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2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 347-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775441

ABSTRACT

Occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BP) induces learning and memory deficits. However, no therapeutic strategies are currently available. Accumulating evidence has suggested that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and neuroinflammation are involved in the cognitive impairments in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate whether the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK801 protects against 1-BP-induced cognitive dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were administered with MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) prior to 1-BP intoxication (800 mg/kg). Their cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris water maze test. The brains of rats were dissected for biochemical, neuropathological, and immunological analyses. We found that the spatial learning and memory were significantly impaired in the 1-BP group, and this was associated with neurodegeneration in both the hippocampus (especially CA1 and CA3) and cortex. Besides, the protein levels of phosphorylated NMDARs were increased after 1-BP exposure. MK801 ameliorated the 1-BP-induced cognitive impairments and degeneration of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex. Mechanistically, MK801 abrogated the 1-BP-induced disruption of excitatory and inhibitory amino-acid balance and NMDAR abnormalities. Subsequently, MK801 inhibited the microglial activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in 1-BP-treated rats. Our findings, for the first time, revealed that MK801 protected against 1-BP-induced cognitive dysfunction by ameliorating NMDAR function and blocking microglial activation, which might provide a potential target for the treatment of 1-BP poisoning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Metabolism , Pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Dizocilpine Maleate , Pharmacology , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists , Pharmacology , Hydrocarbons, Brominated , Inflammasomes , Metabolism , Male , Maze Learning , Physiology , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Nootropic Agents , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Metabolism , Spatial Memory , Physiology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758871

ABSTRACT

Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) is distributed worldwide and causes economic losses in the poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the hexon and fiber gene changes in an attenuated FAdV isolate from Malaysia in specific pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs (SPF CEE) and its infectivity in commercial broiler chickens. SPF CEE were inoculated with 0.1 mL FAdV inoculum via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for 20 consecutive passages. The isolate at passage 20 (E20), with a virus titer of 10(8.7)TCID₅₀/mL (TCID₅₀, 50% tissue culture infective dose), was inoculated (0.5 mL) into one-day-old commercial broiler chicks either via oral or intraperitoneal routes. The study demonstrated that 100% embryonic mortality was recorded from E2 to E20 with a delayed pattern at E17 onwards. The lesions were confined to the liver and CAM. Substitutions of amino acids in the L1 loop of hexon at positions 49 and 66, and in the knob of fiber at positions 318 and 322 were recorded in the E20 isolate. The isolate belongs to serotype 8b and is non-pathogenic to broiler chickens, but it is able to induce a FAdV antibody titer. It appears that molecular changes in the L1 loop of hexon and the knob of fiber are markers for FAdV infectivity.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Amino Acids , Chickens , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Eggs , Fowl adenovirus A , Liver , Malaysia , Mortality , Ovum , Poultry , Serogroup , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Viral Load
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690648

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The present study was undertaken to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of lanthanum and to determine the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), which is a critical factor in the establishment of an acceptable dietary intake (ADI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) testing guidelines, lanthanum nitrate was administered once daily by gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 1.5, 6.0, 24.0, and 144.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day for 90 days, followed by a recovery period of 4 weeks in the 144.0 mg/kg BW per day and normal control groups. Outcome parameters were mortality, clinical symptoms, body and organ weights, serum chemistry, and food consumption, as well as ophthalmic, urinary, hematologic, and histopathologic indicators. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach was applied to estimate a point of departure for the hazard risk assessment of lanthanum.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Significant decreases were found in the 144.0 mg/kg BW group in the growth index, including body weight, organ weights, and food consumption. This study suggests that the NOAEL of lanthanum nitrate is 24.0 mg/kg BW per day. Importantly, the 95% lower confidence value of the benchmark dose (BMDL) was estimated as 9.4 mg/kg BW per day in females and 19.3 mg/kg BW per day in males.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The present subchronic oral exposure toxicity study may provide scientific data for the risk assessment of lanthanum and other rare earth elements (REEs).</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Chemical Analysis , Body Weight , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Lanthanum , Toxicity , Male , No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic , Urinalysis
5.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2017; 10 (13): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187401

