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Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1443407


A male neonate born at gestational age of 40 weeks was found to have an enlarged and darkened right hemiscrotum after birth. Left testicle was descended and normal. No clinical signs of distress were evident. A color Doppler ultrasound showed an absence of testicular blood flow, consistent with perinatal testicular torsion. The patient underwent a bilateral scrotal exploration through an inguinal incision and a necrotic right testicle was found. A right orchiectomy and left orchiopexy were performed. Perinatal testicular torsion is a rare but severe condition. A high clinical suspicion is required since most of perinatal testicular torsion are intrauterine and can often be asymptomatic, only with localized findings of the affected testis. The management of perinatal testicular torsion is still controversial; however, the most consensual approach is a prompt testicle exploration with orchiectomy of the necrotic testicle and contralateral orchiopexy

Recém-nascido do sexo masculino com idade gestacional de 40 semanas, com edema e escurecimento cutâneo do hemiescroto direito constatados após o nascimento. O testículo esquerdo era palpável na bolsa escrotal e não apresentava alterações. A ecografia escrotal com Doppler revelou ausência de fluxo vascular no testículo direito, achado compatível com torção testicular perinatal. O doente foi submetido a exploração escrotal bilateral através de abordagem por via inguinal, tendo sido confirmada a necrose do testículo direito. Foi realizada orquidectomia direita e orquidopexia esquerda. A torção testicular perinatal corresponde a uma patologia rara, mas com possíveis consequências graves. O seu diagnóstico requer elevada suspeição clínica, uma vez que a maioria dos casos ocorre no período pré-natal, podendo ser assintomáticos após o nascimento e manifestar-se com alterações localizadas ao testículo afetado. A abordagem da torção testicular perinatal é ainda controversa, sendo mais consensual uma exploração escrotal célere com orquidectomia do testículo necrosado e orquidopexia contralateral

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Infant, Newborn , Orchiectomy , Orchiopexy
Singapore medical journal ; : 249-254, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984206


INTRODUCTION@#Doppler scrotal ultrasonography (US) is the modality of choice in diagnosing testicular torsion. We aimed to evaluate the performance of scrotal US in diagnosing testicular torsion over the past 18 years in our institution and determine the factors contributing to the length of wait times for it.@*METHODS@#A retrospective review was conducted of boys who presented with acute scrotal pain from 2014 to 2015. US reports, operative findings, final diagnosis and key time points of the patients' journey (time to emergency department consultation, time to admission, time to US and time to operating theatre [OT]) were collected. US performance results were compared with those observed in a historical cohort from 1998 to 2004. Wait times were compared between operated and non-operated patients.@*RESULTS@#Data from 519 boys with a mean age of 9.15 years was collected. Of these, 438 (84.4%) boys had undergone initial scrotal US; of these scrotal US cases, 28 were surgically explored, with 23 confirmed to have torsion. Another five cases were explored without prior US, and all were confirmed to have torsion. Performance analysis of US showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.8%. There was no significant difference between wait times of operated and non-operated patients. Time to US (P < 0.0001, r = 0.96) and time to OT (P < 0.0001, r = 0.64) correlated significantly with the total time from presentation to surgery.@*CONCLUSION@#There has been an improvement in the diagnostic performance of scrotal US for testicular torsion over the past 18 years. Quality improvement programmes targeted at reducing wait times for patients presenting with acute scrotum should target time to US and time to OT.

Male , Child , Humans , Female , Scrotum/surgery , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Acute Pain/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Retrospective Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(6): 1219-1227, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340041


ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose a modified surgical technique for immediate intravaginal prosthesis implantation in patients undergoing orchiectomy due to testicular torsion, and to evaluate the wound healing process and patient's satisfaction. Material and methods: We prospectively analyzed 137 patients with testicular torsion admitted to our facility between April 2018 and May 2020. Twenty-five patients who underwent orchiectomy were included in this study. Fifteen had a testicular prosthesis implanted at the same time as orchiectomy using a modified intravaginal technique (summary figure) and 10 received implants 6 to 12 months after orchiectomy. Wound healing was evaluated at a minimum of four checkpoints (on days 15, 45, 90 and 180 after surgery). At the end of the study, a questionnaire was administered to measure patients' satisfaction rate. Student's t test was used for comparison of quantitative data between negative vs. positive cultures (p <0.05). The chi-square test was used to verify associations between categorical variables and immediate vs. late prosthesis implantation (p <0.05). Results: Patient's ages ranged from 13 to 23 years (mean 16.44 years). Overall time lapse from symptoms to orchiectomy ranged from 10 hours to 25 days (mean 7.92 days). Only one extrusion occurred and it happened in the late implant group. All wounds were healed in 72%, 88%, 95.8% and 100% of the cases on the 15th, 45th, 90th and 180th days after implant, respectively. At the end of the study, all patients stated they would recommend it to a friend or relative. The only patient that had prothesis extrusion asked to have it implanted again. Conclusion: There was no prosthesis extrusion using the modified intravaginal surgical technique for immediate testicular prosthesis implantation, which proved to be an easily performed and safe procedure that can avoid further reconstructive surgery in patients whose testicle was removed due to testicular torsion.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Prostheses and Implants , Testis/surgery , Orchiectomy , Retrospective Studies , Prosthesis Implantation
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5472, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154095


