that CYP1 A1( 39. 5 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C8( 88. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),CYP2 C19( 166. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),and CYP2 D6( 9. 1 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) were identified as the main CYP isoforms for M1,whereas CYP2 C19( 42. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) participated more in producing M2. In addition,UGT1 A1( 1 184. 4 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A7( 922. 8 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A8( 133. 0 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)),UGT1 A9( 348. 6 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) and UGT2 B7( 118. 7 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) played important roles in the generation of G1,while UGT1 A9( 111. 3 μL·min~(-1)·mg~(-1)) was regarded as the key UGT isozyme for G2. Moreover,different concentrations of psoralidin were incubated with monkey liver microsomes( MkLM),rat liver microsomes( RLM),mice liver microsomes( MLM),dog liver microsomes( DLM) and mini-pig liver microsomes( MpLM),respectively. The obtained CLintwere used to evaluate the species differences.Phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation of psoralidinby liver microsomes showed significant species differences. In general,psoralidin underwent efficient hepatic and intestinal metabolisms. CYP1 A1,CYP2 C8,CYP2 C19,CYP2 D6 and UGT1 A1,UGT1 A7,UGT1 A8,UGT1 A9,UGT2 B7 were identified as the main contributors responsible for phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively. Rat and mini-pig were considered as the appropriate model animals to investigate phase Ⅰ metabolism and glucuronidation,respectively.

Animals , Benzofurans , Coumarins , Dogs , Glucuronides , Glucuronosyltransferase/metabolism , Kinetics , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Phenotype , Rats , Species Specificity , Swine , Swine, Miniature/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921343


Objective@#This study aims to investigate the infection of @*Method@#Infection of the definitive human host and intermediate fish host by @*Results@#In 2016-2020, the average population infection rate of Hunan was 1.38%, while in Tongdao County the rate was up to 26.90%, and the highest fish infection rate was detected in Qiyang County (99.44% in the dorsal fin of @*Conclusion@#The systematically study of

Animals , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cats , China/epidemiology , Clonorchiasis/veterinary , Clonorchis sinensis/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes , Humans , Incidence , Prevalence , Species Specificity
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(5): 388-395, sep.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249936


Resumen Introducción: La Ciudad de México no tiene presencia endémica de Aedes aegypti, por lo que está libre de enfermedades transmitidas por vector como dengue, Zika y chikunguña. Sin embargo, existe evidencia de la presencia de huevecillos en la urbe desde 2015. Objetivo: Reportar la presencia constante y en aumento de huevecillos de Aedes aegypti en la Ciudad de México de 2015 a 2018. Método: Se realizó vigilancia a través de ovitrampas; se contabilizaron y eclosionaron huevecillos para determinar la especie. Resultados: De 2015 a 2018 fueron identificados 378 organismos como Aedes aegypti. En total fueron colectadas 76 ovitrampas positivas a Aedes aegypti en 50 sitios distintos de 11 alcaldías. El noreste de la Ciudad de México fue el área con mayor positividad. Conclusiones: Los resultados pueden estar indicando un periodo de colonización incipiente y la probable la existencia de colonias crípticas del mosquito, por lo que la Ciudad de México podría estar en riesgo de presentar epidemias de enfermedades transmitidas por vector.

Abstract Introduction: Mexico City has no endemic presence of Aedes aegypti, and it is therefore free of vector-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, Zika and chikungunya. However, evidence has shown the presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in the city since 2015. Objective: To report the constant and increasing presence of Aedes aegypti eggs in Mexico City from 2015 to 2018. Methods: Surveillance was carried out using ovitraps. Eggs were counted and hatched in order to determine the species. Results: From 2015 to 2018, 378 organisms were identified as Ae. aegypti. In total, 76 Aedes aegypti-positive ovitraps were collected at 50 different places in 11 boroughs of the city. Northeastern Mexico City was the area with the highest number of positive traps. Conclusions: The results may be indicating a period of early colonization and the probable existence of cryptic colonies of the mosquito, and Mexico City could be therefore at risk of experiencing vector-borne epidemics.

