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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 212-217, Apr.-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280066

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive technique that is used in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and the monitoring of physical activity. Objective: To determine the influence of sexual, anthropometric and ergospirometric factors on muscle oxygenation of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius, obtained by NIRS during a stress test. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study (10 women). Two Humon Hex® devices were placed on the dominant side of the quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles to measure muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2). The stress test was performed on a treadmill with electrocardiographic control and measurement of oxygen consumption. SmO2 was obtained at rest and after maximum effort during the stress test. In addition, the height, weight, skinfold and waist contour were measured. Bioimpedance was used to obtain the percentages of fat mass and muscle mass, which were used to calculate the relative fat mass (RFM). Results: The SmO2 of both muscles at rest is higher in males than in females. At maximum effort, the SmO2 of the quadriceps is similar in both groups. The SmO2 of both muscles is positively related to height, body mass, percentage of mass muscle and waist contour, and negatively with percentage of mass fat, RFM and skinfold thickness. The negative correlation between fat percentage and oxygen saturation is more evident in females. It was observed that the variables that quantify maximum effort are not related to the SmO2 values, except for the correlation between HR max and SmO2 of the gastrocnemius muscle in males. Conclusion: The SmO2 of recreational athletes is influenced by the location of the device and the fat mass of the subjects. The biggest differences between the sexes are in the gastrocnemius muscle. Level of Evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test .


RESUMEN Introducción: La espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS) es una técnica no invasiva usada en la evaluación de la oxigenación tisular y en la monitorización de la actividad física. Objetivos: Determinar la influencia de factores sexuales, antropométricos y ergoespirométricos sobre la oxigenación muscular de cuádriceps y del gastrocnemio, obtenidos por NIRS durante un test de esfuerzo. Métodos: Participaron en este estudio 20 individuos saludables (10 mujeres). Se colocaron dos dispositivos Humon Hex® en el lado dominante de los músculos cuádriceps y gastrocnemio para medir la saturación de oxígeno muscular (SmO2). El test de esfuerzo fue realizado en una cinta ergométrica con control electrocardiográfico y medición del consumo de oxígeno. La SmO2 fue obtenida en reposo y después de esfuerzo máximo durante el test. Además, fueron medidos altura, peso, pliegues cutáneos y contorno de la cintura. Fue usada bioimpedancia para obtener los porcentuales de masa grasa y masa muscular, que fueron usados para calcular la masa grasa relativa (MGR). Resultados: La SmO2 de ambos músculos en reposo es mayor en hombres que en mujeres. En el esfuerzo máximo la SmO2 del cuádriceps es semejante en los dos grupos. La SmO2 de ambos músculos es positivamente relacionada con altura, masa corporal, porcentual de masa muscular y contorno de la cintura y negativamente relacionada con el porcentaje de masa grasa, MGR y espesor de los pliegues cutáneos. La correlación negativa entre el porcentual de grasa y la saturación de oxígeno es más evidente en las mujeres. Se observó que variables que cuantifican el esfuerzo máximo no está relacionadas con los valores SmO2, excepto por la correlación entre FCmáx y SmO2 del músculo gastrocnemio en sexo masculino. Conclusión: La SmO2 de los atletas recreativos es influenciada por la localización del dispositivo y por la masa grasa de los individuos. Las mayores diferencias entre los sexos están en el músculo gastrocnemio. Nivel de Evidencia II; Estudios diagnósticos - Investigación de un examen para diagnóstico .


RESUMO Introdução: A espectroscopia de infravermelho próximo (NIRS) é uma técnica não invasiva usada na avaliação da oxigenação tecidual e no monitoramento da atividade física. Objetivos: Determinar a influência de fatores sexuais, antropométricos e ergoespirométricos sobre a oxigenação muscular do quadríceps e do gastrocnêmio obtidos por NIRS durante um teste de esforço. Métodos: Participaram deste estudo 20 indivíduos saudáveis (10 mulheres). Dois dispositivos Humon Hex® foram colocados no lado dominante dos músculos quadríceps e gastrocnêmio para medir a saturação de oxigênio muscular (SmO2). O teste de esforço foi realizado em uma esteira com controle eletrocardiográfico e mensuração do consumo de oxigênio. A SmO2foi obtida em repouso e depois de esforço máximo durante o teste. Além disso, foram medidos estatura, peso, dobras cutâneas e contorno da cintura. A bioimpedância foi usada para obter os percentuais de massa gorda e massa muscular, que foram usados para calcular a massa gorda relativa (MGR). Resultados: A SmO2de ambos os músculos em repouso é maior em homens do que em mulheres. No esforço máximo, a SmO2do quadríceps é semelhante nos dois os grupos. A SmO2de ambos os músculos é positivamente relacionada com estatura, massa corporal, percentual de massa muscular e contorno da cintura e negativamente relacionada com a porcentagem de massa gorda, MGR e espessura das dobras cutâneas. A correlação negativa entre o percentual de gordura e a saturação de oxigênio é mais evidente nas mulheres. Observou-se que variáveis que quantificam o esforço máximo não estão relacionadas com os valores SmO2, exceto pela correlação entre FCmáx e SmO2do músculo gastrocnêmio no sexo masculino. Conclusão: A SmO2dos atletas recreativos é influenciada pela localização do dispositivo e pela massa gorda dos indivíduos. As maiores diferenças entre os sexos estão no músculo gastrocnêmio. Nível de Evidência II; Estudos diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico .


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Oxygen Consumption , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Quadriceps Muscle/metabolism , Body Composition , Sex Factors , Anthropometry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Exercise Test
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879073

ABSTRACT

Assessment of the status property(boiling time) is a challenge for the quality control of extraction process in pharmaceutical enterprises. In this study, the pilot extraction process of Phellodendron chinense was used as the research carrier to develop an online near-infrared(NIR) quality control method based on the status property(boiling time). First, the NIR spectra of P. chinense were collected during the two pilot-scale extraction processes, and the status property(boiling time) was assessed by observing the state of bubbles in the extraction tank using a transparent window during the extraction process, which was then used as a reference standard. Based on the moving block standard deviation(MBSD) algorithm, the assessment model using online NIR spectra for boiling time during extraction process was established. In addition, the model was optimized as follows: standard normal variable(SNV) for spectral pretreatment, modeling band of 800-2 200 nm, and window size of 4. The results showed that, with 0.002 0 as the MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process. Furthermore, the principal component analysis-moving block standard deviation(PCA-MBSD) model was developed by our group to reduce the influence of online NIR spectral noise and background signal on the model, and the number of principal components was optimized into 2 in the PCA-MBSD model. The results showed that, with 0.000 075 as the PCA-MBSD model threshold, the boiling time can be accurately assessed using online NIR spectra during extraction process, with improved reliability. This study can provide a assessment method for boiling time during extraction process using online NIR spectra, which can replace the empirical judgment in manual observation, and realize the digitalization of the extraction process for big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879069

ABSTRACT

Spatial distribution uniformity is the critical quality attribute(CQA) of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets, a variety of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. The evaluation of the spatial distribution uniformity of active pharmaceutical ingredients(APIs) in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets is important in ensuring their stable and controllable quality. In this study, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to construct the spatial distribution map of API concentration based on three prediction models, further to realize the visualization research on the spatial distribution uniformity of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets. The region of interest(ROI) was selected from each Ginkgo Leaves Tablet, with length and width of 50 pixels, and a total of 2 500 pixels. Each pixel had 288 spectral channels, and the number of content prediction data could reach 1×10~5 for a single sample. The results of the three models showed that the Partial Least Squares(PLS) model had the highest prediction accuracy, with calibration set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.987, prediction set determination coefficient R_(pre)~2 of 0.942, root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) of 0.160%, and root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.588%. The classical least-squares(CLS) model had a greater prediction error, with the RMSEP of 0.867%. Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Square(MCR-ALS) model showed the worst predictive ability among the three models, and it couldn't realize content prediction. Based on the prediction results of PLS and CLS models, the spatial distribution map of APIs concentration was obtained through three-dimensional data reconstruction. Furthermore, histogram method was used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of API. The data showed that the spatial distribution of APIs in Ginkgo Leaves Tablets was relatively uniform. The study explored the feasibility of visualization of spatial distribution of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets based on three models. The results showed that PLS model had the highest prediction accuracy, and MCR-ALS model had the lowest prediction accuracy. The research results could provide a new strategy for the visualization method of quality control of Ginkgo Leaves Tablets.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Ginkgo biloba , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Quality Control , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tablets
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879066

