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1.
Washington; OPS; 23 mayo 2022. 12 p. ilus, tab.
Non-conventional in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370042

ABSTRACT

Este documento está basado en la guía provisional de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre las pruebas de laboratorio para el virus de la viruela del mono, 23 de mayo de 2022, y tiene por objeto proporcionar orientación a los Laboratorios Nacionales de Referencia sobre la detección del virus de la viruela del mono


This document is based on World Health Organization interim guidance on Laboratory testing for monkeypox virus, 23 May 2022, and is intended to provide guidance to National Reference Laboratories on monkeypox virus laboratory detection


Subject(s)
Humans , Specimen Handling/standards , Monkeypox virus/isolation & purification , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Laboratories/standards , Specimen Handling/methods , Monkeypox virus/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential
2.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(5): 377-383, May 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288557

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic viral disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The impact of the disease among the obstetric population remains unclear, and the study of the placenta can provide valuable information. Adequate sampling of the placental tissue can help characterize the pathways of viral infections. Methods A protocol of placental sampling is proposed, aiming at guaranteeing representativity of the placenta and describing the adequate conservation of samples and their integrity for future analysis. The protocol is presented in its complete and simplified versions, allowing its implementation in different complexity settings. Results Sampling with the minimum possible interval from childbirth is the key for adequate sampling and storage. This protocol has already been implemented during the Zika virus outbreak. Conclusion A protocol for adequate sampling and storage of placental tissue is fundamental for adequate evaluation of viral infections on the placenta. During the COVID-19 pandemic, implementation of this protocol may help to elucidate critical aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Resumo Objetivo A doença do novo coronavírus (COVID-19) é uma doença viral pandêmica causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda 2 (SARS-CoV-2). O impacto da doença entre a população obstétrica ainda é incerto, e o estudo da placenta pode fornecer informações valiosas. Assim, a coleta adequada do tecido placentário pode ajudar a caracterizar algumas propriedades das infecções virais. Métodos Um protocolo de coleta placentária é proposto, objetivando a garantia de representatividade da placenta, descrevendo a maneira de conservação adequada das amostras, e visando garantir sua integridade para análises futuras. O protocolo é apresentado em suas versões completa e simplificada, permitindo sua implementação em diferentes configurações de infraestrutura. Resultados A amostragem com o intervalo mínimo possível do parto é essencial para coleta e armazenamento adequados. Esse protocolo já foi implementado durante a epidemia de vírus Zika. Conclusão Um protocolo para coleta e armazenamento adequados de tecido placentário é fundamental para a avaliação adequada de infecções virais na placenta. Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, a implementação deste protocolo pode ajudar a elucidar aspectos críticos da infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Placenta/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , COVID-19/virology , Virology/methods , Virology/standards , Virus Diseases/virology
3.
Guatemala; MSPAS; 3 feb. 2021. 28 p. graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1224546

ABSTRACT

En los antecedentes, brinda detalles técnicos de enfermedades previas al COVID-19 y sigue esta consigna internacional: "Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio." Aborda las tres mutaciones del virus conocidas hasta la fecha del documento y las tres variantes conocidas: Reino Unido e Irlanda del Norte, República de Sudáfrica y Brasil, siendo la de mayor transmisibilidad, según el documento, la del Reino Unido. El primero de los objetivos del documento es: "Brindar los lineamientos generales para la toma de muestra, conservación, transporte y diagnóstico del SARS-Cov-2 en los laboratorios descentralizados bajo la técnica de Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR) en tiempo Real, en atención a pacientes que cumplen con la definición de caso y se tipifica como "sospechoso inusitado"." Incluye como anexo 2 el documento: "Lineamientos para el abordaje de casos positivos para SARS-COV-2 de viajeros que ingresan al país por el aeropuerto internacional "La Aurora" (AILA)"


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Guatemala , Indicators and Reagents/administration & dosage , Laboratories/standards
4.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; july 8, 2020. 11 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1102945

ABSTRACT

Los coronavirus son un grupo de virus ARN altamente diversos de la familia Coronaviridae que se dividen en 4 géneros: alfa, beta, gamma y delta, y que causan enfermedades de leves a graves en humanos y animales (1-3). Existen coronavirus humanos endémicos como los alfacoronavirus 229E y NL63 y los betacoronavirus OC43 y HKU1 que pueden causar enfermedades de tipo influenza o neumonía en humanos (1, 3). Sin embargo, dos coronavirus zoonóticos que causan enfermedades graves en humanos han emergido: el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV) en 2002-2003 y el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS-CoV) (1-5). En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus, distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV (6). El 11 de febrero de 2020, el Comité Internacional de Taxonomía de Virus (ICTV) anunció la denominación del virus como coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (7), mientras que, el mismo día, la OMS nombró la enfermedad como enfermedad por coronavirus COVID-19 (8). Para fines de comunicación, haremos referencia a este virus como "el virus responsable de COVID-19" o "el virus COVID-19". La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección (9). A la luz de la circulación actual de COVID-19 en la región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar la identificación oportuna de casos sospechosos, la toma y el envío de muestras a los laboratorios de referencia, y la implementación de protocolos de detección molecular, según la capacidad del laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Enzyme Tests/standards , RNA/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Betacoronavirus
6.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 362-368, mayo 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099687

