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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 132-146, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342208


We investigated the effects of dichloromethane extract (DME) from Myrcia splendenson alterations caused by type 2 diabetes in the blood and kidney of rats, in order to reduce side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Rats received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg),15 minutes after nicotinamide (120 mg/kg) or water. After 72 hours, the glycemic levels were evaluated to confirm diabetes and the animals received (15 days) DME (25, 50, 100 or 150 mg/Kg) or water. DME partially reversed hyperglycemia and (100 and 150 mg/kg) reversed hypertriglyceridemia. Histopathological findings elucidated that DME reduced damage to pancreatic islets. DME 150 mg/kgreversed the increases in TBA-RS, the reduction in the sulfhydryl content, 100 and 150 mg/kg increased CAT, reversed the decrease in GSH-Px and increased it activity in the blood. DME 150 mg/kg reversed CAT and GSH-Px reductions in the kidney. We believe that DME effects might be dependent on the presence of phenolic compounds.

Investigamos los efectos del extracto de diclorometano (DME)de Myrcia splendens sobre las alteraciones causadas por la diabetes tipo 2 en la sangre y los riñones de las ratas, para reducir los efectos secundarios causados por las drogas sintéticas. Las ratas recibieron estreptozotocina (60 mg/kg), 15 minutos después de la nicotinamida (120 mg/kg) o agua. Después de 72 horas, se confirmo la diabetes y los animales recibieron (15 días) DME (25, 50, 100 o 150 mg/Kg) o agua. DME revierte parcialmente la hiperglucemia y revierte la hipertrigliceridemia. DME redujo el daño a los islotes pancreáticos. DME revirtió los aumentos en TBA-RS, la reducción en el contenido de sulfhidrilo, aumentó la CAT, revirtió la disminución en GSH-Px y aumentó su actividad en la sangre. Además, DME revirtió las reducciones de CAT y GSH-Px en el riñón. Creemos que los efectos provocados por DME pueden depender de la presencia de compuestos fenólicos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Methylene Chloride/administration & dosage , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypolipidemic Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878891


A high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry(HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS~n, HPLC-MS~n) method was established for qualitative analysis of the chemical components of ethyl acetate extract from Sinopodophylli Fructus. The analysis was performed on a Kromasil 100-5 C_(18)(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) column, with a mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid(A) and acetonitrile(B) for gradient at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1). Electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry was applied for qualitative analysis under positive and negative ion modes. With use of reference substance, characteristic fragmentation and their HR-MS data, 102 components were identified, including 67 flavonoids and 35 lignans. Among them, 45 compounds were reported in Sinopodophylli Fructus for the first time and 19 compounds were identified as new compounds. PharmMapper was used to predict the bioactivity of compounds that were first reported in Sinopodophylli Fructus, and 20 compounds of them were identified to have potential anticancer activity. The results showed that there were many isomers in the ethyl acetate extract of Folium Nelumbinis, and a total of 19 groups of isomers were found. Among them, C_(21)H_(20)O_8 had the highest number of isomers(18 compounds), all of which were α-peltatin or its isomers; C_(21)H_(20)O_7 ranked second, with 10 compounds, all of which were 8-prenylquercetin-3-methyl ether or its isomers. In conclusion, an HPLC-MS~n method was established for qualitative analysis of the ethyl acetate extract(with anti-breast cancer activity) from Sinopodophylli Fructus in this study, which will provide the evidence for clarifying pharmacological active ingredients of the ethyl acetate extract from Sinopodophylli Fructus against breast cancer.

Acetates , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fruit , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888110


Fifteen compounds(1-15) were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the whole herb of Physalis minima by various chromatography techniques including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, middle chromatogram isolated gel(MCI), octadecyl silica(ODS), and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). Their structures were elucidated by infrared spectroscopy(IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy(UV), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(HR-ESI-MS), nuclear magnetic re-sonance(NMR), and circular dichroism(CD) as(5S)-5,11-dihydroxy-3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2(5H)-one(1), withaphysalin R(2), withaphysalin Q(3), withaphysanolide A(4), phaseic acid(5), grasshopper ketone(6), 3S,5R-dihydroxy-6S,7-megastigmadien-9-one(7), vanillic acid(8), 2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid(9), capillasterolide(10), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(11),(-)-loliolide(12), 4-hydroxyacetophenone(13), acetosyringone(14), and aurantiamide acetate(15). Compound 1 was a new butenolide, and compounds 5-7 and 10-12 were isolated from the Physalis for the first time. Compounds 4, 13, and 15 were isolated for the first time from P. minima. Moreover, their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro. Compound 12 was found to possess an inhibitory effect on the transcription of an NF-κB-dependent reporter gene in LPS-induced 293 T/NF-κB-luc cells at 10 μmol·L~(-1), showing an inhibitory rate of 62.31%±4.8%.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , NF-kappa B , Physalis , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887943