ABSTRACT

For the field detection problems of critical quality attribute(CQA) of moisture content in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) manufacturing process, big brand TCM Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills were used as the carrier, to establish a moisture content NIR field detection model with or without cellophane in real world production with use of near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy combined with stoichiometry. With the moisture content determined by drying method as reference value, the partial least square method(PLS) was used to analyze the correlation between the spectrum and the moisture reference value. Then the spectral pretreatment methods were screened and optimized to further improve the accuracy and stability of the model. The results showed that the best quantitative model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of standard normal variate(SNV) with the latent variable factor number of 2 and 7 of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with or without cellophane samples. The prediction coefficient of determination(R_(pre)~2) and standard deviation of prediction(RMSEP) of the model with cellophane samples were 0.765 7 and 0.157 2%; R_(pre)~2 and RMSEP of the model without cellophane samples were 0.772 2 and 0.207 8%. The NIR quantitative models of moisture content of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with and without cellophane both showed good predictive performance to realize the rapid, accurate and non-destructive quantitative analysis of moisture content in such pills, and provide a method for the field quality control of the critical chemical attributes of moisture in the manufacturing of big brand TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878918

ABSTRACT

Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) combined with band screening method and modeling algorithm can be used to achieve the rapid and non-destructive detection of the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) production process. This paper focused on the ginkgo leaf macroporous resin purification process, which is the key technology of Yinshen Tongluo Capsules, in order to achieve the rapid determination of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in effluent. The abnormal spectrum was eliminated by Mahalanobis distance algorithm, and the data set was divided by the sample set partitioning method based on joint X-Y distances(SPXY). The key information bands were selected by synergy interval partial least squares(siPLS); based on that, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling(CARS), successive projections algorithm(SPA) and Monte Carlo uninformative variable(MC-UVE) were used to select wavelengths to obtain less but more critical variable data. With selected key variables as input, the quantitative analysis model was established by genetic algorithm joint extreme learning machine(GA-ELM) algorithm. The performance of the model was compared with that of partial least squares regression(PLSR). The results showed that the combination with siPLS-CARS-GA-ELM could achieve the optimal model performance with the minimum number of variables. The calibration set correlation coefficient R_c and the validation set correlation coefficient R_p of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were all above 0.98. The root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC), the root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) and the relative standard errors of prediction(RSEP) were 0.030 0, 0.029 2 and 8.88%, 0.041 4, 0.034 8 and 8.46%, 0.029 3, 0.027 1 and 10.10%, respectively. Compared with the PLSR me-thod, the performance of the GA-ELM model was greatly improved, which proved that NIRS combined with GA-ELM method has a great potential for rapid determination of effective components of TCM.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Ginkgo biloba , Least-Squares Analysis , Plant Leaves , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 465-470, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137307

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in surgery. In the present study, we examined the cerebral oximetry values of patients with carotid artery stenosis who did not present surgical indications and those who did not present carotid artery stenosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery by comparing their cerebral oximetry values with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Between January and May 2014, 40 patients who underwent isolated CABG were included in the study. Cerebral oximetry probes were placed prior to induction of anesthesia. Cerebral oximetry values were recorded before induction, in the pump (cardiopulmonary bypass) inlet period, in the post-clamp period, in the pump outlet period, and in the intensive care unit and neurological complications. Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of demographic data and routine follow-up parameters. Intraoperative surgical data and early postoperative results were similar in both groups. When comparing the groups, there were no statistically significant results in cerebral oximetry values and CVD development. Only one patient in group 2 had postoperative CVD and this patient was discharged from the hospital with right hemiplegia. Mean arterial pressure (MAP)levels were significantly higher in Group 2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The follow-up of cerebral perfusion with a method like near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) will ensure that MAP is adjusted with interventions that will be made according to changes in NIRS. Thus, it will be possible to avoid unnecessary medication and flow-rate increase with cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen , Oximetry , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Margins of Excision
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828171

ABSTRACT

Brain-computer interface (BCI) based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a new-type human-computer interaction technique. To explore the separability of fNIRS signals in different motor imageries on the single limb, the study measured the fNIRS signals of 15 subjects (amateur football fans) during three different motor imageries of the right foot (passing, stopping and shooting). And the correlation coefficient of the HbO signal during different motor imageries was extracted as features for the input of a three-classification model based on support vector machines. The results found that the classification accuracy of the three motor imageries of the right foot was 78.89%±6.161%. The classification accuracy of the two-classification of motor imageries of the right foot, that is, passing and stopping, passing and shooting, and stopping and shooting was 85.17%±4.768%, 82.33%±6.011%, and 89.33%±6.713%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the fNIRS of different motor imageries of the single limb is separable, which is expected to add new control commands to fNIRS-BCI and also provide a new option for rehabilitation training and control peripherals for unilateral stroke patients. Besides, the study also confirms that the correlation coefficient can be used as an effective feature to classify different motor imageries.