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association between climate changes in the macroregions in the state of São Paulo and testicular torsion treated cases. Methods: The cases were selected in the Brazilian Public Health Data System Database from January 2008 to November 2016. All surgical procedure records were identified by the Hospital Admission Authorization document. Two codes were selected to process the search: testicular torsion (surgical cure code) and acute scrotum (exploratory scrototomy code). The macroregions were grouped in five areas linked to climate characteristics by International Köppen Climate Classification. Results: A total of 2,351 cases of testicular torsion were registered in the period. For the areas B, C and E (testicular torsion n=2,130) there were statistical differences found in association of testicular torsion cases and decreased temperature (p=0.019, p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively), however, in analyses for the areas A and D statistical differences were not observed (p=0.066 and p=0.494). Conclusion: Decrease in temperature was associated with testicular torsion in three macroregions of São Paulo. The findings support the theory of cold weather like a trigger in occurrence of testicular torsion in a tropical climate region.

RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre mudanças climáticas nas macrorregiões do estado de São Paulo e os casos tratados com torção testicular registrados. Métodos: Os casos foram selecionados no Banco de Dados do Sistema de Dados de Saúde Pública do Brasil de janeiro de 2008 a novembro de 2016. Todos os registros de procedimentos cirúrgicos foram identificados pelo documento de Autorização de Internação Hospitalar. Dois códigos foram selecionados para processar a busca: torção testicular (código de cura cirúrgica) e escroto agudo (código de escrototomia exploratória). As macrorregiões foram agrupadas em cinco áreas ligadas às características climáticas pela Classificação Internacional de Clima Köppen. Resultados: Foram registrados 2.351 casos de torção testicular no período. Para as áreas B, C e E (torção testicular n=2.130), foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas na associação dos casos de torção testicular e diminuição da temperatura (p=0,019, p=0,001 e p=0,006, respectivamente), mas nas análises das áreas A e D não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas (p=0,066 e p=0,494). Conclusão: A diminuição da temperatura foi associada à torção testicular em três macrorregiões de São Paulo. Os resultados apoiam a teoria do clima frio como um gatilho para ocorrência de torção testicular em uma região de clima tropical.

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord Torsion/epidemiology , Climate Change , Scrotum/physiopathology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 972-981, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134251


ABSTRACT Purpose To estimate statewide presentation delay, misdiagnosis rate, inter-hospital transfer times and testicular salvage for testicular torsion patients treated in our state's public health system. Patients and Methods Case series of consecutive testicular torsion patients treated in our state's public health system between 2012-2018. Predictors included presentation delay (time from symptoms to first medical assessment), facilitie's level-of-care (primary, secondary, tertiary), first diagnosis (torsion, epididymitis, other), Doppler-enhanced ultrasound request (Doppler-US) and inter-hospital transfer times, with surgical organ salvage as the main response. We used Bayesian regression to estimate the effect of first examining facilitie's level-of-care, first diagnosis, and Doppler-US on transfer time. Results 505 patients were included, most (298, 59%) with presentation delay >6 hours. Misdiagnosis at first examining facility raised transfer time from median 2.8 to 23.4 (epididymitis) and 37.9 hours (other) and lowered testicular salvage rates from 60.3% (torsion) to 10.7% (epididymitis) and 18.3% (other). Doppler-US had negligible effects on transfer time once controlling for misdiagnosis in the regression model. Although organ salvage in patients presenting before 6 hours at the tertiary facility was high (94.6%, and about 20% lower for those presenting at lower levels-of-care), the overall salvage rate was more modest (46%). Conclusion Our low overall testicular salvage rates originated from a large proportion of late presentations combined with long transfer times caused by frequent misdiagnoses. Our results indicate that efforts to improve salvage rates should aim at enhancing population-wide disease awareness and continuously updating physicians working at primary and secondary levels-of-care about scrotal emergencies.