On the basis of the qualitative preparation quality markers of Yulian Decoction, we screened out the quantitative markers and explored a general strategy for analyzing the component migration in Chinese herbal pieces, preparations, and plasma. A method capable of simultaneously determining 28 chemical components in Yulian Decoction was established based on HPLC-MS/MS. This method was used to determine the migrated components in herbal pieces-lyophilized powder preparations-rat plasma after administration of Yulian Decoction. Liquid chromatography was performed under the following conditions: C_(18)-reversed phase chromatographic column(2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.8 μm); acetonitrile-water(containing 0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase for gradient elution; the flow rate of 0.2 mL·min~(-1). Electrospray ionization source was adopted for mass spectrometry detection, in which positive and negative ion modes and multiple reaction monitoring were applied. Confirmed by the methodological investigation in linear range, recovery(95.48%-103.4%), precision(RSD, 0.45%-3.8%), stability, and repeatability(RSD, 5.6%-14%), the established method was suitable for the detection and quantification of the components in Yulian Decoction. The results showed that in the lyophilized powder of Yulian Decoction, berberine was greater than 5% in mass fraction, magnoflorine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, and limonin in the range of 1%-5%, and dehydroevodiamine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, costunolide, and dehydrocostus lactone in the range of 0.002%-1%. Of the 28 components detected in pieces, 27 were found to migrate to the lyophilized powder, and 11 were detected in rat plasma. Fifteen components were preliminarily determined as quantitative preparation quality markers for Yulian Decoction, including berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, limonin, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, groenlandicine, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid. In conclusion, the HPLC-MS/MS general strategy was established for analyzing the migration of multiple components in Chinese herbal pieces, preparations, and plasma, which can provide the basis for the screening of quantitative preparation quality markers and multi-index quality control of Yulian Decoction.

Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rats , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879020


To demonstrate the fragmentation patterns of simple coumarins furanocourmarin(C_7-C_8), furanocourmarin(C_6-C_7) and dihydrofuran coumarin by mass spectrometry, with fraxin, scopoletin, isopsoralen, pimpinellin, isoimperatorin, notopterol and noda-kenin as study subjects, so as to provide a basis for rapid identification of compounds in different subtypes of coumarins. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography combined with quardrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was implemented in both positive and negative ion modes. Masslynx software was employed to provide the elemental constituents of each detected ion based on its accurate molecular weight. Chemdraw 2014 was used to cultivate mass number of each inferred structure. The fragment pattern of each compound was determined based on the structures inferred from all the relevant ions. And the patterns were drawn by Chemdraw 2014. The deviation between the calculated molecular weight of the inferred structure and the detected value of the ions was used to assess the correctness of the inferred structures in the fragmentation patterns. The results showed that with UPLC-Q-TOF, neutral loss of CO_2 and CO was reflected in lactone and furan skeletons from the courmarin structure. An even mass was attributed to the loss of an odd number of methyl radicals from compounds with a methoxy substituent. Furanocourmarin(C_7-C_8) produced a protonated molecular ion([M+H]~+), while the other courmarin subtypes produced either a sodium adduct of the molecular ion([M+Na]~+) or a sodium adduct of the molecular ion([M+Na]~+) with a protonated molecular ion([M+H]~+). The m/z 203.03 was a diagnostic ion for furanocourmarin(C_6-C_7), and the m/z 147.04 was supplementary evidence for furanocourmarin(C_6-C_7) identification. The characteristic ion of furanocourmarin(C_7-C_8) was m/z 131.05, while m/z 187.04 was the characteristic ion of dihydrofuran coumarin. The m/z 203.03 ion for furanocourmarin(C_7-C_8) was pretty weak. In negative ion mode, furanocourmarin(C_7-C_8) did not have any signals that were different from the other subtypes of courmarins. The fragmentation patterns in negative ion mode for the other subtypes of courmarins were similar to those in positive ion mode. Four types of fragmentation patterns were identified as forcourmarins from Notopterygium inchum. This study provides the basis for the rapid identification of courmarin subtypes by mass spectrometry.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Coumarins , Humans , Ions , Mass Spectrometry , Plant Extracts , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1651-1656, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143656


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Ionizing radiation can cause radio-induced changes in the cellular metabolome due to the breakdown of DNA bonds. Our goal was to find the early tissue response to radiation exposure supported by distinct analytical methods. METHODS: Histological analyses were performed on the organs extracted from rats to search for microscopic changes. The histological slides stained with hematoxyline-eosin (HE) were analyzed in magnification (40x). Subsequently, the tissues were subjected to mass spectrometry that allowed molecular analysis and DESI-MSI that generated the molecular image of lipids, assessing changes in intensities, especially in the brain. RESULTS: The histological analysis found nonspecific inflammatory changes; no areas of fibrosis, necrosis, or apoptosis were identified, suggesting non-morphological tissue alterations. However, the DESI-MSI images of brain lipids allowed the observation of many radio-induced changes in the lipid's intensities. CONCLUSIONS: No early radio induced histological or mass weight changes in the radiation exposed rats could be observed at 5 Gy. However, early changes in the molecular level were observed in the DESI-MSI images of the brain lipids. The DESI-MSI method proved to be efficient and relevant, allowing a regional molecular analysis of the tissues, expanding a new field of study that is still in its infancy: radiometabolomics.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: Radiação ionizante pode causar alterações no metaboloma celular devido à quebra de ligações no DNA. O objetivo deste trabalho foi evidenciar a resposta aguda tecidual induzida pela exposição da radiação ionizante. MÉTODOS: Análises histológicas foram realizadas nos órgãos extraídos de ratos para análise de alterações microscópicas. As lâminas histológicas coradas com hematoxilina eosina (HE) foram analisadas em aumento (40x). Posteriormente, os tecidos foram submetidos a espectrometria de massa, que permitiu análise molecular e o Desi-MSI que gerou imagem molecular de lipídios, identificando alterações na intensidade, principalmente no cérebro. RESULTADOS: As análises histológicas encontraram alterações inflamatórias inespecíficas, nem áreas de fibrose, necrose ou apoptose, sugerindo ausência de alterações morfológicas. As imagens de lipídios cerebrais obtidas por Desi-MSI permitiram observar as inúmeras alterações na intensidade nas seções teciduais do encéfalo. CONCLUSÕES: Alterações agudas radioinduzidas de massa do órgão e histológicas nos órgãos dos ratos expostos não puderam ser observadas a 5 Gy. Entretanto, mudanças em nível molecular foram observadas nas imagens de Desi-MSI dos lipídios cerebrais. O método Desi-MSI mostrou-se eficiente e relevante, permitindo a análise molecular regi-onal dos tecidos no SNC, expandindo um novo campo de estudo que ainda está em sua infância: a radiometaboloma.