Subject(s)
Brain , Diagnostic Imaging , Brain-Computer Interfaces , Foot , Humans , Imagination , Movement , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827973

ABSTRACT

A rapid analysis method based on ultraviolet-visual(UV-Vis) spectroscopy, near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy and multivariable data analysis was established for quality evaluation of Shengxuebao Mixture. The contents of eight active ingredients of Shengxuebao Mixture including albiflorin, paeoniflorin, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetra-hydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, specnuezhenide,ecliptasaponin D, emodin, calycosin-7-glucoside and astragaloside Ⅳ were simultaneously detected by using this method. HPLC-UV-MS was used as a reference method for determining the contents of these ingredients. Partial least squares(PLS) analysis was implemented as a linear method for multivariate models calibrated between UV spectrum/NIR spectrum and contents of 8 ingredients. Finally, the performance of the model was evaluated by 24 batches of test samples. The results showed that both UV-Vis and NIR models gave a good calibration ability with an R~2 value above 0.9, and the prediction ability was also satisfactory, with an R~2 value higher than 0.83 for UV-Vis model and higher than 0.79 for NIR model. The overall results demonstrate that the established method is accurate, robust and fast, therefore, it can be used for rapid quality evaluation of Shengxuebao Mixture.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Least-Squares Analysis , Mass Spectrometry , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1491-1499, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771780

ABSTRACT

The quantity of biomass, glucose concentration and ethanol concentration are important parameters in ethanol fermentation. Traditional methods are usually based on samples for off-line measurement, which not only requires multiple instruments for test and analysis but also consumes notable time and effort, and therefore is inconvenient for real-time process control and optimization. In this study, an in-situ detection method based on the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is proposed for measuring the above process parameters in real time. The in-situ measurement is carried out by using an immersion type NIR spectroscopy. A multi-output prediction model for simultaneously estimating the quantity of glucose, biomass and ethanol is established based on a multi-output least-squares support vector regression algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method can precisely measure the quantity of glucose, biomass and ethanol during the ethanol fermentation process. Compared to the existing partial-least-squares method for modeling and prediction of individual components, the proposed method could evidently improve the measurement accuracy and reliability.


Subject(s)
Ethanol , Fermentation , Least-Squares Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777500

ABSTRACT

The efficacy and quality of Gastrodia elata from different producing areas are significant difference. The identification of producing area is helpful for the scientific and reasonable usage of medicinal material. Application near infrared spectroscopy( NIR) together with variance spectra,principal component analysis( PCA),interval partial least squares( i PLS) and genetic algorithm( GA),the characteristic spectra of G. elata from inside and outside of Yunnan province( except Zhaotong) and Zhaotong were extracted,and the pattern recognition models of i PLS-DA and GA-SVM were built,and the suitability of the models were also validated. The results showed that the prediction accuracy of i PLS-DA model was 96. 15%,the values of R2,RMSECV and RMSEP were 0. 893,0. 224 and0. 321,respectively. The prediction accuracy of GA-SVM model was 100% and RMSECV was 0. 719 4. Both methods could identify G. elata from different producing area preferably. Further,two-dimensional spectroscopy analysis was conducted for the characteristic spectra extracted by i PLS and GA. The results showed that the differential spectra of G. elata from outside and inside Yunnan were mainly located in the absorption areas of the stretch,bending and double frequency of C-H,C-N,O-H and N-H bonds of polysaccharides,aromatic hydrocarbon,amides and starch. The differential spectra of G. elata from outside Yunnan and Zhaotong were mainly located in the absorption areas of the stretch,bending and double frequency of C-H,O-H and N-H bonds of vegetable protein,aromatic hydrocarbon,polysaccharides,and alcohols. The differential spectra of G. elata from inside Yunnan and Zhaotong were mainly located in the absorption areas of the stretch,bending,transformation and double frequency of CHO,N-H,C-H,O-H and HOH bonds of lignin,aromatic hydrocarbon,alcohols,polysaccharides and aliphatics. Effective recognition of different producing areas and exploration the difference of component of G. elata could be conducted through NIR combined with multivariable selection and two-dimensional spectroscopy,which provided the basis for the reasonable development and efficient utilization of G. elata.