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Spermatic Cord Torsion/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Treatment Outcome , Diagnostic Errors , Hospitals
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1114647


Introducción: El sindrome escrotal agudo es una causa frecuente de consulta en la urgencia pediátrica y el diagnóstico de su etiología puede ser realmente un desafío para el pediatra y el cirujano. Existen múltiples etiologías posibles, siendo la torsión de cordón espermático la más importante, porque el retraso en su diagnóstico y tratamiento conlleva una alta incidencia de necrosis gonadal. Esta patología debe considerarse una emergencia quirúrgica. El objetivo de este artículo es conocer la situación de la torsión de cordón espermático en nuestro medio ya que existe un único estudio sobre esta patología realizado hace más de 30 años. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se identificaron todas las escrototomías realizadas con planteo clínico de síndrome escrotal agudo con la sospecha de una torsión de cordón espermático, en el período comprendido entre el 1.º de enero de 2015 y el 31 de diciembre de 2018. Se analizó la edad de los pacientes, patología diagnosticada en el intraoperatorio, lado afectado, sentido de la rotación y procedimiento realizado. Resultados: En el período comprendido entre el 1.º de enero de 2015 y el 31 de diciembre de 2018 se intervinieron quirúrgicamente 68 pacientes con diagnóstico de sindrome escrotal agudo. Del total, 49 pacientes (72 %) presentaron una torsión de cordón espermático, y a 16 (32,6 %) se les realizó orquiectomía. A todos se les realizó pexia testicular contralateral en el mismo acto quirúrgico. Conclusiones: En el período analizado fueron intervenidos 49 pacientes con torsión de cordón espermático. En 16 casos se realizó orquiectomía. Se identificó una leve predominancia del lado derecho, y el sentido de la rotación fue principalmente interno, si bien existe un importante subregistro de dicho dato en las descripciones operatorias. En el 72 % de los pacientes en quienes se decidió conservar la gónada, el cirujano describe una importante isquemia testicular, por lo que resulta fundamental realizar, para un futuro artículo, el seguimiento de estos pacientes para conocer su evolución.

Introduction: Acute scrotal syndrome is a frequent cause of consultation in the pediatric emergency and the diagnosis of its etiology can really be a challenge for the pediatrician and the surgeon. There are multiple possible etiologies, with torsion of the spermatic cord being the most important due to the high incidence of gonadal necrosis that the delay in diagnosis and treatment entails. This pathology should be considered a surgical emergency. The objective of this article is to know the situation of spermatic cord torsion in our environment since there is only one study done on this pathology more than 30 years ago. Material and method: A descriptive and retrospective observational study was carried out. All scrototomies performed with a clinical approach to acute scrotal syndrome were identified with the suspicion of spermatic cord torsion in the period between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2018. The patients' age, pathology was analyzed. Diagnosed intraoperatively, affected side, direction of rotation and procedure performed. Results: In the period between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2018, 68 patients were diagnosed with a diagnosis of acute scrotal syndrome. Of the total, 49 patients (72 %) had spermatic cord torsion, and 16 (32.6 %) had orchiectomy. All of them underwent contralateral testicular pexia in the same surgical act. Conclusions: In the analyzed period, 49 patients with spermatic cord torsion were operated. In 16 cases orchiectomy was performed. A slight predominance of the right side was identified, and the direction of rotation was mainly internal, although there is an important underreporting of this data in the operative descriptions. In 72 % of the patients in whom it was decided to preserve the gonad, the surgeon describes an important testicular ischemia, so it is essential for a future article to monitor these patients to know their evolution.

