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Prensa méd. argent ; 105(11): 849-851, dic2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1050068


This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in present study. Keywords: Heavy metals; Milk; Najaf; Flame atomic absorption; Spectrophotometer This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in present study

Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Flame Spectrophotometers , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , Milk
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4266, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-998047


Objective: To identify the exposure of lead through saliva and the presence of gingival pigmentation in the risk group. Material and Methods: The type of this research is analytic observational with cross-sectional study design. The sample consisted of 40 subjects, who were divided into two groups of 20 each: G1: Gasoline Fuel Station and G2: Officer in Dental Hospital. To determine the level of leads in saliva is measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and assessment of the severity of lead-gingival lead line in this study based on the area of the gingival surface based on the number of dental areas. The data were analyzed with the t-test and Chi-square test. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The average lead content in saliva group exposed was 6.66 µg / ml and control group 4.72 µg / ml (p≤0.05). There is a correlation between gingival lead line incidence with exposure to lead (OR = 3.33; p = 0.001). Conclusion: The identification of exposure to lead poisoning can be determined by examination in saliva and ginggiva state, it is proven that the risk of gingival lead (Ginggival Lead Line) in the worker group at the gas station station is 3.3 times more risk than the control group. Occupational safety factors are important for workers at high risk of exposure to the element of lead for additional education on the importance of using masks to prevent the severity of the occurrence of lead effects on overall health.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Saliva , Pigmentation , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Filling Station/analysis , Indonesia , Lead/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Risk Factors
West Indian med. j ; 67(3): 248-253, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045840


ABSTRACT Objective: It is proposed that in some conditions such as pregnancy and osteoporosis where the bone turnover rate is high, there is mobilization of various minerals including lead (Pb) from bone to blood. This study aimed to determine if there were any differences in serum Pb levels among elderly osteopaenic patients, elderly osteoporotic persons and healthy controls. Methods: Fifty-four elderly persons (26 men and 28 women) from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project, Iran, were included in this study. The diagnosis of osteopaenia and osteoporosis was based on spine and femur bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. After blood sampling, serum Pb levels were analysed by the method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: According to the BMD measurements, 19 persons had normal BMD, while 16 had osteopaenia and 19 suffered from osteoporosis. The differences in body mass index in these three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). The patients with osteoporosis had the highest levels of alkaline phosphatase and the highest rate of bone turnover. The mean ± standard deviation of the serum Pb levels in these groups were 236.8 ± 98.0, 270.0 ± 81.5 and 258.3 ± 57.5 μg/L, respectively, and the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.467). Conclusion: No statistically significant differences in serum Pb levels were observed in healthy controls compared with osteopaenic persons and osteoporotic persons. This suggests that mobilization of Pb from bone to blood in this population of elderly osteopaenic patients and elderly osteoporotic patients was similar to that in the healthy controls.

RESUMEN Objetivo: Se postula que en algunas condiciones como el embarazo y la osteoporosis donde el índice de recambio óseo es alto, hay movilización de varios minerales - incluyendo plomo (Pb) - de los huesos a la sangre. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar si hubo diferencias en los niveles de plomo sérico entre los pacientes osteopénicos mayores de edad, los pacientes osteoporóticos mayores de edad, y los controles sanos. Métodos: Se incluyeron en este estudio 54 personas de edad avanzada (26 hombres y 28 mujeres) del Proyecto Amirkola de Salud y Envejecimiento, Irán. La diagnosis de la osteopenia y la osteoporosis se basó en mediciones de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) de la espina dorsal y del fémur (DMO). Después del muestreo de sangre, los niveles séricos de Pb fueron analizados por el método de espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Resultados: Según las mediciones de la DMO, 19 personas tenían DMO normal, mientras que 16 tenían osteopenia y 19 padecían osteoporosis. Las diferencias en el índice de masa corporal en estos tres grupos fueron estadísticamente significativas (p < 0.001). Los pacientes con osteoporosis tenían los niveles más altos de fosfatasa alcalina y el índice más alto de recambio óseo. La media ± desviación estándar de los niveles séricos de Pb en estos grupos fue de 236.8 ± 98.0, 270.0 ± 81.5 y 258.3 ± 57.5 μg/L, respectivamente, y las diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p = 0.467). Conclusión: No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los niveles séricos de Pb en los controles sanos en comparación con las personas osteopénicas y las osteoporóticas. Esto sugiere que la movilización de Pb del hueso a la sangre en esta población de pacientes osteopénicos mayores de edad y pacientes osteoporóticos mayores de edad, era similar a la encontrada en los controles sanos.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Osteoporosis/blood , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/blood , Lead/blood , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Biomarkers/blood , Bone Density
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170374, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893735


Abstract Objectives To determine the concentration of calcium, iron, manganese and zinc ions after the application of chelator to Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Material and Methods Fifty bovine maxillary central incisors were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 60 days. The following were used as irrigation solutions: 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) combined with 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10), distilled water (pH 3, 7 and 10), and 2.5% NaOCl. Each solution was kept in the root canal for five minutes. Fifteen uncontaminated root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10). Six teeth were used as bacterial control. The number of calcium, iron, manganese and zinc ions was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) values were used for descriptive statistics. Results Calcium chelation using 17% EDTA at pH 7 was higher than at pH 3 and 10, regardless of whether bacterial biofilm was present. The highest concentration of iron occurred at pH 3 in the presence of bacterial biofilm. The highest concentration of manganese found was 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA at pH 7 in the presence of bacterial biofilm. Zinc levels were not detectable. Conclusions The pH of chelating agents affected the removal of calcium, iron, and manganese ions. The concentration of iron ions in root canals with bacterial biofilm was higher after the use of 17% EDTA at pH 3 than after the use of the other solutions at all pH levels.