Animals , Aedes/classification , Dengue , Eggs , Mosquito Vectors , Species Specificity , Cities , Aedes/growth & development , Larva/classification , Larva/growth & development , Mexico
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880484


The dynamic activity of transposable elements (TEs) contributes to the vast diversity of genome size and architecture among plants. Here, we examined the genomic distribution and transposition activity of long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and three of its relatives, Arabidopsis lyrata (Aly), Eutrema salsugineum (Esa), and Schrenkiella parvula (Spa), in Brassicaceae. Our analyses revealed the distinct evolutionary dynamics of Gypsyretrotransposons, which reflects the different patterns of genome size changes of the four species over the past million years. The rate of Gypsy transposition in Aly is approximately five times more rapid than that of Ath and Esa, suggesting an expanding Aly genome. Gypsy insertions in Esa are strictly confined to pericentromeric heterochromatin and associated with dramatic centromere expansion. In contrast, Gypsy insertions in Spa have been largely suppressed over the last million years, likely as a result of a combination of an inherent molecular mechanism of preferential DNA removal and purifying selection at Gypsy elements. Additionally, species-specific clades of Gypsy elements shaped the distinct genome architectures of Aly and Esa.

Brassicaceae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome Size , Genome, Plant , Genomics , Phylogeny , Retroelements , Species Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829001


Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.@*Methods@#Ninety isolates were obtained from Ma'anshan, Anhui province, China, and subjected to multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) with six housekeeping genes. Their taxonomy was investigated using concatenated sequences, while their resistance to 12 antibiotics was evaluated. Ten putative virulence factors and several resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing.@*Results@#The 90 isolates were divided into 84 sequence types, 80 of which were novel, indicating high genetic diversity. The isolates were classified into eight different species. PCR assays identified virulence genes in the isolates, with the enterotoxin and hemolysin genes , , , and found in 47 (52.2%), 13 (14.4%), 22 (24.4%), and 12 (13.3%) of the isolates, respectively. The majority of the isolates (≥ 90%) were susceptible to aztreonam, imipenem, cefepime, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. However, several resistance genes were detected in the isolates, as well as a new variant.@*Conclusions@#Sequence type, virulence properties, and antibiotic resistance vary in isolates from clinical patients, tap water systems, and food.

Aeromonas , Genetics , Virulence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , China , Drinking Water , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Species Specificity , Virulence
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1334-1345, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826843


Lycopene, as a high value-added terpene compound, has been widely concerned by researchers at home and abroad. Firstly, the ability of lycopene synthesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae model strains S288c and YPH499 was analyzed and compared. The results showed that YPH499 was more suitable for lycopene synthesis as yeast chassis. Subsequently, the effects of constitutive promoters GPDpr, TEF1pr and inducible promoters GAL1pr, GAL10pr on Lycopene synthesis were compared. The results showed that when GPDpr and TEF1pr were used as promoters of crtE, crtB and crtI in lycopene synthesis pathway, the production of lycopene was 15.31 mg/L after 60 h fermentation in shaking flask. When GAL1pr and GAL10pr were used as promoters, the production was 123.89 mg/L, which was 8.09 times higher. In addition, the methylvaleric acid (MVA) pathway was further modified to overexpress the key enzyme gene of N-terminal truncation, tHMG1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase). The lycopene production was 265.68 mg/L, and the yield per cell was 72.79 mg/g. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain designed and constructed in this study can express lycopene in high yield per cell, thus could be used in the industrial production of lycopene after further construction and optimization.