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly throughout the world. Its main transmission mechanisms are through droplets and by contact with contaminated surfaces. At the in-hospital level, the formation of bioaerosols becomes important when carrying out therapeutic and diagnostic procedures, facilitating air transmission. This condition could be associated with the significant number of deceased health officials. Physical distancing, frequent hand washing, and permanent use of a mask are useful tools to control the disease. Among the aerosol-generating procedures (PGAs) are endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, open aspiration of secretions, nebulizations, manual ventilation, prone positioning, disconnection of the mechanical ventilator, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, tracheostomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The correct use of personal protection elements (PPE) and the realization of these in rooms with negative pressure or with frequent air changes considerably reduce the risk of becoming ill.


La pandemia del SARS-CoV-2 se ha diseminado rápidamente por el mundo. Sus principales mecanismos de transmisión son a través de gotitas y por contacto con superficies contaminadas. A nivel intrahospitalario, cobra importancia la formación de bioaerosoles al realizar procedimientos terapéuticos y de diagnóstico facilitando la transmisión aérea. Esta condición podría estar asociada al importante número de funcionarios de la salud fallecidos. El distanciamiento físico, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso permanente de mascarilla son útiles herramientas para controlar la enfermedad. Dentro de los procedimientos generadores de aerosoles (PGAs) están la intubación endotraqueal, broncoscopía, aspiración abierta de secreciones, nebulizaciones, ventilación manual, posicionamiento en prono, desconección del ventilador mecánico, ventilación no invasiva a presión positiva, traqueostomía y reanimación cardiopulmonar. El uso correcto de los elementos de protección personal (EPP) y la realización de éstos en salas con presión negativa o con recambios frecuentes del aire disminuyen considerablemente el riesgo de enfermar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Specimen Handling/standards , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Aerosols , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity
7.
Brejinho de Nazaré; [S.n]; 2020. 70 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1123478

ABSTRACT

Orienta na campanha para ações de combate ao Coronavírus (Covid-19) no município de Brejinho de Nazaré no Tocantins. Apresenta quais as definições de casos de infecção humana pelo COVID-19. Orientações de como notificar ao Centro de Informações Estratégicas de Vigilância em Saúde (CIEVS). Quais os períodos de incubação da doença. Fatores sobre a transmissão e tratamento. Investigação epidemiológica. Quais atribuições da Vigilância em Saúde. Orientações para a coleta de amostras no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Tocantins (LACEN-TO) bem como a técnica de coleta de Swabde nasofaringe e orofaringe (swabs combinados), o acondicionamento, transporte e envio das amostras. Mostra as medidas de prevenção e controle Precauções padrão, as medidas de isolamento. Transporte do paciente. Como se dá a Limpeza e desinfecção de superfícies.


He guides in the campaign for actions to combat the Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the municipality of Brejinho de Nazaré in Tocantins. It presents the definitions of cases of human infection by COVID-19. Guidelines on how to notify the Health Surveillance Strategic Information Center (CIEVS). What are the disease incubation periods. Factors about transmission and treatment. Epidemiological investigation. Which attributions of Health Surveillance. Guidelines for the collection of samples at the Central Laboratory of Public Health of Tocantins (LACEN-TO) as well as the technique of collecting Swabde nasopharynx and oropharynx (combined swabs), packaging, transport and sending of samples . Shows prevention and control measures Standard precautions, isolation measures. Transporting the patient. How to clean and disinfect surfaces.


Orienta en la campaña de acciones para combatir el Coronavirus (Covid-19) en el municipio de Brejinho de Nazaré en Tocantins. Presenta las definiciones de casos de infección humana por COVID-19. Directrices sobre cómo notificar al Centro de Información Estratégica de Vigilancia Sanitaria (CIEVS). Cuáles son los períodos de incubación de la enfermedad. Factores de transmisión y tratamiento. Investigación epidemiológica. Qué atribuciones de la Vigilancia Sanitaria. Lineamientos para la recolección de muestras en el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública de Tocantins (LACEN-TO) así como la técnica de recolección de Swabde nasofaringe y orofaringe (hisopos combinados), el empaque, transporte y envío de las muestras . Muestra medidas de prevención y control Precauciones estándar, medidas de aislamiento. Transporte del paciente. Cómo limpiar y desinfectar superficies.


