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1.
Actual. Sida Infectol. (En linea) ; 32(114): 9-15, 20240000. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551750

ABSTRACT

ntroducción: Las infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPPB) constituyen la tercera causa de consulta en nuestro centro. S.aureus es el agente etiológico más frecuente en este tipo de infecciones y la meticilino resistencia es clínicamente el mecanismo de resistencia más importante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la prevalencia de los distintos agentes etiológicos en IPPB en pacientes ambulatorios, así como también estudiar su sensibilidad a los antibióticos y resistencias acompañantes más frecuentes. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo que incluyó todas las muestras provenientes de IPPB de pacientes ambulatorios desde octubre de 2017 a abril de 2022. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 180 cultivos positivos de muestras provenientes de IPPB durante el periodo estudiado, 12 fueron infecciones polimicrobianas. En total se obtuvieron 307 aislamientos: el microorganismo aislado con mayor frecuencia fue S.aureus (111; 36,2%). Se hallaron 71 SAMR (64%) y 40 SAMS (36%). De los SAMR, 67 (95%) fueron comunitarios (SAMRC) por criterios microbiológicos, y 4 SAMR hospitalarios (5%). De las cepas SAMRC, 44 (66%) no presentaron resistencias acompañantes, 15 (22% ) fueron resistentes a eritromicina, 12 (18%) a gentamicina y 7 (10%) a clindamicina. Conclusiones: El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado en IPPB en pacientes ambulatorios fue el S.aureus y 67 aislamientos fueron categorizados como SAMRC por lo cual es necesario considerar al SAMRC como un patógeno frecuente. Debido a la baja resistencia hallada para CLI y TMS ambos podrían ser de elección en el tratamiento empírico en las IPPB en pacientes ambulatorios


Background:S. aureus is the main cause of skin and soft tissues infections (SSTIs) in immunocompetent patients. This type of infection is the third cause of medical consultation in our center. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus, as well as its sensitivity to antimicrobials, isolated from skin and soft tissue samples from outpatients at an interzonal general acute care hospital located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.Methods: Descriptive and retrospective study that included all outpatient SSTIs samples from October 2017 to April 2022.Results: We obtained 215 positive cultures of samples from SSTIs during the study period. Of a total of 276 isolates: the most frequently isolated microorganism wasS. aureus (111; 40.22%). The prevalence of S. aureuswas 51.63%. We found 71 MRSA (63.96%). Of the SAMR strains, 60.56% did not present accompanying resistance, and only 8 isolates (11.27%) showed resistance to clindamycin. All SAMRs remained sensitive to minocycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.Conclusions: The most frequently isolated microorganism in SSTIs was S. aureus and 71 isolates were categorized as SAMR, therefore it is necessary to consider SAMR as a frequent pathogen. Due to the low resistance found for CLI and TMS, they should be considered for empirical treatment in SSTIs in outpatients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Outpatients , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Prevalence , Specimen Handling
2.
REVISA (Online) ; 12(2): 399-408, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1442340

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Conhecer a aceitação de pacientes de ensaio clínico quanto a coleta de exames domiciliares, testes remotos e teleconsultas, compreendendo as suas preferências e expectativas. Método: Estudo qualitativo, exploratório, descritivo, com entrevistas em profundidade envolvendo profissionais de saúde (especialistas) e pacientes, com e sem experiência em ensaios clínicos, com posterior validação dos constructos por meio de workshop participativo. Resultados: Para os pacientes de ensaio clínico, a aceitação mostrou-se relativa. Diversos fatores influenciam suas preferências e expectativas, sendo as principais: a) O grau de confiabilidade nos processos e a acurácia dos resultados de exames domiciliares. b) Os testes remotos, apesar de bem aceitos, dependem da capacidade de entendimento no correto manuseio da tecnologia requerida. c) A teleconsulta, já bem utilizada e aceita, não substitui totalmente o encontro presencial com o médico em fases críticas. A preferência é pelo uso equilibrado do "presencial x remoto". Conclusão: A aceitação é influenciada por diversas variáveis. Devem ser definidas estratégias adequadas para cada caso, para garantir resultados seguros e confiáveis, com equilíbrio entre o presencial e remoto, através da participação ativa dos pacientes nas tomadas de decisão.


