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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 142-146, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280056

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Currently there is a lack of clarity around the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to analyze the effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the secondary structures of skeletal muscle tissue protein subjected to exercise. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the spectral characteristics of the tibialis anterior muscle in rats subjected to exercise in a pool and to Cr supplementation. Methods: Experiment 1. First, an experiment was conducted to ensure that FT-IR would be able to detect change in the secondary structures of skeletal muscle tissue protein in the group of sedentary rats (SED) and in the group of rats that received creatine supplementation (CRE). Experiment 2. Next, the effect of physical exercise on the spectral characteristics of muscle tissue, especially when compared to the groups without exercise practice, was examined. Results: It was possible to verify that the peaks centered on 1658 cm-1 (amide I) and 1546 cm-1 (amide II) are characteristic spectra and indicated as markers of protein content. Conclusion: Thus, FT-IR spectroscopy proved to be able to monitor changes in secondary structures of skeletal muscle protein in both animals that received supplements and in those subjected to exercise and both cases reconciled. Furthermore, the FT-IR technique proved to be a viable method for the nondestructive evaluation of skeletal muscle protein structures. Level of evidence II, Investigation of treatment results.


RESUMEN Introducción: Actualmente, no hay claridad en lo que se refiere al uso de la técnica de espectroscopia de Infrarrojo con transformada de Fourier (FT-IR) para análisis del efecto de la suplementación de creatina (Cr) sobre las estructuras secundarias de la proteína del tejido muscular esquelético sometido a ejercicio. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características espectrales del músculo tibial anterior de ratones sometidos a ejercicio en piscina y a la suplementación con Cr. Métodos: Experimento 1. En primer lugar, fue realizada una experiencia para asegurar que la FT-IR sería capaz de detectar la variación en las estructuras secundarias de la proteína del tejido muscular esquelético en el grupo de ratones sedentarios (SED) y el grupo de ratones que sólo recibieron suplemento de creatina (CRE). Experimento 2. A continuación, fue examinado el efecto del ejercicio físico sobre las características espectrales del tejido muscular, especialmente cuando comparado con los grupos sin práctica de ejercicio. Resultados: Fue posible verificar que los picos centrados en 1658 cm−1 (amida I) y 1546 cm−1 (amida II) son espectros característicos e indicados como marcadores del tenor proteico. Conclusión: Siendo así, la técnica de espectroscopia de FT-IR mostró ser capaz de monitorizar las variaciones en las estructuras secundarias de la proteína del tejido muscular esquelético, tanto en animales que recibieron suplementos, como en los que fueron sometidos a ejercicio y ambos casos conciliados. Además, la técnica FT-IR probó ser un método viable para la evaluación no destructiva de las estructuras proteicas en el músculo esquelético. Nivel de evidencia II, Investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


RESUMO Introdução: Atualmente, não há clareza no que diz respeito ao uso da técnica de espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FT-IR) para análise do efeito da suplementação de creatina (Cr) sobre as estruturas secundárias da proteína do tecido muscular esquelético submetido a exercício. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características espectrais do músculo tibial anterior de ratos submetidos a exercício em piscina e à suplementação com Cr. Métodos: Experimento 1. Em primeiro lugar, foi realizada uma experiência para assegurar que a FT-IR seria capaz de detectar a variação nas estruturas secundárias da proteína do tecido muscular esquelético no grupo de ratos sedentários (SED) e no grupo de ratos que só receberam suplemento de creatina (CRE). Experimento 2. Em seguida, foi examinado o efeito do exercício físico sobre as características espectrais do tecido muscular, especialmente quando comparado com os grupos sem prática de exercício. Resultados: Foi possível verificar que os picos centrados em 1658 cm−1(amida I) e 1546 cm−1(amida II) são espectros característicos e indicados como marcadores do teor proteico. Conclusão: Assim sendo, a técnica de espectroscopia de FT-IR mostrou ser capaz de monitorar as variações nas estruturas secundárias da proteína do tecido muscular esquelético tanto em animais que receberam suplementos, quanto nos que foram submetidos a exercício e ambos os casos conciliados. Além disso, a técnica FT-IR provou ser um método viável para a avaliação não destrutiva de estruturas proteicas no músculo esquelético. Nível de evidência II, Investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Dietary Supplements , Creatinine/administration & dosage , Muscles , Muscles/drug effects , Muscles/chemistry , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Swimming , Rats, Wistar , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190276, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278448