Il guide dans la campagne d'actions de lutte contre le Coronavirus (Covid-19) dans la commune de Brejinho de Nazaré à Tocantins. Il présente les définitions des cas d'infection humaine par COVID-19. Lignes directrices sur la manière de notifier le Centre d'information stratégique de surveillance sanitaire (CIEVS). Quelles sont les périodes d'incubation de la maladie. Facteurs de transmission et de traitement. Enquête épidémiologique. Quelles attributions de Surveillance de la Santé. Directives pour le prélèvement d'échantillons au Laboratoire Central de Santé Publique de Tocantins (LACEN-TO) ainsi que la technique de prélèvement Swabde rhinopharynx et oropharynx (écouvillons combinés), emballage, transport et envoi des échantillons . Affiche les mesures de prévention et de contrôle Précautions standard, mesures d'isolement. Transport du patient. Comment nettoyer et désinfecter les surfaces.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Specimen Handling/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Contingency Plans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Specimen Handling/standards , Hospital Care/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore effects of different delivery and storage conditions on concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in neonatal dried blood spots (DBS), so as to provide evidence for improving accurate and reliable detection by tandem mass spectrometry.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 254 616 newborn DBS samples in Newborn Screening Center of Zhejiang Province were delivered and stored at room temperature (group A, @*RESULTS@#The concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in the three groups were skewed, and the differences in amino acid and carnitine concentrations among groups were statistically significant (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Cold-chain logistics system and storage in low temperature and low humidity can effectively reduce degradation of some amino acids and carnitines in DBS, improve the accuracy and reliability of detection, and thus ensures the quality of screening for neonatal metabolic diseases.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/analysis , Carnitine/analysis , Dried Blood Spot Testing/standards , Humans , Humidity , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening , Reproducibility of Results , Specimen Handling/standards , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Temperature , Time Factors
9.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(1): 118-124, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-990636

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze women's perception of the quality of the service provided for colposcopy test in the city of Belém (PA), Brazil. Method: Quantitative-descriptive study on 400 women who underwent Pap test on the public healthcare network, using the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) model. We used the Cronbach's alpha index to measure the reliability of the scale, and data were analyzed by quartiles of the gaps of the dimensions: tangibility, responsiveness, reliability, assurance, and empathy. Results: The assurance dimension, corresponding to the knowledge and courtesy of staff, featured the highest degree of importance to users; and empathy, which corresponds to the staff's concern with women's needs, featured the lower degree. The most expressive negative gaps concerned the structure of services and the attitude of healthcare professionals when collecting the material. Conclusion: All gaps featured negative relationship between what was expected and perceived, expressing dissatisfaction regarding the service.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la percepción de mujeres acerca de la calidad del servicio de colpocitología oncótica en Belém (PA). Método: Estudio cuantitativo-descriptivo con 400 mujeres que realizaron el examen de colpocitología oncótica en la red pública de salud, utilizando el modelo Service Quality (SERVQUAL). Se utilizó el Alpha de Cronbach para medir la confiabilidad de la escala, y los datos fueron analizados por los cuartiles de los gaps de las dimensiones: tangibilidad, responsividad, confiabilidad, credibilidad y empatía. Resultados: La dimensión credibilidad, correspondiente al conocimiento y a la cortesía de los funcionarios, presentó mayor grado de importancia para las usuarias; y la empatía, que corresponde a la preocupación demostrada por los funcionarios con las necesidades de las mujeres, exhibió menor grado. Los gaps negativos más expresivos se refieren a la estructura de los servicios y a la actitud de los profesionales con ocasión de la recolección del material. Conclusión: Todos los gaps presentaron relación negativa entre lo esperado y lo percibido expresando la insatisfacción con relación al servicio.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a percepção de mulheres acerca da qualidade do serviço de colpocitologia oncótica em Belém (PA). Método: Estudo quantitativo-descritivo com 400 mulheres que realizaram o exame de colpocitologia oncótica na rede pública de saúde, utilizando o modelo Service Quality (SERVQUAL). Utilizou-se o Alpha de Cronbach para medir a confiabilidade da escala, e os dados foram analisados pelos quartis dos gaps das dimensões: tangibilidade, responsividade, confiabilidade, credibilidade e empatia. Resultados: A dimensão credibilidade, correspondente ao conhecimento e cortesia dos funcionários, apresentou maior grau de importância para as usuárias, e a empatia, que corresponde à preocupação demonstrada pelos funcionários com as necessidades das mulheres, exibiu menor grau. Os gaps negativos mais expressivos dizem respeito à estrutura dos serviços e a atitude dos profissionais por ocasião da coleta de material. Conclusão: Todos os gaps apresentaram relação negativa entre o esperado e o percebido expressando a insatisfação em relação ao serviço.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Aged , Perception , Specimen Handling/standards , Colonoscopy/standards , Patient Satisfaction , Papanicolaou Test/methods , Quality of Health Care/standards , Specimen Handling/psychology , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Colonoscopy/psychology , Papanicolaou Test/standards , Middle Aged
10.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 2019. 10-34 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1096346