Subject(s)
China , Gastrodia , Least-Squares Analysis , Principal Component Analysis , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774524

ABSTRACT

Because the red and bright color of corolla is the main indicator for the quality assessment of good safflower,the dyed safflower is sometimes found at the herbal market,what is influence on this herb quality and efficacy. A total of 127 safflower samples was therefore collected from different cultivating areas and herbal markets in China to develop a rapid method to identify the dyed safflower. Near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) combined with characteristic identification,high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC),principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares regression analysis(PLS) were employed to differentiate safflower from dyed safflower samples,and further quantify the levels of the 6 dyes,i.e. tartrazine,carmine,sunset yellow,azorubine,acid red 73 and orange Ⅱ in the dyed safflower. The results indicated that the 50 safflower samples and 77 dyed safflower samples were located at different regions in PCA cluster diagram by NIR spectra. Tartrazine,carmineand and sunset yellow were found in the 77 dyed safflower samples with the amounts of 0. 60-3. 66,0. 11-1. 37,0. 10-0. 71 mg·g-1,respectively. It indicated that the three dyes were the common and main dyes in the dyed safflower. However,azorubine,acid red 73 and orange Ⅱ were not detected in all herb samples. A total of 62 dyed safflower samples were chosen as calibration samples to develop the model for estimating the amount of dyes in dyed safflower. The estimating accuracy was verified by another 15 dyed safflower samples. The values of tartrazine,carmine and sunset yellow in dyed safflower samples were compared between the NIRS and HPLC methods. Each value of mean absolute difference(MAD) was less than 5%. The correlation coefficients of tartrazine,carmineand and sunset yellow were 0. 970,0. 975,0. 971,respectively. It indicated the data quantified by NIRS and HPLC were consistence. It is concluded that NIRS can not only differentiate safflower from dyed safflower,but also quantify the amount of the dyes. NIRS is suitable for rapidly identify the quality of safflower.


Subject(s)
Azo Compounds , Benzenesulfonates , Carmine , Carthamus tinctorius , Chemistry , China , Coloring Agents , Naphthalenesulfonates , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tartrazine
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774517

ABSTRACT

Near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) was used for rapid quantitative analysis of saponins in Pien Tze Huang troches and powders. The near infrared spectra of Pien Tze Huang were collected,and the contents of notoginsenoside R1,ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 in Pien Tze Huang were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) as the reference values. Then the near infrared spectra of the samples were associated with the reference values to establish the quantitative analysis models by using partial least squares(PLS) method. Finally,the models were verified by unknown samples. The results showed that root mean square error of cross-validation(RMSECV) of R1,Rg1,Rb1 and the total content was 0.095 1,0.555,0.414,0.960 mg·g-1 for the troches models,0.085 6,0.443,0.405,0.913 mg·g-1 for the powders models. After external validations,root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP) of R1,Rg1,Rb1 and the total content was 0.111,0.274,0.276,0.807 mg·g-1 for the troches models,0. 059 2,0. 322,0. 327,0. 705 mg·g-1 for the powders models. The averages of relative standard deviation between the predicted values and the chemical measured values were all less than 2.0%. According to the results of paired-t tests at the level of α = 0.05,there were no significant differences between the predicted values and the measured values. The established quantitative analysis models can be used to predict the contents of saponins in Pien Tze Huang accurately and the proposed method is simple,fast,non-destructive and environmentally friendly for the rapid detection and quality control of saponins in Pien Tze Huang.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Least-Squares Analysis , Phytochemicals , Saponins , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
13.
Ultrasonography ; : 143-148, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761973