Animals , Cattle , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Materials Testing , Water/chemistry , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Calcium/analysis , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Enterococcus faecalis/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(2): e00034417, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952362


O objetivo foi avaliar o nível de exposição ao chumbo e mercúrio em população do Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brasil. Chumbo no sangue (Pb-S) (n = 119) e mercúrio na urina (Hg-U) (n = 109) de moradores da região foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica. A comparação de médias e correlação entre as variáveis utilizaram o teste ANOVA e a regressão linear, respectivamente, com 95% de confiança. Pb-S médio foi 2,82 ± 1,53µg dL-1. A comparação de Pb-S estratificado por local de coleta (p ≤ 0,01), atividade laboral (p ≤ 0,01) e consumo de leite produzido na região (p ≤ 0,05) mostrou diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Também houve associações positivas entre Pb-S e local de coleta (p ≤ 0,01), profissão dos participantes (p ≤ 0,05), consumo de leite da região (p ≤ 0,01) e origem da água de consumo (p ≤ 0,01). A média de Hg-U foi 1,41 ± 0,98µg L-1. Os teores mostraram diferenças significativas apenas quanto à profissão dos participantes (p ≤ 0,01), e associações positivas surgiram entre Hg-U e atividade profissional (p ≤ 0,01) assim como índice de massa corporal dos sujeitos de estudo (p ≤ 0,01). As amostras apresentaram baixos níveis de chumbo e mercúrio, semelhantes àqueles encontrados em populações também expostas ambientalmente. Apesar dessas baixas concentrações, o conhecimento atual sobre toxicidade desses metais mostra que efeitos à saúde já podem ser sentidos em níveis antes considerados seguros, o que caracteriza o perigo.

El objetivo fue evaluar el nivel de exposición al plomo y mercurio en una población del Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brasil. El plomo en sangre (Pb-S) (n = 119) y mercurio en la orina (Hg-U) (n = 109) de los habitantes de esa región se determinó por espectrometría de absorción atómica. La comparación de medias y la correlación entre las variables utilizaron el test ANOVA y la regresión lineal, respectivamente, con un 95% de confianza. Pb-S medio fue 2,82 ± 1,53µg dL-1. La comparación de Pb-S estratificado por lugar de recogida (p ≤ 0,01), actividad laboral (p ≤ 0,01) y consumo de leche que se produjo en la región (p ≤ 0,05) mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas. También hubo asociaciones positivas entre Pb-S y el lugar de recogida (p ≤ 0,01), profesión de los participantes (p ≤ 0,05), consumo de leche de la región (p ≤ 0,01) y origen del agua de consumo (p ≤ 0,01). La media de Hg-U fue 1,41 ± 0,98µg L-1. Los porcentajes mostraron diferencias significativas sólo respecto a la profesión de los participantes (p ≤ 0,01), y las asociaciones positivas surgieron entre Hg-U y la actividad profesional (p ≤ 0,01), así como índice de masa corporal de los sujetos de estudio (p ≤ 0,01). Las muestras presentaron bajos niveles de plomo y mercurio, semejantes a aquellos encontrados en poblaciones también expuestas ambientalmente. A pesar de esas bajas concentraciones, el conocimiento actual sobre toxicidad de estos metales muestra que los efectos sobre la salud, ya pueden ser apreciados en niveles antes considerados seguros, lo que caracteriza el peligro.

The objective was to assess the level of exposure to lead and mercury in a population in the Pantanal region in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Blood lead (PbB) (n = 119) and urinary mercury (HgU) (n = 109) in local residents were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of means and correlations between variables used analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression, respectively, with 95% confidence intervals. Mean PbB was 2.82 ± 1.53µg dL-1. The comparison of PbB stratified by collection site (p ≤ 0.01), work activity (p ≤ 0.01), and consumption of locally produced cow's milk (p ≤ 0.05) showed statistically significant differences. There were also positive associations between PbB and collection site (p ≤ 0.01), participants' profession (p ≤ 0.05), local milk (p ≤ 0.01), and source of drinking water (p ≤ 0.01). Mean HgU was 1.41 ± 0.98µg L-1. The levels only showed significant differences for participants' profession (p ≤ 0.01), and positive associations emerged between HgU and work activity (p ≤ 0.01) and body mass index (p ≤ 0.01). The samples showed low lead and mercury levels, similar to those found in other environmentally exposed populations. Despite these low concentrations, current knowledge on the toxicity of these metals shows that health effects can already be felt at levels that were previously considered safe, thus characterizing a health hazard.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Lead/blood , Mercury/urine , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Brazil , Biomarkers/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764860


BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) are well-known environmental pollutants. They are unnecessary in the biological processes of humans. This study was performed to estimate the representative background exposure levels to the metals by measuring concentrations in whole blood of the Korean general population. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study included 4,000 subjects (1,886 males and 2,114 females) 0–83 years of age in 2010 and 2011. Adult subjects (≥ 19 years of age) were collected by sex- and age-stratified probability method, and preschool- and school-aged subjects were recruited by a cluster sampling method. Written consent was provided prior to blood sampling. Pb and Cd blood concentrations were determined by a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and blood Hg was analyzed by a direct Hg analyzer. RESULTS: The geometric mean, median and 95th percentile of blood Pb was 1.82 µg/dL, 1.83 µg/dL, and 3.78 µg/dL, respectively. The respective values were 2.92 µg/L, 2.87 µg/L, 9.12 µg/L for Hg, and 0.56 µg/L, 0.59 µg/L, 2.20 µg/L for Cd. Blood Pb and Hg were higher in males than in females, but no sex difference was observed, respectively, in subjects 0–4 years of age for Pb and in subjects less than 20 years for Hg. However, blood Cd was higher in females than in males and no sex difference was observed in subjects < 30 years of age. CONCLUSION: This study provides representative data of human exposure to Pb, Hg, and Cd covering whole age groups of the general population in Korea.

