Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 803
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Rodent Diseases/epidemiology , Rodentia , Pakistan , Specimen Handling , Symbiosis
2.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3745, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280429

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a positive-strand RNA virus. The virus can also be detected in many different specimens as throat swabs, nasal swabs, sputum, saliva, blood, etc. Objective: The aim of this paper is to compare the reliability of different types of specimen collection, saliva and swabs samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Material and Methods: A sample of 22 COVID-19 positive patients was selected. Paired samples from saliva, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs were collected on the 7th day after diagnosis. The hyssops and medium employed was IMPROSWAB and IMPROVIRAL NAT Medium, Germany. The sample evaluation was conducted through RT-PCR. The results were compared using Fisher's exact test and ROC curve. The gold standard proposed in this paper was the nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal swabs specimen. Results: The gold standard method detected 10 true positive cases, of which oropharyngeal swabs, nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva only detected three positive cases. Significant differences (Fisher's exact test p = 0.003) were detected in the comparison between saliva and the gold standart proposed. The ROC curve analysis showed that saliva had an area under the curve of 0.650, with a 30 percent of sensibility. However, the nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples had an area under curve of 0.950 and 1.000, respectively, with a sensibility of 90 percent and 100 percent, respectively. Conclusion: Saliva samples are not a reliable specimen for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. In turn, the most reliable specimens are nasopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal + oropharyngeal samples collected by swabbing(AU)


Introducción: El SARS-CoV-2 es un virus ARN positivo. Este virus puede ser detectado en diferentes tipos de secreción como hisopada bucal, nasal, esputo, saliva, sangre, etc. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la confiabilidad de diferentes tipos de muestras, saliva y exudado, en la detección de SARS-CoV-2. Material y Métodos: Una muestra de 22 pacientes con diagnóstico de Covid-19 fue estudiada. Se tomaron muestras pareadas de saliva y exudado nasofaríngeo y orofaríngeo en cada paciente. Se emplearon los hisopos y medios de la firma alemana IMPROVE®. Los resultados de las determinaciones por RT-PCR se compararon mediante test de Fisher (test de la probabilidad exacta de Fisher) y cada sets de muestras fue evaluada individualmente y luego comparadas por curvas ROC. El estándar de oro propuesto fue el doble hisopado nasofaríngeo/orofaríngeo. Resultados: El método de oro propuesto detectó 10 casos positivos. La coincidencia de detección entre todos los sets de muestras fue de 3 casos (30 por ciento). Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas (Fisher p = 0.003) en la comparación de los casos detectados en saliva vs el estándar de oro. El análisis de curvas ROC mostró un área bajo la curva de 0.650 (30 por ciento de sensibilidad) para la saliva. En el caso del hisopado nasofaríngeo y el estándar de oro mostraron un área bajo la curva de 0.95 y 1.00, respectivamente, con una sensibilidad del 90 (AU) por ciento y 100 por ciento, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La saliva no es una muestra confiable para la detección de SARS-CoV-2. La muestra más confiable para el diagnóstico fue el hisopado nasofaríngeo y el doble hisopado(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharynx/pathology , Saliva , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/ethics , Nasopharynx/virology
3.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. Methods A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. Results Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. Conclusion A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Resumo Objetivo A doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) é uma doença viral pandêmica causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda 2 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da doença entre a população obstétrica ainda é incerto, e o estudo da placenta pode fornecer informações valiosas. Assim, a coleta adequada do tecido placentário pode ajudar a caracterizar algumas propriedades das infecções virais. Métodos Um protocolo de coleta placentária é proposto, objetivando a garantia de representatividade da placenta, descrevendo a maneira de conservação adequada das amostras, e visando garantir sua integridade para análises futuras. O protocolo é apresentado em suas versões completa e simplificada, permitindo sua implementação em diferentes configurações de infraestrutura. Resultados A amostragem com o intervalo mínimo possível do parto é essencial para coleta e armazenamento adequados. Esse protocolo já foi implementado durante a epidemia de vírus Zika. Conclusão Um protocolo para coleta e armazenamento adequados de tecido placentário é fundamental para a avaliação adequada de infecções virais na placenta. Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, a implementação deste protocolo pode ajudar a elucidar aspectos críticos da infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/virology , Virology/methods , Virology/standards , Virus Diseases/virology
4.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3249-3256, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251942