Animals , Rats , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Lipids , Disease Models, Animal
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180573, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132185


Abstract This work reports the study of the potential application of Zn/TiO2 catalysts, obtained by the sol-gel method, in processes of environmental decontamination through the reactions of photodegradation of textile dye, followed by electrospray mass spectrometry. The catalysts synthesis was performed according to a 2² factorial design with repetition at the central point. The characterization techniques used were: N2 adsorption measurements (BET method), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (MEV/EDS), X-ray diffraction and point of zero charge (PZC). The photocatalytic tests were performed in batch in the presence of sunlight, and to evaluate the degradation kinetics study, a rapid direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) method has been developed. By the photocatalytic tests, the calcination temperature of 400 °C has shown the best results of discoloration for the reactive Orange-122 dye (99.76%) in a reaction time of 2h. The discoloration kinetics were a pseudo-first order, and a statistical analysis was performed to investigate the effects of the variables and to optimize the conditions of discoloration to the dye. After the reactional time of 2 h, an ion of m/z 441.5 was detected by ESI-MS, indicating that the photocatalytic process was effective for the degradation of the dye to secondary compounds.

Azo Compounds/toxicity , Biodegradation, Environmental , Decontamination/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Waste Water , Photochemistry , Textiles/toxicity , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Coloring Agents , Photobioreactors , Models, Theoretical
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828035


This study aims to establish a quantitative method of 4 aristolochic acids-DNA adducts in mice kidney and liver based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS) for monitoring the content changes of aristolochic acids-DNA adducts. A Shiseido Capcellpak AQ C_(18) column(3 mm×100 mm, 3 μm) was used, with a mixture of 0.2% acetic acid-5 mmol·L~(-1) ammonium acetate as the aqueous phase and methanol as the organic phase for gradient elution. The multiple reaction monitoring(MRM) scanning method under positive mode by electrospray ionization(ESI) was performed for the detection of the aristolochic acids-DNA adducts which formed by combining aristolochic acid Ⅰ/Ⅱ with deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, and deoxycytidine, respectively. Balb/c mice were given Guanmutong extract by gavage, and the relative content of aristolochic acids-DNA adducts in liver and kidney samples were analyzed within 60 days. It was found that the concentration of 4 aristolochic acids-DNA adducts in the kidney was significantly higher than that in the liver, and there were about 15.87 adducts in per 1×10~6 normal deoxynucleosides, which was 4.5-7.5 times than that of the liver. What's more, some adducts can still be detected on the 30 th day after administration. The concentration of the adducts in the liver was highest on the first day after administration, and a second peak appeared during the 7 th to 14 th days. The results indicated that aristolochic acids-DNA adducts are difficult to eliminate in vivo, and it is of great significance to study the mechanism of liver and kidney injury of aristolochic acid.

Animals , Aristolochic Acids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Adducts , Liver , Mice , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 518-526, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008290


Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. widely distributed in the northeast region of China and some region in Russia and Korea, and its underground parts (roots and rhizomes) being used to cure nervous system diseases such as insomnia. The active components including the essential oil and iridoids of underground parts were investigated in different harvest periods in order to evaluate the quality for the roots and rhizomes of V. amurensis. The content of the essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and bornyl acetate in the oil was quantitated by GC-EI. The iridoids, valepotriates were determined by potentiometric titration and the main component, valtrate was quantitated by HPLC-UV. The factors of biomass were considered in the determination of collection period. Statistical analysis of results showed that, the highest content of the essential oil per plant was 22.69 µl in withering period and then 21.58 µl in fruit ripening period, while the highest contents of bornyl acetate, valepotriates and valtrate per plant were 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg and 0.98 mg in fruit ripening period separately. Fruit ripening period was decided as the best harvest period for the content of active constituents and output of drug, and it would provide scientific basis for the artificial cultivation of V. amurensis.

Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. Se distribuye ampliamente en la región noreste de China y en algunas regiones de Rusia y Corea, y sus partes subterráneas (raíces y rizomas) se utilizan para curar enfermedades del sistema nervioso como el insomnio. Se investigaron los componentes activos, incluidos el aceite esencial y los iridoides de las partes subterráneas de V. amurensis en diferentes períodos de cosecha para evaluar la calidad de las raíces y rizomas. El contenido del aceite esencial se obtuvo mediante hidrodestilación y el acetato de bornilo en el aceite se cuantificó por GC-EI. Los iridoides, valepotriatos se determinaron mediante valoración potenciométrica y el componente principal, el valtrato se cuantificó por HPLC-UV. Los factores de biomasa fueron considerados en la determinación del período de recolección. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró que el mayor contenido de aceite esencial por planta fue de 22,69 µl en el período de marchitación y luego de 21,58 µl en el período de maduración de la fruta, mientras que el mayor contenido de acetato de bornilo, valepotriatos y valtrato por planta fue de 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg y 0,98 mg, respectivamente, en el período de maduración de la fruta por separado. Se definió el período de maduración de la fruta como el mejor período de cosecha para el contenido de constituyentes activos y la producción de droga, lo cual proporcionaría una base científica para el cultivo artificial de V. amurensis.

Valerian/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seasons , Camphanes/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Rhizome/chemistry , Iridoids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 336-346, mayo 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008047


The chemical composition of Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" leaves was determined by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Polyphenolic compounds characterized as benzophenone derivatives were the main components found in extracts (1, maclurin 3-C-(2-O-galloyl)-D- glucoside isomer; 2, maclurin 3-C---D-glucoside; 3, iriflophenone 3-C---D-glucoside; 5, maclurin 3-C-(2,3-di-O-galloyl)---D-glucoside; 6, iriflophenone 3-C-(2-O-galloyl)---D-glucoside; 7, methyl-iriflophenone 3-C-(2,6-di-O-galloyl)---D-glucoside) and xanthones (4, mangiferin and 8, 6-O-galloyl-mangiferin). The estrogenic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" leaves on ovariectomized rats were determined by uterotrophic assay and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in erythrocytes, bone, liver, and stomach. We conclude that the polyphenolic compounds from extracts act as exogenous antioxidant agents against oxidative damage in ovariectomized rats.

La composición química de las hojas de Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" se determinó por HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Compuestos polifenólicos caracterizados como derivados de benzofenona fueron los componentes principales encontrados en los extractos (1, isómero de la maclurina 3-C-(2-O-galoyil)-D-glucósido; 2, maclurina 3-C-ß-D-glucósido; 3, iriflofenona 3-C-ß-D-glucósido; 5, maclurina 3-C-(2,3-di-O-galloíl)-ß-D-glucósido; 6, iriflofenona 3-C-(2-O-galloil)-ß-D-glucósido; 7, metil-iriflofenona 3-C-(2,6-di-O- galloyl)-ß-D-glucósido) y xantonas (4, mangiferina y 8, 6-O-galoyil-mangiferina). Los efectos estrogénicos y antioxidantes de los extractos acuosos de hojas de Mangifera indica L. cv. "Kent" en ratas ovariectomizadas se determinaron mediante ensayo uterotrófico y la medición de los niveles de malondialdehído (MDA) en eritrocitos, huesos, hígado y estómago. Concluimos que los compuestos polifenólicos de los extractos actúan como agentes antioxidantes exógenos contra el daño oxidativo en ratas ovariectomizadas.

Animals , Female , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ovariectomy , Mangifera/chemistry , Estrogens/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Stomach/drug effects , Benzophenones/chemistry , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Ethanol , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Liver/drug effects , Malondialdehyde , Antioxidants/chemistry
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170754, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055383


Abstract The aim of the present research was to develop a silymarin-laden PVP-nanocontainer providing ameliorated aqueous solubility and dissolution of the drug. Several silymarin-laden formulations were formed with varying quantities of PVP and SDS via the solvent evaporation method using the electrospraying technique. The influence of the hydrophilic carriers on solubility and dissolution was explored. The solid-state characterization was carried out by particle-size analysis, PXRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. All of the formulations demonstrated better solubility and dissolution than did silymarin plain powder. Both the SDS and PVP had positive effects on solubility and dissolution of silymarin in the aqueous media. An increased solubility was attained as the drug/PVP ratio was 1/4; however, further increase in PVP did not provide significant improvement. In particular, a nanocontainer formulation prepared with silymarin, PVP and SDS (1/4/0.5, w/w/w) exhibited the best solubility (26432.76 ± 1749.00 μg/mL) and an excellent dissolution (~92 % in 20 min) than did silymarin plain powder. Also, it demonstrated similar dissolution profiles compared to a commercial product; therefore, might be bioequivalent to the commercial product (f 1 = 3 and f 2 = 69). Moreover, cumulative undersize distribution values as represented by X10, X50 and X90 were 201 ± 21.01 nm, 488 ± 36.05 nm and 392 ± 48.10 nm, respectively. The drug existed in the amorphous state in the PVP-nanocontainers with no strong chemical bonding with other excipients. Thus, this formulation might be used for more effective administration of silymarin via the oral route.