Adult , Biological Phenomena , Cadmium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environmental Pollutants , Female , Humans , Korea , Male , Metals , Methods , Sex Characteristics , Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776429


Glues medicines is a special kind of traditional Chinese medicine.As the market demand is large, the raw materials are in short supply and lacks proper quality evaluation technology, which causes inconsistent quality of products on the market. Its authentic identification and evaluation stay a problem to be solved. In this paper, the research progress of the methods and techniques of the evaluation of the identification and quality of glues medicines were reviewed. The researches of medicinal glue type identification and quality evaluation mainly concentrated in four aspects of medicinal materials of physical and chemical properties, trace elements, organic chemicals and biological genetic methods and techniques. The methods of physicochemical properties include thermal analysis, gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, infrared spectroscopy, gel exclusion chromatography, and circular dichroism. The methods including atomic absorption spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, plasma emission spectrometry and visible spectrophotometry were used for the study of the trace elements of glues medicines. The organic chemical composition was studied by methods of composition of amino acids, content detection, odor detection, lipid soluble component, organic acid detection. Methods based on the characteristics of biogenetics include DNA, polypeptide and amino acid sequence difference analysis. Overall, because of relative components similarity of the glues medicines (such as amino acids, proteins and peptides), its authenticity and quality evaluation index is difficult to judge objectively, all sorts of identification evaluation methods have different characteristics, but also their limitations. It indicates that further study should focus on identification of evaluation index and various technology integrated application combining with the characteristics of the production process.

Adhesives , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Trace Elements
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 600-607, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887610


ABSTRACT Objective: Selenium (Se) supplementation has been used to help prevent the progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) patients. We investigated Se serum and selenoprotein P (SePP) levels in Graves' disease (GD) with and without GO, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients and in 27 control individuals (C). Subjects and methods: We studied 54 female and 19 male patients: 19 with GD without GO, 21 GD with GO, 14 with HT and 19 with HT+LT4. Se values were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum SePP levels were measured by ELISA. Results: Median Se levels were similar among all groups; GD patients: 54.2 (46.5-61.1 μg/L), GO: 53.6 (43.5-60.0 μg/L), HT: 51.9 (44.6-58.5 μg/L), HT+LT4 54.4 (44-63.4) and C group patients: 56.0 (52.4-61.5 μg/L); P = 0.48. However, serum SePP was lower in GO patients: 0.30 (0.15-1.05 μg/mL) and in HT patients: 0.35 (0.2-1.17 μg/mL) compared to C group patients: 1.00 (0.564.21 μg/mL) as well as to GD patients: 1.19 (0.62-2.5 μg/mL) and HT+LT4 patients: 0.7 (0,25-1.95); P = 0.002. Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between SePP and TPOAb values (r = 0.445, R2 = 0.293; P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis found no independent variables related to Se or SePP. Conclusion: A serum Se concentration was lower than in some other countries, but not significantly among AITD patients. The low serum SePP levels in GO and HT patients seems to express inflammatory reactions with a subsequent increase in Se-dependent protein consumption remains unclear.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Selenium/blood , Graves Disease/blood , Hashimoto Disease/blood , Selenoprotein P/blood , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Graves Ophthalmopathy/blood
Salud pública Méx ; 59(5): 548-555, Sep.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903798


Abstract: Objective: This study determined the main dietary sources of urinary molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in a sample of 124 pregnant women in Mexico. Materials and methods: Dietary data was collected during pregnancy, through a semi-qualitative food frequency questionnaire, with information of 84 foods. Urine Mo levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, for at least two trimesters of pregnancy. The associations with Mo levels were estimated by generalized mixed effect regression models. Results: Between 5.8 to 12.7% of the samples were above the 95th percentile of urinary Mo distribution reported by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 for women (151 μg/L and 148 μg/g creatinine). After bootstrap resampling was conducted, women with high-consumption of hot peppers (β=1.34μg/g; 95% CI: 1.00-1.80; p= 0.05) had marginally higher urinary Mo concentration levels, creatinine adjusted, compared to women with low-consumption. Conclusion. Hot chili pepper consumption may contribute to body burden Mo levels in this population.

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar las fuentes dietéticas de molibdeno (Mo) urinario en 124 mujeres embarazadas residentes en el estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos: Mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de 84 alimentos, se obtuvo información dietética durante el embarazo. Las concentraciones urinarias de Mo se determinaron por espectrometría de absorción atómica, en al menos dos trimestres del embarazo. La asociación se estimó mediante modelos de efectos mixtos generalizados. Resultados: Entre 5.8 y 12.7% de las muestras superaron el P95 (151 µg/L y 148 µg/g creatinina) de la distribución de Mo urinario reportado para mujeres por la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud de Estados Unidos (NHANES) 2009-2010. El mayor consumo de chile (β=1.34μg/g; IC95%: 1.00-1.80; p=0.05) se asoció con concentraciones marginalmente mayores de Mo. Conclusión: Probablemente debido a los fertilizantes o el sistema de riego utilizado en su cultivo, el consumo de chile es una posible fuente de exposición a Mo, en esta población.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Diet , Molybdenum/urine , Pregnancy Trimesters/urine , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Socioeconomic Factors , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Capsicum/chemistry , Pilot Projects , Feeding Behavior , Mexico , Molybdenum/toxicity , Molybdenum/pharmacokinetics
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 53-60, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841164