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Blastocystis sp. es un parásito frecuente en el humano, identificado por el laboratorio en muestras de heces fecales. Se presentó el caso de un paciente de 5 años atendido en consulta de Gastroenterología en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial Eliseo Noel Caamaño, de Matanzas, por presentar dolor abdominal, heces pastosas, náuseas y vómitos desde hacía un año. Llevó tratamiento con ranitidina, omeprazol y domperidona, sin mejoría clínica. Se realizó estudio coproparasitológico en muestras de heces fecales seriadas, con la presencia del Blastocystis hominis. Se indicó tratamiento con metronidazol, sin mejoría clínica, y posteriormente se indicó como alternativa la nitazoxanida. Se evaluó a los 15 días, sin sintomatología y con negativización de las heces fecales seriadas. Resulta frecuente el desconocimiento y la poca importancia que los profesionales sanitarios muestran ante esta infestación, aunque cada vez más se confirma la participación del parásito en manifestaciones clínicas (AU).


ABSTRACT Blastocystis sp. is a frequent parasite in humans, identified in the laboratory in samples of fecal feces. The case of a 5-year-old patient is presented; he assisted the consultation of Gastroenterology in the Provincial Teaching Pediatric Hospital Eliseo Noel Caamaño in Matanzas, suffering abdominal pain, mash feces, nauseas and vomits for one year, and was treated with ranitidine, omeprazole and domperidone without clinical improvement. A coproparasitological study was carried out in serial fecal feces samples with the presence of Blastocystis hominis. Treatment with metronidazole was indicated without clinical improvement and them, as an alternative, nitazoxanide was indicated. He was evaluated at 15 days without symptoms and with negative serial fecal feces. The ignorance and the little importance that health professionals show towards this infestation are frequent, although more and more frequently it is confirmed the participation of the parasite in clinical manifestations (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Child , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Signs and Symptoms , Specimen Handling/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenterology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications
5.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 9, 2021. 3 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151287

ABSTRACT

La secuenciación genómica ha sido una herramienta esencial para generar datos virológicos, impulsar la respuesta del laboratorio y comprender mejor los patrones evolutivos y de dispersión del SARS-CoV-2. Además de la caracterización de los patrones de circulación global, la detección temprana de las variantes del SARS-CoV-2 dentro de cada país es fundamental para complementar la vigilancia epidemiológica y virológica.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling , Epidemiological Monitoring
6.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021302, 09 fev. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281240

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global public health crisis (pandemic). One of the most important measures to control the transmission chain of the new coronavirus is to identify those infected through laboratory testing. OBJECTIVE: Synthesize the recommendations for the specimen collection for detection and diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: This is an integrative review, considering the publications of the following databases: PubMed and Google Academic from January 2020. RESULTS: 468 publications were identified, 20 of which were considered eligible. The publications recommend that technical training for specimen collection and careful observation of infection prevention protocols are fundamental. This manuscript highlights the steps for specimen collection as materials for collection, storage, transportation, individual protection, and laboratory analysis of samples. Currently, the Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction test is the recommended and gold standard method of identifying COVID-19 cases. Serological tests play an important role in research and surveillance. CONCLUSION: In summary, the documents ensure that the RT-PCR is the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection and recommend standardization of collection and conditioning methods to avoid errors related to the collection and false negative results.


INTRODUÇÃO: A disseminação do SARS-CoV-2 ocasionou uma crise na saúde pública mundial (pandemia). Uma das mais importantes medidas de controle da cadeia de transmissão do novo coronavírus consiste em identificar os infectados por meio de teste laboratorial. OBJETIVO: Sintetizar as recomendações para a coleta de amostras para detecção e diagnóstico da COVID-19. MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, considerando as publicações do Google Acadêmico e Pubmed a partir de janeiro de 2020. RESULTADOS: Foram identificadas 468 publicações, das quais 20 foram consideradas elegíveis. As publicações recomendam que a capacitação técnica para a coleta das amostras e a observação criteriosa de protocolos de prevenção de infecção são fundamentais. Destacam-se nesse artigo as etapas para a coleta de amostras como materiais para coleta, armazenamento, transporte, proteção individual e análise laboratorial das amostras. Atualmente, o teste de Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction é o método recomendado e padrão-ouro para a identificação dos casos de COVID-19. Os testes sorológicos desempenham um papel importante na pesquisa e vigilância. CONCLUSÃO: Em síntese, os documentos asseguram que o RT-PCR é o teste padrão-ouro para detecção do SARS-CoV-2 e recomenda a padronização dos métodos de coleta e acondicionamento, a fim de evitar erros relacionados com a coleta e resultados falso-negativos.