ABSTRACT

A plan to establish an Eastern Mediterranean Region [EMR Emerging and Dangerous Pathogen Laboratory Network [EMR EDPLN] has been kicked off. The network would be made up of competent and well-equipped regional laboratories with strong linkage to surveillance and epidemiology components for Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens [EDPs] in order to ensure early detection and confirmation of EDPs out-breaks, as well as to enhance rapid and effective outbreak response


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Services , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Risk , Mediterranean Region/epidemiology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296488

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The effect of the silica nanoparticles (SNs) on lungs injury in rats was investigated to evaluate the toxicity and possible mechanisms for SNs.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male Wistar rats were instilled intratracheally with 1 mL of saline containing 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0 mg of SNs or 25.0 mg of microscale SiO2 particles suspensions for 30 d, were then sacrificed. Histopathological and ultrastructural change in lungs, and chemical components in the urine excretions were investigated by light microscope, TEM and EDS. MDA, NO and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in lung homogenates were quantified by spectrophotometry. Contents of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-1β, and MMP-2 in lung tissue were determined by immunohistochemistry staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There is massive excretion of Si substance in urine. The SNs lead pulmonary lesions of rise in lung/body coefficients, lung inflammation, damaged alveoli, granuloma nodules formation, and collagen metabolized perturbation, and lung tissue damage is milder than those of microscale SiO2 particles. The SNs also cause increase lipid peroxidation and high expression of cytokines.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The SNs result into pulmonary fibrosis by means of increase lipid peroxidation and high expression of cytokines. Milder effect of the SNs on pulmonary fibrosis comparing to microscale SiO2 particles is contributed to its elimination from urine due to their ultrafine particle size.</p>


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Toxicity , Animals , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Lung , Pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles , Toxicity , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Metabolism , Pathology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Silicon Dioxide , Toxicity , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Urine , Chemistry
7.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 190-194, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296198

ABSTRACT

In order to observe the effect of the immune and weight of chickens after use the attenuated vaccine with low dose of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV). In this study, the effects of low dose of CIAV on the weight of SPF chickens and NDV antibody production were observed by simulated experiments. The results showed that 10 EID50 and 5 EID50 CIAV per plume attenuated NDV vaccines were used to cause the weight loss of SPF chickens. Compared with the use of the non contaminated vaccine group, it has significant difference. And NDV antibody levels compared with the use of the non contaminated groups also decreased after use the vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. It has significant difference. A certain proportion of CIAV antibody positive was detected at the beginning of the second week after use the NDV vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. The detection of a high proportion of CIAV nucleic acid was detected in the first week after the use of a contaminated vaccine. The results of the study demonstrate the effects of CIAV pollution on the production and immune function of SPF chickens, and it is suggested that increasing the detection of viral nucleic acid can help save time and improve the detection rate in the detection of exogenous virus contamination by SPF chicken test method.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Allergy and Immunology , Chicken anemia virus , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Physiology , Chickens , Circoviridae Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Poultry Diseases , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, Attenuated , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110769

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chickens , HN Protein/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/enzymology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Fusion Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110768

ABSTRACT

In Korea, several outbreaks of low pathogenic AI (H9N2) viral infections leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality have been reported on commercial farms since 1996, resulting in severe economic losses. To control the H9N2 LPAI endemic, the Korea Veterinary Authority has permitted the use of the inactivated H9N2 LPAI vaccine since 2007. In this study, we developed a killed vaccine using a low pathogenic H9N2 AI virus (A/chicken/Korea/ADL0401) and conducted safety and efficacy tests in commercial layer farms while focusing on analysis of factors that cause losses to farms, including egg production rate, egg abnormality, and feed efficiency. The egg production rate of the control group declined dramatically 5 days after the challenge. There were no changes in feed consumption of all three groups before the challenge, but rates of the control declined afterward. Clinical signs in the vaccinated groups were similar, and a slight decline in feed consumption was observed after challenge; however, this returned to normal more rapidly than the control group and commercial layers. Overall, the results of this study indicate that the safety and efficacy of the vaccine are adequate to provide protection against the AI field infection (H9N2) epidemic in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Emulsions , Female , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza in Birds/immunology , Oviparity , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 158-163
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158406