Abstract Objectives This study analyzed the capacity of Candida spp. from dental biofilm of HIV infected (HIV+) children to demineralize primary molar enamel in vitro by Transversal Microhardness (TMH), Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) and the quantity of calcium ions (Ca2+) released from the enamel. Material and Methods Candida spp. samples were isolated from the supragingival biofilm of HIV+ children. A hundred and forty (140) enamel blocks were randomly assigned to six groups: biofilm formed by C. albicans (Group 1); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. tropicalis (Group 2); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (Group 3); mixed biofilm formed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (Group 4); biofilm formed by C. albicans ATCC (Group 5) and medium without Candida (Group 6). Enamel blocks from each group were removed on days 3, 5, 8 and 15 after biofilm formation to evaluate the TMH and images of enamel were analyzed by PLM. The quantity of Ca2+ released, from Groups 1 and 6, was determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis and the significance level was 5%. Results TMH showed a gradual reduction in enamel hardness (p<0.05) from the 1st to 15th day, but mainly five days after biofilm formation in all groups. The PLM showed superficial lesions indicating an increase in porosity. C. albicans caused the release of Ca2+ into suspension during biofilm formation. Conclusion Candida species from dental biofilm of HIV+ children can cause demineralization of primary enamel in vitro.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/microbiology , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Time Factors , Tooth, Deciduous/microbiology , Tooth, Deciduous/virology , Virulence , In Vitro Techniques , Candida/growth & development , Candida/virology , HIV Infections/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Biofilms/growth & development , Dental Caries/virology , Dental Enamel/virology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/virology , Hardness Tests , Microscopy, Polarization
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e72, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952078


Abstract To assess the physicochemical properties of AH Plus, GuttaFlow 2, GuttaFlow BioSeal, and MM Seal, five samples of each root canal sealer were evaluated to determine their setting time (ST), dimensional change (DC), solubility (SL), flow (FL), and radiopacity (RD) according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 57. The distilled and deionized water obtained from the SL test were subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry to observe the presence of Ca2+, K+, and Na+ ions. Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests (p < 0.05). The following results were obtained: ST (min) (AH Plus 463.6 ± 13.22; GuttaFlow 2 24.35 ± 2.78; GuttaFlow Bioseal 17.4 ± 0.55; MM Seal 47.60 ± 4.39), DC (%) (AH Plus 0.06 ± 0.12; GuttaFlow 2 −26.06 ± 1.24; GuttaFlow Bioseal 2.10 ± 1.47; MM Seal 8.47 ± 2.41), SL (%) (AH Plus 0.41 ± 0.21; GuttaFlow 2 5.13 ± 4.11; GuttaFlow Bioseal 3.03 ± 1.05; MM Seal 0.94 ± 0.17), FL (mm) (AH Plus 36.42 ± 0.40; GuttaFlow 2 36.44 ± 0.05; GuttaFlow Bioseal 35.4 ± 0.03; MM Seal 52.75 ± 0.60), and RD (mmAl) (AH Plus 7.52 ± 1.59; GuttaFlow 2 6.85 ± 0.14; GuttaFlow Bioseal 7.02 ± 0.18; MM Seal 3.32 ± 0.90). ST, DC, SL, FL, and RD showed statistical differences among the root canal sealers (p < 0.05). As AH Plus showed the lowest DC and SL values (p < 0.05), the findings indicate that this sample is the only sealer conforming to ANSI/ADA standards.

Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicones/chemistry , Dimethylpolysiloxanes/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Reference Values , Solubility , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 30(1): 26-32, 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907404


The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate changes in pH andcalcium ion diffusion through root dentin from calcium hydroxide(Ca (OH)2) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) pastes at 7,30 and 60 days; and the relationship between pH and iondiffusion. Thirty­two human premolars were used. Crowns weresectioned and root canals instrumented and filled in with thefollowing preparations: 1) Ca(OH)2 + distilled water (n=7); 2)Ca(OH)2 + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate (n=7); 3) MTA +distilled water (n=7); 4) MTA + 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate(CHX) (n=7); 5) distilled water (n=2) (control); 6) 0.1%chlorhexidine gluconate (n=2) (control). The apex and coronaryopening were sealed with IRM. Roots were placed in Eppendorftubes with 1 ml distilled water at 37°C and 100% humidity. Atbaseline, 7, 30 and 60 days, pH was measured with pH meter,and calcium ion content in the solution was analyzed by atomicabsorption spectrophotometry. The data were statisticallyanalyzed using ANOVA, simple linear regression analysis andPearson’s correlation test. The highest pH values were achievedwith calcium hydroxide pastes at 60 days (p ≤ 0.05). Calciumions were released in all groups. The calcium hydroxide pastewith distilled water at 60 days had the highest calcium ion value(p ≤ 0.01). There was a positive correlation between calcium andpH values.

El objetivo de este estudio ex vivo fue evaluar los cambios en elpH y la difusión a través de la dentina radicular de iones calcioa partir de pastas de hidróxido de calcio (Ca (OH)2) y trióxidomineral agregado (MTA), durante 7, 30 y 60 días; y la relaciónentre el pH y la difusión de iones. Se utilizaron 32 premolareshumanos. Las coronas fueron seccionadas, los conductos radicu ­lares fueron instrumentados y obturados con las siguientespreparaciones: 1) Ca (OH)2 + agua destilada (n = 7); 2)Ca (OH)2 + gluconato de clorhexidina (CHX) al 0,1% (n = 7);3) MTA + agua destilada (n = 7); 4) MTA + gluconato declorhexidina al 0,1% (n = 7); 5) agua destilada (n = 2) (control);6) gluconato de clorhexidina al 0,1% (n = 2) (control). El ápicey la apertura coronaria se sellaron con IRM. Las raíces secolocaron en tubos Eppendorf con 1 ml de agua destilada a37 °C y 100% de humedad. Se midió el pH inicial y a los 7, 30 y60 días, con pHmetro, y se analizó el contenido de iones calcioen la solución por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Losdatos fueron analizados estadísticamente con ANOVA, análisisde regresión lineal y correlación de Pearson. Los valores de pHmás altos se obtuvieron con las pastas de hidróxido de calcio alos 60 días (p ≤ 0,05). Todos los grupos mostraron liberación deiones calcio. La pasta de hidróxido de calcio con agua destiladamostró el valor más alto de iones calcio a los 60 días (p ≤ 0,01).Hubo una correlación positiva entre los valores de pH y calcio.