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ultrasonography (USG) fusion imaging system for imaging prostate cancer and to verify its diagnostic capability by applying the hybrid imaging system to a prostate cancer phantom. METHODS: A multi-channel NIRS system using the near-infrared 785-nm wavelength with 12 channels and four detectors was developed. After arranging the optical fibers around a USG transducer, we performed NIRS imaging and grayscale USG imaging simultaneously. Fusion imaging was obtained by processing incoming signals and the spatial reconstruction of NIRS, which corresponded with grayscale USG acquired at the same time. The NIRS-USG hybrid system was applied to a silicone-based optical phantom of the prostate gland containing prostate cancer to verify its diagnostic capability qualitatively. RESULTS: The NIRS-USG hybrid imaging system for prostate cancer imaging simultaneously provided anatomical and optical information with 2-dimensional registration. The hybrid imaging system showed more NIR attenuation over the prostate cancer model than over the model of normal prostate tissue. Its diagnostic capability to discriminate a focal area mimicking the optical properties of prostate cancer from the surrounding background mimicking the optical properties of normal prostate tissue was verified by applying the hybrid system to a silicone-based optical phantom of prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: This study successfully demonstrated that the NIRS-USG hybrid system may serve as a new imaging method for improving the diagnostic accuracy of prostate cancer, with potential utility for future clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Methods , Optical Fibers , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Transducers , Ultrasonography
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Accumulated evidence collected via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been reported with regard to mental disorders. A previous finding revealed that emotional words evoke left frontal cortex activity in patients with depression. The primary aim of the current study was to replicate this finding using an independent dataset and evaluate the brain region associated with the severity of depression using an emotional Stroop task. METHODS: Oxygenized and deoxygenized hemoglobin recording in the brain by fNIRS on 14 MDD patients and 20 normal controls. RESULTS: Hyperactivated oxygenized hemoglobin was observed in the left frontal cortex on exposure to unfavorable stimuli, but no significant difference was found among patients with depression compared with healthy controls on exposure to favorable stimuli. This result is consistent with previous findings. Moreover, an evoked wave associated with the left upper frontal cortex on favorable stimuli was inversely correlated with the severity of depression. CONCLUSION: Our current work using fNIRS provides a potential clue regarding the location of depression symptom severity in the left upper frontal cortex. Future studies should verify our findings and expand them into a precise etiology of depression.


Subject(s)
Brain , Dataset , Depression , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Mental Disorders , Oxygen , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 662-670, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760982

ABSTRACT

The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially promising biomarkers for MDD. The structures and functions of ACC, DLPFC, OFC, amygdala and hippocampus might be confirmed as the biomarkers for the prediction of antidepressant treatment responses and for the pathophysiology of MDD. The functions of cognitive control and emotion regulation of these regions might be crucial for the establishment of biomarkers. The near-infrared spectroscopy studies demonstrated that blood flow in the frontal lobe, such as the DLPFC and OFC, might be the biomarkers for the field of near-infrared spectroscopy. The electroencephalography also supported the promising role of frontal regions, such as the ACC, DLPFC and OFC in the biomarker exploration, especially for the sleep electroencephalogram to detect biomarkers in MDD. The positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in MDD demonstrated the promising biomarkers for the frontal and limbic regions, such as ACC, DLPFC and amygdala. However, additional findings in brainstem and midbrain were also found in PET and SPECT. The promising neuroimaging biomarkers of MDD seemed focused in the fronto-limbic regions.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Biomarkers , Brain Stem , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Electroencephalography , Frontal Lobe , Gyrus Cinguli , Hippocampus , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetoencephalography , Mesencephalon , Neuroimaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prefrontal Cortex , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Tomography, Emission-Computed , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
16.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 121-127, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760590

ABSTRACT

The incidence of cerebral palsy has not decreased despite advances in neonatal care. Preterm infants are at a high risk of cerebral palsy. Moreover, preterm infants might experience permanent neurological sequelae due to injury in the preterm brain. Although the etiology of preterm brain injury is not fully understood, preterm brain injury is strongly associated with abnormal cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Monitoring systemic blood pressure or arterial oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is not enough to guarantee proper cerebral perfusion or oxygenation. Early detection of improper cerebral perfusion can prevent irreversible cerebral damage. To decrease brain injury through the early detection of under-perfusion and deoxygenation, other diagnostic modalities are needed. Near-infrared spectroscopy can continuously and noninvasively monitor regional oxygen saturation (rSO₂), which reflects the perfusion and oxygenation status of tissues at bedside. Near-infrared spectroscopy represents a balance between tissue oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral rSO₂ monitoring has been used most frequently in neonatal cardiac surgery to monitor cerebral oxygenation and prevent hypoxic damage or shock. Recently, cerebral, renal, or splanchnic rSO₂ in neonates is frequently monitored. The progression of a disease, brain injury, and death can be prevented by detecting changes in rSO₂ values using near-infrared spectroscopy. In this article, the basic principles, usefulness, and applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates are discussed.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Brain , Brain Injuries , Cerebral Palsy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Oximetry , Oxygen , Perfusion , Shock , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Splanchnic Circulation , Thoracic Surgery
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760224