ABSTRACT

Chyawanprash is an ayurvedic formulation used in Indian traditional medicinal system for its beneficial effect on human health. We investigated the immunostimulatory effects of Chyawanprash (CHY) using in vitro assays evaluating the secretion of cytokines such as Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-α) from murine bone marrow derived Dendritic Cells (DC) which play pivotal role in immunostimulation. The effects of CHY on phagocytosis in murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and Natural Killer (NK) cell activity were also investigated. At non-cytotoxic concentrations (20–500 µg/ml), CHY enhanced the secretion of all the three cytokines from DC. CHY also stimulated both, macrophage (RAW264.7) as well as NK cell activity, in vitro. In conclusion, the data substantiates the immunoprotective role of CHY at cellular level mediated by immunostimulation in key immune cells viz. dendritic Cells, macrophages and NK cells.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Cytokines/analysis , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , In Vitro Techniques , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Male , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spleen/cytology , Zymosan
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264607

ABSTRACT

Radiation encephalopathy is the main complication of cranial radiotherapy. It can cause necrosis of brain tissue and cognitive dysfunction. Our previous work had proved that a natural antioxidant shikonin possessed protective effect on cerebral ischemic injury. Here we investigated the effects of shikonin on carbon ion beam induced radiation brain injury in mice. Pretreatment with shikonin significantly increased the SOD and CAT activities and the ratio of GSH/GSSG in mouse brain tissues compared with irradiated group (P<0.01), while obviously reduced the MDA and PCO contents and the ROS levels derived from of the brain mitochondria. The shikonin also noticeably improved the spatial memory deficits caused by carbon ion beam irradiation. All results demonstrated that shikonin could improve the irradiated brain injury which might resulted from its modulation effects on the oxidative stress induced by the 12C6+ ion beam.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Brain Injuries , Catalase , Metabolism , Heavy Ion Radiotherapy , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Mice , Naphthoquinones , Pharmacology , Protein Carbonylation , Radiation Injuries, Experimental , Radiation-Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
12.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 16(1): 93-98, ene.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715302

ABSTRACT

Resultados confiables y económicos solo son obtenidos cuando los animales de experimentación son aislados de factores ambientales y biológicos, implantándose en el biomodelo una microbiota normal, lejos de la presencia de microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de la investigación fue obtener curieles libre de patógenos específicos por cesárea aséptica, mantenidos en aisladores y alimentados con dietas estériles. Se realizaron 26 histerectomías. Los animales fueron alimentados con una fórmula modificada (L-477) en forma de papilla hasta los 21 días y permanentemente después la C-484 sólida y granulada, esterilizadas a 121oC/20 minutos o a 1,5Mrad. Además fueron suplementados con vitamina C y B1. El forraje o heno fue consumido a partir de la primera generación. La microbiota gastrointestinal se administró por vía oral en 0,5 ml de una dilución de 10-6/g de contenido de la porción final del íleon, ciego y principio del colon de curieles, a las 24 y 48 horas del nacimiento. Se utilizó para el monitoreo microbiológico caldo Tioglicolato, caldo Triptona Soya y caldo Saboraud incubados aeróbicamente a temperatura de 55, 37 y 25oC respectivamente. Se obtuvieron 51 neonatos. La mortalidad más alta se registró entre los primeros 10 días de edad (58,8%). Se lograron 12 animales (3 machos y 9 hembras), 6 de las hembras se reprodujeron aproximadamente a los 9 meses de edad, lográndose 11 crías por parto normal. La metodología aplicada permitió obtener curieles libres de Salmonella sp, Pasteurella sp, Streptococcus del tipo A y C, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Toxoplasma gondii, Virus Sendai y parásitos internos y externos.