Silymarin/administration & dosage , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Dissolution , Nanoparticles
São Paulo; s.n; 2019. 166 p. ilust, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1049748


Os tumores bifásicos da mama formam um grupo heterogêneo de tumores que apresentam na histologia dois componentes, o epitelial e o estromal. Esses tumores podem ser benignos ou malignos, alguns podem recidivar ou dar metástase. O seu prognóstico varia conforme a sua classificação histológica, a presença de metástase e a adequabilidade do seu tratamento. Porém, por vezes, há ainda dificuldade em diferenciá-los quando há sobreposição das características histológicas que são utilizadas para realizar o diagnóstico no exame anatomopatológico. Visando um novo método para diferenciar esses tumores entre si, além do exame anatomopatológico habitual, buscou-se analisar esses tumores através de uma técnica da química analítica de ionização ambiente, utilizando espectrometria de massas, o DESI-MSI (Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging). Foram utilizados cortes de amostras congeladas em lâminas para analisar no DESI-MSI e, através dessa análise, obteve-se os espectros de massas e as imagens químicas. A análise estatística foi realizada através do teste de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney. Nesse estudo encontramos maior intensidade dos ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFAs); de fosfolipídios como as fosfatidilserina e fosfatidiletanolaminas; do ácido ascórbico e de peptídeos no sarcoma do estroma da mama e tumor Phyllodes maligno, comparados ao tumor Phyllodes borderline e, por sua vez, comparado ao tumor Phyllodes benigno, fibroadenomas e tecido normal. Alguns PUFAs, como o ácido araquidônico (m/z 303,2330) e o ácido adrênico (m/z 331,2643), são precursores dos eicosanóides e participam de vias pró-inflamatórias. Os PUFAs podem estar ligados a um fosfolipídio da membrana celular e, quanto mais estiver presente, menor a rigidez da membrana, o que diminui o gasto energético para a realização dos movimentos celulares, como a endocitose. O aumento da intensidade do ácido ascórbico nas células tumorais se deve provavelmente ao aumento da demanda metabólica de glicose pelas células tumorais; ocorrendo, portanto, aumento dos transportadores de glicose (GLUTS) e, como a molécula do ácido ascórbico e sua forma oxidada tem estrutura molecular semelhante à molécula da glicose, o ácido ascórbico seria carreado por esses transportadores para dentro da célula tumoral. A maior intensidade dos peptídeos no tecido maligno pode ser explicada pela maior demanda proteica da célula maligna; porém, além da importância dos peptídeos para construção das proteínas, sabe-se que alguns aminoácidos podem ser convertidos em metabólitos intermediários da glicólise aeróbia. Isso ocorre devido ao aumento da demanda de átomos de carbono para biossíntese de metabólitos. Essas diferenças lipidômicas e metabolômicas ocorrem pelo metabolismo diferenciado da célula maligna, a qual desenvolve mecanismos de adaptação para sobrevivência e proliferação. A análise das imagens químicas dos tumores bifásicos da mama obtidas por DESI-MSI mostrou que é possível diferenciar esses tumores. O uso futuro dessa técnica na rotina diagnóstica pode ser promissor devido a ser de execução rápida e de alta acurácia (AU)

Biphasic breast tumors form a heterogeneous group of tumors that present in histology two components, epithelial and stromal. These tumors may be benign or malignant, some may recur or metastasize. Its prognosis varies according to its histological classification, the presence of metastasis and the adequacy of its treatment. However, sometimes there is still difficulty in differentiating them when there is overlap of the histological features that are used to make the diagnosis in the pathological examination. Aiming at a new method to differentiate these tumors from each other, in addition to the usual pathological examination, we sought to analyze these tumors using an analytical chemistry technique of ambient ionization using mass spectrometry, the Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI). Frozen specimen sections were used to analyze the DESI-MSI and, through this analysis, mass spectra and chemical images were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. In this study we found higher intensity of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs); phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamines; ascorbic acid and peptides in breast sarcoma and malignant phyllodes tumor, compared to borderline phyllodes tumor and, in turn, compared to benign phyllodes tumor, fibroadenomas and breast normal tissue. Some PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (m/z 303,2330) and adrenic acid (m/z 331,2643), are precursors of eicosanoids and participate in proinflammatory pathways. PUFAs may be linked to a cell membrane phospholipid and, the more it is present, the lower the membrane stiffness, which decreases the energy expenditure to perform cell movements, such as endocytosis. The increase in ascorbic acid intensity in tumor cells is probably due to the increased metabolic demand for glucose by tumor cells; there is therefore an increase in glucose transporters (GLUTS) and, since the ascorbic acid molecule and its oxidized form have a similar molecular structure to the glucose molecule, the ascorbic acid would be carried by these transporters into the tumor cell. The higher intensity of peptides in malignant tissue may be explained by the higher protein demand of the malignant cell; However, in addition to the importance of peptides for protein construction, it is known that some amino acids can be converted into intermediate metabolites of aerobic glycolysis. This is due to the increased demand for carbon atoms for metabolite biosynthesis. These lipidomic and metabolomic differences occur due to the differentiated metabolism of the malignant cell, which develops adaptation mechanisms for survival and proliferation. Analysis of chemical images of biphasic breast tumors obtained by DESI-MSI showed that it is possible to differentiate these tumors. The future use of this technique in the diagnostic routine may be promising due to its fast execution and high accuracy (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Breast Neoplasms , Phyllodes Tumor , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Metabolomics , Chemistry, Analytic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774542