Introdução: A síndrome escrotal aguda é uma causa freqüente de consulta na emergência pediátrica e o diagnóstico de sua etiologia pode realmente ser um desafio para o pediatra e o cirurgião. Existem múltiplas etiologias possíveis, sendo a torção do cordão espermático a mais importante devido à alta incidência de necrose gonadal que o atraso no diagnóstico e tratamento acarreta. Essa patologia deve ser considerada uma emergência cirúrgica. O objetivo deste artigo é conhecer a situação de torção do cordão espermático em nosso ambiente, uma vez que existe apenas um estudo sobre essa patologia há mais de 30 anos. Material e método: Foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo e retrospectivo. Todas as escrototomias realizadas com abordagem clínica da síndrome escrotal aguda foram identificadas com suspeita de torção espermática no período de 1 de janeiro de 2015 a 31 de dezembro de 2018. A idade dos pacientes foi analisada. diagnosticado no intraoperatório, lado afetado, direção da rotação e procedimento realizado. Resultados: No período de 1 de janeiro de 2015 a 31 de dezembro de 2018, 68 pacientes foram diagnosticados com diagnóstico de síndrome escrotal aguda. Do total, 49 pacientes (72 %) apresentaram torção espermática e 16 (32,6 %) tiveram orquiectomia. Todos foram submetidos a pexia testicular contralateral no mesmo ato cirúrgico. Conclusões: No período analisado, foram operados 49 pacientes com torção espermática. Em 16 casos, foi realizada orquiectomia. Foi identificada uma ligeira predominância do lado direito, e o sentido de rotação era principalmente interno, embora exista uma importante subnotificação desses dados nas descrições operatórias. Em 72 % dos pacientes nos quais foi decidido preservar a gônada, o cirurgião descreve uma importante isquemia testicular, por isso é essencial que um artigo futuro monitore esses pacientes para conhecer sua evolução.

Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Spermatic Cord Torsion/diagnosis , Testis/surgery , Testis/pathology , Orchiectomy , Orchiopexy , Acute Disease , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 39(2): 427-434, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141291


Introdução: Escroto agudo é uma síndrome clínica caracterizada por aumento do volume escrotal, associada à dor, sudorese, febre, náuseas e vômitos. Entre suas causas, destaca-se a torção de cordão espermático, que corresponde a rotação testicular sob seu eixo vascular, comprometendo a irrigação tecidual. Trata-se de uma emergência urológica cujo tratamento é cirúrgico. Objetivo: Relatar um caso e revisar a literatura acerca desta patologia. Materiais e Métodos: Revisão do prontuário e revisão da literatura. Resultados: Homem de 14 anos com dor intermitente no testículo esquerdo há duas semanas. A ultrassonografia diagnosticou torção testicular e do cordão espermático à esquerda. O paciente realizou orquiectomia tendo alta no dia seguinte. Conclusão: Os relatos de casos relacionados à torção de cordão espermático têm sua importância baseados na necessidade do aprendizado e no reconhecimento rápido dessa condição pelo profissional médico, visando o manejo adequado e de prontidão dos pacientes acometidos pela condição.

Introduction: Acute scrotum is a clinical syndrome characterized by increased scrotal volume, which is associated with pain, sweating, fever, nausea, and vomiting. Among its causes, the spermatic cord torsion is easy noticed and corresponds to the testicular rotation under its vascular axis, compromising tissue irrigation. It is a urological emergency, and its treatment is surgical. Objective: Report a case and review the literature about this disease. Materials and Methods: Medical record review and literature review. Case Results: A 14-year-old man with pain in his left testicle for two weeks underwent an ultrasound scan that detected testicular and spermatic cord torsion. A left orchiectomy was performed and the man was discharged the next day. Conclusion: Case reports related to twisting of the spermatic cord have its importance based on the need for learning and rapid recognition of this condition by the medical professional, aiming at an adequate and ready management of the patients affected by the condition.

Male , Diagnostic Techniques, Urological , Spermatic Cord Torsion , Orchiectomy
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 29(4): 225-230, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1411065


Objective Testicular torsion (TT) is an emergency with an incidence of 1:1,500 in patients < 18 years old. Irreversible changes in the testicular parenchyma may happen. The Testicular Workup for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion (TWIST) questionnaire evaluates signs and symptoms to determine the risk of TT and improve the time of management. The aim of the present study was to compare the intraoperative findings of patients with TT with the result of the preoperative TWIST questionnaire. Methods A cohort of 33 pediatric patients that consulted to the emergency room was evaluated. The TWIST questionnaire was applied in the first approach. Imaging studies, time to the operating room (OR) and intraoperative findings were evaluated. Theoretical and real findings were compared. Results The median age was 13 years old (interquartile range [IQR] 10­15 years old). Edema and scrotal inflammation was the most frequent finding (42.4%), followed by testicular induration (21.2%), nausea and vomiting (15.2%), and horizontal testicle and absence of cremasteric reflex (9.1%). The TWIST stratification was 3% high-risk, 18.2% intermediate-risk and 78.8% low-risk. Testicular Doppler ultrasound was performed in 93.9% of the patients: vascular congestion was found in 21.9%. A total of 30.3% of the kids were taken to surgery after 163 minutes (±116.5). Intraoperative diagnosis of TT was confirmed in the high-risk patient, in 33.3% of the intermediate-risk, and in 50% of the low-risk. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an accuracy of 60% (p = 0.602). Conclusions The TWIST questionnaire in the first approach allows to take the high-risk patients im