Confidence and economics results are only obtained when the animals are isolated of the environmental and biological factors, that could interfere the course of from investigation and when is being established in them, a normal microflora balanced far from the presence of pathogen microorganisms. They were accomplished 26 histerectomies. The animals were fed with a modified formula of L-477 in the form of porridge until 21 days of age and permanently after with the C-484 solid and granulated, sterilized at 121oC/20 minutes or 1,5Mrad. The forage or hay was consumed by the first generation since the 6 months of age. The gastrointestinal flora was administered by oral route with 0,5 ml of a dilution of 10-6/g of the contents of the ileum final portion, cecum and first part of the colon of conventionalized Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs, at 24 and 48 hours born. It was used for microbiological bacteria monitoring Thioglycolate broth, Tryptic Soy broth and Sabouraud broth incubated aerobically at temperatures of 55, 37 and 25oC respectively. There were obtained 51 newborns. The highest mortality was registered during the first 10 days of age (58,8%). There were archieved 12 animals: 9 female and 3 males. 6 of the female were reproduced approximately at 9 months of age and were archieved 11 normal delivery sucklings. There were obtained guinea pigs free of the followings specific pathogens: Salmonella sp., Pasteurella sp., Streptococcus of the group A y C. Bordetella bronchiseptica, Toxoplasma gondii, Sendai Virus, beside internal and external parasites.


Subject(s)
Diet Therapy , Hysterectomy , Insulator Elements , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Diet , Host-Pathogen Interactions
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(2): 207-217, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712403

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third leading cause of death and the primary cause of permanent disability worldwide. Atorvastatin is a promising drug with neuroprotective effects that may be useful for the treatment of stroke. However, the effects of atorvastatin on specific neuronal populations within the nigrostriatal system following cerebral ischemia are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on dopaminergic and GABAergic neuronal populations in exofocal brain regions in a model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight male eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. Both sham and ischemic rats were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) or carboxymethylcellulose (placebo) by gavage at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-reperfusion. We analyzed the immunoreactivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase in the globus pallidus, caudate putamen and substantia nigra. Results: We observed neurological damage and cell loss in the caudate putamen following ischemia. We also found an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata, as well as a decrease in glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the lateral globus pallidus in ischemic animals treated with a placebo. However, atorvastatin treatment was able to reverse these effects, significantly decreasing tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata and significantly increasing glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the lateral globus pallidus. Conclusion: Our data suggest that post-ischemia treatment with atorvastatin can have neuro-protective effects in exofocal regions far from the ischemic core by modulating the GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations in the nigrostriatal system, which could be useful for preventing neurological disorders.


Introducción. La isquemia cerebral es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad permanente en el mundo. La atorvastatina es un fármaco neuroprotector prometedor para el tratamiento de la apoplejía; sin embargo, su acción sobre las poblaciones neuronales del sistema nigroestriatal después de la isquemia aún se desconoce. Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la atorvastatina sobre poblaciones gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas en regiones exofocales en un modelo de oclusión transitoria de la arteria cerebral media. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 28 ratas Wistar macho de ocho semanas de edad. Los ejemplares con isquemia simulada y los ejemplares sometidos a isquemia fueron tratados con atorvastatina (10 mg/kg) y carboximetilcelulosa (placebo) administrados por medio de sonda a las 6, 24, 48 y 72 horas después de la reperfusión. Se analizó la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico y de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido, el putamen caudado y la sustancia negra. Resultados. Los datos confirmaron el daño neurológico y la pérdida celular en el putamen caudado. Se incrementó la inmunorreacción de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata , disminuyendo la inmunorreacción de la descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral de los animales isquémicos tratados con placebo; sin embargo, el tratamiento con atorvastatina pudo revertirla, lo que logró una disminución significativa de la tirosina hidroxilasa en el globo pálido medial y la sustancia negra pars reticulata y aumentando los niveles de descarboxilasa del ácido glutámico en el globo pálido lateral. Conclusión. Nuestros datos sugieren que la atorvastatina en el tratamiento posterior a la isquemia ejerce neuroprotección en las zonas exofocales, modulando las poblaciones neuronales gabérgicas y dopaminérgicas del sistema nigroestriatal, lo que podría prevenir trastornos neurológicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Dopaminergic Neurons/drug effects , GABAergic Neurons/drug effects , Heptanoic Acids/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Substantia Nigra/drug effects , Behavior, Animal , Corpus Striatum/blood supply , Corpus Striatum/pathology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Dopaminergic Neurons/enzymology , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Enzyme Induction/drug effects , GABAergic Neurons/enzymology , GABAergic Neurons/pathology , Glutamate Decarboxylase/biosynthesis , Glutamate Decarboxylase/genetics , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/pathology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Movement Disorders/etiology , Movement Disorders/prevention & control , Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Sensation Disorders/prevention & control , Substantia Nigra/blood supply , Substantia Nigra/pathology , /biosynthesis , /genetics
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(2): 128-134, 2/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699777