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study focused on the use of pineapple plant stem, which is an agro-waste, for the production of starch (11.08 % ± 0.77). Characters were studied using X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological methods. The granular size of stem starch was comparatively smaller than corn starch granules. The X-ray diffraction data revealed that stem starch has an A-type crystal structure. The molecular structure was similar to those obtained for native starches, which is confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The gelatinization temperature was observed to be higher than corn starch and rheological studies revealed; stem starch is more viscous than corn starch. The purity analysis showed that the harmful heavy metals were in negligible quantity and the tested pesticides were absent. This could make this a good source of starch for food industries. Results revealed that this agro-waste has a high potential for the production of good quality starch.


Subject(s)
Ananas , Agribusiness , Resistant Starch , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 167-178, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104197

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and inhibitory activities of the ethanolic extracts of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) grown in Montenegro, Quindío, Colombia, in three stages of maturation, including the edible (pulp) and inedible parts (pericarp and peduncle). The alcoholic samples were phytochemically characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR); the antioxidant capacities were also evaluated by the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), in addition to the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and the total content of phenols and flavonoids. The tests detected phytochemical compounds such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and xanthones, to which the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of AChE presented, can be attributed. In conclusion, the inedible parts of mangosteen contain higher proportions of secondary metabolites, these being the most promising sources for industrial use.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de evaluar las actividades antioxidantes e inhibitoria de acetilcolinesterasa de los extractos etanólicos del mangostino (Garcinia mangostana L.) de Montenegro, Quíndio, Colombia, en tres estados de maduración, incluyendo las partes comestibles (pulpa) y no comestibles (pericarpio y pedúnculo). Las muestras alcohólicas fueron caracterizadas fitoquímicamente por Cromatografía de Capa Delgada (CCD), Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia (HPLC) y Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FT-IR); la capacidad antioxidante fue evaluada también por el método de captación del radical libre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo (DPPH• dejar el radical en superíndice) y la Capacidad de Absorción de Radicales de Oxígeno (ORAC), adicionalmente la actividad inhibitoria de la acetilcolinesterasa (AchE) y el contenido total de fenoles y flavonoides. Se detectaron compuestos fitoquímicos como fenoles, flavonoides, alcaloides, quinonas y xantonas, a quienes se les puede atribuir las actividades antioxidantes y de inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa. En conclusión, las partes no comestibles del mangostino contienen una mayor proporción de metabolitos secundarios, siendo las fuentes más promisorias para uso industrial.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Colombia , Clusiaceae , Ethanol , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
5.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-9, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1121858