Objetivo La torsión testicular (TT) es una emergencia con incidencia de 1:1.500 en pacientes menores de 18 años. Pueden ocurrir cambios irreversibles en el parénquima testicular. El cuestionario TWIST evalúa signos y síntomas para determinar el riesgo de TT y mejorar los tiempos de atención. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los hallazgos intraoperatorios de los pacientes con el resultado del TWIST preoperatorio. Métodos Se evaluó una cohorte de 33 pacientes pediátricos que consultaron al Departamento de Emergencias. Se aplicó el cuestionario TWIST en la primera aproximación. Estudios imagenológicos, tiempo de entrada a salas de cirugía y hallazgos intraoperatorios también fueron evaluados. Se compararon los hallazgos teóricos y reales. Resultados La mediana de edad fue de 13 años (rango intercuartil [RIQ]: 10­15). Edema e inflamación escrotal fueron los hallazgos principales, (42,4%) seguidos de induración testicular (21,2%), náusea y vómito (15,2%), y testículo horizontal y ausencia del reflejo cremastérico (9,1%). Estratificación TWIST: 3% alto riesgo, 18,2% intermedio, y 78,8% bajo. Se realizó Doppler testicular en 93,9% de los pacientes: se encontró congestión vascular en 21,9%. Se operaron 30,3% de niños tras 163 minutos (± 116,5). En el intraoperatorio se confirmó TT en el paciente de alto riesgo, en 33,3% de intermedio, y en 50% de bajo riesgo. La curva de característica operativa del receptor (COR) evidencia una exactitud de 60% (p = 0.602). Conclusiones El cuestionario TWIST en la primera aproximación es útil para operar inmediatamente pacientes de alto riesgo. Sin embargo, no ofrece un alto nivel de confianza para el diagnóstico de TT en pacientes de intermedio y bajo riesgo.

Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Spermatic Cord Torsion , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emergencies , Testis , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Parenchymal Tissue
Acta cir. bras ; 35(1): e202000103, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088520


Abstract Purpose To investigate the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum on testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D)-induced ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were randomly categorized into 3 groups: Group 1: sham, Group 2 ( T/D): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion, Group 3 (T/D+ G. lucidum ): 2,5 hours of ischemia and 7 days of reperfusion and 7 days of 20 mg/kg via gastric gavage G. lucidum polysaccharides per day. Biochemical assays of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione (GSH) levels , histopathology and expression levels of VEGF and Bcl-2 with immunohistochemical methods were examined in testicular tissue. Results G. lucidum treatment was found to have prevented the T/D-induced I/R injury by decreasing MDA levels of the testis. SOD, CAT and GSH activities were decreased in group 2, while they were increased in group 3 (p<0.001) and significant improvement in the tube diameter was observed in group 3. Bcl-2-positive germinal cells were lowered in group 3 compared to the group 2. VEGF expression showed an increase in group 2, whereas it decreased in group 3. Conclusion The antioxidant G. lucidum is thought to induce angiogenesis by reducing the apoptotic effect in testicular torsion-detorsion.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatic Cord Torsion/complications , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Reishi/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Testis/drug effects , Testis/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Catalase/metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 64-69, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009775


The testicular prosthesis can be an afterthought for providers when performing an orchiectomy for testicular cancer, torsion, atrophic testis, or trauma. However, data suggest that patients find the offer of a testicular prosthesis and counseling regarding placement to be extremely important from both a pragmatic and a psychosocial perspective. Only two-thirds of men undergoing orchiectomy are offered an implant at the time of orchiectomy and of those offered about one-third move forward with prosthesis placement. The relatively low acceptance rate is in stark contrast with high patient satisfaction and low complication rates for those who undergo the procedure. The most common postoperative patient concerns are minor and involve implant positioning, size, and weight. Herein, we provide an up-to-date review of modern preoperative evaluation, patient selection, expectation management, surgical technique, and expected outcomes for testicular prostheses.