Biosynthetic Pathways , Genetics , Fermentation , Industrial Microbiology , Lycopene , Metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Genetics , Metabolism , Species Specificity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190503, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101448


Abstract Introduction: The genus Rhodnius in the subfamily Triatominae comprises 20 species, which can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Due to the development of molecular techniques, Triatominae species can now be characterized by mitochondrial and nuclear markers, making it possible to verify and/or correct the existing data on these species. The results achieved in this study provide a more detailed and accurate differentiation of the Rhodnius species, helping the establishment of a more appropriate classification. Methods: Data collection was performed by DNA analysis, morphological and morphometric studies to distinguish four populations of R. neglectus and four of R. prolixus. Phylogenetic data were compared to morphological and morphometric data. Results: The analysis of Cytb fragments suggests that the four colonies designated to Rhodnius neglectus as well as those of R. prolixus were correctly identified. Conclusions: The morphological characters observed in the specimens of the colonies originally identified as R. prolixus and R. neglectus, such as the presence or absence of collar in the eggs, the patterns of the median process of the pygophore, and anterolateral angle, are consistent with the species. Geometric morphometrics also show an intraspecific variability in R. prolixus.

Animals , Male , Rhodnius/classification , Insect Vectors/anatomy & histology , Phylogeny , Rhodnius/anatomy & histology , Rhodnius/genetics , Species Specificity , Chagas Disease/transmission , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/genetics
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 23-29, Nov. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087353


Background: Snakes are found on every continent in the world except Antarctica, and on smaller land masses. Being ecologically important, they also cause a large number of bites, leading to millions of deaths. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences are being used to identify, characterize, and infer genetic biodiversity among different snake species. Furthermore, phylogenetics helps in inferring the relationships and evolutionary histories among these species. Black cobra is one of the four most venomous snakes in Pakistan. Four mitochondrial (ND4, Cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA) and four nuclear (C-mos, RAG-1, BDNF, and NT3) genes were used to trace diversity and infer the phylogenetic relationship of black cobra in Pakistan. Results: Almost similar phylogenies were obtained through maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, showing two species of cobra in Pakistan, namely, black cobra (Naja naja) and brown cobra (Naja oxiana). All Naja species were divided into three clades: black cobra (N. naja) and brown cobra (N. oxiana) cladding with different species of Naja; N. naja (Pakistan) cladding with N. naja from Nepal; and N. oxiana showed close relationship with Naja kaouthia from Thailand and Naja siamensis from Thailand. Conclusion: It was confirmed genetically that there are two cobra species in Pakistan, i.e., black and brown cobras. This study will help in not only genetic conservation but also developing anti-venom against snake species.

Naja naja/genetics , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Species Specificity , DNA, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Elapidae/genetics , Biodiversity
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1260-1268, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038602


O estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade seminal de caprinos das raças Canindé (autóctone) e Alpina Britânica (exótica) no Nordeste brasileiro. O experimento foi realizado nos períodos de julho a setembro dos anos de 2015 e 2016. As coletas seminais foram realizadas com auxílio de vagina artificial, de machos das raças Canindé (n = 4) e Alpina Britânica (n = 7). Após a coleta, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto a: volume (ml), concentração (sptz/ml), motilidade (%) e vigor (1-5). Em seguida, diluído em ACP-101c e criopreservado em máquina TK3000TM. Posteriormente, foram analisados os parâmetros cinéticos, através do software SCA®, e a atividade mitocondrial. No sêmen fresco, as duas raças apresentaram valores de motilidade e concentração dentro do preconizado para a espécie. Entretanto, os valores de volume e circunferência escrotal foram superiores na raça Alpina Britânica (0,73 ml ± 0,32; 27,35 cm ± 2,09) do que na raça Canindé (0,36 ml ± 0,07; 23,25 cm ± 0,95) (p < 0,05). Já no sêmen descongelado, os parâmetros motilidade total - MT (36,96% ± 11,16 vs. 20,50% ± 14,15), motilidade progressiva - MP (26,67% ± 11,13 vs. 11,29% ± 9,42), vigor (2,91 ± 0,90 vs. 1,88 ± 0,67), velocidade curvilinear - VCL (78,12 µm/s ± 12,41 vs. 59,28 µm/s ± 15,57), velocidade linear - VSL (49,23 µm/s ± 9,87 vs. 29,9 µm/s ± 9,48), velocidade média da trajetória - VAP (66,08 µm/s ± 12,77 vs. 45,70 µm/s ± 12,20), linearidade - LIN (62,97% ± 6,96 vs. 49,54%±9,50), retilinearidade - STR (74,63% ± 6,44 vs. 65,77% ± 8,92), e oscilação - WOB (84,32% ± 5,94 vs. 74,42% ± 7,31) foram superiores para a raça Canindé em detrimento à Alpina Britânica (p < 0,05). Portanto, o sêmen fresco das duas raças podem ser utilizados em biotécnicas reprodutivas. Já o sêmen pós-descongelação da raça Canindé apresentou melhor qualidade, provavelmente pelos animais estarem mais adaptados às condições adversas da região Nordeste, sendo recomendado para programas de inseminação artificial.(AU)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the sperm quality of Canindé (native) and British Alpine (exotic) goats in the Northeast of Brazil. The experiment was carried out from July to September of the years 2015 and 2016. Sperm collections of Canindé (n = 4) and British Alpine (n = 7) males were performed using artificial vagina. After collection, the sperm was evaluated for volume (ml), concentration (sptz/ml), motility (%), and vigor (1-5). Then diluted in ACP-101c and cryopreserved in TK3000TM machine. Subsequently, kinetic parameters were analyzed through SCA TM software and mitochondrial activity. In fresh sperm, the two races presented values of motility and concentration within the recommended for the specie. However, volume and scrotal circumference values were higher in the British Alpine breed (0.73 mL ± 0.32; 27.35 cm ± 2.09) than in the Canindé breed (0.36 mL ± 0.07; 23 , 25 cm ± 0.95) (p <0.05). In the thawed sperm, the parameters total motility - TM (36.96% ± 11.16 vs. 20.50% ± 14.15), progressive motility - PM (26.67% ± 11.13 vs. 11.29 % ± 9.42), vigor (2.91 ± 0.90 vs. 1.88 ± 0.67), curvilinear velocity - VCL (78.12 µm/s ± 12.41 vs. 59.28 µm/s ± 15.57), linear velocity - VSL (49.23 µm/s ± 9.87 vs. 29.9 µm/s ± 9.48), mean velocity of the trajectory - VAP (66.08 µm/s ± 12.77 vs. 45.70 µm/s ± 12.20), linearity - LIN (62.97% ± 6.96 vs. 49.54% ± 9.50), rectilinearity - STR (74.63% ± 6.44 vs. 65.77% ± 8.92), and oscillation -WOB (84.32% ± 5.94 vs. 74.42% ± 7.31) were higher for Canindé breed than for British Alpine ( p < 0.05). Therefore, fresh sperm from both breeds can be used in reproductive biotechniques. On the other hand, the post-thawed sperm of the Canindé breed showed better quality, probably because the animals were more adapted to the adverse conditions of the Northeast region and are recommended for artificial insemination programs.(AU)

Animals , Male , Ruminants , Semen Analysis/veterinary , Species Specificity , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Mitochondria/ultrastructure
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983752


Abstract: Background: Diseases caused by melanized fungi include mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. This broad clinical spectrum depends on the dynamic interactions between etiologic agent and host. The immune status of the host influences on the development of the disease, as, an exemple. phaeohyphomicosis is more frequently observed in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Examine the histological inflammatory response induced by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in several different strains of mice (BALB/c, C57BL/6, Nude and SCID, and reconstituted Nude). Methods: Fonsecaea pedrosoi was cultivated on agar gel and a fragment of this gel was implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region of female adult mice. After infection has been obtained, tissue fragment was studied histopathologically. Results: There were significant changes across the strains, with the nodular lesion more persistent in Nude and SCID mice, whereas in immunocompetent mice the lesion progressed to ulceration and healing. The histopathological analysis showed a significant acute inflammatory reaction which consisted mainly of neutrophils in the initial phase that was subsequently followed by a tuberculoid type granuloma in immunocompetent mice. Study limitations: There is no a suitable animal model for chromoblastomycosis. Conclusions: The neutrophilic infiltration had an important role in the containment of infection to prevent fungal spreading, including in immunodeficient mice. The fungal elimination was dependent on T lymphocytes. The re-exposure of C57BL/6 mice to Fonsecaea pedrosoi caused a delay in resolving the infection, and appearance of muriform cells, which may indicate that re-exposure to fungi, might lead to chronicity of infection.