ABSTRACT

The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na+-K+-ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na+-K+-ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/therapy , Lymph , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Rats, Wistar , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
15.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 353-358, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280360

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to understand the dynamic distribution of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Jin-13 strain in SPF chickens. Ninety-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated with Jin-13, a virulent strain, and dissected at day 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 or 35 post-inoculation (dpi). Samples of heart, liver, spleen, lung, trachea, kidney and duodenum were collected and the N gene was detected by Sybr Green I real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays. The established method had a good linear correlation from 7.77 x 10(8) to 10(0) copies/microL. SPF chickens developed typical clinical signs of IBV at the 4th dpi, and the IBV viral concentration of tissues and organs gradually increased with a peak of up to 7.13 x 10(4) copies/microL. The viral concentration of most organs decreased by the 10th dpi, but those of the kidney, trachea and lung remained positive for IBV at 28 dpi and the heart was still positive for IBV at > 35 dpi. The results of this study, showed that the Jin-13 strain can cause prolonged virus excertion in chickens with severe renal damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections , Virology , Infectious bronchitis virus , Virulence , Physiology , Lung , Virology , Poultry Diseases , Virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Trachea , Virology , Virulence
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341803

ABSTRACT

In this study, SD rats were orally administrated with oteracil potassium (300 mg . kg-1 . d-1 ) to prepare the hyperuricemia model, and divided into normal, model, Allopurinol, LE high dosage, middle dosage and low dose (200, 100, 50 mg . kg-1 . d-1) groups. The rats were orally administrated with test drugs 1 hour later after being orally administrated with Oteracil potassium. After 7 days, serum uric acid, serum creatinine, uric acid and expression of relevant transporters in kidney were tested to study the regulatory effect of leonurus extracts on serum uric acid, renal function and relevant transporters in kidney of rats with hyperuricemia. Compared with the model group, the leonurus extract group could significantly down-regulate serum uric acid and creatinine levels of rats with hyperuricemia, and increase the urine uric acid level. Meanwhile, leonurus extracts could notably down-regulate the mRNA expressions of urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), up-regulate the mRNA expressions of organic cation transportanter (OCT) and Carnitine transporter (OCTN) and promote the excretion of uric acid of kidney.


Subject(s)
Allopurinol , Pharmacology , Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine , Blood , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression Regulation , Hyperuricemia , Blood , Drug Therapy , Kidney , Leonurus , Chemistry , Male , Organic Anion Transporters , Genetics , Oxonic Acid , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Up-Regulation , Uric Acid , Blood
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341801

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the molecular mechanism of extracts from Euodia rutaecarpa on hepatotoxicity in mice.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Totally 30 KM mice were divided into 3 groups and orally administrated extracts from E. rutaecarpa for consecutively 15 days. The expressions of Erkl/2, CDK8, CK1e, Stat3 and Src were detected by Western blotting method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The extracts from E. rutaecarpa could up-regulated Erkl/2, CDK8 and CK1e expressions (P <0.01) and down-regulate Stat3 and Src (P <0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The molecular mechanism of E. rutaecarpa on hepatotoxicity may be correlated with Erkl/2, CDK8, CKle, Stat3 and Src signal molecules.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Down-Regulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Evodia , Chemistry , Female , Fruit , Chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Plants, Medicinal , Signal Transduction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Triglycerides , Blood , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24549