Humans , Male , Counseling , Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY/surgery , Orchiectomy , Patient Satisfaction , Patient Selection , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Testicular Diseases/surgery , Testicular Neoplasms/surgery , Testis/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male/methods
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 112-117, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009737


The aim of this work was to study effects of ketotifen fumarate (KF) on prevention of tissue damage in testes of rats with experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) and on the contralateral testis in a model of prolonged testicular cord torsion (TCT). Rats with EAO or TCT were injected intraperitoneally once daily with KF or saline solution (vehicle group). Incidence and severity of testicular damage were evaluated by histopathology using an EAO score or a Johnsen score. Mast cells (MC) were identified by histochemistry and quantified. In EAO model, KF significantly reduced severity of histopathological testicular damage compared to rats in the vehicle group. KF also reduced the number of testicular MC compared to vehicle group. Similarly, in TCT model, multifocal damage of the contralateral testis was observed 30 days after testicular torsion characterized by sloughing of the germinal epithelium, seminiferous tubule atrophy, and interstitial edema. Focal signs of inflammation and fibrosis of seminiferous tubular walls were also observed. In contrast, sections of contralateral testis of rats injected with KF and killed 30 days after surgery showed normal histological features. A significant decrease in the number of MC was observed in rats treated with KF compared to untreated animals. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with KF reduced testicular inflammatory process and MC infiltrates in both EAO and TCT models. The results suggest a promising treatment for infertile male patients with testicular pathologies associated with inflammation and germ cell loss.

Animals , Male , Rats , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Cell Count , Epididymis/pathology , Epididymitis/pathology , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Ketotifen/pharmacology , Mast Cells/pathology , Orchitis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Testis/pathology , Vaccination
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 6(1): 12-47, jun. 2019. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088689


Si bien la porción del genoma destinada a la síntesis de proteínas es muy pequeña, actualmente se sabe que casi todo el genoma se expresa bajo forma de ARNs no codificantes. Entre dichos ARNs se encuentran los ARNs no codificantes largos (lncRNAs). Aunque los lncRNAs han sido muy poco estudiados, recientemente han comenzado a centrar la atención de los investigadores, al descubrirse que los mismos pueden desempeñar diversas funciones en la regulación de la expresión génica. Además, su vinculación con patologías ha comenzado a ser puesta de manifiesto. Curiosamente, la cantidad de lncRNAs presentes en el testículo es abrumadoramente mayor que en cualquier otro órgano o tejido estudiado. Los perfiles de expresión de estos lncRNAs varían significativamente a lo largo de la espermatogénesis, y algunas evidencias sugieren que al menos algunos de ellos podrían participar en el proceso de formación de células germinales masculinas. No obstante, el conocimiento sobre el tema es aún muy escaso. En este trabajo revisamos la información disponible sobre la expresión de lncRNAs en el testículo y sus posibles funciones. Asimismo, analizamos algunos ejemplos que ilustran la participación de lncRNAs en el desarrollo de patologías como la infertilidad y el cáncer testicular.

Although the portion of the genome devoted to protein synthesis is very small, it is now known that almost the entire genome is expressed as non-coding RNAs. Among them, there are long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Despite that lncRNAs have been very poorly studied, they have recently started to focus the attention of researchers, as it has been found out that lncRNAs can perform diverse functions in the regulation of gene expression. Besides, their involvement in pathologies is being revealed. Intriguingly, the amount of lncRNAs in the testis is overwhelmingly higher than in any other analyzed organ or tissue. LncRNA expression profiles significantly vary along spermatogenesis, and some evidence suggests that at least some of them could participate in the formation of male germ cells. However, knowledge on the subject is still very scarce. In this work we review the available information on the expression of lncRNAs in testis and their possible roles. We also analyze some examples that illustrate the participation of lncRNAs in the development of pathologies such as infertility and testicular cancer.