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study evaluates the shear bond strength (SBS) and Vickers micro-hardness (VHN) of the orthodontic adhesive resin Transbond XT using thermocycled samples. The study also measures the degree of cure by poliwave light curing unit Valo. Materials and Methods: 135 brackets were bonded for the SBS test, and 90 disc-shaped orthodontic adhesive resins were prepared for the VHN test. The measurements were taken either immediately or after 500 or 10.0000 thermocycling. The SBS and VHN test data were statistically evaluated using a Two-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests. The degree of conversion (DC) was measured by FTIR. Results: The 10-sec polymerized control group (57.08) and the 10.000 termocycled samples (55.96) had the highest VHN scores. On the other hand, the 3 second polymerized and the 10.000 termocycled samples (39.22) had the lowest VHN scores. There was no significant difference in the bracket SBS values between the termocycled and immediate groups. An evaluation of the bond failure surfaces revealed that the ARI scores did not differ between the immediate and the thermo-cycled groups according to the power modes. The FTIR results revealed that the lowest DC was seen in the 3 second light-cured sample. Conclusion: TransbondXT provided sufficient bond strength, microhardness and DC under in vitro bracket bonding conditions after 3 and 10 s of Poliwave LED curing. However, low mean values were seen in the groups that received Poliwave LED curing for only 3 s (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo avalia a resistência ao cisalhamento (SBS) e a microdureza Vickers (VHN) da resina adesiva ortodôntica Transbond XT utilizando amostras termocicladas. O estudo também mede o grau de cura pela unidade de fotopolimerização Valo poliwave. Materiais e Métodos: 135 braquetes foram colados para o teste SBS e 90 discos de resina adesiva ortodôntica foram preparados para o teste VHN. As medições foram feitas imediatamente ou após 500 ou 10.000 ciclos de termociclagem. Os dados dos testes SBS e VHN foram avaliados estatisticamente usando ANOVA 2 fatores e teste de comparação múltipla de Tukey. O grau de conversão (DC) foi medido por FTIR. Resultados: O grupo controle polimerizado por 10segundos (57,08) ciclados por 10.000 ciclos (55,96) tiveram os valores VHN mais altos. Por outro lado, as amostras polimerizadas de 3 segundos e 10.000 ciclos (39,22) os valores de VHN mais baixos. Não houve diferença significativa nos valores de SBS do braquete entre os grupos termociclados e imediato. Uma avaliação das superfícies de falha de adesão revelou que os escores do ARI não diferiram entre os grupos imediato e termociclados de acordo com as densidades de potência. Os resultados do FTIR revelaram que o menor DC foi observado nas amostras fotopolimerizadas de 3 segundos. Conclusão: Transbond XT forneceu suficiente resistência de união, microdureza e DC sob condições de colagem de braquetes in vitro após 3 e 10 s de polimerização em LED Poliwave. No entanto, valores médios baixos foram observados nos grupos que receberam a cura do LED Poliwave por apenas 3 s (AU)


Subject(s)
Orthodontics , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Shear Strength , Lasers, Semiconductor
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine diametral tensile strength and water absorption ability of Carbonate-apatite blocks fabricated from gypsum precursors (CaSO4) through a dissolution-precipitation method, with different solution molarities and immersion times. Material and Methods: Thirty-six CaSO4 gypsum specimens with 6 mm diameter; 3 mm height (Group A for diametral tensile strength) and 36 specimens of 6 mm diameter; 3 mm thickness (Group B for water absorption ability) were used. Each group was divided into 4 group treatments of: 1) dissolution-precipitation in solution of 0.5mol / L Na2CO3 + 0.5mol / L Na3PO4 for 48 hours and 72 hours; 1mol / L Na2CO3 + 1mol / L Na3PO4 for 48 hours and 72 hours. The C-Ap blocks were then tested using ATR-FTIR spectrometer to identify the formation of C-Ap functional groups. Furthermore, Group A specimens were tested for diametral tensile strength using Universal Testing Machine, and Group B specimens were tested for water adsorption ability using an analytical balance by measuring initial and final weight after immersion in saline solution at 37oC for 24 hours. Results: The formation of carbonate-apatite (C-Ap) in groups with solution molarity of 1 mol/L for 48 hours and 72 hours resulted in a lower diametral tensile strength and water absorption ability than the groups with a 0.5 mol/L solution. Conclusion: Solution with different molarities and dissolution-precipitation duration affect the formation of carbonate-apatite blocks.


Subject(s)
Tensile Strength , Calcium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Adsorption , Dental Materials , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101284

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the cytotoxicity, surface morphology, elemental compositions and chemical characterization of two commonly used luting cement. Material and Methods: The two luting types of cement used were Elite Cement® and Hy-Bond Resiglass®. Freshly mixed (n=6) and set form (n=6) of each cement was placed in medium to obtain extracts. The extract from each sample was exposed to L929 mouse fibroblasts (1x104cells/well). Alamar Blue Assay assessed cell viability. Surface morphology and elemental composition were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The chemical characterization was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey analysis were conducted to assess results. Results: Hy-Bond Resiglass® was the more cytotoxic of the two types of cement in both freshly mixed (68.10 +5.16; p<0.05) and set state (87.58 +4.86; p<0.05), compared to Elite Cement® both freshly mixed (77.01 +5.45; p<0.05) and set state (89.39 +5.66; p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a more irregular and porous structure in Hy-Bond Resiglass® compared to Elite Cement®. Similarly, intense peaks of aluminium, tungsten and fluorine were observed in energy dispersive spectroscopy in Hy-Bond Resiglass. Conclusion: All these three elements (aluminium, tungsten and fluorine) have cytotoxic potential. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyethyl methacrylate in Hy-Bond Resiglass®, which has a cytotoxic potential.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Zinc Phosphate Cement , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Dental Cements , Fibroblasts , Pakistan , Rats , Spectrum Analysis , Tungsten , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
8.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190003, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132227