To understand the acceptance of clinical trial patients regarding in-house exams, remote tests and teleconsultations, revealing their preferences and expectations Method: Qualitative, exploratory-descriptive study, with in-depth interviews involving health professionals (specialists) and patients, with and without experience in clinical trials, with subsequent validation of the constructs through a participatory workshop. Results: For clinical trial patients, acceptance was relative. Several factors influence their preferences and expectations, the main ones being: a) The degree of reliability in the processes and the accuracy of the results of home exams. b) Remote tests, although well accepted, depend on the ability of the patient to understand the correct handling of the required technology. c) Teleconsultation, already well used and accepted, does not completely replace the face-to-face meeting with the doctor in critical phases. The preference is for the balanced use of "in person versus remote". Conclusion: Acceptance is influenced by several variables. Adequate strategies must be defined for each case, to ensure safe and reliable results, with a balance between face-to-face and remote, through the active participation of patients in decision-making


Objetivo: Conocer la aceptación de los pacientes de ensayos clínicos en cuanto a la recogida de exámenes domiciliarios, pruebas a distancia y teleconsultas, entendiendo sus preferencias y expectativas. Método: Estudio cualitativo, exploratorio-descriptivo, con entrevistas en profundidad involucrando a profesionales de la salud (especialistas) y pacientes, con y sin experiencia en ensayos clínicos, con posterior validación de los constructos a través de un taller participativo. Resultados: Para pacientes de ensayos clínicos, la aceptación fue relativa. Varios factores influyen en sus preferencias y expectativas, siendo los principales: a) El grado de confiabilidad en los procesos y la precisión de los resultados de los exámenes domiciliarios. b) Las pruebas a distancia, aunque bien aceptadas, dependen de la capacidad de comprender el manejo correcto de la tecnología requerida. c) La teleconsulta, ya muy utilizada y aceptada, no sustituye por completo al encuentro presencial con el médico en fases críticas. La preferencia es por el uso equilibrado de "en persona versus remoto". Conclusión: La aceptación está influenciada por varias variables. Se deben definir estrategias adecuadas para cada caso, para garantizar resultados seguros y confiables, con equilibrio entre presencial y remoto, a través de la participación activa de los pacientes en la toma de decisiones


Subject(s)
Patients , Specimen Handling , Residence Characteristics , Clinical Trial , Telemedicine
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(1): 37-49, 20221230. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415289

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Existen resultados inconsistentes con relación al planteamiento de la hipótesis que sugiere una mayor probabilidad de documentar un carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes quirúrgicos con cambios compatibles con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica. En los metaanálisis existentes se han incluido estudios no comparables metodológicamente y no se proponen claras fuentes de sesgo, justificación para la realización del presente metaanálisis. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed y Embase. Fueron obtenidos estudios retrospectivos donde se comparaba la prevalencia de carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes con y sin cambios por tiroiditis linfocítica crónica. La evidencia recolectada fue sintetizada estadísticamente. Resultados. Un total de 22 artículos fueron incluidos. La población estuvo conformada por 63.548 especímenes. El OR combinado fue 1,81 (IC95%: 1,51-2,21). Hubo heterogeneidad entre la distribución de las razones de oportunidad entre los estudios (I2= 91 %; p>0,00001). La forma del gráfico en embudo de los estudios incluidos en el análisis parece estar simétrica, lo que indica la ausencia del sesgo atribuible a los estudios pequeños. Conclusiones. La literatura actual sugiere que existe un mayor riesgo de documentar un carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes quirúrgicos en los que se observan cambios compatibles con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica; sin embargo, existen fuentes de sesgo que no será posible controlar en estudios retrospectivos, por lo que recomendamos estudiar la hipótesis que sugiere una mayor probabilidad de diagnosticar un carcinoma papilar de tiroides en especímenes con cambios compatibles con tiroiditis linfocítica crónica mediante metodologías prospectivas


Introduction. Inconsistent results exist in the literature regarding the hypothesis statement suggesting an increased likelihood of documenting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in surgical specimens with changes compatible with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Existing meta-analyses have included studies that are not methodologically comparable and do not propose clear sources of bias, thus, this is justification for the present meta-analysis. Methods. A literature search in Pubmed and Embase was performed from January 1, 1950 to December 31, 2020. Retrospective studies comparing the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma in specimens with and without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis changes were obtained. The collected evidence was statistically analyzed. Results. A total of 22 articles were included. The study population consisted of 63,548 surgical specimens. The pooled OR, based on the studies, was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.51-2.21). There was heterogeneity between the distribution of prevalence ratios and opportunity ratios across studies (I²= 91%; p>0.00001). The funnel plot shape of the studies included in the analysis appears to be symmetrical, indicating the absence of bias attributable to small studies. Conclusions. The current literature suggests that there is an increased risk of documenting papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens in which chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-compatible changes are observed; however, there are sources of bias that will not be possible to control for in retrospective studies, so we recommend studying the hypothesis suggesting an increased likelihood of diagnosing PTC in specimens with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-compatible changes using prospective methodologies


Subject(s)
Humans , Hashimoto Disease , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary , Specimen Handling , Retrospective Studies , Meta-Analysis , Systematic Review
4.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(3): 295-299, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407925