ABSTRACT

Este manual foi elaborado sob coordenação da área de Biologia Médica do Laboratório Estadual de Saúde Pública Dr. Giovanni Cysneiros (LACEN-GO), vinculado à Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, com o objetivo de orientar a coleta, o acondicionamento e o transporte de materiais para a realização de uma análise com qualidade. Ressalta-se o fato de que uma amostra coletada, armazenada ou transportada de maneira inadequada, dificilmente terá um resultado confiável, independentemente da qualidade técnica em que o ensaio for realizado. Portanto, este Manual deve ser consultado freqüentemente por todos os usuários do Sistema de Vigilância em Saúde que fazem uso dos serviços de diagnóstico laboratorial do LACEN-GO.


This manual was prepared under the coordination of the Area of Medical Biology of the State Laboratory of Public Health Dr. Giovanni Cysneiros (LACEN-GO), linked to the State Department of Health, with the objective of guiding the collection, packaging and transportation of materials to perform a quality analysis. It is noteworthy that a sample collected, stored or transported improperly will hardly have a reliable result, regardless of the technical quality in which the test is performed. Therefore, this Manual should be frequently consulted by all users of the Health Surveillance System who make use of the laboratory diagnostic services of LACEN-GO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , Biological Specimen Banks/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e8194, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984032

ABSTRACT

Cytogenetics is essential in myeloid neoplasms (MN) and pre-analytical variables are important for karyotyping. We assessed the relationship between pre-analytical variables (time from collection to sample processing, material type, sample cellularity, and diagnosis) and failures of karyotyping. Bone marrow (BM, n=352) and peripheral blood (PB, n=69) samples were analyzed from acute myeloid leukemia (n=113), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=73), myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (n=17), myeloproliferative neoplasms (n=137), and other with conclusive diagnosis (n=6), and reactive disorders/no conclusive diagnosis (n=75). The rate of unsuccessful karyotyping was 18.5% and was associated with the use of PB and a low number of nucleated cells (≤7×103/µL) in the sample. High and low cellularity in BM and high and low cellularity in PB samples showed no metaphases in 3.9, 39.7, 41.9, and 84.6% of cases, respectively. Collecting a good BM sample is the key for the success of karyotyping in MN and avoids the use of expensive molecular techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Specimen Handling/methods , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/genetics , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , Leukemia, Myeloid/genetics , Karyotyping/methods , Myeloproliferative Disorders/genetics , Specimen Handling/standards , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid/diagnosis , Myeloproliferative Disorders/diagnosis
12.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(6): 512-514, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-894532

ABSTRACT

La citología cérvico-vaginal, test de Papanicolaou (PAP), es la técnica diagnóstica de cribado más efectiva para la detección de lesiones precancerosas y la prevención del cáncer de cuello uterino. La sensibilidad de la prueba varía en las diferentes estadísticas entre el 50% y el 98%; la causa de esta amplitud depende de la toma de muestra. Para que la toma se considere satisfactoria es necesario que se realice de la zona escamocolumnar, zona de transformación, y según el sistema Bethesda en el extendido se deben observar células metaplásicas y/o endocervicales. El PAP convencional incluye la toma exo-endocervical con espátula de Ayre; sin embargo, solo el 50% aproximadamente de las muestras son representativas de la zona de transformación. Para ejemplificar esta situación se presenta el caso de una mujer de 40 años que, a pesar de tener citologías negativas durante cinco años, ninguna con células endocervicales o metaplásicas, una toma adecuada mostró un carcinoma in situ (HSIL: lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado). Recalcamos la importancia de la correcta toma exo-endocervical para poder detectar todas las lesiones premalignas y prevenir este tipo de cáncer que aún tiene alta tasa de mortalidad en todo el mundo.