Embora a porção do genoma usada para a síntese proteica seja muito pequena, sabe-se agora que quase todo o genoma é expresso na forma de RNAs não-codificantes. Entre esses RNAs estão os longos RNAs não codificantes (lncRNAs). Embora os lncRNAs tenham sido pouco estudados, eles recentemente começaram a focar a atenção dos pesquisadores, ao descobrirem que podem desempenhar diversas funções na regulação da expressão gênica. Além disso, sua ligação com as patologias começou a ser revelada. Curiosamente, a quantidade de lncRNAs presentes nos testículos é esmagadoramente maior do que em qualquer outro órgão ou tecido estudado. Os perfis de expressão destes lncRNAs variam significativamente ao longo da espermatogênese, e algumas evidências sugerem que pelo menos alguns deles poderiam participar no processo de formação de células germinativas masculinas. No entanto, o conhecimento sobre o assunto ainda é muito escasso. Neste trabalho, revisamos as informações disponíveis sobre a expressão de lncRNAs no testículo e suas possíveis funções. Também analisamos alguns exemplos que ilustram a participação dos lncRNAs no desenvolvimento de patologias como infertilidade e câncer testicular.

Humans , Testicular Diseases/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/adverse effects , Spermatic Cord Torsion/genetics , Testicular Neoplasms/genetics , Azoospermia/genetics
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 490-494, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772074


OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the clinical characteristics of testicular torsion and explore the relationship between its incidence and temperature, the value of supplementary examinations, and the factors causing misdiagnosis and testicular lesions.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of the patients with testicular torsion diagnosed in 9 hospitals in Hunan Province from May 1, 2009 to November 1, 2018. The temperature at onset and WBC value after onset were analyzed. The misdiagnosis rate and testicular lesion rate in the first-visit hospitals were compared between the large general hospitals and local hospitals. The factors that affected the diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 274 cases were included in this study, and misdiagnoses occurred in 151 cases (61.9%). The initial diagnosis was made in large general hospitals in 59 cases; misdiagnosis occurred in 30.5% of the cases and the rate of testicular lesions was 57.6%. Of the 215 cases first diagnosed in local hospitals, only 82 cases were diagnosed correctly, and the misdiagnosis rate was as high as 61.9%; the rate of testicular lesion was 85.6% in these cases. There were significant differences in the misdiagnosis rate and testicular lesion rate between the two groups ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The first-visit misdiagnosis rate of testicular torsion is much lower and the probability of testicle preservation is significantly higher in large general hospitals than in the local hospitals, suggesting the importance of health education for testicular torsion, enhancing the awareness of this condition and training of the surgeons in primary hospitals.

Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Spermatic Cord Torsion , Testis
The World Journal of Men's Health ; : 99-104, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719625


PURPOSE: Though prompt diagnosis to minimize symptom duration (SD) is highly associated with organ salvage in cases of testicular torsion (TT), SD is subjective and hard to determine. We thus investigated the clinical implications of systemic inflammatory responses (SIRs) as potential surrogates of SD to improve testis survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty men with TT that underwent immediate operation among orchiectomy and orchiopexy following a visit to a single emergency department were retrospectively enrolled. Mandatory laboratory tests conducted included neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. RESULTS: Mean age and SD was 15.7±3.7 years and 8.27±4.98 hours, respectively. Thirty-eight (63.3%) underwent orchiectomy and the remaining 22 underwent orchiopexy. Leukocytosis (p=0.001) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the orchiopexy group as was SD (3.27±1.88 vs. 11.16±3.80, p < 0.001). Although multivariate model showed that the only single variable associated with receipt of orchiopexy was SD (odds ratio [OR]=0.259, p < 0.001), it also revealed NLR as a sole SIR associated with SD (B=0.894, p < 0.001). While 93.3% with a SD of within 3 hours underwent orchiopexy, only 26.6% of affected testes were preserved between 3 to 12 hours (n=30). When multivariable analysis was applied to those with window period, NLR alone predicted orchiopexy rather than orchiectomy (p=0.034, OR=0.635, p=0.013). The area under curve between SD (0.882) and NLR (0.756) was similar (p=0.14). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed NLR independently predicted testis survival by proper surgical correction particularly for patients with marginally delayed diagnosis, which suggest the clinical usefulness for identifying candidates for orchiopexy in emergency setting.

Humans , Male , Area Under Curve , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Inflammation , Leukocytosis , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Orchiectomy , Orchiopexy , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Spermatic Cord Torsion , Symptom Assessment , Testis
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 28(4): 339-342, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402716


La torsión testicular es una patología que afecta directamente la calidad del esperma de los pacientes debido a la ruptura de la barrera hematotesticular, lo cual hace que se formen anticuerpos antiesperma, que inclusive afectan al testículo contralateral. Múltiples estudios tanto en modelos animales como humanos, permiten hacer evidente la relación entre la torsión testicular y la formación de anticuerpos antiesperma y su repercusión clínica, principalmente, en la fertilidad.