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Presentar el caso de una paciente mujer adulta, joven, con poliposis múltiple, asociado a cáncer colorrectal, evaluando su manejo quirúrgico oncológico. Materiales y Método: Datos e imágenes recopilados de la historia clínica del Hospital de Alta Complejidad Virgen de la Puerta (HACVP) EsSalud - La Libertad. Resultado: Mujer de 33 años que debuta con dolor abdominal en hemiabdomen izquierdo, más deposiciones con sangre. El hallazgo colonoscópico encuentra múltiples pólipos elevados, planos y sésiles en todo el colon, recto y ano compatible con displasias de alto y bajo grado; a nivel de colon izquierdo se halla lesión exofítica, estenosante cuyo resultado fue adenocarcinoma infiltrante moderadamente diferenciado. Por el gran riesgo de malignidad en todo el intestino grueso, incluyendo canal anal, se le realiza proctocolectomía total laparoscópica más ileostomía terminal. Discusión: La poliposis adenomatosa familiar (PAF) es un síndrome cuyo abordaje quirúrgico va desde una colectomía total con anastomosis ileorrectal, proctocolectomía con ileostomía terminal y proctocolectomía total con Pouch y anastomosis ileoanal. Conclusión: Individualizar el caso, sobre la mejor opción quirúrgica a adoptar para un adecuado manejo oncológico.


Aim: To present the case of a young adult female patient with multiple polyposis associated with colorectal cancer, evaluating her surgical oncological management. Materials and Method: Data and images collected from the clinical history of the Hospital de Alta Complejidad "Virgen de la Puerta" (HACVP) EsSalud - La Libertad. Result: 33-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain in the left hemiabdomen plus bloody stools. At colonoscopy multiple raised, flat and sessile polyps throughout the colon, rectum, and anus compatible with high-and low-grade dysplasias; an exophytic, stenosing lesion was found in the left colon, the result of which was moderately differentiated infiltrating adenocarcinoma. Due to the great risk of malignancy in the entire large intestine including the anal canal, a total laparoscopic proctocolectomy plus terminal ileostomy was performed. Discussion: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a syndrome whose surgical approach ranges from a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, proctocolectomy with terminal ileostomy and total proctocolectomy with Pouch and ileoanal anastomosis. Conclusión: Individualize the case, regarding the best surgical option to adopt for an adequate oncological management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Proctocolectomy, Restorative , Laparoscopy , Specimen Handling/methods , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli , Microscopy
5.
Washington; OPS; 23 mayo 2022. 12 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370042

ABSTRACT

Este documento está basado en la guía provisional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre las pruebas de laboratorio para el virus de la viruela del mono, 23 de mayo de 2022, y tiene por objeto proporcionar orientación a los Laboratorios Nacionales de Referencia sobre la detección del virus de la viruela del mono


This document is based on World Health Organization interim guidance on Laboratory testing for monkeypox virus, 23 May 2022, and is intended to provide guidance to National Reference Laboratories on monkeypox virus laboratory detection


Subject(s)
Humans , Specimen Handling/standards , Monkeypox virus/isolation & purification , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Mpox (monkeypox)/diagnosis , Laboratories/standards , Specimen Handling/methods , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential
6.
Rio de Janeiro; SES-RJ; 26/02/2022. 23 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1391063

ABSTRACT

Esta edição do boletim apresenta a análise do total de casos confirmados de COVID-19 de residentes no estado do Rio de Janeiro e suas nove regiões de saúde, incluindo os casos de Síndrome Gripal (SG) ou casos leves, as internações ou casos de Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave (SRAG) e os óbitos, ocorridos desde o início da pandemia em 2020 até 26 de fevereiro de 2022 (8ª Semana Epidemiológica).


Subject(s)
Public Health/standards , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Research/classification
7.
Rev. Flum. Odontol. (Online) ; 1(57): 1-8, jan.-abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1391233

ABSTRACT

O Banco de Dentes Humanos (BDH) é uma instituição sem fins lucrativos, vinculada a uma faculdade, universidade ou instituição com o propósito de suprir as necessidades acadêmicas, através do fornecimento de dentes humanos para estudo e treinamento laboratorial dos alunos dos cursos de graduação e pós-graduação. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo relatar os métodos utilizados para captação, tratamento, seleção, preservação, armazenamento e reutilização de dentes humanos extraídos, realizados por alunos da Faculdade de Odontologia (FO) da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) através de dois projetos deferidos junto a PROAES-UFF. Para isso, foram realizadas campanhas de conscientização e programas de divulgação para a doação de dentes humanos extraídos permanentes e decíduos tanto para a comunidade científica odontológica como para a comunidade leiga. Após 24 meses, foram captados um total de 2.536 dentes, sendo 346 molares superiores, 279 molares inferiores, 262 pré-molares superiores, 418 pré-molares inferiores, 343 caninos, 296 incisivos superiores e 592 incisivos inferiores. As campanhas e ações dos projetos da PROAES-UFF foram eficientes para coletar dentes humanos, suprindo as atividades laboratoriais de diversas disciplinas na graduação e também servindo de estoque para a futura implementação do BDH da FO-UFF.