Cervical and vaginal cytology, Papanicolaou test (PAP), is the most effective test for screening of preneoplastic lesions, and cervical cancer prevention. Its sensitivity goes from 50 to 98%, according to different statistics, and this variation is related to the sampling procedure. A satisfactory smear should be taken from the transformation zone, the junction between endocervix and exocervix. According to Bethesda, metaplastic and/or endocervical cells should be observed under the microscope. The traditional PAP smear includes an exo-endocervical sampling using the Ayre spatula; however, only near 50% of the smears are representative of the transformation zone. In this case report, we present the case of a 40-year-old woman who had negative cytology in five consecutive annual PAP smears, none of which showed metaplastic or endocervical cells. A new sample evidenced a carcinoma in situ (HSIL: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). We emphasize the importance of performing a correct exo-endocervical sampling to allow prompt detection of all premalignant lesions and to prevent cervical cancer, which still persists with high mortality worldwide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Specimen Handling/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Papanicolaou Test/methods , Specimen Handling/standards , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Sensitivity and Specificity , False Negative Reactions , Papanicolaou Test/standards
13.
Brasília; Brasil. Ministério da Saúde; 2016. graf, ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1087220

ABSTRACT

A gripe ou influenza é uma doença infectocontagiosa aguda do trato respiratório, de distribuição global, causada pelo vírus da influenza. Pessoas de todas as idades são susceptíveis a infecção por estes vírus, entretanto, idosos, crianças, gestantes e pessoas com algumas comorbidades (cardiopatas, pneumopatas, hipertensos, diabéticos, obesos mórbidos, entre outros) possuem um risco maior de desenvolver complicações devido à infecção por influenza, responsável por cerca de meio milhão de óbitos anuais em todo o mundo (WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 2014). Os vírus da influenza pertencem à família Orthomyxoviridae e possuem genoma de RNA segmentado. Há três tipos de vírus da influenza: A, B e C. O vírus da influenza do tipo C está frequentemente associado a infecções respiratórias brandas, com pouco impacto na saúde pública e não está relacionado com epidemias. Os vírus da influenza tipos A e B são responsáveis por epidemias anuais, sendo os vírus da influenza tipo A os responsáveis pelas grandes pandemias. Os vírus da influenza do tipo A são classificados em subtipos de acordo com as diferenças antigênicas das glicoproteínas de superfície, hemaglutinina (HA) e neuraminidase (NA). A proteína HA está associada ao reconhecimento e à infecção das células do trato respiratório, onde o vírus se multiplica; enquanto a proteína NA está envolvida na liberação das partículas virais da superfície das células infectadas (Figura 1). Até o momento, todos os 18 subtipos de HA e 11 de NA descritos foram identificados em aves (exceto H17 e 18, identificados em morcegos), alguns destes afetando também mamíferos (TONG et al., 2013). Entre estes, os subtipos A(H1N1) pdm09 e A(H3N2) circulam amplamente na população humana. Alguns vírus da influenza do tipo A de origem aviária também podem infectar humanos causando doença grave, como no caso do A(H5N1) e A(H7N9).


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/standards , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Brazil
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56708

ABSTRACT

For two months between May and July 2015, a nationwide outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) occurred in Korea. On June 3, 2015, the Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine (KSLM) launched a MERS-CoV Laboratory Response Task Force (LR-TF) to facilitate clinical laboratories to set up the diagnosis of MERS-CoV infection. Based on the WHO interim recommendations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of United States guidelines for MERS-CoV laboratory testing, and other available resources, the KSLM MERS-CoV LR-TF provided the first version of the laboratory practice guidelines for the molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV to the clinical laboratories on June 12, 2015. The guidelines described here are an updated version that includes case definition, indications for testing, specimen type and protocols for specimen collection, specimen packing and transport, specimen handling and nucleic acid extraction, molecular detection of MERS-CoV, interpretation of results and reporting, and laboratory safety. The KSLM guidelines mainly focus on the molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV, reflecting the unique situation in Korea and the state of knowledge at the time of publication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Laboratories/standards , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Product Packaging/standards , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Societies, Scientific , Specimen Handling/standards
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(2): 173-179, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708804

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis and timely treatment are critical in Invasive Fungal Disease (IFD) caused by filamentous fungi in immunocompromised patients. Clinical features of IFD are nonspecific; therefore, images (CT scan), direct microscopic examination, staining and cultures of clinical samples and galactomannan determination in blood or BAL, are substantial. This guideline provides recommendations on transport and sample processing, including stains and culture media requirements. It also describes clues for diagnosis of major genera and species of Aspergillus.