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autologous fibrin matrices derived from the Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) and Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) techniques present great potential to act as a bioactive scaffold in regenerative medicine, contributing to the maintenance of cell viability, proliferation stimulus and differentiation. In contrast, there are few studies that characterize the bioactive potential of these fibrin scaffolds by considering the process of production. The objective of this work was to characterize the intrinsic potential of maintaining cell viability of different fibrin scaffolds containing platelets and leukocytes. In order to achieve that, blood samples from a volunteer were collected and processed to obtain fibrin clots using the suggested techniques. To characterize the potential for in vitro viability, mesenchymal stem cells from human infrapatellar fat were used. The scaffolds were cellularized (1x105 cells/scaffolds) and maintained for 5 and 10 days under culture conditions with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, without addition of fetal bovine serum, and subsequently subjected to analyses by Fourrier transform infra-red spectroscopy, circular dichroism and fluorescence microscopy. The results demonstrated distinct intrinsic potential viability between the scaffolds, and L-PRP was responsible for promoting higher levels of viability in both periods of analysis. No viable cells were identified in the fibrin matrix used as controls. These results allow us to conclude that both fibrin substrates have presented intrinsic potential for maintaining cell viability, with superior potential exhibited by L-PRP scaffold, and represent promising alternatives for use as bioactive supports in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Adipose Tissue/cytology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Platelet-Rich Plasma/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Platelet-Rich Fibrin/cytology , Cell Survival , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tissue Scaffolds , Flow Cytometry
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18784, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249176

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial activity and good mechanical properties are some of the characteristics required for an appropriate film dressing. A novel polymer blend was developed for wound healing application. Twenty-four formulations using the polymers chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and/or ɛ-Polylysine and the plasticizer glycerol were designed using factorial design and then the films were prepared by the casting/solvent evaporation method. Seventeen films were obtained among the twenty-four proposed formulations that were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Mechanical properties, such as tensile strength (σ), elongation at break (ɛ) and Young's modulus (Y) as well as antibacterial properties were determined. The best candidate was then further analyzed with regard to porosity, Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR), swelling and cytotoxicity experiments. The results showed a film with semi-occlusive characteristics, good mechanical properties and no toxic. Incorporation of ɛ-Polylysine increased antibacterial activity against gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria


Subject(s)
Bandages , Chitosan/pharmacology , Polylysine/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Glycerol/pharmacology
10.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e053, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132666

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective was to evaluate the compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength (FS), and Knoop microhardness (KH) of different conventional restorative glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and to correlate these mechanical properties (MP) with the stabilization time (ST) of their chemical bonds. Eighteen GICs were tested: Bioglass [B], Chemfil Rock [CR], Equia Forte [EF], Gold Label 2 [GL2], Gold Label 9 [GL9], Glass Ionomer Cement II [GI], Ionglass [IG], Ion Z[ IZ], Ionomaster [IM], Ionofil Plus [IP], Ionostar Plus [IS], Ketac Molar Easymix [KM], Magic Glass [MG], Maxxion R [Ma], Riva Self Cure [R], Vidrion R [V], Vitro Fil [VF] and Vitro Molar [VM]. The mechanical strength tests were performed in a universal testing machine. KH readings were done with a diamond indenter. STs were examined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). The Spearman rank test was used to evaluate the dependence between the MPs and ST results. The highest MP values were EF, GL2, GL9, GI and KM and the lowest for MG, MA, B, VF and IM. The longest ST was for GL2 and the shortest was for B. ST correlated positively with MP. GICs with longer chemical bonds ST are generally stronger and the ST value obtained from FTIR was useful in predicting the strength of GICs tested.