ABSTRACT

Hemodynamically significant preterm patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affects mortality; comorbidities such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia; and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, particularly in very low birth weight infants. However, recent studies have indicated that there is no consensus on the causal relationship between PDA and neonatal outcomes, the benefit of PDA treatment, the factors guiding the need for treatment, and optimal treatment strategies. Such uncertainty has resulted in wide variations in practice for treating preterm PDA between units, regions, and nations. Nowadays, there has been a paradigm shift to more conservative treatment for preterm PDA, and suggestions regarding selective management of preterm PDA considering risk factors and hemodynamic significance are increasing. Neonatologist-performed echocardiography and advances in modalities to assess hemodynamic significance such as biologic markers and near-infrared spectroscopy also help improve the efficacy of selective treatment of preterm PDA.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Comorbidity , Consensus , Ductus Arteriosus, Patent , Echocardiography , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Hemodynamics , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Mortality , Risk Factors , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Treatment Outcome , Uncertainty
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(1): eAO4439, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984372

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impacts of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration on the microcirculation in patients with acute kidney injury. Methods A prospective observational pilot study conducted in a 40-bed, open clinical-surgical intensive care unit of a private tertiary care hospital located in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Microcirculation was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy by means of a 15mm probe placed over the thenar eminence. Vascular occlusion test was performed on the forearm to be submitted to near-infrared spectroscopy by inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff to 30mmHg higher than the systolic arterial pressure. The primary endpoint was the assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy-derived parameters immediately before, 1, 4 and 24 hours after the initiation of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Results Nine patients were included in this pilot study over a period of 2 months. Minimum tissue oxygen saturation measured during the vascular occlusion test was the only near-infrared spectroscopy-derived parameter to differed over the time (decrease compared to baseline values up to 24 hours after initiation of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration). Conclusion The impacts of microcirculatory dysfunction on clinical outcomes of patients undergoing to continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration need to be further investigated.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o impacto da hemodiafiltração venovenosa contínua na microcirculação de pacientes com lesão renal aguda. Métodos Estudo piloto, prospectivo e observacional conduzido em uma unidade de terapia intensiva clínico-cirúrgica aberta, com 40 leitos, localizada em um hospital terciário, privado, na cidade de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. A microcirculação foi avaliada empregando-se a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo, por meio de uma sonda de 15mm posicionada sobre a eminência tenar. O teste de oclusão vascular foi realizado no antebraço a ser submetido à espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo, inflando-se o manguito de um esfigmomanômetro a um valor 30mmHg acima da pressão arterial sistólica. O desfecho primário foi a avaliação dos parâmetros derivados por espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo imediatamente antes, 1, 4 e 24 horas após o início da hemodiafiltração venovenosa contínua. Resultados Foram incluídos nove pacientes neste estudo piloto ao longo de 2 meses. A saturação de oxigênio tecidual mínima mensurada durante o teste de oclusão vascular foi o único parâmetro derivado por espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo que diferiu ao longo do tempo, com queda em relação aos valores iniciais nas primeiras 24 horas após o início da hemodiafiltração venovenosa contínua. Conclusão A influência da disfunção microcirculatória sobre os desfechos clínicos de pacientes submetidos à hemodiafiltração venovenosa contínua precisa ser melhor investigada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Hemodiafiltration/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnostic imaging , Microcirculation/physiology , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Middle Aged
19.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 1010-1018, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Microvascular damage due to distal embolization during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important cause of periprocedural myocardial infarction. We assessed the lipid-core plaque using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and microvascular dysfunction invasively with the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and evaluated their relationship. METHODS: This study is pilot retrospective observational study. We analyzed 39 patients who performed NIRS before and after PCI, while fractional flow reserve, thermo-dilution coronary flow reserve (CFR) and IMR were measured after PCI. The maximum value of lipid core burden index (LCBI) for any of the 4-mm segments at the culprit lesion (culprit LCBI(4mm)) was calculated at the culprit lesion. We divided the patients into 2 groups using a cutoff of culprit LCBI(4mm) ≥500. RESULTS: Mean pre-PCI LCBI was 333±196 and mean post-PCI IMR was 20±14 U. Post-PCI IMR was higher (15.6±7.3 vs. 42.6±17.6 U, p<0.001) and post-PCI CFR was lower (3.7±2.2 vs. 2.1±1.0, p=0.029) in the high LCBI group. Pre-PCI LCBI was positively correlated with post-PCI IMR (ρ=0.358, p=0.025) and negatively correlated with post-PCI CFR (ρ=−0.494, p=0.001). The incidence of microvascular dysfunction (IMR ≥25 U) was higher in the high LCBI group (9.4% vs. 85.7%, p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the incidences of creatine Kinase-MB (9.4% vs. 14.3%, p=0.563) and troponin-I elevation (12.5% vs. 14.3%, p=1.000). CONCLUSIONS: A large lipid-core plaque at the ‘culprit’ lesion is observed higher incidence of post-PCI microvascular dysfunction after PCI. Prospective study with adequate subject numbers will be needed.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Creatine , Humans , Incidence , Microvessels , Myocardial Infarction , Observational Study , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Troponin I
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 142-148, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897828