La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) por hongos filamentosos es causa de morbi-mortalidad en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, por lo que es fundamental el diagnostico precoz y su tratamiento oportuno. Las manifestaciones clínicas de las EFIs son inespecíficas, razón por la cual las imágenes (TAC), el examen microscópico directo, tinciones y cultivos de las muestras obtenidas y la determinación de galactomanano en sangre o en LBA tienen un rol fundamental. Esta guía tiene por objetivo recomendar las óptimas condiciones de transporte, procesamiento de las muestras, así como las tinciones y los medios de cultivos a utilizar. Se describen, además, claves para el diagnóstico de los principales géneros y especies de Aspergillus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fungi/isolation & purification , Mycoses/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Aspergillus/classification , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Mycoses/microbiology , Specimen Handling/standards
16.
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(3): 260-265, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834468

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Polyomaviruses (BKV and JCV) cause infection mainly in immunocompromised adults. A sensitive and specific diagnosis tool is fundamental to demonstrate the BKV and JCV infections. Nowadays many laboratories are using a PCR technique for detecting polyomaviruses genome in clinical samples. In this context, the purpose of this study is to determine the threshold of detection of the nested-PCR for polyomaviruses JC and BK. Methods: Serial dilutions of the samples of BKV and JCV of known concentration (100 copies/mL, 50 copies/mL, 25 copies/mL, 10 copies/mL, 5 copies/mL, and 1 copy/ml) were subjected to the technique of nested-PCR. All dilutions were tested 11 times to determine the minimum detection limit. Results: The minimum detection limit of the nested-PCR for JC and BK viruses was 25 copies/mL. This dilution (25 copies/mL) showed 100% PCR positive reaction. Furthermore, we found that weak positive results were obtained at dilutions of 1,5 and 10 copies/mL in some repetitions. Dilutions of 25, 50, and 100 copies/mL always had very positive results. Conclusions: These values are similar to those reported in other studies, contributing to the indication of this PCR for potential diagnostic purposes.


Introdução: Os poliomavírus (JCV e BKV) causam infecções principalmente em adultos imunocomprometidos. Um diagnóstico sensível e específico é de fundamental importância para os pacientes portadores de JCV e BKV. Atualmente alguns laboratórios têm utilizado a técnica de PCR para a detecção do material genético destes vírus em amostras clínicas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é determinar o limite mínimo de detecção da técnica de nested-PCR para os poliomavírus JC e BK. Métodos: Diluições seriadas (100 cópias/mL; 50 cópias/mL; 25 cópias/mL; 10 cópias/mL; 5 cópias/mL e 1 cópia/mL) de controles positivos comerciais de JCV e BKV com concentrações conhecidas foram submetidas à técnica de nested-PCR semi-duplex. Todas as diluições foram testadas 11 vezes para determinação do limite mínimo de detecção. Resultados: O limite mínimo de detecção da reação de nested-PCR para os vírus JC e BK foi de 25 cópias/mL para ambos, com 100% de positividade das diluições testadas na reação de PCR. Ainda, pudemos observar que resultados positivos fracos foram obtidos nas diluições de 1, 5 e 10 cópias/mL em algumas das repetições realizadas. As diluições de 25, 50 e 100 cópias/mL sempre obtiveram resultado rancamente positivo. Conclusões: Estes valores são semelhantes aos relatados em outros estudos, contribuindo para a indicação desta reação de PCR para potenciais fins diagnósticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , BK Virus , Polyomavirus Infections/diagnosis , JC Virus , Limit of Detection , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Immunosuppression Therapy , Specimen Handling/standards
17.
Rev. cuba. hig. epidemiol ; 50(1): 29-36, ene.-abr. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-628708

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El laboratorio es un componente crítico en el diagnóstico, tratamiento, prevención y control de la tuberculosis. Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento del control de calidad de la baciloscopia en los laboratorios de referencia provinciales de tuberculosis de Cuba, mediante el método de rechequeo de láminas a ciegas. Métodos: Se realizó el control de calidad, por el método de rechequeo de láminas, a 5 424 láminas de esputo BAAR recibidas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Tuberculosis y Micobacterias del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, procedentes de los laboratorios de tuberculosis de los Centros Provinciales de Higiene, Epidemiología y Microbiología de Cuba, desde el año 2007 hasta 2009. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 errores de lectura; de ellos, 20 falsos positivos, 13 falsos negativos y 21 errores de codificación. La sensibilidad, especificidad y concordancia mostraron valores de 84,7, 99,6 y 99,4 porciento, respectivamente. La concordancia entre el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Tuberculosis y Micobacterias del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí y los laboratorios provinciales de tuberculosis evaluados fue de 99,4 porciento (Índice de kappa 0,8105) y la discordancia fue de solo el 0,6 pociento. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren una adecuada calidad del personal de los laboratorios provinciales para realizar el control de calidad de la BK de esputo BAAR. Se recomienda continuar con las visitas a los laboratorios de la red para detectar las deficiencias e implementar las medidas correctivas oportunas con el fin de seguir mejorando la calidad del diagnóstico de la baciloscopia y así eliminar la tuberculosis como problema de salud en Cuba