Subject(s)
Self-Curing of Dental Resins/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Compressive Strength , Flexural Strength , Hardness Tests
11.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18575, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285517

ABSTRACT

Buccal route of administration has many advantages such as improving patient compliance, bypassing the GIT and hepatic first pass effect. The objectives are to formulate mucoadhesive buccal tablet using Mefenamic acid and compatible excipients, and to evaluate the product using quality control tests and in vitro tests. The ingredients were subjected to Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy studies for compatibility test and the results showed no interaction. Two batches of mefenamic buccal tablet were prepared. The tablet thickness and diameter are 3.75 mm and 12 mm respectively. All tablets are within the specification of +/- 5%. The in-house tablet hardness is 6.8-15kg and percent friabilation is not more than 0.8%. The disintegration test showed that all tablets disintegrated within 4 hours. The content uniformity showed that tablets are within the range of 85%-115%. The tablet weight is within the 5% range. The percent swelling is 53.83% to 58.86% and moisture absorption is 14.79% to 15.56%. The surface pH of the tablet is close to the salivary pH, which means that it would not irritate the buccal mucosa. The buccal tablet has a mucoadhesiveness of 0.196 to 0.200. There was no change in pH and size after subjecting it to stability studies in human saliva. Drug release studies showed 80.7% to 83.4% after 3 hours. Even after 3 months of subjecting the tablets to 40 ºC and 75% RH, results are within acceptable range. The results show the potential of the formulation as a mucoadhesive buccal tablet.


Subject(s)
Mefenamic Acid/analysis , Mouthwashes/analysis , Quality Control , Tablets/pharmacology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190181, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Shochu is the most widely consumed spirit in Japan. In its manufacture is used koji, a solid fungus culture traditional of the Asian countries, but that makes the production process slow. Shochu can be produced from a variety of starchy sources, including sweet potato. About 7% of the world's sweet potato production is wasted due to imperfections that make it unsuitable for consumption. However, this material can be used in ethanol production. Considering the high productivity of sweet potato in Brazil, an opportunity to add value to this raw material is perceived. An alternative process for the production of sweet potato distillate similar to shochu was proposed. Koji was replaced by a mixture of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. Process time was reduced from 14 to only 1 day. Composition analyses were performed by HPLC and GC. The experimental yield of alcoholic fermentation using pectinase enzyme reached 67.31-73.65%, but methanol was above the limits of the legislation. Without the addition of pectinase, no methanol was formed. However, there was a decrease in yield (51.65-54.75%), due to the incomplete disintegration of sweet potatoes. The distillate produced and the commercial shochu presented the same absorption bands in FTIR analysis, identifying the similarity between them.


Subject(s)
Distillation/methods , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Alcoholic Beverages , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Chemical Phenomena , Fermentation
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190039, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1090769

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the physical properties and antifungal activities of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic resins after the incorporation of chlorhexidine diacetate salt (CDA). Methodology: First, acrylic resin specimens were fabricated with Vipi Cor® and DuraLay® resins with and without the incorporation of 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% CDA. The residual monomer and CDA release were measured at intervals ranging from 2 hours to 28 days using ultraviolet spectrometry combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity against C. albicans was evaluated with the agar diffusion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the degree of resin conversion. Finally, the water sorption values of the resins were also measured. Results: The incorporated CDA concentration significantly changed the rate of CDA release (p<0.0001); however, the brand of the material appeared to have no significant influence on drug release. Subsequently, the inhibition zones were compared between the tested groups and within the same brand, and only the comparisons between the CDA 2% and CDA 1% groups and between the CDA 1% and CDA 0.5% groups failed to yield significant differences. Regarding the degrees of conversion, the differences were not significant and were lower only in the CDA 2% groups. Water sorption was significantly increased at the 1.0% and 2.0% concentrations. Conclusions: We concluded that the incorporation of CDA into PMMA-based resins enabled the inhibition of C. albicans growth rate, did not alter the degrees of conversion of the tested resins and did not change the release of residual monomers.