Humans , Calcium Hydroxide/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/classification , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Dentin Permeability , Distilled Water , Statistical Analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods
Braz. j. biol ; 76(4): 967-974, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828099


Abstract In this study we determined the concentration of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the water lower São Francisco River basin, to evaluate the influence of urbanization and industrialization on environmental changes in the water resource. All samples were analyzed using the IUPAC adapted method and processed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The sampling stations located near the industrial areas were influenced by industrialization because they presented higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu. The other sampled locations showed changes with regard the trace elements probably originating in the soil, like Fe, Zn and Pb. There was a gradual increase in the concentrations of metals, in general, in the period of highest rainfall of the hydrographic network. Overall, except for Zn and Mn, the trace elements exceeded the maximum allowed value established by national legislation (CONAMA). Lower São Francisco River basin has suffered interference from urbanization and industrialization, so awareness programs should be developed so as to control and lessen future problems.

Resumo Neste trabalho foi determinada a concentração dos metais (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn) na água do submédio Rio São Francisco para avaliar a influência da urbanização e da industrialização nas modificações ambientais do recurso hídrico. Todas as amostras foram analisadas usando o método IUPAC adaptado e processados em um espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica. As estações de amostragem localizadas próximas às áreas industriais sofreram influência da industrialização por apresentarem concentrações mais elevadas de Cd, Cr, Ni e Cu. Os demais locais amostrados apresentaram modificações com relação aos elementos traços de provável origem sedimentar como Fe, Zn e Pb. Houve aumento gradativo nas concentrações dos metais, de forma geral, no período de maior pluviosidade da rede hidrográfica. Em geral, com exceção do Zn e Mn, os elementos traços ultrapassaram o valor máximo permitido, estabelecido pela legislação nacional (CONAMA). O submédio Rio São Francisco tem sofrido interferência da urbanização e industrialização, por isso, é preciso que, programas de conscientização sejam estabelecidos, para controlar e amenizar problemas futuros.

Seasons , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Rivers/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Trace Elements/analysis , Urbanization , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Industrial Development
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1311-1331, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958215


Abstract:Reports on the abundances and on metal concentrations in intertidal estuarine invertebrates from the Eastern Tropical Pacific are rare. Thus, the objectives of this report are to make accessible data on the abundances (1984-1987, 49 dates; 2013, 12 dates) of sipunculans, brachiopods and hemichordates from a sand-mud flat; and on trace metals (1996, 2000) and abundances (2015, 3 dates) of sipunculans and brachiopods at a sand flat in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary (10o N-85o W). Cores (17.7 cm2) were collected at the sand-mud flat, and quadrats (0.2 m2) at the sand flat. The flats contrasted in their sand (65 % vs 90 %) and silt+clay (31.5 % vs 5.6 %) contents. At the sand-mud flat (1984-87: 1.83 m2) the sipunculans were represented by 13 individuals, the brachiopods by 129 and the acorn worms by 185, with estimated maximum densities of: 5.7, 29, and 40 ind./m2, respectively. Trace metal (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, and Pb) analysis (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) were conducted in specimens of Sipunculus nudus (Sipuncula) and Glottidia audebarti (Brachiopoda). Maximum mean concentrations in S. nudus were: For non-depurated worms, Fe (16.0 mg/g dw) > Mn (165 µg/g dw) > Zn (81 µg/g dw) > Cu (26 µg/g dw) > Cr (11 µg/g dw) > Ni (10.4 µg/g dw) > Pb (9.3 µg/g dw) > Cd (1.2 µg/g dw). For 72 hour depurated worms: Fe (5.0 mg/g dw) > Mn (61 µg/g dw) > Zn (39 µg/g dw) > Cu (24 µg/g dw) > Ni (8.4 µg/g dw) > Pb (2.7 µg/g dw) > Cd (0.62 µg/g dw). For G. audebarti: Fe (1.6 mg/g dw-soft parts) > Zn (123.5 µg/g dw-soft parts) > Cu (31.4 µg/g dw-pedicles) > Pb (21.0 µg/g dw-shells) > Cd (5.2 µg/g dw-soft parts) > Cr (4.7 µg/g dw-shells). For sediments; Fe (46 mg/g dw) > Mn (41.3 µg/g dw) > Zn (63 µg/g dw) > Cu (36.2 µg/g dw) > Cr (31.5 µg/g dw) > Pb (21.1 µg/g dw) > Ni (16.1 µg/g dw) > Cd (1.1 µg/g dw). These concentrations were expected for a nonindustrialized estuary. At the sand flat (Area sampled: 10.6 m2 ) 76 individuals of G. audebarti, 112 of G. albida, and 366 of S. nudus were collected in 2015, with estimated maximum densities of: 7.1, 10.5, and 31 ind./m2, respectively. Densities of G. audebarti and G. albida were relatively low, while those of S. nudus were relatively high when compared with other reports. The shell lenght of G. audebarti ranged from 9.0 mm to 38.0 mm and from 6.0 mm to 29.0 mm for G. albida. These ranges were within those found for these lingulides elsewhere. The mean length of S. nudus was 41 mm and the maximum weight was 1.6 g, which are small. No brachiopods were found at the sand-mud flat in 2013, nor enteropneusts at the sand flat in 2015. G. audebarti had a relatively stable presence, while G. albida almost vanished from the samples at the end of 2015. The spatial distributions of the three invertebrates were found aggregated at both intertidal flats. Strong ENSO warming events during 1983 and 2015, and red tides in 1985 may have influenced the abundances. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1311-1331. Epub 2016 September 01.