Introduction: The laboratory is a critical component in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of tuberculosis. Objective: To analyze the behavior of quality control of bacilloscopy in provincial reference laboratories of Cuba, by the re-checkup of blind plates. Methods: The quality control was carried out by re-checkup method of plates at 5 424 plates of BAAR sputum received in the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis and Mycobacteria of the Pedro Kourí Institute, originating in the laboratories of tuberculosis of Provincial Centers of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology of Cuba from 2007 to 2009. Results: Fifty four reading errors were identified; from them 20 false-positive, 13 false-negatives and 21 coding error. The sensitivity, specificity and concordance showed values of 84.7, 99.6 and 99.4 percent, respectively. The concordance between the NRLTB PKI and the provincial tuberculosis laboratories assessed was of 99.4 percent (Kappa rate 0.8105) and the discordance was only of 0.6 percent. Conclusions: Results suggest an appropriate staff quality of the provincial laboratories staff to carry out the quality control of BAAR sputum BK. It is recommended to continue with visits to network laboratories to detect the deficiencies and to implement appropriate corrective measures to go on with the diagnosis quality of BK and so to eliminate the TB as a health problem in Cuba


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Sputum/microbiology , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Specimen Handling/standards , Laboratory Test/methods , Quality Control , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
18.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 46(1): 15-22, mar. 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-639596

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer los intervalos de referencia de las determinaciones: glucosa, urea, colesterol, proteínas totales, albúmina, ácido úrico, creatinina, hematocrito y hemoglobina en el Laboratorio Central del Hospital Zonal de Trelew. La población bajo estudio fueron pacientes mayores de 18 años atendidos por consultorio externo entre diciembre de 2008 y marzo de 2009. El estudio fue completado entre marzo y abril de 2011. Las determinaciones se realizaron con un autoanalizador de química clínica Metrolab 2300 plus y un contador hematológico Sysmex 2100. Se comprobó que los valores de las determinaciones se ajustaran a una distribución normal y se realizó el cálculo de los fractiles 0,025 y 0,975 para la obtención del intervalo de referencia (IR) del 95%. En un caso se utilizó transformación logarítmica de los datos y para dos categorías se aplicó el método no paramétrico. Para los valores de referencia inferior y superior se establecieron los intervalos con un 90% de confianza (IC). Los valores de referencia obtenidos fueron: glucosa de 0,74 a 1,07 g/L, urea de 0,19 a 0,51 g/L, colesterol de 1,21 a 2,43 g/L, proteínas totales de 6,45 a 7,99 g/dL, albúmina de 3,62 a 4,61 g/dL, creatinina de 0,57 a 1,10 mg/dL, ácido úrico para el sexo femenino de 18,69 a 51,93 mg/L y para el sexo masculino de 30,50 a 62,92 mg/L, hematocrito para sexo femenino de 37 a 45% y para el sexo masculino de 40 a 50%, hemoglobina para el sexo femenino de 11,70 a 15,17 g/dL y para el sexo masculino de 13,09 a 17,19 g/dL. Los valores de ácido úrico, hematocrito y hemoglobina se separaron por sexo para dar continuidad a la política del laboratorio y de los fabricantes de CAICYTtivos, que consiste en considerar las diferencias existentes entre ambos sexos. Dentro del rango dado por el fabricante se obtuvieron los resultados para glucosa, albúmina y hemoglobina; sobre el mismo, para urea, colesterol, proteínas y ácido úrico y por debajo del mismo para creatinina.