Subject(s)
Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Reference Values , Time Factors , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Materials Testing , Candida albicans/drug effects , Water/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Polymethyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190499, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101251

ABSTRACT

Abstract Enzymatic degradation of the hybrid layer can be accelerated by the activation of dentin metalloproteinases (MMP) during the bonding procedure. MMP inhibitors may be used to contain this process. Objective To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC%), dentin bond strength (µTBS) (immediate and after 1 year of storage in water), and nanoleakage of an experimental (EXP) and a commercial (SB) adhesive system, containing different concentrations of the MMP inhibitor GM1489: 0, 1 µM, 5 µM and 10 µM. Methodology DC% was evaluated by FT-IR spectroscopy. Dentin bond strength was evaluated by µTBS test. Half of beams were submitted to the µTBS test after 24 h and the other half, after storage for 1 year. From each tooth and storage time, 2 beams were reserved for nanoleakage testing. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test to compare means (α=0.05). Results All adhesive systems maintained the µTBS after 1 year of storage. Groups with higher concentrations of inhibitor (5 µM and 10 µM) showed higher µTBS values than groups without inhibitor or with 1 µM. The nanoleakage values of all groups showed no increase after 1 year of storage and values were similar for SB and EXP groups, in both storage periods. The inhibitor did not affect the DC% of the EXP groups, but the SB5 and SB10 groups showed higher DC% values than those of SB0 and SB1. Conclusions The incorporation of GM1489 in the adhesive systems had no detrimental effect on DC%. The concentrations of 5 µM GM1489 for SB and 5 µM or 10 µM for EXP provided higher μTBS than groups without GM1489, in the evaluation after 1 year of storage; whereas the concentration of inhibitor did not affect adhesive systems nanoleakage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dentin/chemistry , Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Dental Bonding/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Leakage , Dentin/drug effects , Dental Etching/methods
15.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2): 1-6, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1096283

ABSTRACT

Objective: Degree of Conversion (DC) of ResinBased composites (RBCs) is a concern and is affected by different factors. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different thicknesses and storage times on DC of bulk-fill and universal RBCs using the FTIR method. Material and Methods: For each of dental composite (Tetric N- Ceram Bulk Fill and Tetric N Ceram), 28 samples were prepared (14 samples with 2 mm height and 14 samples with 4 mm height). One and seven days (1d and 7d) after storage in an incubator at 37 ˚C, DC was measured and recorded using a FTIR device. Data were analyzed using t-test and ThreeWay ANOVA and Tukey Post-Hoc Test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: DC of Bulk-fill composite is greater than universal composite. DC at 2 mm thickness is more than 4 mm. Unlike universal composite, 7d DC of Bulkfill composite is greater than 1d. Of course, none of these differences are statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). Conclusion: Considering the limitation of this study, since no difference was found between DC of 1d and 7d, 1d DC is sufficient for clinical procedures, such as polishing, and the laboratory tests. (AU)


Objetivo: O grau de conversão (DC) de compósitos à base de resina (RBCs) é um assunto que merece cuidado e é afetado por diferentes fatores. Este estudo foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito de diferentes espessuras e tempos de armazenamento no DC de compósitos Bulk-fill e compósitos universais usando o método FTIR. Material e Métodos: Para cada compósito dentário (Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill e Tetric N Ceram), foram preparadas 28 amostras (14 amostras com 2 mm de altura e 14 amostras com 4 mm de altura). Um e sete dias (1d e 7d) após o armazenamento em uma incubadora a 37 ° C, o DC foi mensurado e registrado usando um dispositivo FTIR. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste t, ANOVA três fatores e teste PostHoc de Tukey. P 0,05). Conclusão: Considerando a limitação deste estudo, uma vez que não foi encontrada diferença entre as DC de 1d e 7d, a 1d DC é suficiente para procedimentos clínicos, como polimento e testes laboratoriais. (AU)


Subject(s)
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Composite Resins
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1234-1244, Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040118