The Human Teeth Bank (HTB) is a non-profit institution, linked to a college, university or institution with the purpose of meeting academic needs, through the provision of human teeth for study and laboratory training of undergraduate and postgraduate students. Thus, this study aimed to report the methods of capture, treatment, selection, preservation, storage and reuse of extracted human teeth, carried out by students from the Faculty of Dentistry (FO) of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) through two projects approved by PROAES-UFF. To this end, awareness campaigns and outreach programs were carried out for the donation of human teeth extracted, permanent and deciduous, both for the dental scientific community and for the lay community. After 24 months, a total of 2,536 teeth were captured, with 346 upper molars, 279 lower molars, 262 upper premolars, 418 lower premolars, 343 canines, 296 upper incisors and 592 lower incisors. The campaigns and actions of PROAES-UFF projects were efficient in collecting human teeth, supplying the laboratory activities of several disciplines during graduation and also serving as a stock for a future implementation of the HTB of FO-UFF.


Subject(s)
Schools, Dental , Specimen Handling , Tooth , Planning Techniques
8.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 500-504, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943026

ABSTRACT

In recent years, natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) has been widely used in surgery of colorectal cancer. The rapid development of NOSES is mainly attributed to its own great advantages and values, including the reduction of surgical trauma, the acceleration of postoperative recovery and the reduction of adverse psychological reactions for patients. These advantages of NOSES are also important embodiment and perfect interpretation of the organ functional protection. Organ functional preservation is a hot topic in surgery today, and it is also an inevitable requirement for minimally invasive surgery. Essentially, NOSES and organ functional preservation are proposed in the same background, and the goals are highly compatible. NOSES is an important practitioner of organ functional preservation, and organ functional preservation is also the vane of the development of the theoretical system of NOSES. These two items complement each other and together constitute the important element in the development of modern minimally invasive surgery. In order to comprehensively discuss the relationship between NOSES and organ functional protection, we elaborate the important role and value of functional protection in NOSES from five key procedures of colorectal surgery, namely surgical approach, extent of resection, lymph node dissection, digestive tract reconstruction and specimen extraction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Laparoscopy/methods , Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Specimen Handling , Treatment Outcome
9.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 8(1): 26-37, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1400108

ABSTRACT

Justificación: el consentimiento informado, se fundamenta en el principio de autonomía de las personas, la concepción moral sobre el respeto de la dignidad del ser humano y por tanto en su libertad. En el consentimiento informado se articulan el resto de los principios bioéticos universales: la no maleficencia, la justicia, y la beneficencia. Objetivo: Establecer las situaciones en las cuales es pertinente aplicar el consentimiento informado en la toma de muestras postmortem desde un enfoque bioético versus un enfoque legal. Metodología: se realizó una revisión en: Scielo, LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, NIH, Repositorio de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud; usando palabras clave: consentimiento informado, derechos humanos, autonomía, bioética, autopsia, muestras postmortem y médicos forenses y combinaciones de estas. Los criterios de inclusión: artículos con antigüedad máxima de cinco años, en español e inglés de libre acceso. Resultados: se obtuvieron 113 artículos utilizando las palabras clave y sus combinaciones, más otros 43 registros adicionales identificados de otras fuentes como leyes, reglamentos etc. Al eliminar las fuentes: duplicadas, no relevantes, inhabilitadas e incompletas se trabajó con un total de 49 artículos. Conclusiones: existe la necesidad de incluir en las pautas éticas nacionales e internacionales que regulan la investigación científica, lineamientos a seguir sobre la realización del proceso del consentimiento informado en los estudios que involucren muestras postmortem, utilizadas posteriormente a su uso primario...(AU)


Subject(s)
Specimen Handling , Informed Consent , Postmortem Changes , Autopsy , Bioethics
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153486

ABSTRACT

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia , Pakistan , Specimen Handling , Symbiosis
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 634-638, oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388296