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery. Adequate cerebral perfusion is essential and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can measure cerebral oxygenation. Aim of this study is to compare incidence of early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients treated with conventional or near infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Methods: Patients undergoing coronary surgery above 60 years, were included and randomized to 2 groups; control and NIRS groups. Peroperative management was NIRS guided in GN; and with conventional approach in control group. Test battery was performed before surgery, at first week and 3rd month postoperatively. The battery comprised clock drawing, memory, word list generation, digit spam and visuospatial skills subtests. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as drop of 1 SD (standard deviation) from baseline on two or more tests. Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of quantitative measurements; Chi-square exact test to compare quantitative data. Results: Twenty-one patients in control group and 19 in NIRS group completed study. Demographic and operative data were similar. At first week postoperative cognitive dysfunction were present in 9 (45%) and 7 (41%) of patients in control group and NIRS group respectively. At third month 10 patients (50%) were assessed as postoperative cognitive dysfunction; incidence was 4 (24%) in NIRS group (p:0.055). Early and late postoperative cognitive dysfunction group had significantly longer ICU stay (1.74 + 0.56 vs. 2.94 + 0.95; p < 0.001; 1.91 + 0.7 vs. 2.79 + 1.05; p < 0.01) and longer hospital stay (9.19 + 2.8 vs. 11.88 + 1.7; p < 0.01; 9.48 + 2.6 vs. 11.36 + 2.4; p < 0.05). Conclusion: In this pilot study conventional monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy resulted in similar rates of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Late cognitive dysfunction tended to ameliorate with near infrared spectroscopy. Early and late cognitive declines were associated with prolonged ICU and hospital stays.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório é comum após cirurgia cardíaca. A perfusão cerebral adequada é essencial e a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS) pode medir a oxigenação cerebral. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a incidência de disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório, precoce e tardio, em pacientes idosos tratados com monitoração convencional ou espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo. Métodos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia coronariana, acima de 60 anos, foram incluídos e randomicamente alocados em dois grupos: grupo controle e grupo NIRS. O manejo dos pacientes no período perioperatório foi feito com NIRS no grupo NH e com abordagem convencional no grupo controle A bateria de testes foi feita antes da cirurgia, na primeira semana e no terceiro mês de pós-operatório. A bateria incluiu o desenho do relógio, a memória, a geração de uma lista de palavras, a sequência de dígitos e subtestes que exigem habilidades visuoespaciais.Disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório foi definida como queda de um DP (desvio-padrão) da fase basal em dois ou mais testes. O teste U de Mann Whitney foi usado para comparação de medidas quantitativa e o teste exato do qui-quadrado para comparar dados quantitativos. Resultados: Vinte e um pacientes do grupo controle e 19 do grupo NIRS concluíram o estudo. Os dados demográficos e operacionais foram semelhantes. Na primeira semana, nove pacientes (45%) do GC e sete pacientes (41%) do grupo NIRS apresentaram disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório. No terceiro mês, 10 pacientes (50%) foram avaliados como disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório; a incidência foi de quatro (24%) no grupo NIRS (p = 0,055). O grupo que apresentou disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório precoce e tardio teve uma permanência significativamente maior na UTI (1,74 + 0,56 vs. 2,94 + 0,95; p < 0,001; 1,91 + 0,7 vs. 2,79 + 1,05; p < 0,01) e permanência hospitalar mais longa (9,19 + 2,8 vs. 11,88 + 1,7; p < 0,01; 9,48 + 2,6 vs. 11,36 + 2,4; p < 0,05). Conclusão: Neste estudo piloto, a monitoração convencional e a espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo resultaram em taxas semelhantes de disfunção cognitiva no pós-operatório precoce. A disfunção cognitiva tardia tende a melhorar com espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo. Os declínios cognitivos precoces e tardios foram associados a internações prolongadas tanto em UTI quanto hospitalares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen/metabolism , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Brain/metabolism , Coronary Artery Bypass , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Time Factors , Pilot Projects , Incidence , Monitoring, Intraoperative , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Middle Aged
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