ABSTRACT

La cicatrización de la piel es un proceso complejo y organizado que involucra tres fases: inflamatoria, proliferativa y de remodelación. Es indispensable el análisis de este proceso biomolecularmente para investigar y proponer nuevas estrategias terapéuticas que mejoren la cicatrización o promuevan la regeneración. El objetivo de este proyecto fue analizar histológica y biomolecularmente mediante microespectroscopía infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (MFTIR) y su función de mapeo bioquímico, muestras de lesiones excisionales de piel, comparando los cambios morfológicos y espectroscópicos entre piel sana y piel cicatrizada. Se estandarizó un modelo de lesión excisional de piel en ratones hembra de la cepa NIH de 8 semanas de edad (n=16), provocando una herida excisional de 1 cm2. Se analizó piel sana (día 0) y cicatrizada (día 15 post-lesión) morfométrica, histológica y biomolecularmente mediante análisis fotográfico, técnica histológica y MFTIR con su función de mapeo. El análisis morfométrico demostró una reducción del área de la herida en un 87,6 % al día 15 post-lesión. Histológicamente, en la piel cicatrizada se evidenció un adelgazamiento de la epidermis y menor celularidad en la dermis, observándose la formación de tejido de granulación y fibras de colágena desorganizadas. Espectroscópicamente, se apreciaron cambios entre los dos grupos de estudio, principalmente en las bandas de lípidos y en la región de proteínas. El cálculo de las áreas bajo la curva y el mapeo bioquímico mostraron menor concentración de queratina y colágena en la piel cicatrizada, así como desorganización de las fibras de colágena. Se demostró la capacidad de la MFTIR para caracterizar de forma precisa los cambios biomoleculares en la cicatrización, entre ellos la cantidad de queratina, colágena, y el depósito y ordenamiento de las fibras de colágena asociadas a su maduración.


The skin cicatrization is a complex and organized process that involves three phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. It is essential to analyze this process biomolecularly, in order to investigate and propose new therapeutic strategies that improve the healing or promote regeneration. The objective of this project was to analyze histological and biomolecularly through Fourier Transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) and its biochemical mapping function, samples of an excisional skin wound, comparing the morphological and spectroscopic changes between healthy skin and scarred skin. An excisional skin wound healing model was standardized using female, NIH strain 8-week-old mice (n = 16), provoking an excisional wound of 1 cm2. Healthy skin (day 0) and scarring skin (day 15 post-injury) were morphometrical, histological, and biomolecularly analyzed by digital picture analysis, histological technique, and FTIRM with its mapping function. The morphometric analysis showed a reduction of the wound area of 87.6 % at day 15 after wound. Histologically, in the scarred skin a thinning of the epidermis was evidenced, besides reduced cellularity in the dermis, granulation tissue formation, and disorganized collagen fibers were observed. Spectroscopically, changes between the study groups were appreciated, mainly in the lipid bands and in the protein region. The calculation of the areas under the curve and the biochemical mapping showed a lower concentration of keratin and collagen in the scarred skin, as well as collagen fibers disorganization. The ability of the FTIRM to accurately characterize biomolecular changes in cicatrization process was demonstrated, such as the amount of keratin, collagen, and the deposition and ordering of the collagen fibers associated with their maturation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Skin/injuries , Wound Healing/physiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Skin/pathology , Skin Physiological Phenomena , Disease Models, Animal
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(5): 437-445, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039147

ABSTRACT

Abstract The symptoms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often not specific or absent in the early stages of this illness. Therefore, there is a demand for developing low cost, non-invasive and highly accurate platforms for CKD diagnostics. We hypothesized that the level of specifics salivary components changes when CKD is emplace, which could be clinically used to discriminate CKD patients from healthy subjects. The present study aimed to compare salivary components between CKD patients and matched control subjects by using attenuated total reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The predictive power of salivary components was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Several components were identified, and 4 of them showed different expression (p<0.05) between CKD and control subjects. Thiocyanate (SCN-, 2052 cm-1) and phospholipids/carbohydrates (924 cm-1) vibrational modes using original and second-derivative spectra by ATR-FTIR could potentially be used as salivary biomarkers to differentiate CKD than control subjects. The combination of original and second-derivative spectra by ATR-FTIR of 924 cm-1 vibrational modes could reach 92.8% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity for CKD detection. Despite, the limitation of our investigation, the acquired data indicates that salivary vibrational modes by ATR-FTIR platform should be further explored as an auxiliary diagnostic tool for CKD.