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El COVID-19 es eminentemente una infección de transmisión e inicio respiratorio, se discute la existencia de otras fuentes de contagio. El receptor viral ACE2 también ha sido detectado en el útero y en la vagina; de allí se ha planteado el compromiso del virus SARS-CoV-2 sobre el sistema genitourinario y sus posibles repercusiones en el embarazo. OBJETIVO: Determinar la presencia de SARS-CoV-2 en muestras endocervicales de mujeres con COVID-19 en departamentos del Paraguay. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Diseño observacional prospectivo, de corte transverso. Se reclutaron 200 mujeres desde agosto 2020 hasta febrero 2021, con no más de 48/72 h de un resultado previo positivo de hisopado nasofaríngeo para SARS-CoV-2 por retrotranscriptasa reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (en inglés rt-RT-PCR) y que aceptaron ingresar al estudio. Se llenó un cuestionario clínico epidemiológico. Las tomas de muestras se realizaron en servicios de salud del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social (MSP y BS), domicilios y albergues de los distintos departamentos de Paraguay. Cada paciente fue sometida a un hisopado con hisopos de dacron o citobrush endocervical para la detección de SARS-CoV-2 por rt RT-PCR. Resultados: Las mujeres estudiadas tenían una edad media de 46,5 años (IC 95% 31,5-62,5). Refirieron contagio comunitario con SARS-CoV-2 en 75,5%, 13,5% en el hogar, 8,5% en el lugar de trabajo y 1,5% en el extranjero. Las manifestaciones clínicas fueron: 30%, síndrome gripal, fiebre 22,5%, tos 20%, anosmia 15,5%, trastornos digestivos 15,5%, y otros se presentaron con menor frecuencia. Las muestras de hisopados o citobrush endocervical sometidas a rt-RT-PCR para la deteccción de SARS Cov-2, resultaron negativas en las 200 mujeres de estudio. Discusión: Cabe destacar que las muestras vaginales fueron tomadas dentro de las 24-72 h de haber obtenido un resultado positivo para SARS-CoV-2 en el hisopado nasofaríngeo y que 62,5% de las mujeres se encontraban internadas en módulos respiratorios. Se discute la razón de la negatividad de los exámenes y su trascendencia. CONCLUSIÓN: No se detectó infección con SARS-CoV-2 en la región endocervical de 200 mujeres con manifestaciones clínicas de COVID 19 y evaluadas dentro de las 48/72 h de un resultado positivo nasofaríngeo para SARS Cov-2. Los resultados en la población de estudio concuerdan con otros estudios reportados en la literatura científica.


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an eminently respiratory transmissible infection of respiratory initiation, the existence of other sources of contagion is discussed. The ACE2 viral receptor has also been detected in the uterus and vagina; Hence, the involvement of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the genitourinary system and its possible repercussions on pregnancy has been raised. AIM: To determine the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in endocervical samples of women with COVID-19 in the departments of Paraguay. METHODS: Designed as a prospective observational of transverse cohort. Two hundred women were recruited from August 2020 to February 2021, with no more than 48/72 hours of a previous positive nasopharyngeal swab result for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-RT-PCR) and who agreed to participate in the study. A clinical epidemiological questionnaire was completed. The samples were taken in health services of the MSPYBS (Public Ministry of Health and Social Welfare), homes and shelters in the different departments of Paraguay. Each patient underwent a swab (dacron swabs) or endocervical cytobrush for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 by rt-RT-PCR. RESULTS: Women recruited had a mean age of 46.5 years (95% CI 31,562.5). They reported contagion with SARS-CoV-2: 75.5% in the community, 13.5% at home, 8.5% in the place of work and 1.5% abroad. The clinical manifestations were: 30% flu syndrome, 22.5% fever, 20% cough, 15.5% anosmia, 15.5% digestive disorders, among other symptoms. The swabs or endocervical cytobrush samples subjected to rt-RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 were negative in the 200 study women. Discussion: It should be noted that the vaginal samples were taken within 24-72 hours after obtaining a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharyngeal swab and that 62.5% of the women were hospitalized in respiratory modules. The reason for the negativity of the exams and their significance are discussed. CONCLUSION: No SARS Cov-2 infection was detected in the endocervical region of 200 women with clinical manifestations of COVID 19 and evaluated within 48/72 hours of a positive nasopharyngeal result for SARS Cov-2. The results in the study population agree with the findings of other studies reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Cervix Uteri/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Paraguay/epidemiology , Specimen Handling , Vagina/virology , Nasopharynx , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/transmission
12.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3745, tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280429

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a positive-strand RNA virus. The virus can also be detected in many different specimens as throat swabs, nasal swabs, sputum, saliva, blood, etc. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare the reliability of different types of specimen collection, saliva and swabs samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Material and Methods: A sample of 22 COVID-19 positive patients was selected. Paired samples from saliva, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs were collected on the 7th day after diagnosis. The hyssops and medium employed was IMPROSWAB and IMPROVIRAL NAT Medium, Germany. The sample evaluation was conducted through RT-PCR. The results were compared using Fisher's exact test and ROC curve. The gold standard proposed in this paper was the nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs specimen. Results: The gold standard method detected 10 true positive cases, of which oropharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva only detected three positive cases. Significant differences (Fisher's exact test p = 0.003) were detected in the comparison between saliva and the gold standart proposed. The ROC curve analysis showed that saliva had an area under the curve of 0.650, with a 30 percent of sensibility. However, the nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples had an area under curve of 0.950 and 1.000, respectively, with a sensibility of 90 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Conclusion: Saliva samples are not a reliable specimen for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. In turn, the most reliable specimens are nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples collected by swabbing(AU)


Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN positivo. Este virus puede ser detectado en diferentes tipos de secreción como hisopada bucal, nasal, esputo, saliva, sangre, etc. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la confiabilidad de diferentes tipos de muestras, saliva y exudado, en la detección de SARS-CoV-2. Material y Métodos: Una muestra de 22 pacientes con diagnóstico de Covid-19 fue estudiada. Se tomaron muestras pareadas de saliva y exudado nasofaríngeo y orofaríngeo en cada paciente. Se emplearon los hisopos y medios de la firma alemana IMPROVE®. Los resultados de las determinaciones por RT-PCR se compararon mediante test de Fisher (test de la probabilidad exacta de Fisher) y cada sets de muestras fue evaluada individualmente y luego comparadas por curvas ROC. El estándar de oro propuesto fue el doble hisopado nasofaríngeo/orofaríngeo. Resultados: El método de oro propuesto detectó 10 casos positivos. La coincidencia de detección entre todos los sets de muestras fue de 3 casos (30 por ciento). Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (Fisher p = 0.003) en la comparación de los casos detectados en saliva vs el estándar de oro. El análisis de curvas ROC mostró un área bajo la curva de 0.650 (30 por ciento de sensibilidad) para la saliva. En el caso del hisopado nasofaríngeo y el estándar de oro mostraron un área bajo la curva de 0.95 y 1.00, respectivamente, con una sensibilidad del 90 (AU) por ciento y 100 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La saliva no es una muestra confiable para la detección de SARS-CoV-2. La muestra más confiable para el diagnóstico fue el hisopado nasofaríngeo y el doble hisopado(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx/pathology , Saliva , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/ethics , Nasopharynx/virology
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. Methods A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. Results Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. Conclusion A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Resumo Objetivo A doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) é uma doença viral pandêmica causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda 2 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da doença entre a população obstétrica ainda é incerto, e o estudo da placenta pode fornecer informações valiosas. Assim, a coleta adequada do tecido placentário pode ajudar a caracterizar algumas propriedades das infecções virais. Métodos Um protocolo de coleta placentária é proposto, objetivando a garantia de representatividade da placenta, descrevendo a maneira de conservação adequada das amostras, e visando garantir sua integridade para análises futuras. O protocolo é apresentado em suas versões completa e simplificada, permitindo sua implementação em diferentes configurações de infraestrutura. Resultados A amostragem com o intervalo mínimo possível do parto é essencial para coleta e armazenamento adequados. Esse protocolo já foi implementado durante a epidemia de vírus Zika. Conclusão Um protocolo para coleta e armazenamento adequados de tecido placentário é fundamental para a avaliação adequada de infecções virais na placenta. Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, a implementação deste protocolo pode ajudar a elucidar aspectos críticos da infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/virology , Virology/methods , Virology/standards , Virus Diseases/virology
14.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3249-3256, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251942

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Blastocystis sp. es un parásito frecuente en el humano, identificado por el laboratorio en muestras de heces fecales. Se presentó el caso de un paciente de 5 años atendido en consulta de Gastroenterología en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial Eliseo Noel Caamaño, de Matanzas, por presentar dolor abdominal, heces pastosas, náuseas y vómitos desde hacía un año. Llevó tratamiento con ranitidina, omeprazol y domperidona, sin mejoría clínica. Se realizó estudio coproparasitológico en muestras de heces fecales seriadas, con la presencia del Blastocystis hominis. Se indicó tratamiento con metronidazol, sin mejoría clínica, y posteriormente se indicó como alternativa la nitazoxanida. Se evaluó a los 15 días, sin sintomatología y con negativización de las heces fecales seriadas. Resulta frecuente el desconocimiento y la poca importancia que los profesionales sanitarios muestran ante esta infestación, aunque cada vez más se confirma la participación del parásito en manifestaciones clínicas (AU).


ABSTRACT Blastocystis sp. is a frequent parasite in humans, identified in the laboratory in samples of fecal feces. The case of a 5-year-old patient is presented; he assisted the consultation of Gastroenterology in the Provincial Teaching Pediatric Hospital Eliseo Noel Caamaño in Matanzas, suffering abdominal pain, mash feces, nauseas and vomits for one year, and was treated with ranitidine, omeprazole and domperidone without clinical improvement. A coproparasitological study was carried out in serial fecal feces samples with the presence of Blastocystis hominis. Treatment with metronidazole was indicated without clinical improvement and them, as an alternative, nitazoxanide was indicated. He was evaluated at 15 days without symptoms and with negative serial fecal feces. The ignorance and the little importance that health professionals show towards this infestation are frequent, although more and more frequently it is confirmed the participation of the parasite in clinical manifestations (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Child , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Signs and Symptoms , Specimen Handling/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenterology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications
15.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 9, 2021. 3 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151287

ABSTRACT

La secuenciación genómica ha sido una herramienta esencial para generar datos virológicos, impulsar la respuesta del laboratorio y comprender mejor los patrones evolutivos y de dispersión del SARS-CoV-2. Además de la caracterización de los patrones de circulación global, la detección temprana de las variantes del SARS-CoV-2 dentro de cada país es fundamental para complementar la vigilancia epidemiológica y virológica.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling , Epidemiological Monitoring
16.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021302, 09 fev. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281240

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global public health crisis (pandemic). One of the most important measures to control the transmission chain of the new coronavirus is to identify those infected through laboratory testing. OBJECTIVE: Synthesize the recommendations for the specimen collection for detection and diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: This is an integrative review, considering the publications of the following databases: PubMed and Google Academic from January 2020. RESULTS: 468 publications were identified, 20 of which were considered eligible. The publications recommend that technical training for specimen collection and careful observation of infection prevention protocols are fundamental. This manuscript highlights the steps for specimen collection as materials for collection, storage, transportation, individual protection, and laboratory analysis of samples. Currently, the Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction test is the recommended and gold standard method of identifying COVID-19 cases. Serological tests play an important role in research and surveillance. CONCLUSION: In summary, the documents ensure that the RT-PCR is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection and recommend standardization of collection and conditioning methods to avoid errors related to the collection and false negative results.


INTRODUÇÃO: A disseminação do SARS-CoV-2 ocasionou uma crise na saúde pública mundial (pandemia). Uma das mais importantes medidas de controle da cadeia de transmissão do novo coronavírus consiste em identificar os infectados por meio de teste laboratorial. OBJETIVO: Sintetizar as recomendações para a coleta de amostras para detecção e diagnóstico da COVID-19. MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, considerando as publicações do Google Acadêmico e Pubmed a partir de janeiro de 2020. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 468 publicações, das quais 20 foram consideradas elegíveis. As publicações recomendam que a capacitação técnica para a coleta das amostras e a observação criteriosa de protocolos de prevenção de infecção são fundamentais. Destacam-se nesse artigo as etapas para a coleta de amostras como materiais para coleta, armazenamento, transporte, proteção individual e análise laboratorial das amostras. Atualmente, o teste de Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction é o método recomendado e padrão-ouro para a identificação dos casos de COVID-19. Os testes sorológicos desempenham um papel importante na pesquisa e vigilância. CONCLUSÃO: Em síntese, os documentos asseguram que o RT-PCR é o teste padrão-ouro para detecção do SARS-CoV-2 e recomenda a padronização dos métodos de coleta e acondicionamento, a fim de evitar erros relacionados com a coleta e resultados falso-negativos.


Subject(s)
Specimen Handling , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics
17.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 3 feb. 2021. 28 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1224546

ABSTRACT

En los antecedentes, brinda detalles técnicos de enfermedades previas al COVID-19 y sigue esta consigna internacional: "Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio." Aborda las tres mutaciones del virus conocidas hasta la fecha del documento y las tres variantes conocidas: Reino Unido e Irlanda del Norte, República de Sudáfrica y Brasil, siendo la de mayor transmisibilidad, según el documento, la del Reino Unido. El primero de los objetivos del documento es: "Brindar los lineamientos generales para la toma de muestra, conservación, transporte y diagnóstico del SARS-Cov-2 en los laboratorios descentralizados bajo la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo Real, en atención a pacientes que cumplen con la definición de caso y se tipifica como "sospechoso inusitado"." Incluye como anexo 2 el documento: "Lineamientos para el abordaje de casos positivos para SARS-COV-2 de viajeros que ingresan al país por el aeropuerto internacional "La Aurora" (AILA)"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Guatemala , Indicators and Reagents/administration & dosage , Laboratories/standards
18.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 67(3): e-081299, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292384