Subject(s)
Specimen Handling , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics
7.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 3 feb. 2021. 28 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1224546

ABSTRACT

En los antecedentes, brinda detalles técnicos de enfermedades previas al COVID-19 y sigue esta consigna internacional: "Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio." Aborda las tres mutaciones del virus conocidas hasta la fecha del documento y las tres variantes conocidas: Reino Unido e Irlanda del Norte, República de Sudáfrica y Brasil, siendo la de mayor transmisibilidad, según el documento, la del Reino Unido. El primero de los objetivos del documento es: "Brindar los lineamientos generales para la toma de muestra, conservación, transporte y diagnóstico del SARS-Cov-2 en los laboratorios descentralizados bajo la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo Real, en atención a pacientes que cumplen con la definición de caso y se tipifica como "sospechoso inusitado"." Incluye como anexo 2 el documento: "Lineamientos para el abordaje de casos positivos para SARS-COV-2 de viajeros que ingresan al país por el aeropuerto internacional "La Aurora" (AILA)"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Guatemala , Indicators and Reagents/administration & dosage , Laboratories/standards
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888233

ABSTRACT

The background of abdominal computed tomography (CT) images is complex, and kidney tumors have different shapes, sizes and unclear edges. Consequently, the segmentation methods applying to the whole CT images are often unable to effectively segment the kidney tumors. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a multi-scale network based on cascaded 3D U-Net and DeepLabV3+ for kidney tumor segmentation, which uses atrous convolution feature pyramid to adaptively control receptive field. Through the fusion of high-level and low-level features, the segmented edges of large tumors and the segmentation accuracies of small tumors are effectively improved. A total of 210 CT data published by Kits2019 were used for five-fold cross validation, and 30 CT volume data collected from Suzhou Science and Technology Town Hospital were independently tested by trained segmentation models. The results of five-fold cross validation experiments showed that the Dice coefficient, sensitivity and precision were 0.796 2 ± 0.274 1, 0.824 5 ± 0.276 3, and 0.805 1 ± 0.284 0, respectively. On the external test set, the Dice coefficient, sensitivity and precision were 0.817 2 ± 0.110 0, 0.829 6 ± 0.150 7, and 0.831 8 ± 0.116 8, respectively. The results show a great improvement in the segmentation accuracy compared with other semantic segmentation methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Specimen Handling , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210085, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The high demand for adequate material for the gold standard reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based diagnosis imposed by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, combined with the inherent contamination risks for healthcare workers during nasopharyngeal swab (NP) sample collection and the discomfort it causes patients, brought the need to identify alternative specimens suitable for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to compare saliva and gingival fluid swabs to NP swabs as specimens for RT-qPCR-based SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. METHODS We compared gingival fluid swabs (n = 158) and saliva (n = 207) to the rayon-tipped NP swabs obtained from mild-symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects as specimens for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 detection. FINDINGS When compared to NP swabs, gingival fluid swabs had a concordance rate of 15.4% among positive samples, zero among inconclusive, and 100% among negative ones. For saliva samples, the concordance rate was 67.6% among positive samples, 42.9% among inconclusive, and 96.8% among negative ones. However, the concordance rate between saliva and NP swabs was higher (96.9%) within samples with lower cycle threshold (Ct) values (Ct > 10 ≤ 25). MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data suggests that whereas gingival fluid swabs are not substitutes for NP swabs, saliva might be considered whenever NP swabs are not available or recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Saliva , Specimen Handling , Nasopharynx , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Med. lab ; 25(3): 581-591, 2021. tabs, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343480