Resumo Os sintomas da doença renal crônica (DRC) são frequentemente inespecíficos ou ausentes nos estágios iniciais desta doença. Desta forma, existe uma demanda para o desenvolvimento de plataformas com baixo custo, não-invasivas e com alta acurácia para o diagnóstico da DRC. Nós hipotetizamos que o nível dos componentes salivares se alteram pela DRC, o que pode ser clinicamente utilizado para discriminar pacientes portadores de DRC de indivíduos controles. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar componentes salivares entre pacientes portadores de DRC e sujeitos controles utilizando um sistema de reflectância total atenuada com espectroscopia infravermelho com transformada em Fourier (ATR-FTIR). O poder preditivo dos componentes salivares foi avaliado pela curva característica de operação do receptor (ROC). Diversos componentes salivares foram identificados e 4 destes apresentaram diferença na expressão (p<0,05) entre DRC e sujeitos controles. O modos vibracionais do tiocianato (2052 cm-1) e de fosfolipídeos/carbohidratos (924 cm-1) utilizando espectros originais e da segunda-derivada pelo ATR-FTIR podem potencialmente ser utilizados como biomarcadores salivares para discriminar a DRC de sujeitos controles. A combinação dos espectros originais e da segunda-derivada pelo ATR-FTIR do modo vibracional 924 cm-1 pode apresentar sensibilidade de 92.8% e especificidade de 85.7% para a detecção da DRC. Este estudo indicou que modos vibracionais da saliva pela plataforma ATR-FTIR podem ser uma ferramenta auxiliar no diagnóstico da DRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Saliva , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
18.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 19-23, ago. 9, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141501

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and topographical changes in the intaglio zirconia surface induced by chemical conditioning solutions using FTIR and SEM analysis. Material and method: twelve plates for each FTIR and SEM tests from each zirconia materials (UPCERA HT White, BruxZir® Solid Zirconia, and Copran® Multilayer), milled by a Yenadent CAD/CAM system, sintered and divided randomly into a three groups. A different surface conditioning was applied to the intaglio surface of each group: 30% hydrogen peroxide, 30% citric acid and control group. Result and discussion: by using of the FTIR spectroscopy, an evidence of new bands formation appeared at 1637cm-1 and 3352cm-1 due to the high oxidizing effect of hydrogen peroxide, and at 630cm-1 and 1663cm-1 due to the chelating action of citric acid, and simultaneously, SEM assessment of the surface topography took place, to identify lines, scratches, or surface dissociation that appeared on the intaglio zirconia surface after conditioning. Conclusion: such analysis provides an enhancement of new convenient, less expensive, reliable trials to improve micro-bond strength of luting cement to Y-TZP ceramics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Resins, Synthetic , Zirconium/analysis , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Dental Cements , Hydrogen Peroxide
19.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(supl.1): 24-27, ago. 9, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141502

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the effect of copolymerization on the microbiota of the oral cavity. The plant extraction was converted into aromatic derivatives, which were added to methyl methacrylate monomer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra showed no negative effects of these additives on the polymerization process. All the assayed derivatives displayed some degree of antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Eugenol/analysis , Denture Bases , Microbiota , Resins, Synthetic , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Polymerization , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 1-9, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. However, the neuroprotective effects of microalgal biomass have not been fully explored. In this study, biomass from two Chlorella species was characterized, and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-amyloidogenic activities were investigated. RESULTS: GC­MS analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of some phenols, sterols, steroids, fatty acids and terpenes. Ethanol extract of Chlorella sorokiniana (14.21 mg GAE/g) and dichloromethane extract of Chlorella minutissima (20.65 mg QE/g) had the highest total phenol and flavonoid contents, respectively. All the extracts scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl radicals. The highest metal chelating activity of the extracts was observed in the ethanol extracts of C. minutissima (102.60 µg/mL) and C. sorokiniana (107.84 µg/mL). Furthermore, the cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the extracts showed that ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana (13.34 µg/mL) exhibited the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, while dichloromethane extract of C. minutissima (11.78 µg/mL) showed the highest butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Incubation of the ß-amyloid protein increased the aggregation of amyloid fibrils after 96 h. However, ethanol extract of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima inhibited further aggregation of Aß1­42 and caused disaggregation of matured protein fibrils compared to the control. This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease.


Subject(s)
Chlorella/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Steroids/analysis , Sterols/analysis , Terpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Neuroprotective Agents , Biomass , Ethanol , Fatty Acids/analysis , Microalgae , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Amyloid/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antioxidants/chemistry
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