ResumenSon raros los reportes sobre las abundancias y concentraciones de metales en invertebrados estuarinos de la zona de entre-mareas del Pacífico Este Tropical. Los objetivos de este informe son el hacer accesibles datos sobre las abundancias (1984-1987, 49 fechas; 2013, 12 fechas) de sipuncúlidos, braquiópodos y hemicordados en una planicie arenoso-fangosa y sobre metales traza (1996, 2000) y abundancias (2015, 3 fechas) de sipuncúlidos y braquiópodos en una planicie arenosa en el estuario del Golfo de Nicoya (10o N-85o W). Barrenos (17.7 cm2) fueron recolectados en la planicie arenoso-fangosa y cuadrantes (0.2 m2) en la arenosa. Las planicies contrastaron en sus contenidos de arena (65 % vs 90 %) y de limo + arcilla (31.5 % vs 5.6 %). En la planicie arenoso-fangosa (1984-87: 1.83 m2) los sipuncúlidos estuvieron representados por 13 individuos, los braquiópodos por 129 y los hemicordados enteropneustos por 185, con densidades estimadas de: 5.7, 29, y 40 ind. /m2, respectivamente. Análisis de metales traza (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, y Pb) por Espectrometría de Absorción Atómica (AAS) fueron hechos en especímenes de Sipunculus nudus (Sipuncula) y Glottidia audebarti (Brachiopoda). Concentraciones máximas promedio en S. nudus fueron: para gusanos no-depurados, Fe (16.0 mg/g dw) > Mn (165 µg/g dw) > Zn (81 µg/g dw) > Cu (26 µg/g dw) > Cr (11 µg/g dw) > Ni (10.4 µg/g dw) > Pb (9.3 µg/g dw) > Cd (1.2 µg/g dw). Para gusanos depurados por 72 horas: Fe (5.0 mg/g dw) > Mn (61 µg/g dw) > Zn (39 µg/g dw) > Cu (24 µg/g dw) > Ni (8.4 µg/g dw) > Pb (2.7 µg/g dw) > Cd (0.62 µg/g dw). Para G. audebarti: Fe (1.6 mg/g dw-partes suaves) > Zn (123.5 µg/g dw-partes suaves) > Cu (31.4 µg/g dwpedículos) > Pb (21.0 µg/g dw-conchas) > Cd (5.2 µg/g dw-partes suaves) > Cr (4.7 µg/g dw-conchas). Para sedimentos; Fe (46 mg/g dw) > Mn (41.3 µg/g dw) > Zn (63 µg/g dw) > Cu (36.2 µg/g dw) > Cr (31.5 µg/g dw) > Pb (21.1 µg/g dw) > Ni (16.1 µg/g dw) > Cd (1.1 µg/g dw). Estas concentraciones fueron esperables para un estuario no industrializado. En la planicie arenosa (Area muestreada: 10.6 m2) 76 individuos de G. audebarti, 112 de G. albida y 366 de S. nudus fueron recolectados en el 2015, con densidades estimadas de: 7.1, 10.5, y 31 ind. /m2, respectivamente. Densidades de G. audebarti y G. albida fueron relativamente bajas, mientras que las de S. nudus fueron relativamente altas cuando se les comparó con otros reportes. La longitud de la concha de G. audebarti varió entre 9.0 mm y 38.0 mm y entre 6.0 mm a 29.0 mm la de G. albida. Estos ámbitos estuvieron dentro de los encontrados para estos lingúlidos en otros sitios. La longitud promedio de S. nudus fue 41 mm y el peso máximo fue de 1.6 g que son pequeños. En la planicie arenoso-fangosa no se encontró braquiópodos en el 2013, ni enteropneustos en la planicie arenosa en el 2015. G. audebarti tuvo una presencia relativamente estable, mientras que G. albida casi desapareció de las muestras al final del 2015. La distribución espacial de las tres especies fue de tipo agregado en ambas planicies. Fuertes eventos ENSO durante 1983 y 2015, así como mareas rojas en 1985, pueden haber influenciado las abundancias.

Animals , Chordata, Nonvertebrate/physiology , Estuaries , Invertebrates/physiology , Metals/analysis , Nematoda/physiology , Reference Values , Seasons , Seawater/chemistry , Species Specificity , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Pacific Ocean , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Population Density , Geologic Sediments , Costa Rica , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Animal Distribution
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(1): 33-47, jul. 2016. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-837852


El Río Matanza-Riachuelo y sus afluentes atraviesan zonas con diferente grado de contaminación generada por las actividades agrícola-ganaderas, urbana e industrial. Los contaminantes que llegan al agua y son depositados en los sedimentos pueden ser liberados nuevamente al agua generando efectos tóxicos y/o genotóxicos sobre los organismos acuáticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la genotoxicidad de muestras de sedimentos de la cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo obtenidas de zonas con diferentes usos del suelo. Se seleccionaron cuatro sitios de muestreo. Se utilizaron 2 métodos de extracción de contaminantes (agitación y sonicación), 2 solventes orgánicos (metanol y diclorometano) y 2 solventes inorgánicos (agua y solución ácida), obteniéndose un total de 5 extractos para cada muestra. Se realizaron mediciones de metales pesados e hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs) mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y CG/MS, respectivamente. La genotoxicidad se evaluó mediante el test de Ames con 2 cepas de Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 y TA100), con y sin fracción microsomal S9, y el test de Allium cepa. De los cuatro sitios estudiados, los sedimentos del Riachuelo mostraron mayores concentraciones de metales pesados y HAPs. Para el test de Ames, sólo los extractos obtenidos en diclorometano resultaron genotóxicos para la TA100 +S9 mix. Tanto los extractos inorgánicos como los orgánicos fueron citotóxicos y genotóxicos para A. cepa. Se observó una correlación negativa entre algunos compuestos HAPs y la frecuencia de micronúcleos, indicando la presencia de efectos antagónicos con otros compuestos genotóxicos. Los extractos con mayor efecto tóxico y genotóxico fueron los obtenidos con diclorometano y solución ácida. Este estudio mostró que los contaminantes orgánicos e inorgánicos extraídos de muestras de sedimento de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo, con diferente grado de impacto, presentan un potencial riesgo tóxico y genotóxico para el ecosistema acuático.