Testicular torsion is a condition that directly affects the quality of the sperm of patients due to rupture of the blood-testis barrier; it leads to the formation of antisperm antibodies and can even affect the contralateral testis. This condition has been demonstrated previously, and multiple studies have been conducted in both animal and human models. In this review, the evidence from studies of testicular torsion, the formation of antisperm antibodies, and the clinical repercussions, mainly with respect to fertility, is presented.

Humans , Male , Spermatic Cord Torsion , Testis , Semen , Spermatozoa , Blood-Testis Barrier , Antibody Formation
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(5): 1005-1013, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975634


ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate protective effects of darbepoetin and tadalafil against ischemia-reperfusion injury in ipsilateral and contralateral testicle. Materials and Methods: Thirty 3-month-old adult male Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (A-E). Sham operation was performed in the first group. In Group B, rats did not received any medication after creating 720 degrees torsion of the left testis. The rats in Group C, D and E received darbepoetin, tadalafil, and darbepoetin/tadalafil combination 30 minutes after creating 720 degrees torsion of the left testis, respectively. The testes of rats in these three groups were detorsioned at 90 minutes after drug administration. Both testes were removed at 30 minutes after detorsion. Results: There were significant differences between the groups in terms of the degree of histopathological damage, Johnsen score, fibrosis score and caspase-3 immunoreactivity in the torsioned testes (p: 0.000). The results for each parameter in the left testes were significantly better in the darbepoetin / tadalafil combination group. Similarly, there were also significant differences in the contralateral testes (p: 0.000). Conclusion: The active substances darbepoetin and tadalafil that were used as a combination had protective effects on both testes and produced out better results in preserving testicular histology. Especially in cases where it is not possible to rescue the torsioned testis, this result was more noticeable in the contralateral testis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Tadalafil/administration & dosage , Darbepoetin alfa/administration & dosage , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Xylazine/administration & dosage , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Ketamine/administration & dosage
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(3): 617-622, May-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954058


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effect of papaverine and alprostadil on testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. Four hours of right testicular torsion was applied to each group, excluding sham oper- ated group. The torsion-detorsion (T/D), T/D + papaverine and T/D + alprostadil groups received saline, papaverine and alprostadil at the same time as surgical detorsion, respectively. At 14 days after the surgical detorsion, ischaemic changes and the degree of damage were evaluated with Cosentino scoring and the Johnson tubular biopsy score (JTBS). Results: JTBS was determined as 8.8±2.7 in the Sham group, 5.08±1.9 in the T/D+papaverine group, 5.29±2.3 in the T/D +alprostadil group and 2.86±1.9 in the TD group. The JTBS was determined to be statistically significantly high in both the T/D + papaverine group and the T/D + alprostadil group compared to the T/D group (p=0.01, p=0.009). In the T/D + papaverine group, 3 (43%) testes were classified as Cosentino 2, 3 (43%) as Cosentino 3 and 1 (14%) as Cosentino 4. In the T/D +alprostadil group, 5 (50 %) testes were classified as Cosentino 2, 3 (30 %) as Cosentino 3 and 2 (20%) as Cosentino 4. Conclusion: The present study indicated that spermatic cord administration of alprostadil and papaverine showed a protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury after right-side testes torsion and histological changes were decreased after testicular ischemia reperfusion injury.

Animals , Male , Papaverine/therapeutic use , Spermatic Cord Torsion/prevention & control , Testis/blood supply , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Papaverine/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Testis/pathology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Alprostadil/therapeutic use , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/pharmacology
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(2): 393-396, Mar.-Apr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892973


ABSTRACT Bilateral testicular torsion is a very uncommon emergency, with a challenging differential diagnosis. We describe the case of a 15-year-old patient with a left testicular torsion of 48 hours of duration and a sudden onset of right scrotum pain during his stay at the emergency area. Bilateral testicular torsion was diagnosed after repeat physical examination and doppler ultrasound, which had been normal for right testis in a first evaluation. Surgical exploration was performed with orchiectomy in left testis and fixation in right testis. In previous literature, there are reported bilateral torsion only in four adolescents and five adults. With this case, we demonstrate that bilateral spermatic cord torsion may be easily overlooked in a patient with acute scrotum and we emphasize the importance of bilateral exploration in testicular torsion.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Spermatic Cord Torsion/diagnostic imaging , Spermatic Cord Torsion/surgery , Orchiectomy , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color