The aim of the present work was to establish the reference intervals of the following determinations, glucose, urea, cholesterol, total proteins, albumin, uric acid, creatinine, hematocrite and hemoglobin in the Central Laboratory of Trelew Zonal Hospital. The population under study was defined as 18-year-old or older patients that came to the laboratory from the ambulatory consulting room since December 2008 to March 2009, and then between March and April 2011. Blood samples were processed with a Metrolab 2300 plus clinical chemistry autoanalyser and a Sysmex 2100 hematological counter. After checking if the result distribution applied to a normal distribution, fractiles 0.025 and 0.975 were calculated to obtain a 95% Reference Interval (RI). In one case, a logarithmic transformation of the results was needed and for two categories a non-parametric method was used. For the upper and lower reference values, the intervals were calculated at 90% confidence (CI) The reference values obtained were; 0.74-1.07 g/L glucose, 0.19-0.51 g/L urea, 1.21-2.43 g/L cholesterol, 6.45-7.99g/dL total proteins, 3.62-4.61 g/dL albumin and 0.57-1.10 mg/dL creatinine, 18.69 - 51.93 mg/L uric acid in women, and 30.50 - 69.92 mg/L in men; 37 - 45% hematocrite in women and 40 - 50% in men; 11.70 - 15.17 g/dL hemoglobin in women and 13.09 - 17.19 g/dL hemoglobin in men. Uric acid, hematocrite and hemoglobin values were calculated according to sex in order to offer concordance with commercial kit and the laboratory policies which consist in considering the significant differences between both sexes. The results obtained for glucose, albumin and hemoglobin were within the reference interval given by the commercial kits; urea, cholesterol, total protein and uric acid were above it; and creatinine reference interval was lower than the reference interval from the commercial kits.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estabelecer os intervalos de referencia das determinagóes: glicose, ureia, colesterol, proteínas totais, albumina, ácido úrico, creatinina, hematocrito e hemoglobina no Laboratorio Central do Hospital Zonal de Trelew. A populagao sob estudo foram pacientes de mais de 18 anos atendidos através de consultorio externo entre dezembro do ano 2008 e margo de 2009. O estudo foi completado entre margo e abril de 2011. As determinagóes foram realizadas com um auto-analisador de química clínica Metrolab 2300 plus e um contador hematológico Sysmex 2100. Comprovouse que os valores das determinagóes se ajustaram a uma distribuigao normal e se realizou o cálculo dos quantis 0,025 e 0,975 para a obtengao do intervalo de referencia (IR) de 95%. Num caso foi utilizada transformagao logarítmica dos dados e para duas categorias se aplicou o método nao paramétrico. Para os valores de referencia inferior e superior foram estabelecidos os intervalos com 90% de confianga (IC). Os valores de referencia obtidos foram: glicose de 0,74 a 1,07 gr/L, ureia de 0,19 a 0,51 gr/L, colesterol de 1,21 a 2,43 g/L, proteínas totais de 6,45 a 7,99 gr/dL, albumina de 3,62 a 4,61 gr/dL, creatinina de 0,57 a 1,10 mg/dL, ácido úrico para o sexo feminino de 18,69 a 51,93 mg/L e para o sexo masculino de 30,50 a 62,92 mg/l, hematocrito para sexo feminino de 37 a 45% e para o sexo masculino de 40 a 50%, hemoglobina para o sexo feminino de 11,70 a 15,17 g/dL e para o sexo masculino de 13,09 a 17,19 g/dL. Os valores de ácido úrico, hematocrito e hemoglobina foram separados por sexo para dar continuidade a política do laboratorio e dos fabricantes de reagentes, que consiste em considerar as diferengas existentes entre ambos os sexos. Dentro do intervalo dado pelo fabricante foram obtidos os resultados para glicose, albumina e hemoglobina; superior ao mesmo para ureia, colesterol, proteínas e ácido úrico e inferior ao mesmo para creatinina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality Control/analysis , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/standards , Specimen Handling/standards , Albumins , Laboratory and Fieldwork Analytical Methods , Argentina , Chemistry Techniques, Analytical/methods , Cholesterol , Creatinine/standards , Glucose/standards , Hematocrit/standards , Hemoglobins/standards , Reference Values
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the influence of pre-analytical factors on the results of clinical tests and thereby analyzed approaches to improve quality management in clinical laboratories. METHODS: Unqualified clinical samples were selected from all the samples received at our clinical laboratory. The data were collected for 2009 and 2010, i.e., the years before and after the establishment of the laboratory quality management system. The rate and causes of generation of unqualified samples were analyzed, and measures to improve the laboratory practices were studied and implemented. RESULTS: A total of 1,051 unqualified samples were identified from among the 553,158 samples (the overall incidence rate of unqualified samples was 0.19%). The number of unqualified samples substantially varied according to the nature of the sample, and clinical samples collected for routine blood tests or coagulation tests were the predominant unqualified samples. The main causes of generation of unqualified samples were insufficient sample volumes and improper methods of mixing the samples. The rate of generation of unqualified samples decreased significantly after the implementation of improvement measures (0.26% in 2009 vs. 0.13% in 2010, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The number of unqualified samples decreased significantly after the establishment of the laboratory quality management system, which promoted active communication among and training of the clinical staff to reduce the occurrence of pre-analytical errors. Comprehensive control of pre-analytical factors is an important approach in improving the clinical laboratory practices.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Diagnostic Errors/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Specimen Handling/standards
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