The qualitative analysis of flavonoids in Coreopsis tinctoria was carried out by a combination of 2 D-TLC and HPLC-IT-TOF-MS. The separation was conducted on 2 D-TLC and a Phenomenex Kinetex Evo C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.6 μm) with methanol-0.05% aqueous formic acid by gradient elution. Electrospray ionization-(ESI) source was applied and operated in both positive and negative ionization modes. Eighteen flavonoids including three flavonoids, one flavonol, nine flavonones, one flavanonol and four chalcones, were putatively identified from the flavone-enriched fraction of C. tinctoria. 2 D-TLC could separate the flavonoids from C. tinctoria. HPLC-IT-TOF-MS was able to quickly and accurately analyze the flavonoids in C. tinctoria. The results would provide experimental information for the efficacy material basis clarification of C. tinctoria.

Chalcones , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coreopsis , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777472


This Paper aimed to analyze and identify the chemical constituents from the seeds of Celosia argentea by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS. The analysis was performed on an ACQUITY HSS T3 reverse phase column(2.1 mm ×100 mm, 1.8 μm). The mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid was used for gradient elution, and the flow rate was 0.4 mL·min~(-1). Mass spectrometry was applied for the qualitative analysis under positive and negative ionization modes and ESI ion source. Data was analyzed by Masslynx 4.1 software, literatures in SciFinder database, and standards. A total of 49 compounds, including 14 triterpenoids, 17 flavonoids, 11 cyclic peptides, 2 phenols, 2 organic acids, and 3 steroids were putatively identified. Among them, 19 compounds were firstly reported from this species. In-depth chemical constituent analysis for the seeds of C. argentea were accomplished here, and the findings could lay a good foundation for its quality control and clarifying the material basis of its efficacy.

Celosia , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Phytochemicals , Seeds , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776646


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the anti-neuroinflammation effect of extract of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis (EFSC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 cells and the possible involved mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Primary cortical neurons were isolated from embryonic (E17-18) cortices of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse fetuses. Primary microglia and astroglia were isolated from the frontal cortices of newborn ICR mouse. Different cells were cultured in specific culture medium. Cells were divided into 5 groups: control group, LPS group (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS only) and EFSC groups (treated with 1 μg/mL LPS and 100, 200 or 400 mg/mL EFSC, respectively). The effect of EFSC on cells viability was tested by methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. EFSC-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitrite oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified and neuron-protection effect against microglia-mediated inflammation injury was tested by hoechst 33258 apoptosis assay and crystal violet staining assay. The expression of pro-inflammatory marker proteins was evaluated by Western blot analysis or immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced NO, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-induced BV-2 cells (P<0.01 or P<0.05). EFSC (200 and 400 mg/mL) reduced the expression of NO in LPS-induced primary microglia and astroglia (P<0.01). In addition, EFSC alleviated cell apoptosis and inflammation injury in neurons exposed to microglia-conditioned medium (P<0.01). The mechanistic studies indicated EFSC could suppress nuclear factor (NF)-?B phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation (P<0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of EFSC occurred through suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (P<0.01 or P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EFSC acted as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS-induced glia cells. These effects might be realized through blocking of NF-κB activity and inhibition of MAPK signaling pathways.

Animals , Astrocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Down-Regulation , Inflammation , Pathology , Inflammation Mediators , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microglia , Metabolism , Pathology , NF-kappa B , Metabolism , Nervous System , Pathology , Neurons , Metabolism , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Schisandra , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773151


To search for the active diuretic fractions of Clematidis Armandii Caulis( CAC) and determine its main active chemical components by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry( LC-MS) and diuretic activity evaluation. CAC 75% ethanol extracts and extracts from different polar solvents were orally administered to saline-loaded rats at different doses. 6 h urinary volume,p H and contents of electrolyte Na+,K+and Cl-were measured. The chemical components of the active fractions were separated and identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry( UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method. As compared with the control group,the urine volume was increased by 44%( P< 0. 01) and 34%( P < 0. 05) in CAC75% ethanol extract 57. 74 and 28. 8 mg·kg-1 groups respectively; the Na+excretion was increased by 52%( P< 0. 01) and 45%( P<0. 05),respectively; while the Cl-excretion was increased by 101%( P<0. 01) and 85%( P<0. 05),respectively. The urine volume,Na+excretion and Cl-excretion were increased by 50%( P< 0. 01),58%( P< 0. 05),and 65%( P< 0. 05) respectively in petroleum ether extract 70. 98 mg·kg-1 group as compared with the control group. While for the n-butanol extract 194. 18 mg·kg-1 group,the urine volume,Na+and Cl-excretion were increased by 42%( P<0. 01),41%( P<0. 05) and 97%( P<0. 01),respectively. The diuretic activity of other fractions was not obvious. There was no statistical difference in K+excretion in all groups. The results of LC-MS analysis showed that six compounds,including two sterols,one chromogen and three fatty acids,were identified from petroleum ether extract.Fourteen compounds,including six triterpenoid saponins,six lignin glycosides,one sterol glycoside and one phenolic glycoside,were identified from the n-butanol extract. All the results suggested that the ethanol extract of CAC had remarkable diuretic activity and its main effective components included sterol,triterpenoid saponin and lignin glycosides.