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer do colo do útero é ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo. A qualidade dos exames de rastreio e de confirmação diagnóstica são fundamentais para que as ações de controle do câncer alcancem efetivo impacto sobre a mortalidade. Objetivo: Analisar as informações registradas no campo descritivo dos motivos da insatisfatoriedade dos exames histopatológicos do colo do útero. Método: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema de Informação do Câncer (SISCAN) de mulheres que realizaram exame histopatológico do colo do útero no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no período de 2014 a 2017. Foram analisados 1.236 exames histopatológicos do colo do útero. Os motivos de insatisfatoriedade especificados no campo descritivo foram analisados, reclassificados e, quando pertinente, foram redistribuídos nos campos existentes para exames satisfatórios. Resultados: Foram classificados incorretamente como 'insatisfatório' 262 exames (21,2%), dos quais, 11,25% foram reclassificados como lesão de caráter benigno, 5,91% como lesão de alto grau, 1,46% como carcinoma, 0,24% como adenocarcinoma e 0,24% como adenocarcinoma in situ. Conclusão: O estudo demonstrou um percentual expressivo de erros nos laudos classificados como insatisfatórios no SUS, apontando a necessidade de capacitar profissionais que emitem laudo histopatológico de forma a evitar erros diagnósticos.


Introduction: Cervical cancer is still an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. The quality of screening and diagnostic confirmation tests are essential for cancer control actions to achieve an effective impact on mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the information registered in the description field of the motives for the unsatisfactoriness of the histopathological exams of the cervix. Method: Descriptive study using data of the Cancer Information System (SISCAN) of women who underwent histopathological examination of the cervix in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the period from 2014 to 2017.1,236 histopathological examinations of the cervix were analyzed.The reasons for unsatisfactoriness specified in the description field were analyzed and reclassified and, when relevant, were reassigned to the existing fields for satisfactory exams. Results: 262 exams (21.2%) were incorrectly classified as 'unsatisfactory', in which 11.25% were reclassified as a benign lesion, 5.91% as a high-grade lesion, 1.46% as carcinoma, 0.24% as adenocarcinoma and 0.24% as adenocarcinoma in situ. Conclusion: The study showed a significant percentage of errors in reports classified as unsatisfactory in SUS, pointing out the need to train professionals who issue histopathological reports in order to avoid diagnostic errors.


Introducción: El cáncer de cuello uterino sigue siendo un importante problema de salud pública en Brasil y en todo el mundo. La calidad de las pruebas de cribado y las de confirmación diagnóstica son fundamentales para que las acciones de control del cáncer logren un impacto efectivo en la mortalidad. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la información registrada en el campo descriptivo de las razones de la insatisfacción de los exámenes histopatológicos del cuello uterino. Método: Estudio descriptivo que utilizó datos del Sistema de Información del Cáncer (SISCAN) de mujeres a las que se les realizó examen histopatológico cervicouterino en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) de 2014 a 2017. Se analizaron 1.236 exámenes histopatológicos cervicouterino. útero. Los motivos de insatisfacción especificados en el campo descriptivo se analizaron y reclasificaron y, cuando fue relevante, se redistribuyeron en los campos existentes de satisfacción con el examen. Resultados: 262 exámenes (21,2%) se clasificaron incorrectamente como 'insatisfactorios', en los que el 11,25% se reclasificó como lesión benigna, el 5,91% como lesión de alto grado, el 1,46% como carcinoma, 0,24 % como adenocarcinoma y 0,24% como adenocarcinoma in situ. Conclusión: El estudio mostró un porcentaje significativo de errores en informes calificados como insatisfactorios en el SUS, señalando la necesidad de formar profesionales que emitan informes histopatológicos para evitar errores diagnósticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papanicolaou Test , Specimen Handling , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Mass Screening
19.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 722-731, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888233

ABSTRACT

The background of abdominal computed tomography (CT) images is complex, and kidney tumors have different shapes, sizes and unclear edges. Consequently, the segmentation methods applying to the whole CT images are often unable to effectively segment the kidney tumors. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a multi-scale network based on cascaded 3D U-Net and DeepLabV3+ for kidney tumor segmentation, which uses atrous convolution feature pyramid to adaptively control receptive field. Through the fusion of high-level and low-level features, the segmented edges of large tumors and the segmentation accuracies of small tumors are effectively improved. A total of 210 CT data published by Kits2019 were used for five-fold cross validation, and 30 CT volume data collected from Suzhou Science and Technology Town Hospital were independently tested by trained segmentation models. The results of five-fold cross validation experiments showed that the Dice coefficient, sensitivity and precision were 0.796 2 ± 0.274 1, 0.824 5 ± 0.276 3, and 0.805 1 ± 0.284 0, respectively. On the external test set, the Dice coefficient, sensitivity and precision were 0.817 2 ± 0.110 0, 0.829 6 ± 0.150 7, and 0.831 8 ± 0.116 8, respectively. The results show a great improvement in the segmentation accuracy compared with other semantic segmentation methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Specimen Handling , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 257-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
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