Animals , Female , Ascomycota , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Immunocompetence , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/microbiology , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Blood Cell Count , Chronic Disease , Chromoblastomycosis/immunology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Mice, SCID , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Nude , Neutrophils
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 104-110, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984011


Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are considered the main fruit pests worldwide. In Brazil, two species are predominant: the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus and the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. In this study, we evaluated the effect of artificial diets with variable pH in their larval development and adult performance. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory at 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12h (L:D) photoperiod. Semisolid diets with pH values of 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, and 1.0, adjusted by adding hydrochloric acid were tested. Results indicated that the diet with pH 6.0 did not support larval development of both species of fruit fly. Diets with greater acidic pH values did not allow egg, larvae or pupae development and adult reproduction of A. fraterculus. For C. capitata , the pH of artificial diet exerts greater influence compared to A. fraterculus on the duration and viability of the larval stage, number of pupae, sex ratio and longevity of males.

Resumo As moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) são consideradas as principais pragas da fruticultura mundial. No Brasil, duas espécies são predomindantes: a mosca-das-frutas Sul-americana, Anastrepha fraterculus e a mosca-do-Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Neste estudo avaliamos o efeito de dietas artificiais com pH variável no seu desenvolvimento larval e performance de adultos. Os experimentos foram realizados em laboratório a 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% UR e fotoperíodo de 12:12 horas. Foram testadas dietas semi-sólidas com valores de pH de 6,0; 5,0; 4,0; 3,0; 2,0; 1,5 e 1,0, ajustados pela adição de ácido clorídrico. Os resultados indicaram que a dieta com pH 6,0 não suportou o desenvolvimento larval de ambas as espécies de mosca-das-frutas. As dietas com pH ácido não permitiram o desenvolvimento de ovos, larvas ou pupas e a reprodução de adultos de A. fraterculus. Para C. capitata o pH da dieta artificial exerceu maior influência do que para A. fraterculus nos parâmetros de duração e viabilidade do estágio larval, número de pupas, razão sexual e longevidade de machos.

Animals , Male , Female , Insect Control/methods , Tephritidae/physiology , Animal Feed/analysis , Ovum/growth & development , Pupa/growth & development , Species Specificity , Tephritidae/growth & development , Ceratitis capitata/growth & development , Ceratitis capitata/physiology , Diet , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Larva/growth & development
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(3): e190061, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040662


A new species of Astyanax from tributaries of the rio de Contas, Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species differs from congeners by having three horizontal series of scales from lateral line to pelvic-fin origin and the distal margin of third infraorbital distinctly separated from vertical and horizontal limbs of preopercle, leaving a broad area not covered by superficial bones. The new species further differs from most congeners by the presence of bony hooks on all fins of mature males. Particularly from congeners occurring in rivers of the Northeastern Mata Atlântica freshwater ecoregion, it further differs by having the highest body depth just anterior to the dorsal-fin origin, 34-37 pored lateral line scales, a vertically elongated conspicuous dark humeral blotch reaching below the lateral line and a conspicuous dark wide midlateral stripe extending from the clear area on the rear of the humeral blotch to the end of middle caudal-fin rays and forming an inconspicuous blotch on caudal peduncle.(AU)