The Matanza-Riachuelo River and its tributaries traverse areas with different degrees of contamination due to farming, urban and industrial activities. The pollutants entering the water are deposited in sediments, and can be released back into the water producing toxic and/or genotoxic effects on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the genotoxicity of sediment samples from the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin with different land uses. Four sampling sites according to the characteristics of land use were selected. Two methods of extraction (stirring and sonication), two organic solvents (methanol and dichloromethane) and two inorganic solvents (water and acid solution) were used, yielding a total of 5 extracts for each sample. Measurements of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS, respectively were performed. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with 2 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) with and without S9 microsomal fraction, and the Allium cepa test. Taking into account the four sites, sediments from Riachuelo showed higher concentrations of heavy metals and PAHs. Only the dichloromethane extracts were genotoxic to the Ames test using the TA100 strain +S9 the mix. Both organic and inorganic extracts were cytotoxic and genotoxic to A. cepa. A negative correlation between some PAHs compounds and micronucleus frequency were observed, indicating the presence of antagonistic effects with other genotoxic compounds in samples. The extracts with high toxic and genotoxic effects were obtained with dichloromethane and acid solution. This study showed that organic and inorganic contaminants extracted from sediment samples from the Matanza-Riachuelo Basin, with varying degrees of impact, have potential toxic and genotoxic risk to the aquatic ecosystem.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/isolation & purification , Sediments/analysis , Metals, Heavy/isolation & purification , Genotoxicity , Spectrophotometry, Atomic/methods , River Pollution/analysis , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Mutagenicity Tests/methods
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 396-401, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781383


Abstract The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, “intelligent” collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test to compare the mean values (p<0.05). The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca).

Resumo A influência da sazonalidade e de métodos de produção de própolis por abelhas africanizadas Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, sobre a concentração de magnésio (Mg), zinco (Zn), ferro (Fe), sódio (Na), cálcio (Ca), cobre (Cu) e potássio (K) foram avaliados. 25 colmeias foram utilizadas, e a colheita de propolis ocorreu por raspagem ou a partir de coletores (tela, coletor de própolis “inteligente” – CPI, abertura lateral da melgueira – ALM e calço). Durante um ano a própolis foi colhida mensalmente, homogeneizada e armazenada em freezer a -10 ºC. A análise sazonal de minerais foi realizada por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica e os resultados avaliados por análise de variância (ANOVA) seguida do teste de Tukey-Kramer para comparação de médias (p<0,05). Os resultados demostraram que a sazonalidade afetou o conteúdo de cinco minerais (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca e Cu) e os métodos de coleta afetaram o conteúdo de quatro minerais (Mg, Zn, Fe e Ca).

Animals , Propolis/chemistry , Seasons , Bees , Minerals/analysis , Potassium/analysis , Sodium/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zinc/analysis , Calcium/analysis , Copper/analysis , Iron/analysis , Magnesium/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 76(1): 194-204, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-774517


Abstract In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g–1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg–1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= –0.70), Mn-Cu (r= –0.74), Se-Cu (r= –0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera.

Resumo Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as concentrações de elementos traço em tecidos da espécie de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei coletadas da zona costeira e de carciniculturas localizadas no nordeste do Brasil. Os elementos químicos foram determinados por espectrômetro de emissão óptica com plasma indutivamente acoplado (ICP OES). Foram encontradas as seguintes faixas de concentrações desses elementos nos tecidos (em mg g–1 peso seco): Al: 13,4-886,5; Cd: 0,93-1,80; Cu: 24,8-152; Fe: 3,2-4109; Mn: 0,36-24,4; Se: 0,094-9,81 and Zn: 20,3-109,4. O músculo do camarão investigado pode ser uma boa fonte de ferro (cerca de 88.9 mg-1g peso seco). A distribuição da concentração de Se nos tecidos apresentou muita variação entre as localidades, com níveis acima do estabelecido pela ANVISA para 67% dos musculos e 50% dos outros tecidos investigados, indicando evidências de bioacumulação do selênio. Houve correlações significativas entre os seguintes pares de elementos:: Fe-Zn (r= –0,70), Mn-Cu (r= –0,74), Se-Cu (r= –0,68), Se-Mn (r= 0,82) nos músculos, Fe-Al (r= 0,99), Mn-Al e Mn-Fe (r= 0,62), Se-Al (r = 0,88), Se-Fe (r= 0,87), Se-Mn (r= 0,58) no exoesqueleto e Cu-Zn (r = 068), Al-Cu (r= 0,88), Fe-Cu (r= 0,95) and Fe-Al (r= 0,97) nas vísceras.