ABSTRACT

La aspiración con aguja fina (ACAF) es una técnica ampliamente utilizada por su alta seguridad y fácil uso. Sin embargo, al usarse en conjunto con la evaluación rápida de la muestra en el sitio de la toma (ROSE, del inglés, Rapid On- Site Evaluation), disminuyen los tiempos necesarios para la evaluación y el diagnóstico, mejora la calidad de la muestra, disminuye el número de punciones por procedimiento y limita la necesidad de repetir la prueba, lo que hace que el uso combinado de ambas técnicas sea de gran utilidad y cada vez más solicitado en los servicios de imágenes diagnósticas y patología. ROSE, además, permite una clasificación adecuada del material recolectado para cultivos, estudios de citometría de flujo y pruebas moleculares. Particularmente, en los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos, la realización de ROSE durante el procedimiento de evaluación ecográfica y punción, puede garantizar que la muestra extraída sea suficiente y adecuada para el diagnóstico, y, así mismo, permite evaluar la necesidad de estudios complementarios de manera inmediata, brindando un diagnóstico rápido y preciso, disminuyendo los costos relacionados con la repetición del procedimiento y la morbilidad asociada a complicaciones por punciones múltiples


Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a widely used technique due to its high safety and ease of use. However, when used in combination with Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE), there is a reduction in the time required for evaluation and diagnosis, as well as an improvement in the sample quality, a reduction in the number of needle passes and the need to repeat the test, which makes the combined use of both techniques very useful and increasingly requested in the diagnostic imaging and pathology services. ROSE also allows a proper classification of the collected material for cultures, flow cytometry studies and molecular tests. Particularly in patients with thyroid nodules, the performance of ROSE during the ultrasound evaluation and biopsy procedure can guarantee that the sample extracted is sufficient and adequate for the diagnosis, and, likewise, an immediate evaluation for the need for complementary studies can be achieved, providing a fast and accurate diagnosis, reducing the costs related to repeating the procedure, and the morbidity associated with complications from multiple biopsies


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Pathology , Specimen Handling , Thyroid Nodule , Diagnosis
14.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 67(3): e-081299, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292384

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer do colo do útero é ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo. A qualidade dos exames de rastreio e de confirmação diagnóstica são fundamentais para que as ações de controle do câncer alcancem efetivo impacto sobre a mortalidade. Objetivo: Analisar as informações registradas no campo descritivo dos motivos da insatisfatoriedade dos exames histopatológicos do colo do útero. Método: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema de Informação do Câncer (SISCAN) de mulheres que realizaram exame histopatológico do colo do útero no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) no período de 2014 a 2017. Foram analisados 1.236 exames histopatológicos do colo do útero. Os motivos de insatisfatoriedade especificados no campo descritivo foram analisados, reclassificados e, quando pertinente, foram redistribuídos nos campos existentes para exames satisfatórios. Resultados: Foram classificados incorretamente como 'insatisfatório' 262 exames (21,2%), dos quais, 11,25% foram reclassificados como lesão de caráter benigno, 5,91% como lesão de alto grau, 1,46% como carcinoma, 0,24% como adenocarcinoma e 0,24% como adenocarcinoma in situ. Conclusão: O estudo demonstrou um percentual expressivo de erros nos laudos classificados como insatisfatórios no SUS, apontando a necessidade de capacitar profissionais que emitem laudo histopatológico de forma a evitar erros diagnósticos.


Introduction: Cervical cancer is still an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. The quality of screening and diagnostic confirmation tests are essential for cancer control actions to achieve an effective impact on mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the information registered in the description field of the motives for the unsatisfactoriness of the histopathological exams of the cervix. Method: Descriptive study using data of the Cancer Information System (SISCAN) of women who underwent histopathological examination of the cervix in the Unified Health System (SUS) in the period from 2014 to 2017.1,236 histopathological examinations of the cervix were analyzed.The reasons for unsatisfactoriness specified in the description field were analyzed and reclassified and, when relevant, were reassigned to the existing fields for satisfactory exams. Results: 262 exams (21.2%) were incorrectly classified as 'unsatisfactory', in which 11.25% were reclassified as a benign lesion, 5.91% as a high-grade lesion, 1.46% as carcinoma, 0.24% as adenocarcinoma and 0.24% as adenocarcinoma in situ. Conclusion: The study showed a significant percentage of errors in reports classified as unsatisfactory in SUS, pointing out the need to train professionals who issue histopathological reports in order to avoid diagnostic errors.