Uma espécie nova de Astyanax de tributários do rio de Contas, Bahia, Brasil, é descrita. A espécie nova difere das congêneres por ter três séries horizontais de escamas entre a linha lateral e a origem da nadadeira pélvica e margem distal do terceiro infraorbital distintamente separada dos ramos vertical e horizontal do pré-opérculo, deixando uma ampla área sem ossos superficiais. A espécie nova difere, ainda, da maioria das congêneres pela presença de ganchos ósseos em todas as nadadeiras de machos maduros. Particularmente das congêneres que ocorrem nas drenagens da Ecorregião Mata Atlântica Nordeste, difere ainda por ter a maior altura do corpo imediatamente anterior à origem da nadadeira dorsal, 34-37 escamas perfuradas na linha lateral, presença de uma mancha umeral conspícua, verticalmente alongada, ultrapassando ventralmente a linha lateral e uma faixa escura mediana lateral larga, estendendo-se da área clara após a mancha umeral até o fim dos raios medianos caudais e formando uma mancha inconspícua no pedúnculo caudal.(AU)

Animals , Sex Characteristics , Characidae/classification , Species Specificity
Clinics ; 74: e675, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019708


The present study aimed to review literature on studies of dengue cases conducted over 30 years in the state of Ceará. Between November 2015 and January 2016, articles published in Portuguese and English in 7 databases were searched using keywords and a Boolean operator. A total of 191 articles were identified in the databases; 133 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and 58 were included in the study. Of the 58 articles analyzed, 6 reported data from Brazil; including the Northeast region and the state of Ceará; 41 reported data for only the city of Fortaleza; 7 reported data for the state of Ceará; 4 reported data for cities in the interior of the state; and 3 included only children. The studies adopted different approaches and focused on different aspects of the disease. Study outcomes included the identification of serological, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; potential larvicides and biological predators of mosquitoes; potential antiviral agents; vector density characteristics; and educational dengue prevention and control strategies. Additionally, one vaccine trial was included. Although studies on dengue in the state of Ceará are scarce, they are encompassing, including several lines of research, and the number of studies and reports on dengue in the state of Ceará continues to increase.

Humans , Animals , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Aedes/classification , Dengue/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Predatory Behavior , Research Design , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/transmission
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 464-472, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977927


Abstract We evaluated the distribution of piroplasmids in equids from the Mato Grosso state in Midwestern Brazil using molecular methods and the interspecific genetic diversity. For this, 1,624 blood samples of equids from 973 farms were examined by PCR, using primer pairs that amplify a fragment of the genes rap-1 and ema-1 of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi, respectively. For molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies, 13 and 60 sequences of the rap-1 and ema-1 genes, respectively, were used to build a dendogram using maximum parsimony. B. caballi and T. equi were detected in 4.11% and 28.16% of the farms, respectively, and molecular prevalence was 2.74% for B. caballi and 25.91% for T. equi. The location of the farms and animals raised in the Pantanal ecoregion influence the probability of equids testing positive for B. caballi and T. equi . Moreover, age and herd purpose were variables significantly associated with T . equi infection. The sequences of B. caballi presented 1.95% intraspecific variability, contrasting with 2.99% in T. equi. Dendrograms for both species demonstrated the presence of subgroups with high values of support of branches. However, it is not possible to associate these groups with geographic origin and/or ecoregion.