Animals , Ascomycota , Chemistry , Diuretics , Pharmacology , Materia Medica , Pharmacology , Rats , Solvents , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 32: 26-34, Mar. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022610


Background: A new ι-carrageenase-producing strain was screened from mangroves and authenticated as Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora ASY5 in our laboratory. The potential application of this new strain was evaluated. Results: Medium compositions and culturing conditions in shaking flask fermentation were firstly optimized by single-factor experiment. ι-Carrageenase activity increased from 0.34 U/mL to 1.08 U/mL after test optimization. Optimal fermentation conditions were 20°C, pH 7.0, incubation time of 40 h, 15 g/L NaCl, 1.5% (w/v) yeast extract as nitrogen source, and 0.9% (w/v) ι-carrageenan as carbon source. Then, the crude ι-carrageenase was characterized. The optimum temperature and pH of the ι-carrageenase were 40°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzymatic activity at 35­40°C for 45 min retained more than 40% of the maximum activity. Meanwhile, The ι-carrageenase was inhibited by the addition of 1 mmol/L Cd2+ and Fe3+ but increased by the addition of 1 mmol/L Ag+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, and Al3+. The structure of oligosaccharides derived from ι-carrageenan was detected using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ι-carrageenase degraded ι-carrageenan, yielding disaccharides and tetrasaccharides as main products. Conclusions: The discovery and study of new ι-carrageenases are beneficial not only for the production of ι-carrageenan oligosaccharides but also for the further utilization in industrial production.

Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Pseudoalteromonas/enzymology , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Oligosaccharides/biosynthesis , Temperature , Carbon/metabolism , Carrageenan/biosynthesis , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Nitrogen/metabolism
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 117-124, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888838


Abstract Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae) is a species that accumulates especially amides as secondary metabolites and several biological activities was previously reported. In this article, we report a proteomic study of P. tuberculatum. Bidimensional electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF) were used in this study. Over a hundred spots and various peptides were identified in this species and the putative functions of these peptides related to defense mechanism as biotic and abiotic stress were assigned. The information presented extend the range of molecular information of P. tuberculatum.

Resumo Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae) é uma espécie que acumula especialmente amidas como metabólitos secundários e diversas atividades biológicas dessa espécie foram relatadas anteriormente. No presente artigo, relatamos um estudo proteômico dessa espécie. Eletroforese bidimensional (2D SDS-PAGE) e espectrometria de massas (ESI-Q-TOF) foram utilizadas nesse estudos. Mais de cem spots e vários peptídeos foram identificados nesta espécie e as funções putativas desses peptídeos relacionadas a mecanismo de defesa como estresse biótico e abiótico foram atribuídos. As informações apresentadas ampliam a gama de informações moleculares dessa espécie.

Plant Proteins/analysis , Proteome/analysis , Piper/chemistry , Plant Proteins/physiology , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Proteome/physiology , Proteome/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Piper/physiology , Piper/metabolism , Proteomics
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 129 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883227


As bifenilas policloradas (PCBs) são um grupo de compostos hidrocarbonetos halogenados aromáticos, bioacumulativos em organismos vivos e persistente no ambiente. Além da atividade disruptora endócrina, os PCBs podem aumentar os níveis de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), levando ao estresse oxidativo e alteração da metilação de DNA que são fatores importantes nas etiologias da hepatotoxicidade, infertilidade masculina e doença renal. Estes agentes tóxicos podem causar disfunção mitocondrial e distúrbios que afetam a produção de ATP, ROS e morte celular, ocasionando danos à saúde humana. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar possíveis alterações genotóxicas e epigenéticas causadas pelo aroclor 1254 em fígado, rim e testículo, além de verificar a indução de estresse oxidativo e disrupção dos metabólitos intermediários do ciclo de Krebs nos referidos tecidos. Camundongos machos C57/BL6 foram expostos ao Aroclor 1254 em diferentes doses (5, 50, 500 e 1000 ug/kg) por gavagem, uma vez a cada três dias, durante 50 dias. Após a exposição, os animais foram eutanasiados, os órgãos coletados e espermatozoides obtidos a partir dos epidídimos. A peroxidação lipídica em plasma e tecidos foi avaliada pela quantificação de malonaldeído (MDA) por HPLC/DAD. Os níveis de intermediários da via glicolítica, do ciclo de Krebs, de alguns nucleotídeos e aminoácidos, marcas epigenéticas (5-mC e 5-hmC) e adutos de DNA (8-oxodG e CEdG) foram quantificados por HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. A abordagem de benchmark dose (BMD) foi utilizada para a modelagem dose resposta. Após exposição, não foram observadas diferenças significativas da variação da massa corporal, e a razão do peso testicular, fígado e rim por massa corporal. No tecido hepático, foi observado aumento da peroxidação lipídica. Houve redução significativa dos níveis de ATP, ADP, razão NADP+/NADPH, piruvato, malato, fumarato e glutamato. Observou-se redução significativa dos níveis de 5-mC e 5-hmC no DNA nuclear (nDNA), enquanto não foram observadas alterações dos níveis dos adutos. Em DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA) não foram observadas alterações nas marcas epigenéticas, no entanto foi obtido aumento significativo no aduto 8-oxodG após exposição ao Aroclor 1254. No tecido renal foi observado aumento significativo de MDA. Houve aumento significativo dos níveis de lactato e malato e reduções de ATP, ADP, glutamina, NAD+. Foi observada a hipohidroximetilação do mtDNA. As marcas 5-mC de mtDNA, 5mC de nDNA e adutos de DNA nuclear e mitocondrial não apresentaram diferenças após exposição a PCBs. Nos testículos foi verificada redução significativa dos níveis de glutamato, malato, succinato, fumarato e razão NADH/NAD+, hipohidroximetilção em mtDNA e hipermetilação em nDNA. Não foram observadas alterações de 5-mC em mtDNA e 5hmC em nDNA. Não foram verificadas alterações dos níveis de MDA e adutos em nDNA. Adicionando, foi observada redução dos níveis de 5-mC em DNA global de espermatozoide. Os limites inferiores do intervalo de confiança da BMD foram estimados para que estes marcadores possam ser usados na avaliação de riscos de PCBs. Os dados obtidos apontam o Aroclor 1254 como indutor de alterações do metabolismo intermediário, das marcas epigenéticas e estresse oxidativo. Essas alterações podem afetar vias celulares, levando à morte ou transformação, e aumentando o risco de doenças