Introducción: El cáncer de cuello uterino sigue siendo un importante problema de salud pública en Brasil y en todo el mundo. La calidad de las pruebas de cribado y las de confirmación diagnóstica son fundamentales para que las acciones de control del cáncer logren un impacto efectivo en la mortalidad. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la información registrada en el campo descriptivo de las razones de la insatisfacción de los exámenes histopatológicos del cuello uterino. Método: Estudio descriptivo que utilizó datos del Sistema de Información del Cáncer (SISCAN) de mujeres a las que se les realizó examen histopatológico cervicouterino en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) de 2014 a 2017. Se analizaron 1.236 exámenes histopatológicos cervicouterino. útero. Los motivos de insatisfacción especificados en el campo descriptivo se analizaron y reclasificaron y, cuando fue relevante, se redistribuyeron en los campos existentes de satisfacción con el examen. Resultados: 262 exámenes (21,2%) se clasificaron incorrectamente como 'insatisfactorios', en los que el 11,25% se reclasificó como lesión benigna, el 5,91% como lesión de alto grado, el 1,46% como carcinoma, 0,24 % como adenocarcinoma y 0,24% como adenocarcinoma in situ. Conclusión: El estudio mostró un porcentaje significativo de errores en informes calificados como insatisfactorios en el SUS, señalando la necesidad de formar profesionales que emitan informes histopatológicos para evitar errores diagnósticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Papanicolaou Test , Specimen Handling , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Mass Screening
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(5): 2208-2219, sept.-oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144728

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: para lograr el adecuado y precoz diagnóstico de la infección en pie diabético, es necesario la obtención de una muestra bacteriológica de calidad para la identificación del germen causal. Objetivo: identificar posibles relaciones entre los resultados obtenidos, en el cultivo realizado mediante hisopado superficial versus el obtenido mediante biopsia de los tejidos profundos en la infección del pie diabético. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio explicativo observacional, longitudinal, prospectivo en el Servicio Provincial de Angiología y Cirugía Vascular del Hospital Provincial Clínico Quirúrgico Universitario "Comandante Faustino Pérez", durante un periodo de 3 años desde enero del 2016 hasta diciembre del 2018. Una selección muestral no probabilística determinó una muestra constituida por 138 extremidades en 132 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de pie diabético infectado, que requirieron cirugía para desbridamiento de la lesión. Aceptaron ser incluidos en la investigación y para el aislamiento del germen causal fueron empleados ambos métodos de cultivo: hisopado superficial y biopsia de los tejidos profundos. Resultados: el promedio de microorganismos aislados se incrementó en relación con la severidad de la infección del pie diabético, con mayor incremento en el aislamiento hecho por el hisopado superficial. El hisopado superficial posee pobre correlación con los gérmenes aislados mediante el cultivo de la biopsia de los tejidos profundos. Conclusiones: las muestras deben ser obtenidas preferentemente por curetaje. En el diagnóstico de la infección del pie diabético es de gran utilidad, por su rapidez y concordancia con los resultados del cultivo, efectuar siempre una tinción de Gram a partir del mismo sitio (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: to arrive to an adequate and precocious diagnosis of the diabetic foot infection, it is necessary to obtain a qualitative bacteriological sample to identify the causing germ. Objective: to identify possible relationships between the results obtained both, in the culture made through superficial swab and the culture obtained from deep tissues biopsy in the diabetic foot infection. Materials and methods: a prospective, longitudinal, observational, explicative study was carried out in the Provincial Service of Angiology and Vascular Surgery of Provincial University Clinical Surgical Hospital "Comandante Faustino Pérez", in a period of three years, from January 2016 to December 2018. A non-probabilistic sampling choose a sample of 138 lower limbs in 132 patients with clinical diagnosis of infected diabetic foot, who required surgery for lesion debridement. They gave their consent to be included in the research; for the isolation of the casual germ were used both culture methods, superficial swab and deep tissues biopsy. Results: the average of isolated microorganism increased in relation to the severity of the diabetic food infection, with higher increase in the isolation obtained by superficial swab. The superficial swab shows poor correlation with the germ isolates by the culture the deep tissue biopsy. Conclusions: the samples should be gathered preferably by curettage. In the diagnosis of the diabetic foot infection, it is very useful, due to its speed and concordance with the culture results, to make always a Gram staining beginning from the same place (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biopsy/methods , Diabetic Foot/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Clinical Diagnosis/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Culture Techniques/standards
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; july 8, 2020. 11 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1102945

ABSTRACT

Los coronavirus son un grupo de virus ARN altamente diversos de la familia Coronaviridae que se dividen en 4 géneros: alfa, beta, gamma y delta, y que causan enfermedades de leves a graves en humanos y animales (1-3). Existen coronavirus humanos endémicos como los alfacoronavirus 229E y NL63 y los betacoronavirus OC43 y HKU1 que pueden causar enfermedades de tipo influenza o neumonía en humanos (1, 3). Sin embargo, dos coronavirus zoonóticos que causan enfermedades graves en humanos han emergido: el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV) en 2002-2003 y el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS-CoV) (1-5). En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus, distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV (6). El 11 de febrero de 2020, el Comité Internacional de Taxonomía de Virus (ICTV) anunció la denominación del virus como coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (7), mientras que, el mismo día, la OMS nombró la enfermedad como enfermedad por coronavirus COVID-19 (8). Para fines de comunicación, haremos referencia a este virus como "el virus responsable de COVID-19" o "el virus COVID-19". La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección (9). A la luz de la circulación actual de COVID-19 en la región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar la identificación oportuna de casos sospechosos, la toma y el envío de muestras a los laboratorios de referencia, y la implementación de protocolos de detección molecular, según la capacidad del laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Enzyme Tests/standards , RNA/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Betacoronavirus
17.
Palmas; Secretaria de Estado da Saúde; 26 jun. 2020. 167 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1140165

ABSTRACT

Orienta na campanha para ações de combate ao Coronavírus (Covid-19) no estado do Tocantins. Apresenta quais as definições de casos de infecção humana pelo COVID-19. Orientações de como notificar ao Centro de Informações Estratégicas de Vigilância em Saúde (CIEVS). Quais os períodos de incubação da doença. Fatores sobre a transmissão e tratamento. Investigação epidemiológica. Quais atribuições da Vigilância em Saúde. Orientações para a coleta de amostras no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Tocantins (LACEN-TO) bem como a técnica de coleta de Swabde nasofaringe e orofaringe (swabs combinados), o acondicionamento, transporte e envio das amostras. Traz as recomendações para a coleta de amostras em situação de óbito. Mostra as medidas de prevenção e controle Precauções padrão, as medidas de isolamento. Transporte do paciente. Como se dá a Limpeza e desinfecção de superfícies.


Guides in the campaign for actions to combat Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the state of Tocantins. It presents the definitions of cases of human infection by COVID-19. Guidelines on how to notify the Health Surveillance Strategic Information Center (CIEVS). What are the disease incubation periods. Factors about transmission and treatment. Epidemiological investigation. Which attributions of Health Surveillance. Guidelines for the collection of samples at the Central Laboratory of Public Health of Tocantins (LACEN-TO) as well as the technique of collecting Swabde nasopharynx and oropharynx (combined swabs), packaging, transport and sending of samples . It provides recommendations for the collection of samples in situations of death. Shows prevention and control measures Standard precautions, isolation measures. Transporting the patient. How to clean and disinfect surfaces.


Guías en la campaña de acciones para combatir el Coronavirus (Covid-19) en el estado de Tocantins. Presenta las definiciones de casos de infección humana por COVID-19. Directrices sobre cómo notificar al Centro de Información Estratégica de Vigilancia Sanitaria (CIEVS). Cuáles son los períodos de incubación de la enfermedad. Factores de transmisión y tratamiento. Investigación epidemiológica. Qué atribuciones de la Vigilancia Sanitaria. Lineamientos para la recolección de muestras en el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública de Tocantins (LACEN-TO) así como la técnica de recolección de Swabde nasofaringe y orofaringe (hisopos combinados), el empaque, transporte y envío de las muestras . Proporciona recomendaciones para la recolección de muestras en situaciones de muerte. Muestra medidas de prevención y control Precauciones estándar, medidas de aislamiento. Transporte del paciente. Cómo limpiar y desinfectar superficies.