Resumo Foi avaliada a distribuição de piroplasmídeos em equídeos do Estado de Mato Grosso, no Centro-Oeste do Brasil, utilizando-se métodos moleculares e a diversidade genética interespecífica. Para isso, 1.624 amostras de sangue de equídeos de 973 fazendas foram examinadas pela PCR, usando pares de oligonucleotídeos que amplificam um fragmento dos genes rap-1and ema-1 de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi, respectivamente. Para caracterização molecular e estudos filogenéticos, foram utilizadas 13 e 60 sequências dos genes rap-1 e ema-1, respectivamente, para construção de um dendograma utilizando máxima parcimônia. B. caballi e T . equi foram detectados em 4,11% e 28,16% das fazendas, respectivamente, e a prevalência molecular foi de 2,74% para B. caballi e 25,91% para T. equi. A localização das fazendas e animais criados na ecorregião do Pantanal influenciam a probabilidade de equídeos serem positivos para B. caballi e T. equi. Além disso, idade e propósito do rebanho foram variáveis, significativamente, associadas à infecção por T. equi. As sequências de B . caballi apresentaram variabilidade intraespecífica de 1,95%, contrastando com 2,99% em T. equi. Dendrogramas para ambas as espécies demonstraram a presença de subgrupos com altos valores de sustentação dos ramos. No entanto, não é possível associar esses grupos com origem geográfica e/ou ecorregião.

Animals , Theileriasis/epidemiology , Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Theileria/genetics , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Species Specificity , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Theileriasis/parasitology , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Babesiosis/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 414-420, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951581


Abstract This study evaluated the parasite fauna on the gills of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus captured in the dry and rainy seasons in the coast of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Eight parasite species were identified belonging to the following taxa: Monogenea (Haliotrema caraïbensis, Haliotrema caballeroi and Haliotrema golvani); Crustacea (Rocinela signata, Hamaticolax scutigerulus and Caligidae gen. sp.) and Cestoda (Nybelinia indica and Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti). The most prevalent parasites were: Monogenea (100%), H. scutigerulus (35%), N. indica (11.7%), R. signata (8.3%), Caligidae gen. sp. (3.33%) and P. noodti (0.83%). Values of infestation are compared to other studies, and the uncommon occurrence of Trypanorhyncha on the gills suggests that the spotted goatfish could be an intermediate host for the parasite.

Resumo O presente estudo investigou a fauna parasitária das brânquias do peixe conhecido como saramunete Pseudupeneus maculatus, capturados nas estações seca e chuvosa na costa do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Oito espécies de parasitos foram identificadas, pertencentes aos seguintes táxons: Monogenea (Haliotrema caraïbensis, Haliotrema caballeroi e Haliotrema golvani); Crustacea (Rocinela signata, Hamaticolax scutigerulus e Caligidae gen. sp.) e Cestoda (Nybelinia indica e Pseudolacistorhynchus noodti). Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram: Monogenea (100%), H. scutigerulus (35%), N. indica (11,7%), R. signata (8,3%), Caligidae gen. sp. (3,33%) e P. noodti (0,83%). Os valores de infestação são comparados a outros estudos, e a ocorrência incomum de cestóides Trypanorhyncha sugere que o saramunete pode ser um hospedeiro intermediário para o parasito.

Animals , Perciformes/parasitology , Cestoda/growth & development , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Parasites , Seasons , Species Specificity , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Copepoda , Fishes/classification , Gills/parasitology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 408-413, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951580


Abstract Even though the Onychophora represent a whole phylum, observations of their activity pattern in nature are almost non-existent. Here we report on the relationship between humidity and light and activity pattern of a new species of velvet worm, genus Epiperipatus, from four years of field observations in the South Pacific of Costa Rica. We found that most activity occurs during the driest and darkest nights of the year, in contrast with theoretical predictions.

Resumo Onychophora constituem um filo de animais. Não obstante, as observações do comportamento sazonal das espécies de "peripatos" na natureza são praticamente inexistentes. Com base em quatro anos de observações em campo, nós demostramos a relação entre umidade e luz, e padrão de atividade diária de uma nova espécie no gênero Epiperipatus, do Pacífico Sul da Costa Rica. Descobrimos que a maioria das atividades ocorre durante as noites mais secas e mais escuras do ano, em total contraste com as previsões teóricas.

Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Humidity , Invertebrates/radiation effects , Invertebrates/physiology , Light , Species Specificity , Temperature , Population Dynamics , Climate , Ecosystem , Costa Rica , Biodiversity