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, which bioaccumulate in living organisms and is persistent in the environment. Besides their endocrine disrupting activity, PCBs may increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress and alter DNA methylation that are important factors in the etiology of liver toxicity, male infertility, and kidney disease. These toxic agents can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and disorders that affect the production of ATP, ROS and cell death, thereby leading to health-related problems. The present work aimed at investigating possible genotoxic and epigenetic changes caused by aroclor 1254 in the liver, kidney and testis, as well as determine the induction of oxidative stress and disruption of intermediate metabolites in these tissues. Male C57/BL6 mice were exposed to Aroclor 1254 at different doses (5, 50, 500 and 1000 µg/kg) by gavage, once every three days, for 50 days. After the exposure period, the animals were euthanized, organs collected, and sperms obtained from the epididymis. Lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues was determined by quantification of malonaldehyde (MDA) using HPLC/DAD. The levels of intermediate metabolites, epigenetic marks (5-mC and 5-hmC) and DNA adducts (8-oxodG and CEdG) were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The Benchmark dose approach (BMD) was used for dose response modeling. No significant differences in body weight variation, testicular, liver and kidney weight to body weight ratio were observed after exposure. However, in hepatic tissues, an increase in lipid peroxidation was observed. There were significant decreases in the intermediate metabolites including the levels of ATP, ADP, pyruvate, NADP+/NADPH ratio, malate and fumarate, as well as glutamate. Significant reduction of 5-mC and 5-hmC levels in nuclear DNA (nDNA) were observed, whereas no changes were observed in DNA adducts. The epigenetic marks in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were not changed; however, a significant increase was observed in 8-oxodG adduct after exposure to Aroclor 1254. In renal tissues, data showed a significant increase in MDA, while for the intermediate metabolites, the levels of lactate and malate were significantly elevated, whereas significant reductions were recorded for ATP, ADP, glutamine, and NAD+. Hypohydroxymethylation was observed in mtDNA. The 5-mC of mtDNA, 5mC of nDNA and nuclear and mtDNA adducts did not show differences after PCBs exposure. For the testicles, significant reductions in the levels of glutamate, malate, succinate, fumarate and NADH/NAD+ ratio were observed. The PCBs also induced hypohydroxymethylation in mtDNA and hypermethylation in nDNA, but there were no changes of 5-mC in mtDNA and 5-hmC in nDNA. A reduction of nDNA adducts 8-oxodG was observed. No changes were observed in the level of MDA and DNA adducts of nDNA. However, after PCBs exposure there was a significant decrease of 5-mC in global DNA of spermatozoa. The lower bound confidence interval on BMD, which were estimated for these markers can be used in the risk assessment of PCBs. Collectively, the data obtained in this study indicate that Aroclor 1254 induces alteration of intermediate metabolites, epigenetic marks and oxidative stress. These changes can adversely affect cells and cellular pathways, therefore increase the risk of cell death or transformation

Animals , Male , Mice , Citric Acid Cycle , /analysis , Benchmarking/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Epigenomics/instrumentation , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776413


This experiment was performed to analyze and identify the chemical constituents of Sinopodophylli Fructus by HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn. The analysis was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) column.The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid was used for gradient at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min⁻¹. Electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry was applied for qualitative analysis under positive and negative ion modes. The results indicated that 54 compounds consisted of 18 lignans and 36 flavonoids from Xiaoyelian had been detected by their HRMS data, the information of literature and reference substance. Among them, 27 compounds were reported in Sinopodophylli Fructus for the first time. In conclusion, an HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn method was established to qualitative analysis of Xiaoyelian in this study, which will provide the evidence for evaluating the quality of Xiaoyelian herbs, clarifying the mechanism, and guiding the development of pharmacological active ingredients.

Berberidaceae , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Fruit , Chemistry , Lignans , Phytochemicals , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Tandem Mass Spectrometry