Animals , Penaeidae/physiology , Trace Elements/metabolism , Aquaculture , Brazil , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Tissue Distribution
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (2): 615-621
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176399


The present study was designed to investigate the mineral content and antimicrobial activity of Curcuma Longa extracts and its essential oil. We also determined the lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of the ethanolic extract against sodium nitroprusside [SNP] induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species [TBARS] formation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates. Major constituents of essential oil identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry [GCMS] were beta-sesquiphellandrene [38.69%], alpha-curcumene [18.44%] and p-mentha-1,4 [8]-diene [16.29%]. Atomic absorption spectroscopy [AAS] was used for the quantitative estimation of Calcium [Ca], Magnesium [Mg], Iron [Fe], Copper [Cu], Zinc [Zn], Chromium [Cr], Nickel [Ni] and Manganese [Mn]. The extract showed highest Mg [49.4mg/l] concentration followed by Ca [35.42mg/l] and Fe [1.27mg/l]. Our data revealed that the ethanolic extract of Curcuma Longa at 1-10 mg/kg significantly inhibited TBARS production in all tested homogenates. Crude extracts and essential oil were tested against three gram positive bacteria i.e. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophoeus, Staphylococcus aureus, six gram negative bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonias, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia carotovora, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and one fungal strain namely Candida albicans by disc diffusion assay. Essential oil showed highest anti-microbial activity as compared to the crude extracts. The present study confirms the significant antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of the studied plant, which can be considered as a diet supplement for a variety of oxidative stress induced or infectious diseases

Animals, Laboratory , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents , Minerals , Plant Extracts , Oils, Volatile , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Lipid Peroxidation , Rats, Wistar
Vitae (Medellín) ; 23(1): 48-57, 2016. Ilustraciones
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988121


Antecedentes: La malnutrición es un problema tanto en países desarrollados como en desarrollo, y en Latinoamérica, una opción viable es reconsiderar las dietas precolombinas tradicionales basadas en las especies endémicas. En Mesoamérica el chile o chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) desempeñó una función esencial, y perdura en la gastronomía mexicana. Objetivo: evaluar la variación entre y dentro de cinco morfotipos de chile (C. annuum L.) nativo de Oaxaca, México, en relación al contenido de minerales en fruto. Métodos: Una colección de 45 muestras poblacionales de chile, agrupadas en cinco morfotipos, nominados como chile de Agua, Tabiche, Piquín, Solterito y Nanche, fueron sembradas en invernadero bajo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. A la cosecha se obtuvo una muestra de 300 a 500 g de frutos por población, a partir de la que se obtuvieron cenizas solubilizadas en medio ácido, y la determinación de Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, Na, K, y Ca se hizo por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, y S y P se cuantificó mediante un espectrofotómetro UV-visible. Resultados: En el análisis de varianza se determinaron diferencias significativas (P < 0,05) entre y dentro de morfotipos de C. annuum para todos los macro y microelementos evaluados. Solterito sobresalió en ocho elementos minerales, le siguen Piquín y de Agua. En contenido de Fe sobresalieron Piquín y Solterito con 8,0 y 8,5 mg/100 g de pesos seco de muestra. Dentro de cada morfotipo sobresalen diferentes poblaciones: CAG03 y CAG10 en chile de Agua; CNA02 de Nanche; CPI02 y CPI09 de Piquín; CSO01, CSO02 y CSO03 de Solterito; y CTA02 y CTA05 del tipo Tabiche. Las diferencias entre morfotipos se confirmaron mediante un análisis discriminante múltiple y las distancias de Mahalanobis. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran diferencias entre y dentro de morfotipos de C. annuum, y los valores del contenido de minerales reportados muestran que, el chile es un alimento con alto valor nutricional porque 100 g de peso seco potencialmente pueden suplir las necesidad diarias de Cu, Mg, P, y una proporción importante de Fe, Zn y K, entre otros elementos.

Background: Malnutrition is a major health problem in developed and developing countries, and in Latino American, a viable option is reconsider the pre-Columbian and traditional diets based on endemic species. In Mesoamerica, the chilli or pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) played an important role, and its contribution remain until today in the Mexican gastronomy. Objective: the aim of the present work was to evaluate the variation among and within five morphotypes of pepper (C. annuum L.) native of Oaxaca, Mexico, in relation to minerals content in fruits. Methods: a collection of 45 population samples of chilli pepper, which were grouped in five morphotypes named as chile de Agua, Tabiche, Piquin, Solterito and Nanche, and later planted in greenhouse conditions under a complete blocks randomized design with three replications. At harvest time a fruit samples from 300 to 500 g per population were obtained, and later the samples were incinerated to obtain ashes, which were solubilized in acid medium. The determinations of Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, Na, K, and Ca were done by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the S and P elements were quantified by an UV-vis spectrometer. Results: in the analysis of variance, significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined among and within morphotypes of C. annuum over all macro and trace elements. Solterito presented the highest values in eight mineral elements, after Piquin and chile de Agua were the second more important. In Fe content, Piquin and Solterito showed high values between 8.0 and 8.5 mg/100 g of dry sample weight. Into each morphotype, the outstanding populations were: CAG03 and CAG10 from chile de Agua; CNA02 of Nanche; CPI02 and CPI09 of Piquin type; CSO01, CSO02 and CSO03 from Solterito; and CTA02 and CTA05 from Tabiche type. The differences among morphotypes were confirmed in the multiple discriminant analysis and the Mahalanobis' distances. Conclusions: The results showed differences among and within morfotypes of C. annuum, and the minerals content reported indicate that, the chilli pepper is a food with high nutritional values. In fact 100 g of dry weight, potentially can supply the dairy needs of Cu, Mg, P and an important proportion of the needs of Fe, Zn and K, among other nutritional elements.

Humans , Capsicum , Minerals , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Trace Elements , Food Quality
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122523


Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure.

Acetylglucosaminidase/urine , Adult , Aged , Arsenic/urine , Bone Density , Cadmium/blood , Case-Control Studies , Chemical Industry , Creatinine/urine , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Female , Humans , Lead/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Regression Analysis , Republic of Korea , Spectrophotometry, Atomic