ABSTRACT

Characteristic clinical manifestations of Newcastle disease include leukopenia and immunosuppression. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the main targets of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. To survey changes in proteomic expression in chicken PBMCs following NDV infection, PBMC proteins from 30 chickens were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative intensity analysis showed that the expression of 78 proteins increased more than two-fold. Thirty-five proteins exhibited consistent changes in expression and 13 were identified as unique proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer including three that were down-regulated and 10 that were up-regulated. These proteins were sorted into five groups based on function: macromolecular biosynthesis, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, stress responses, and signal transduction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed the down-regulation of integrin-linked kinase expression and up-regulation of lamin A production. These data provide insight into the in vivo response of target cells to NDV infection at the molecular level. Additionally, results from this study have helped elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of NDV and may facilitate the development of new antiviral therapies as well as innovative diagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avian Proteins/genetics , Chickens , Gene Expression Regulation , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/enzymology , Newcastle Disease/genetics , Newcastle disease virus/physiology , Poultry Diseases/genetics , Proteome , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/veterinary , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/veterinary
19.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 376-381, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339942

ABSTRACT

To construct a recombinant T7 phage expressing matrix protein 2 ectodomain (M2e) peptides of avian influenza A virus and test immunological and protective efficacy in the immunized SPF chickens. M2e gene sequence was obtained from Genbank and two copies of M2e gene were artificially synthesised, the M2e gene was then cloned into the T7 select 415-1b phage in the multiple cloning sites to construct the recombinant phage T7-M2e. The positive recombinant phage was identified by PCR and sequencing, and the expression of surface fusion protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. SPF chickens were subcutaneously injected with 1 X 10(10) pfu phage T7-M2e, sera samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination, and were tested for anti-M2e antibody by ELISA. The binding capacity of serum to virus was also examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay in virus- infected CEF. The immunized chickens were challenged with 200 EID50 of H9 type avian influenza virus and viral isolation rate was calculated to evaluate the immune protective efficacy. A recombinant T7 phage was obtained displaying M2e peptides of avian influenza A virus, and the fusion protein had favorable immunoreactivity. All chickens developed a certain amount of anti-M2e antibody which could specially bind to the viral particles. In addition, the protection efficacy of phage T7-M2e vaccine against H9 type avian influenza viruses was 4/5 (80%). These results indicate that the recombinant T7 phage displaying M2e peptides of avian influenza A virus has a great potential to be developed into a novel vaccine for the prevention of avian influenza infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Blood , Bacteriophage T7 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Chickens , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Immunization , Influenza A virus , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza in Birds , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Peptides , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Viral Matrix Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 386-391, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-339940

ABSTRACT

In order to study the proliferation inhibition effect of H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) with small interfere RNA (siRNA), a total of 4 siRNAs were designed in accordance with the NP and PA genes of H5N1 subtype AIV, the siRNAs were then transfected to chicken embryo fibroblast(CEF), CEF was infected with H5N1 subtype AIV after 6 hrs. Virus titer of cell supernatant was tested at 16-56hrs post infection, and pathological changes of the cells was observed; mRNA levels of NP, PA, HA and p13-actin gene were tested at 36hrs post infection. The results showed that these 4 siRNAs could inhibit the prolif-eration of H5N1 subtype AIV in CEF in varying degrees, and one siRNA targeting PA was best per-formed. The experimental results also showed that the inhibition effect was decreased with the time prolonged. This research provides a basis for further studying RNAi on AIV prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Actins , Genetics , Animals , Chick Embryo , DNA Primers , Genetics , Fibroblasts , Virology , Hemagglutination , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus , Genetics , Hemagglutinins , Genetics , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Genetics , Physiology , RNA Interference , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins , Genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Transfection , Viral Core Proteins , Genetics , Viral Proteins , Genetics , Virus Replication
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