Guides dans la campagne d'actions de lutte contre le Coronavirus (Covid-19) dans l'état de Tocantins. Il présente les définitions des cas d'infection humaine par COVID-19. Lignes directrices sur la notification du Centre d'information stratégique de surveillance sanitaire (CIEVS). Quelles sont les périodes d'incubation de la maladie. Facteurs de transmission et de traitement. Enquête épidémiologique. Quelles attributions de Surveillance de la Santé. Directives pour le prélèvement d'échantillons au Laboratoire Central de Santé Publique de Tocantins (LACEN-TO) ainsi que la technique de prélèvement Swabde rhinopharynx et oropharynx (écouvillons combinés), emballage, transport et envoi des échantillons . Il fournit des recommandations pour le prélèvement d'échantillons en cas de décès. Affiche les mesures de prévention et de contrôle Précautions standard, mesures d'isolement. Transport du patient. Comment nettoyer et désinfecter les surfaces.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Contingency Plans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Specimen Handling , Comorbidity , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
19.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 362-368, mayo 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099687

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly throughout the world. Its main transmission mechanisms are through droplets and by contact with contaminated surfaces. At the in-hospital level, the formation of bioaerosols becomes important when carrying out therapeutic and diagnostic procedures, facilitating air transmission. This condition could be associated with the significant number of deceased health officials. Physical distancing, frequent hand washing, and permanent use of a mask are useful tools to control the disease. Among the aerosol-generating procedures (PGAs) are endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, open aspiration of secretions, nebulizations, manual ventilation, prone positioning, disconnection of the mechanical ventilator, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, tracheostomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The correct use of personal protection elements (PPE) and the realization of these in rooms with negative pressure or with frequent air changes considerably reduce the risk of becoming ill.


La pandemia del SARS-CoV-2 se ha diseminado rápidamente por el mundo. Sus principales mecanismos de transmisión son a través de gotitas y por contacto con superficies contaminadas. A nivel intrahospitalario, cobra importancia la formación de bioaerosoles al realizar procedimientos terapéuticos y de diagnóstico facilitando la transmisión aérea. Esta condición podría estar asociada al importante número de funcionarios de la salud fallecidos. El distanciamiento físico, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso permanente de mascarilla son útiles herramientas para controlar la enfermedad. Dentro de los procedimientos generadores de aerosoles (PGAs) están la intubación endotraqueal, broncoscopía, aspiración abierta de secreciones, nebulizaciones, ventilación manual, posicionamiento en prono, desconección del ventilador mecánico, ventilación no invasiva a presión positiva, traqueostomía y reanimación cardiopulmonar. El uso correcto de los elementos de protección personal (EPP) y la realización de éstos en salas con presión negativa o con recambios frecuentes del aire disminuyen considerablemente el riesgo de enfermar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Specimen Handling/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Aerosols , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity
20.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 2 Rev; 22 Mayo 2020. 15 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1140189

ABSTRACT

Fecha de actualización: 22 de mayo 2020. Brindar los lineamientos generales para la toma de muestra, conservación y transporte para el diagnóstico de virus respiratorios, con su posterior envío al Centro Nacional de Influenza (NIC) del Laboratorio Nacional de Salud; aplicable a establecidos del nivel nacional en atención a pacientes que cumplen con la definición de caso y se tipifica como "sospechoso inusitado". Y lineamientos de bioseguridad para la toma de muestras de casos tipificados como "sospechosos inusitados" que presuntivamente contengan el virus influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9) A(H9N2) y 2019-nCoV o cualquier otro virus proveniente de un paciente tipificado como caso Inusitado. Con aplicación a nivel nacional, en las dependencias dentro y fuera del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social, encargadas de la toma de muestra para el diagnóstico de Virus Respiratorios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus , Laboratories/supply & distribution , Patients , Specimen Handling/methods , Public Health
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL