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Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190276, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278448


Abstract The present study focused on the use of pineapple plant stem, which is an agro-waste, for the production of starch (11.08 % ± 0.77). Characters were studied using X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological methods. The granular size of stem starch was comparatively smaller than corn starch granules. The X-ray diffraction data revealed that stem starch has an A-type crystal structure. The molecular structure was similar to those obtained for native starches, which is confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The gelatinization temperature was observed to be higher than corn starch and rheological studies revealed; stem starch is more viscous than corn starch. The purity analysis showed that the harmful heavy metals were in negligible quantity and the tested pesticides were absent. This could make this a good source of starch for food industries. Results revealed that this agro-waste has a high potential for the production of good quality starch.

Ananas , Agribusiness , Resistant Starch , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135520


Abstract Objective: To determine diametral tensile strength and water absorption ability of Carbonate-apatite blocks fabricated from gypsum precursors (CaSO4) through a dissolution-precipitation method, with different solution molarities and immersion times. Material and Methods: Thirty-six CaSO4 gypsum specimens with 6 mm diameter; 3 mm height (Group A for diametral tensile strength) and 36 specimens of 6 mm diameter; 3 mm thickness (Group B for water absorption ability) were used. Each group was divided into 4 group treatments of: 1) dissolution-precipitation in solution of 0.5mol / L Na2CO3 + 0.5mol / L Na3PO4 for 48 hours and 72 hours; 1mol / L Na2CO3 + 1mol / L Na3PO4 for 48 hours and 72 hours. The C-Ap blocks were then tested using ATR-FTIR spectrometer to identify the formation of C-Ap functional groups. Furthermore, Group A specimens were tested for diametral tensile strength using Universal Testing Machine, and Group B specimens were tested for water adsorption ability using an analytical balance by measuring initial and final weight after immersion in saline solution at 37oC for 24 hours. Results: The formation of carbonate-apatite (C-Ap) in groups with solution molarity of 1 mol/L for 48 hours and 72 hours resulted in a lower diametral tensile strength and water absorption ability than the groups with a 0.5 mol/L solution. Conclusion: Solution with different molarities and dissolution-precipitation duration affect the formation of carbonate-apatite blocks.

Tensile Strength , Calcium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Adsorption , Dental Materials , Analysis of Variance , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Indonesia/epidemiology
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 109 p. ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007572


A qualidade microbiológica de medicamentos é fundamental para garantir sua eficácia e segurança. Os métodos convencionais para identificação microbiana em produtos não estéreis são amplamente utilizados, entretanto são demorados e trabalhosos. O objetivo deste trabalho é desenvolver método microbiológico rápido (MMR) para a identificação de contaminantes em produtos farmacêuticos utilizando a espectrofotometria de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier com reflectância total atenuada (FTIR-ATR). Análise de componentes principais (PCA) e análise de discriminantes (LDA) foram utilizadas para obter um modelo de predição com a capacidade de diferenciar o crescimento de oriundo de contaminação por Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 8459), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 10240), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) e Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228). Os espectros de FTIR-ATR forneceram informações quanto à composição de proteínas, DNA/RNA, lipídeos e carboidratos provenientes do crescimento microbiano. As identificações microbianas fornecidas pelo modelo PCA/LDA baseado no método FTIR-ATR foram compatíveis com aquelas obtidas pelos métodos microbiológicos convencionais. O método de identificação microbiana rápida por FTIR-ATR foi validado quanto à sensibilidade (93,5%), especificidade (83,3%) e limite de detecção (17-23 UFC/mL de amostra). Portanto, o MMR proposto neste trabalho pode ser usado para fornecer uma identificação rápida de contaminantes microbianos em produtos farmacêuticos

Microbiological quality of pharmaceuticals is fundamental in ensuring efficacy and safety of medicines. Conventional methods for microbial identification in non-sterile drugs are widely used, however are time-consuming and laborious. The aim of this paper was to develop a rapid microbiological method (RMM) for identification of contaminants in pharmaceutical products using Fourier transform infrared with attenuated total reflectance spectrometry (FTIR-ATR). Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to obtain a predictive model with capable to distinguish Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 8459), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 10240), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) microbial growth. FTIR-ATR spectra provide information of protein, DNA/RNA, lipids, and carbohydrates constitution of microbial growth. Microbial identification provided by PCA/LDA based on FTIR-ATR method were compatible to those obtained using conventional microbiological methods. FTIR-ATR method for rapid identification of microbial contaminants in pharmaceutical products was validated by assessing the sensitivity (93.5%), specificity (83.3%), and limit of detection (17-23 CFU/mL of sample). Therefore, the RMM proposed in this work may be used to provide a rapid identification of microbial contaminants in pharmaceutical products

Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Discriminant Analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180266, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055379


Abstract Phytochemical content of plant extracts can be used effectively to reduce the metal ions to nanoparticles in one-step green synthesis process. In this study, six plant extracts were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biologically synthesized AgNPs was characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The individual and combined effects of AgNPs and tetracycline against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae were assessed. Ginger, onion and sidr extracts supported AgNPs formation while arak, garlic and mint extracts failed to convert the silver ions to AgNPs. The present findings revealed significant differences between the tested plant extracts in supporting AgNPs synthesis. AgNPs synthesized by ginger showed the highest individual and combined activity against tested strains followed by AgNPs prepared by sidr then that synthesized by onion. AgNPs significantly enhanced tetracycline activity (p≤0.05) against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae. The results of this study demonstrated that the combination of tetracycline and biologically synthesized AgNPs presented a useful therapeutically method for the treatment of bacterial infection and counterattacking bacterial resistance.

Silver/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Tetracycline/biosynthesis , Plant Extracts/biosynthesis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Spectrophotometers/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17228, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001591


In the current work, a sustained drug delivery system of flutamide (FLT) was developed using Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) decorated bypoly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted prazosin (PLGA-PEG-Praz) as a targeting moiety. In a multi-step reaction, PLGA was linked to PEG and prazosin. The structure of the synthesized polymers was confirmed by FTIR and 1H-NMR. Flutamide-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion technique. The nanoparticles were evaluated for size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug crystallinity, loading efficiency, and release properties. Also, the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and Powder X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The particle size of nanoparticles was ranged between 191 and 249 nm. Loading efficiency of nanoparticles was about 43%-69%. Results showed a steady release rate for nanoparticles compared to that of a pure drug powder. SEM characterization confirmed that particles were in nanosize range. DSC and XRPD results verified a decrease in drug crystallinity in the prepared formulations. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that PLGA-PEG-Praz nanoparticles could be a good choice to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug and these formulations can increase Flutamide efficacy.

Prazosin/analysis , Nanoparticles , Flutamide/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/physiopathology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 99p ilus, graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876413


A busca contínua por tecnologias de esterilização a baixa temperatura deve-se à necessidade de adequação dos agentes esterilizantes às características físicoquímicas dos produtos, à conveniência de maior rapidez no processamento, além dos apelos ambientais, em comparação, por exemplo, com o método de esterilização por óxido de etileno. Desta forma surgiu interesse pelo ozônio (O3), o qual pode ser considerado o mais potente germicida natural que existe, sendo capaz de eliminar microrganimos (na forma vegetativa e esporulada) com alta eficiência e rapidez, graças a sua atividade altamente oxidante. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo proceder estudos para a determinação de parâmetros para o processo de esterilização empregando ozônio, além de avaliar a eficácia do agente esterilizante em questão. O processo de esterilização foi desafiado com esporos de Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 o qual se caracteriza frente as mesmas com elevada resistência. A eficácia esterilizante do ozônio foi avaliada através de carreadores inoculados com 106 do esporo, introduzidos em seringas de 3 mL e tubos com diferentes comprimentos e diâmetros, simulando produtos médico hospitalares. Tais dispositivos foram submetidos a meio ciclo e ciclo completo do processo de esterilização por ozônio. A validação do processo foi comprovada através dos resultados satisfatórios para meio ciclo, obtidos com os testes efetuados. Desta forma, foi possível constatar a eficácia do processo de esterilização por ozônio. Adicionalmente, foram objeto de investigação materiais termossensíveis distintos obtidos de produtos médico-hospitalares, a fim de estudar a influência do ozônio sobre as características intrínsecas desses materiais. As amostras foram submetidas ao ciclo completo de esterilização e analisadas pelo teste de citotoxicidade in vitro e avaliação da superfície dos materiais por espectrofotometria com transformadas de Fourier com acessório de refletância atenuada (ATR-FTIR) para esclarecer eventuais efeitos do processo sobre a biocompatibilidade das mesmas. Embora os materiais estudados não demonstraram efeito citotóxico após serem submetidos à esterilização por ozônio, a superfície do derivado de polietileno (PE) demonstrou uma banda de oxidação em consequência da ação do agente esterilizante

Ozone (O3) can be considered the most potent natural germicide against microorganisms (in vegetative and spore forms) with high efficiency and speed, because of its highly oxidizing activity. Despite this, there are a few studies describing the application of ozone as a sterilizing agent of medical devices. The aim of this paper was to describe the development and validation of a sterilization cycle applied to medical devices. The sterilization process was challenged with Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores, which have shown great resistance. The sterilizing effect of ozone was measured using carriers inoculated with 106 spores, introduced into a 3 mL syringe and lumens of tubes of different sizes and diameters simulating hospital medical products, which have undergone a half-cycle or complete cycle. The validation process was confirmed by the satisfactory results for the half cycle, which indicate an appropriate sterility assurance level. Thus, one can consider the ozone sterilization process effective for medical devices. On the other hand, there was a need to evaluate the safety of ozone sterilization in terms of medical device materials in order to clarify the influence of ozone on the intrinsic characteristics of these materials. The samples were submitted to the complete cycle of sterilization and analysis by the "in vitro" cytotoxicity test and evaluation of the surface of the materials using ATR-FTIR spectrometry to clarify eventual of the process on a biocompatibility. Although the materials studied did not demonstrate a cytotoxic effect after being subjected to ozone sterilization, the surface of the polyethylene (PE) derivative demonstrated an oxidation band as a consequence of the action of the sterilizing agent

Ozone/analysis , Sterilization/methods , Biocompatible Materials , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 635-643, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951891


ABSTRACT Polymeric films associating different concentrations of Eudragit(r) FS 30 D (EFS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were produced by casting for the development of a new target-specific site material. Formed films kept a final polymer mass of 4% (w/v) in the following proportions: EFS 100:00 CS (control), EFS 95:05 CS, EFS 90:10 CS and EFS 80:20 CS. They were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, they were characterized by their water vapor permeability and degree of hydration at different conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. No chemical interactions were observed between CS and EFS, suggesting only a physical interaction between them in the different combinations tested. The results suggest that EFS and CS, when combined, may form films that are candidates for coating processes seeking a modified drug delivery, especially due to the synergism between pH dependency and specific biodegradability properties by the colonic microbiota. EFS 90:10 CS proved to be the most suitable for this purpose considering hydration and permeability characteristics of different associations analyzed.

Polymers/adverse effects , Chondroitin Sulfates/analysis , /classification , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Administration, Oral , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation , Drug Liberation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 211 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883757


A nistatina (NYS) é o fármaco de primeira escolha no tratamento da candidíase oral, que frequentemente acomete mais os indivíduos imunocomprometidos e pacientes com outras desordens (diabetes não tratada, neoplasias, imunodeficiências). No mercado brasileiro, a NYS é encontrada na forma de suspensão oral aquosa, onde o procedimento para sua administração consiste em bochechar o medicamento. Apesar de haver a indicação de que se mantenha o contato direto entre fármaco e a mucosa oral, na qual se encontra a Candida spp., o que aumentaria expressivamente o sucesso terapêutico, a suspensão não apresenta tal propriedade. Assim, a NYS que é fármaco com ação efetiva contra a candidíase oral, é considerada pertencente à Classe IV do Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica, ou seja, apresenta baixa solubilidade e baixa permeabilidade. A baixa solubilidade pode comprometer sua disponibilidade na cavidade oral, e consequentemente, sua ação farmacológica. Diante desse quadro, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de dispersões sólidas de NYS para o tratamento da candidíase oral, e sua posterior incorporação em gel mucoadesivo oral, favorecendo a formulação no local de ação. As dispersões sólidas são sistemas farmacêuticos, onde um fármaco pouco solúvel em água encontra-se dispersado em um carreador, no estado sólido. Os carreadores normalmente são hidrofílicos, o que permite que esses sistemas sejam empregados para aumentar a solubilidade aquosa do fármaco. Assim, foram desenvolvidas as dispersões sólidas de NYS, pelo método de eliminação do solvente, empregando como carreadores, lactose, HPMC, poloxamer 407 e poloxamer 188. Essas foram submetidas à caracterização por análise térmica, usando os ensaios de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC) e termogravimetria/termogravimetria derivada (TG/DTG). Dentre essas dispersões sólidas, aquelas que se mostraram com comportamento térmico sugerindo a formação de um novo "sistema", foram analisadas por meio de ensaio de solubilidade. Dessa forma, a formulação NYS DS G2 (49) se destacou, pois apresentou maior solubilidade em água (4,484 mg/mL); em pH 5,5 (4,249 mg/mL) e em pH 7,0 (4,293 mg/mL), ou seja, houve um aumento de 1,426 vezes em água; 4,227 vezes em pH 5,5; e 2,743 vezes em pH 7,0. Essa formulação foi, por fim avaliada por difração de raio-X e espectroscopia de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, técnicas que corroboraram com a análise térmica quanto à indicação de formação da dispersão sólida. Por sua vez, essa dispersão sólida foi incorporada em 4 bases de géis mucoadesivos de carbopol ® 934 PNF, alterando apenas a concentração do polímero (0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 %p/p). Foi observado que a liberação de NYS DS G2 (49) foi superior, quando comparada à liberação de NYS MP a partir do gel, e através do ensaio de mucoadesão, percebeu-se que os géis desenvolvidos apresentaram propriedades mucoadesivas compatíveis com relatos na literatura, independentemente da quantidade de carbopol ® empregada. As características reológicas foram distintas, e foi observado que as formulações Gel A e Gel B, que possuem menor quantidade de polímero, tiverem um indicativo de comportamento de fluido newtoniano, diferente dos demais, o que pode não ser desejado para esse tipo de forma farmacêutica tópica e semi-sólida. Ao final desse trabalho, pode-se concluir que foi possível desenvolver um sistema farmacêutico na forma de dispersão sólida com maior solubilidade que a NYS pura, e sua incorporação em uma forma farmacêutica mucoadesiva, e que a liberação da NYS na forma DS foi muito superior que o fármaco na forma "convencional", o que permite que a NYS esteja mais disponível na cavidade oral, e também junto à mucosa bucal, o que levaria a efeito farmacológico mais efetivo do antifúngico

Nystatin (NYS) is the drug of first choice in the treatment of oral candidiasis that most often affect immunocompromised individuals, and patients with other disorders. In the Brazilian market, NYS is found in the form of aqueous oral suspension, a medication used in the form of mouthwash. Although there is an indication to maintain direct contact between the drug and the oral mucosa, where Candida spp. is found, as well as where therapeutic success would significantly be increased, the suspension has no such property. Thus, the NYS is an effective drug against oral candidiasis, and belongs to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System, it has low solubility and low permeability. The low solubility can compromise its availability in the oral cavity, and consequently, its pharmacological action. Given this situation, the objective of this work was the development of solid dispersions of NYS for the treatment of oral candidiasis, and its subsequent incorporation into oral mucoadhesive gel, in order to facilitate its action. Solid dispersions are pharmaceutical systems, in which a solid drug poorly soluble in water is dispersed in a carrier. These carriers are usually hydrophilic, and this allows the systems to be employed in order to increase the aqueous solubility of the drug. Thus, the solid NYS dispersions were developed by the solvent evaporation method, employing lactose, HPMC, poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 as carrier. These samples were subjected to characterization by thermal analysis, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry / derivative thermogravimetry (TG / DTG). Among these solid dispersions, those samples which showed a specific thermal behavior suggesting the formation of new "system" were analyzed by solubility test. Thus, the NYS DS G2 formulation (49) stood out, once it showed greater solubility in water (4.484 mg/mL); at pH 5.5 (4.249 mg/mL) and pH 7.0 (4.293 mg/mL), in other words, an increase of 1,426 times in water; 4,227 times at pH 5.5; and 2,743 times at pH 7.0. This formulation was finally evaluated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform, techniques that corroborate the thermal analysis, indicating the formation of the solid dispersion. On the other hand, this solid dispersion was incorporated into 4 Carbopol ® 934 PNF mucoadhesive gels, with a variation of the polymer concentration. It was observed that NYS is improved of delivery from the gels, employing mucoadhesion test, and was also observed that the gels have mucoadhesive properties consistent with reports in the literature. However, the rheological characteristics are different, and it was observed that the Gel A and Gel B formulations, which has a lower amount of polymer behaved as a Newtonian fluid, which may not be desired for this type of topical gel. As conclusion, it was possible to develop a pharmaceutical system in the form of solid dispersion with greater solubility than the pure NYS, and their incorporation in a mucoadhesive dosage form and the release of NYS as DS was far superior wherein the drug in the "conventional" manner, which allows the NYS is longer available in the oral cavity, and also adjacent to the buccal mucosa, leading to more effective pharmacological effect of the antifungal agent

Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Nystatin/analysis , Solubility , Thermogravimetry/methods , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation , Differential Thermal Analysis/instrumentation
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(4): 889-901, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704121


Inclusion complexes of carvedilol(CR) with hydroxyl propyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) was prepared using co-grinding technique. Then, the inclusion complex was microencapsulated using combinations of Eudragit NE30D (EU) and sodium alginate (SA) utilizing orifice gelation technique. The formulations were analysed by using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and also evaluated for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, production yield, swelling capacity, mucoadhesive properties, zeta potential and drug release. The microcapsules were smooth and showed no visible cracks and extended drug release of 55.2006% up to 12 hours in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8, showing particle size within the range of 264.5-358.5 µm, and encapsulation efficiency of 99.337±0.0100-66.2753±0.0014%.The in vitro release data of optimized batch of microcapsules were plotted in various kinetic equations to understand the mechanisms and kinetics of drug release, which followed first order kinetics, value of "n" is calculated to be 0.459 and drug release was diffusion controlled. The mice were fed with diet for inducing high blood pressure and the in vivo antihypertensive activity of formulations was carried out administering the optimized formulations and pure drug separately by oral feeding and measured by B.P Monwin IITC Life Science instrument and the results indicated that the bioavailability of carvedilol was increased both in vitro and in vivo with the mucoadhesive polymers showing primary role in retarding the drug release.

Prepararam-se complexos de carvedilol (CR) com hidroxipropil beta-ciclodextrina (HPBCD), utilizando a técnica de co-moagem. O complexo de inclusão foi microencapsulado empregando-se associações de Eudragit NE30D (EU) e alginato de sódio (AS), utilizando a técnica de gelificação de orifício. As formulações foram analisadas utilizando-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM), espectroscopia no infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier, calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC) e difratometria de raios X (XDR) e, também, avaliadas por tamanho de partícula, eficiência de encapsulação, rendimento de produção, capacidade de inchamento, propriedades mucoadesivas, potencial zeta e liberação do fármaco. Obtiveram-se microcápsulas lisas e sem fendas visíveis, com liberação prolongada do fármaco de 55,2006% em 12 horas em tampão fosfato pH 6,8, com tamanho de partículas na faixa de 264,5-358,5 mm e eficiência de encapsulação de 99,3337±0,0100-66,2753±0,0014%. Os dados de liberação in vitro de lote otimizado de microcápsulas foram plotados em várias equações cinéticas para se entender os mecanismos e a cinética de liberação do fármaco, que é de primeira ordem, o valor de "n" foi de 0,459 e a liberação do fármaco foi por difusão controlada. Os camundongos foram alimentados com dieta para induzir pressão sanguínea alta e a atividade anti-hipertensiva in vivo das formulações foi obtida por administração de formulações otimizadas e fármaco puro, separadamente, por via oral e medida pelo equipamento BP Monwin IITC Life Science. Os resultados mostraram que a biodisponibilidade do carvedilol aumentou tanto in vitro quanto in vivo com os polímeros mucoadesivos, mostrando papel principal no retardamento da liberação do fármaco.

Alginates/chemical synthesis , Capsules/classification , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Drug Liberation , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation