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Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1525-1527, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134471


SUMMARY: The study reported the influence of the high and acute dose of Letrozole on the testis morphology in paca (Cuniculus paca), an aromatase inhibitor that reduces the endogenous estrogen, the essential hormone for spermatogenesis. Morphological changes were observed in seminiferous epithelium with germ cells with apoptotic characteristics and presence of vacuoles and nuclei in pycnose.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la influencia de una dosis alta de Letrozol en la morfología de los testículos de la paca (Cuniculus paca), un inhibidor de la aromatasa que reduce el estrógeno endógeno, la hormona esencial para la espermatogénesis. Se observaron cambios morfológicos en el epitelio seminífero con células germinales con características apoptóticas y la presencia de vacuolas y núcleos en picnosis.

Animals , Male , Testis/drug effects , Aromatase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cuniculidae , Letrozole/administration & dosage , Seminiferous Epithelium/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Orchiectomy , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Germ Cells/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1572-1577, Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040171


Hypoxia hypobaric (HH) can cause alterations at testicular level, with temperature increase, intrascrotal alteration and deterioration of spermatogenesis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketoprofen have anti-angiogenic properties, and can decrease testicular abnormalities. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of ketoprofen on spermatogenesis of mice exposed to continuous hypobaric hypoxia. 78 Mus musculus CF-1 male mice 3 to 4 months old were used and subjected to HH in chamber at 4200 m. They were divided into 13 groups (G) of 6 animals: 10 with HH cycles (1, 2, 3, 4 and 8, lasting 8.3 days each cycle, two groups each) and 3 in normoxia (Nx). Intraperitoneal ketoprofen 25 mg/kg was administered every 4 days. Euthanasia of these animals was performed at the end of each cycle and in the case the Nx groups at the end of cycles 1, 4 and 8. Percentage of microhematocrit and reticulocytes were measured in blood smears and a morphometric and histopathological analysis of the height of the epithelium, the tubular diameter and the diameter of the tubular lumen was made. It was shown that hematocrit increases continuously up to 8 cycles, while reticulocytes increase up to 3 cycles. Continuous HH decreases the tubular diameter in a sustained manner and proportional to HH cycles, and the height increased only in the groups subjected to 8 cycles. The groups treated with ketoprofen saw a decrease in angiogenesis, presenting some degree of protection at the testicular level.

La hipoxia hipobárica (HH) puede provocar alteraciones a nivel testicular, con aumento de la temperatura, alteración intraescrotal y deterioro de la espermatogénesis. Los antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINEs) como el ketoprofeno tienen propiedades antiangiogénicas, pudiendo disminuir las alteraciones testiculares. El objetivo de estudio fue evaluar el efecto del ketoprofeno en la espermatogénesis de ratones expuestos a hipoxia hipobárica continua. Se utilizaron 78 ratones macho Mus musculus CF-1 de 3 a 4 meses de edad y se sometieron a HH en cámara a 4200 m. Se dividieron en 13 grupos (G) de 6 animales: 10 con ciclos de HH (1, 2, 3, 4 y 8, con duración de 8,3 días cada ciclo, dos grupos cada uno) y 3 en normoxia (Nx). Se administró ketoprofeno intraperitoneal 25 mg/kg cada 4 días. La eutanasia de estos animales se realizó al final de cada ciclo y en el caso los grupos Nx al final de los ciclos 1, 4 y 8. Se midió porcentaje de microhematocrito y reticulocitos en frotis de sangre y se hizo un análisis morfométrico e histopatológico de la altura del epitelio, el diámetro tubular y el diámetro de la luz tubular. Se evidenció que el hematocrito aumenta de manera continua hasta los 8 ciclos, en cambio los reticulocitos aumentan hasta los 3 ciclos. La HH continua disminuye el diámetro tubular de forma sostenida y proporcional a los ciclos de HH, y la altura aumentó sólo en los grupos sometidos a 8 ciclos. Los grupos tratados con ketoprofeno se vio una disminución de la angiogénesis, presentando algún grado de protección a nivel testicular.

Animals , Male , Mice , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Reticulocytes/drug effects , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Testis/injuries , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Ketoprofen/administration & dosage , Hematocrit , Neovascularization, Pathologic
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(4): 815-824, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019894


ABSTRACT Introduction Chronic hyperglycemia is caused by diabetes mellitus-committed genital morphophysiology, and oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in this process. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can prevent metabolic and morphological changes in diabetic individuals. Objectives In present study, we evaluated the effects of regular ALA consumption on the spermatogenesis and histoarchitecture in the male genital system of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into groups: Control (CG); Diabetic Control (DCG), receiving commercial diet: ALA Group (ALAG) and Diabetic ALA Group (DALAG), fed diets with added ALA (300 mg/Kg bw). The diabetic groups received a single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After sixty days of the diet, the animals were euthanized, and semen, testis and epididymis samples were collected. A histomorphometric analysis was performed to determine the epithelial height, tubular and luminal diameter, tubular and luminal area of seminiferous tubules and each epididymal region. Sertoli cells were evidenced using the antivimenti antibody and were quantified. The results were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA test. Results At the end of the experiment, the DALAG glycemia was significantly lower than DCG. The histomorphometric parameters of the seminiferous and epididymal tubules did not show improvement in the DALAG. However, there was an improvement in the DALAG in terms of the concentration, motility and percentage of spermatic pathologies, as well as in the number of Sertoli cells (p<0.001). Conclusions The results demonstrated that supplementation with the ALA antioxidant retards testicular lesions and preserve the process of spermatogenesis in diabetes.

Animals , Male , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Thioctic Acid/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Epididymis/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Sertoli Cells , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Spermatozoa/physiology , Testis/physiopathology , Testis/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Epididymis/pathology
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 125-133, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886259


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the biochemical, histopathologic, and spermatogenetic changes in the detorsionated testicle after experimental torsion and to study the antioxidant effects of pheniramine maleate and nebivolol. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1: Sham; Group 2: Torsion/Detorsion (T/D); Group 3: T/D + Pheniramine maleate (PM); Group 4: T/D + Nebivolol (NB) group. Paroxanase (PON), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stres index (OSI) were measured, and spermatogenetic and histopathologic evaluation was performed in tissue and blood samples. Results: The evaluation of tissue TAS indicated no statistically significant difference in Group 3 compared to Group 2. A statistically significant increase was detected in Group 4 compared to Group 2. Serum PON levels revealed a statistically significant increase in Groups 3 and 4 compared to Groups 1 and 2. The Johnsen testicular biopsy score decreased in Groups 3 and 4, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Pheniramine maleate and nebivolol have antioxidant effects against ischemia-reperfusion damage. They also support tissue recovery, which is more significantly observed by nebivolol.

Animals , Male , Rats , Pheniramine/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/drug therapy , Testis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Nebivolol/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Spermatic Cord Torsion/pathology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/blood supply , Testis/pathology , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Aryldialkylphosphatase/blood , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17261, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951916


ABSTRACT Equigan is an anabolic steroid that has been developed for veterinary use and derived from endogenous sex hormone testosterone that plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissue as well as in puberty and spermatogenesis. The current study is aimed to investigate the possible prophylactic effect of star anise extracts (SAE) on the toxicity of rat testes, sexual hormones alternations, sperm count, sperm abnormalities and testicular DNA damage by Equigan. Forty adult male rats were equally divided into four groups (1st Control group, 2nd SAE group, 3rd Equigan and 4th Equigan+SAE group). Food and fluid intakes, relative body weight, potassium, chloride, phosphorous, non-progressive and immotile sperms were significantly increased in Equigan group as compared to control group. In contrast; relative testes weight, sodium, magnesium, total calcium, testosterone, FSH, LH, PRL, sperm count, progressive motility, and viability showed a significant decrease in Equigan group as compared to control groups. The relative weight of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostates and serum calcium ions didn't change significantly in different studied groups. Co-administration of SAE with Equigan improved the sexual toxicity, electrolyte alternations, sperm count, abnormalities and DNA damage induced by Equigan.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/analysis , Reproductive Techniques , Illicium/adverse effects , Reproductive Physiological Phenomena , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Bodily Secretions , DNA Fragmentation/drug effects , Fertility Agents, Male/analysis , Anabolic Agents/pharmacology
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1342-1347, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893139


SUMMARY: Morphine is one of the naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloids of opium that induces adverse effects on male reproductive system. Resveratrol is a phytoestrogen and antioxidant of red grape. The main goal is to investigate whether resveratrol could inhibit adverse effects of morphine on sperm cell viability, count, motility as well as testis histology, testosterone hormone and nitric oxide levels in mice. In the present study, 48 male rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=6) and were treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with normal saline, resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg/kg/day), morphine (20 mg/kg/day) and morphine (20 mg/kg/day) + resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg/kg/day). At the end of experiments, sperm parameters (sperm cell viability, count, motility and morphology), testis weight, the diameter of seminiferous tubules, testosterone hormone level and nitric oxide were analyzed. The data were analyzed by SPSS software for windows (version 20) using one-way ANOVA test followed by Tukey's post hoc test, and P<0.05 was considered significant. The results indicated that morphine administration significantly decreased testosterone level, count, viability and motility of sperm cells and testis weight and increased nitric oxide compared to the saline group (P=0.000). Administration of resveratrol and resveratrol plus morphine significantly increased motility, count and viability of sperm cells, somniferous tubule diameter and testosterone, while it decreased nitric oxide level compared to morphine group (P=0.025). It seems that resveratrol administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and prevented morphine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

RESUMEN: La morfina es uno de los alcaloides fenantreno del opio que induce efectos adversos en el sistema reproductivo masculino. El resveratrol es un fitoestrógeno y antioxidante de la uva roja. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue investigar si el resveratrol puede inhibir los efectos adversos de la morfina sobre la viabilidad celular de los espermatozoides, el recuento y la motilidad, así como la histología de los testículos, la hormona testosterona y los niveles de óxido nítrico en ratones. Se dividieron, aleatoriamente, 48 ratas machos en 8 grupos (n = 6) y se trataron de forma intraperitoneal durante 14 días con solución salina normal, resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg / kg / día), morfina (20 mg / kg / día ) y morfina (20 mg / kg / día) + resveratrol (2, 8, 20 mg / kg / día). Al final de los experimentos, se analizaron los parámetros espermáticos (viabilidad celular, recuento, motilidad y morfología), el peso de los testículos, el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos, el nivel de la hormona testosterona y el óxido nítrico. Los datos fueron analizados con el software de SPSS para Windows (versión 20) usando una prueba de ANOVA de una vía seguida de la prueba post hoc de Tukey, y P <0,05 se consideró significativo. Los resultados indicaron que la administración de morfina disminuyó significativamente el nivel de testosterona, el recuento, la viabilidad y la motilidad de los espermatozoides y el peso de los testículos, además del aumento de óxido nítrico en comparación con el grupo salino (p = 0,000). La administración de resveratrol y resveratrol más morfina aumentó significativamente la motilidad, el recuento y la viabilidad de los espermatozoides, el diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos y la testosterona, mientras que disminuyó el nivel de óxido nítrico comparado con el grupo morfina (p = 0,025). En conclusión, la administración de resveratrol podría aumentar la calidad de los espermatozoides y prevenir los efectos adversos inducidos por la morfina sobre los parámetros espermáticos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Genitalia, Male/drug effects , Morphine/toxicity , Sperm Motility , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Nitric Oxide/blood
Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2017; 39 (1): 32-24
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-188665


Background: Lead [Pb] is a one of the well-known dangerous contaminant Lead can cause disorders in the .process of spermatogenesis. Using medicinal plants to cure impotence and lack of sex cells can have a positive effect. In this study, parsley extract on spermatogenesis in male rats which have received lead acetate is investigated

Methods: In the present study, 36 rats were divided into 6 groups of 6. Animals received lead acetate and extract of parsley for a period of 28 days. After 28 days, animals were weighted and were anesthetized by ether, then the body and testis were weighted and numbers of spermatocytes, spermatogonia, Leydig cells were studied. The obtained results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests

Results: Lead acetate significantly decreased the spermatocytes, spermatogonia, Leydig cells. Parsley extract with 200 mg/kg dose could lead to a significant increase of sperms in the tube lumen [p<0.05]

Conclusion: Parsley's extract effect on spermatogenesis in male rats which received lead acetate was justified

Animals, Laboratory , Male , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Lead/toxicity , Plants, Medicinal , Rats, Wistar
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(12): 1584-1590, dic. 2016.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845489


Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

Humans , Male , Finasteride/adverse effects , 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Finasteride/therapeutic use , Alopecia/drug therapy , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Erectile Dysfunction/chemically induced
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 533-540, June 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787033


Sildenafil is widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction with few studies are available on the protective role of propolis against its reproductive toxicity. The present study aims to investigate the hormonal biochemical and histomorphometric alterations induced in the testicular tissues by sildenafil overdoses. Four groups of rabbits were exposed to sildenafil with or without propolis as follows: Group I received the formulated vehicle, Group II received sildenafil (3 mg/kg), Group III received propolis (50 mg/kg), Group IV received sildenafil plus propolis. Sildenafil lowered body weight gain, testosterone and follicular stimulating hormone concentration but increased testis index while luteinizing hormone was almost not affected. Moreover, sildenafil treated rabbits showed degenerative seminiferous tubules and disturbance of spermatogenesis together with spermatocytes sloughing and nuclear alterations. Exposure to sildenafil plus propolis ameliorated tubular alterations, spermatogenesis disturbances, hormonal levels changes and partially protected spermatocytes from morphological nuclear alterations but could not ameliorate the effect on the body weight gain and testis index. The findings of the present work may indicate that propolis can ameliorate partially the reproductive toxicity induced by sildenafil overdoses with more need for further studies on the adverse effect of these doses on the other vital organs.

El sildenafil es un medicamento ampliamente utilizado para el tratamiento de la disfunción eréctil y existen pocos estudios disponibles referente a la función protectora del propóleo contra su toxicidad reproductiva. El objetivo fue investigar las alteraciones hormonales, bioquímicas e histomorfométricas, inducidas en los tejidos testiculares por sobredosis de sildenafil. Cuatro grupos de conejos fueron expuestos a sildenafil con o sin propóleo de la siguiente manera: grupo I recibió el sildenafil formulado, grupo II recibió sildenafil (3 mg/kg), grupo III recibió propóleo (50 mg/kg) y el grupo IV recibió sildenafil más propóleo. El sildenafil redujo el peso corporal, la testosterona y la concentración de la hormona foliculoestimulante, sin embargo, se observó un aumento del índice testicular mientras que la hormona luteinizante casi no se vio afectada. Por otra parte, los conejos tratados con sildenafil mostraron degeneración de los túbulos seminíferos, trastornos de la espermatogénesis y alteraciones nucleares de los espermatocitos. Con el uso de sildenafil más propóleo fue posible disminuir las alteraciones de los túbulos seminíferos, los trastornos de la espermatogénesis y los niveles de cambios hormonales; los espermatocitos fueron protegidos parcialmente de alteraciones nucleares morfológicas, pero no pudo mejorar el efecto de aumento de peso corporal e índice testicular. Los resultados indican que el propóleo puede aliviar, en parte, la toxicidad en la reproducción inducida por sobredosis de sildenafil. No obstante, existe la necesidad de realizar más estudios sobre los efectos adversos de estas dosis en otros órganos vitales.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Organ Size/drug effects , Piperazines/poisoning , Propolis/pharmacology , Sulfones/poisoning , Testicular Diseases/prevention & control , Testis/pathology , Body Weight , Drug Overdose , Purines , Seminiferous Tubules/drug effects , Seminiferous Tubules/pathology , Sildenafil Citrate/poisoning , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood
Int. j. morphol ; 33(3): 1102-1107, Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762592


Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are artificial testosterone analogues, used as medicine in chronic diseases, because they increase protein synthesis generating muscle hypertrophy. Its effect has caught the attention of athletes and gym users, thus their consumption has become epidemic, due to easy marketing, the immediate results and the false impression that it doesn't carry health risks. Such risks may globally harm the body. This study aims to investigate the influence on spermatogenesis of using nandrolone decanoate with or without physical training. Twenty-four rats, divided into four groups were used: sedentary group (SG), sedentary on steroids group (SSG), trained group (TG) and trained on steroids group (TSG). The animals were trained on voluntary exercise wheel twice a week during 12 weeks, and were subsequently euthanized by decapitation. Groups TSG and SSG received intramuscular injections of 5 mg / kg of the AAS. It was found that there was a greater cellularity in TSG, suggesting interference between androgen therapy and physical training on the mount of cells in the seminiferous epithelium. Comparing the TSG group with the SG, it is noticed that the physical training associated with the use of steroid tends to affect cell division without compromise, however, the number of spermatogonia, did not significantly vary compared to the control group. Finally, it seems that there was no significant statistical difference among the groups in terms of spermatogenesis yield, so that can not be said that the use of nandrolone decanoate, with or without the physical training, interfere with fertility.

Los esteroides anabólicos androgénicos (EAA) son análogos de testosterona artificiales, utilizados como medicina en las enfermedades crónicas, ya que aumentan la síntesis de proteínas generando hipertrofia muscular. Su efecto ha llamado la atención de atletas y usuarios de gimnasios, por lo que su consumo se ha convertido en epidemia, debido a la comercialización fácil, los resultados inmediatos y la falsa impresión de que no conllevan riesgos para la salud. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar la influencia de utilizar decanoato de nandrolona con o sin entrenamiento físico sobre la espermatogénesis. Se utilizaron 24 ratas, divididas en cuatro grupos: entrenado (GE), entrenado en esteroides (GEE), sedentario en esteroides (GSE) y sedentario (GS). Los grupos GEE y GSE recibieron inyecciones intramusculares de 5 mg/kg de la EAA. Los animales fueron entrenados con ejercicio voluntario en la rueda de correr dos veces por semana durante 12 semanas. Luego, los animales fueron sacrificados por decapitación. Se encontró que hubo una mayor celularidad en GEE, lo que sugiere la interferencia entre la terapia con andrógenos y entrenamiento físico en la cantidad de células en el epitelio seminífero. Comparando el grupo GEE con el GS, se observa que el entrenamiento físico asociado con el uso de esteroides tiende a afectar a la división celular sin comprometerla, sin embargo, el número de espermatogonias, no varió significativamente en comparación con el grupo control. Finalmente, no hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos en términos de rendimiento de la espermatogénesis, por lo que no se puede decir que el uso del decanoato de nandrolona, con o sin el entrenamiento físico, interfiere con la fertilidad.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anabolic Agents/pharmacology , Exercise , Nandrolone/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Fertility/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Rats, Wistar
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2015; 65 (4): 482-485
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166621


To Observe the histological and morphological effects of acetylsalicylic acid [ASA] on Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 +/- 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis

Animals, Laboratory , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Mice , Testis
JPMA-Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2015; 65 (3): 300-305
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-153822


To determine the effects of two different radiation doses on sperm parameters and the role of testosterone treatment on rat spermatogenesis. The experimental animal study was conducted at Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey, from September 2012 to January 2013. Male Sprague Dawley 4-6 months old rats weighing 300-350g were randomely divided into 5 equal groups as control, low dose irradiation, testosterone administration following low dose irradiation, high dose irradiation, and testosterone administration following high dose irradiation. The animals were kept at a constant temperature in a room with 12h light and dark cycles. After the group-wise intervention, sperm concentration, testicular size, and histopathological examination of seminiferous tubules were noted. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. The 40 rats in the study were divided in 5 groups of 8[20%] each. In low dose radiation, adverse effects were only temporarily observed with the return of almost normal testicular function at the end of two months with or without testosterone supplementation. In contrast, in high dose radiation, hormonal treatment effect was controversial. Testosterone treatment had no significant effect upon recovery after irradiation. In order to prevent the untoward effects of radiation, shielding of the remaining testis in a proper manner is crucial to avoid the harmful effects of the scattered radiation

Animals, Laboratory , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Radiation , Spermatozoa
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(1): 100-108, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704169


Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on testicular tissue and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in rats. Materials and methods: A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats, 5.5-6 months old, were equally divided at random into five groups: group 1 was the control group, group 2 received sertraline 10mg/kg (p.o), group 3 was administered fluoxetine 10mg/kg (p.o), group 4 received escitalopram 10mg/kg (p.o), and group 5 (n = 8) was administered paroxetine 20mg/kg. Each dose was administered orally for two months. Johnsen’s criteria were used to categorize spermatogenesis. Johnsen’s method assigns a score of 1 to 10 to each tubule cross-section examined. In this system, a Johnsen score of 9 and 10 indicates normal histology. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels were evaluated. Serum MDA levels were also measured. Results: The mean Johnsen scores were 9.36 ± 0.33, 9.29 ± 0.32, 8.86 ± 0.48, 9.10 ± 0.56, and 8.33 ± 0.90 in control group, sertraline group, fluoxetine group, escitalopram group, and paroxetine group, respectively. The Johnsen score was significantly lower for paroxetine group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The mean FSH level increased only in the sertraline group. With the exception of the fluoxetine group, the testosterone levels were lower in all groups compared with the control group. The total testosterone level was significantly lower in the sertraline group compared with the control group [40.87 (22.37-46.8) vs. 15.87 (13.53-19.88), p < 0.01]. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the MDA and LH levels (p = 0.090 and p = 0.092). Conclusion: These data suggest that SSRIs have a negative effect on testicular tissues. This negative impact is markedly greater in the paroxetine group. To determine the exact ...

Animals , Male , Rats , Malondialdehyde/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Testis/drug effects , Citalopram/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Paroxetine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Sertraline/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (2): 445-451
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142666


Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats [in three groups] received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract [made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem] [treatment groups] and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline [control group] respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups [50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w] during the experiment time, compared with control group [p < 0.05]. However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly [p < 0.05]. Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fertility/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Infertility, Male
Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2013; 23 (2): 81-85
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-130383


Sodium azide is a chemical and toxic compound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium azide on the viability of sperms and the serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH in mature male laboratory small mice. In this experimental study, 50 Balb/C male mice weighing 20-25g were divided into five groups [10 mice in each group]. The animals were prescribed sodium azide for 60 days. Alternatively 5, 10 and 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight of sodium azide were fed to the animals in the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3. After the completion of treatment, serum values of testosterone, LH and FSH were measured. The viability of sperms was also studied. The number of sperms in three experimental groups showed significant decrease compared to the control and sham groups [p<0.001]. Serum value of testostrone hormone showed dose- dependently significant decrease compared to the control and sham groups. The serum level of FSH in the experimental groups did not show any significant change compared to the control and sham groups. But, the serum level of LH in experimental groups receiving sodium azide 10, 20 mg/kg increased significantly compared to the control and sham groups [p<0.01]. It seems sodium azide reduces serum level of testosterone and the number of sperms under the process of spermatogenesis in the animals

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human/blood , Mice , Sodium Azide/pharmacology , Spermatogenesis/drug effects
IJFS-International Journal of Fertility and Sterility. 2013; 6 (4): 294-303
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-140394


This research studied the effect of ciprofloxacin [CPFX] on spermatogenesis. We aimed to estimate the effect of CPFX on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH. In this experimental study, a total of 24 mice were assigned to controlsham and test groups. We subdivided the test group into low [206 mg/kg] and high [412 mg/kg] dose CPFX groups. Control-sham animals received carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC]. All animals were treated orally for 45 days. Cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, cytoplasmic lipase and alkaline phosphatase [ALP] ratios were examined. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone [LH], follicle stimulating hormone [FSH ] and testosterone were measured in the control and test groups. The spermatogenesis cell series exhibited low numbers of cells with periodic acid Schiff [PAS]-positive cytoplasm and higher numbers of cells with lipid-positive foci. The tissue to ALP ratio and germinal epithelium [GE] lipase synthesis increased in CPFX-treated animals. In contrast to the CPFX groups, control animals showed normal cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid, lipase and ALP ratios in all cellular layers. In the CPFX-treated groups there was a significantly lower serum testosterone level compared with the control group. The serum levels of FSH and LH in high dosetreated animals decreased. Our results suggest that following long time CPFX administration major alterations occur in GE intracytoplasmic biochemistry, which may lead to loss of physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems. CPFX is able to imbalance serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone levels by affecting Leydig cells

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Testis/drug effects , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testosterone/blood , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Lipids , Lipase , Alkaline Phosphatase
IJRM-Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2013; 11 (5): 355-364
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-133129


Doxorubicin [DOX], an anthracycline antibiotic, is a widely used anticancer agent. In spite of its high antitumor efficacy, the use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy is limited due to diverse toxicities, including gonadotoxicity. We investigated the protective effect of nano-zinc oxide [nZnO] as an established antioxidant on DOX-induced testicular disorders. In this experimental study 24 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups including one control and three experimentals [6 rats per group]. They received saline [as control], DOX alone [6 mg/kg body weight, i.p.], nZnO alone [5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.], and nZnO followed by DOX. Animals were sacrificed 28 days after treatment and evaluations were made by sperm count and measuring sex hormone levels in plasma. Also total antioxidant power [TAP] and lipid peroxidation [LPO] in plasma were tested. Data was analyzed with SPSS-14 and one way ANOVA test. P<0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. In the DOX-exposed rats significant differences were found compared with the control group [p=0.001] in plasma total antioxidant power [TAP] [425.50 +/- 32.33 vs. 493.33 +/- 18.54 mmol/mL], Lipid peroxidation [LPO] [3.70 +/- 0.44 vs. 2.78 +/- 0.68 micromol/mL], plasma testosterone [3.38 +/- 0.69 vs. 5.40 +/- 0.89 ng/dl], LH [0.26 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.18 mlU/mL], sperm count [157.98 +/- 6.29 vs. 171.71 +/- 4.42x10[6]/mL] and DNA damage [11.51 +/- 3.45 vs. 6.04 +/- 2.83%]. Co-administration of nZnO significantly improved DOX-induced changes [p=0.013] in plasma TAP [471.83 +/- 14.51 mmol/mL], LPO [2.83 +/- 0.75 micro mol/mL], plasma testosterone [5.00 +/- 1.07 ng/dl], LH [0.52 +/- 0.08 mlU/mL], sperm count [169.13 +/- 5.01x10[[6]/mL] and DNA damage [7.00 +/- 1.67%]. At the dose designed in the present investigation cytoprotective role of nano-zinc oxide through its antioxidant potential is illuminated in DOX-induced male gonadotoxicity.

Animals, Laboratory , Zinc Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Rats, Wistar , Doxorubicin , Nanoparticles , Spermatogenesis/drug effects
Int. j. morphol ; 30(4): 1399-1407, dic. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-670156


The restriction of the mechanisms of cell proliferation in murine seminiferous epithelium, in terms of induction of programmed cell death until recently has not been fully analyzed. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of Malathion (MP) on testicular morphology and function in mouse spermatogenesis. For the experiments, male albino mice of strain NMRI-IVIC, weighing between 30-40 g were used, and divided into control and experimental groups of 5 each. The animals of the experimental groups were injected with a single dose of MP: 241mg/kg weight (1/12 LD 50 ) resuspended in 0.9% saline, intraperitoneally. Animals were sacrificed at 8.3, 16.6 and 33.2 days post-injection (first, second and third spermatogenic cycles). Testicular samples were obtained for light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy procedures, and to detect apoptosis and p53 antigen by immunohistochemical methods. Blood was collected to quantify testosterone and plasmatic cholinesterase activity. From 8.3 days, Sertoli cell vacuolization, karyolisis of pachytene spermatocytes and Leydig cells and a decreased in average of the diameter of seminiferous tubules was observed. No damage to inter-Sertoli cells junctions was detected. Percentage of seminiferous tubules showing germ cells apoptosis was increased from 8.3 days, plasmatic acetylcholinesterase activity was reduced in the group treated only 24 hours after administration of MP. Serum testosterone levels were low in treated animals at 16. 6 and 33.2 days. p53 was mostly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes from 8d. The findings of this study indicate that MP alters the testicular function affecting the DNA and interfering with spermatogenesis as well as steroidogenesis.

La restricción de los mecanismos de proliferación celular en epitelio seminífero murino, en términos de inducción de muerte celular programada hasta hace poco no había sido completamente analizada.El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de malathion (MP) sobre la morfología y la función testicular del ratón.Ratones macho albinos de la cepa NMRI-IVIC, con pesos entre 30-40 g fueron utilizados, se dividieron en grupos control y experimental. Los grupos experimentales fueron inyectados por vía intraperitoneal con una dosis única deMP:241mg/kg de peso (1/12 DL50) resuspendido en 0,9% de solución salina.Los animales fueron sacrificados en el día 8,3, 16,6 y 33,2 después de la inyección (primer, segundo y tercer ciclos de la espermatogénesis).Se obtuvieron muestras de testículo para estudio en microscopía de luz (ML), microscopía electrónica de transmisión, para la detección de apoptosis y el antígeno p53 (proliferación celular), por métodos inmunohistoquímicos.Se recogió sangre para cuantificar la testosterona y la actividad plasmática de colinesterasa.Desde el día 8,3 día se observó vacuolización de células de Sertoli, cariolisis de espermatocitos en paquiteno y células de Leydig, y una disminución en el promedio del diámetro de los túbulos seminíferos. No se detectó daño en las uniones entre células de Sertoli. El porcentaje de túbulos seminíferos que mostraban células germinales en apoptosis se incrementó a los 8,3 días, laactividad de la acetilcolinesterasa plasmática se redujo en el grupo tratado sólo 24 horas después de la administración de MP.Los niveles séricos de testosterona disminuyeron en los animales tratados a los 16,6 y 33,2 días.P53 se expresó sobre todo en los espermatocitos en paquiteno desde los 8,3 días.Los resultados de este estudio indican que MP altera la función testicular, afecta al ADN e interfiere con la espermatogénesis, así como con la esteroidogénesis.

Animals , Male , Mice , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Spermatozoa/cytology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Malathion/toxicity , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Apoptosis
Biol. Res ; 45(1): 5-14, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626741


Bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane] (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and its metabolite mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) are chemicals found in plastics, which act as endocrine disruptors (EDs) in animals, including human. EDs act like hormones in the endocrine system, and disrupt the physiologic function of endogenous hormones. Most people are exposed to different endocrine disruptors and concern has been raised about their true effect on reproductive organs. In the testis, they seem to preferentially attack developing testis during puberty rather than adult organs. However, the lack of information about the molecular mechanism, and the apparently controversial effect observed in different models has hampered the understanding of their effects on mammalian spermatogenesis. In this review, we critically discuss the available information regarding the effect of BPA, NP and DEHP/ MEHP upon mammalian spermatogenesis, a major target of EDs. Germ cell sloughing, disruption of the blood-testis-barrier and germ cell apoptosis are the most common effects reported in the available literature. We propose a model at the molecular level to explain the effects at the cellular level, mainly focused on germ cell apoptosis.

Animals , Humans , Male , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/toxicity , Apoptosis/drug effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/toxicity , Endocrine Disruptors/adverse effects , Endocrine Disruptors/toxicity , Infertility, Male/chemically induced , Phenols/adverse effects , Phenols/toxicity , Plasticizers/toxicity , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Germ Cells/drug effects , Plasticizers/adverse effects , Plasticizers/chemistry , Spermatogenesis/physiology , Testis/drug effects
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 25 (2): 401-406
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-128897


This histomorphological study is designed to evaluate the peripheral action of 2,8-Dimercapto-6-hydroxypurine [an antithyroid drug] on male reproductive system. The drug was administered as i.p. injection for 21 days to investigate its role on morphology of intratesticular cells and plasma testosterone level. Adult male rats [n=12], divided into three groups i.e. control, dimethylsulphoxide [DMSO] and 2,8-Dimercapto-6-hydroxypurine treated groups and treated with saline, DMSO and 2,8-Dimercapto-6-hydroxypurine for 21 consecutive days respectively. Blood samples were collected at day 1, 7, 14 and 21 and analyzed by using EIA systems. All the animals were scarified on 22nd day and testicular tissues were studied by histomorphpological assesment. 2,8-Dimercapto-6-hydroxypurine caused a significant decrease [P<0.0001] in mean testicular cell population, testicular cell diameter and resulted in arrested spermatogenesis. A significant decrease [P<0.0001] was observed in mean Sertoli and Leydig cell population and diameter in treated group. Similarly a significant decrease was observed in plasma testosterone levels at days 1, 7 and 14 [P<0.05] and further decrease by day 21 [P<0.01] of drug treatment. The present study suggests that 2,8-Dimercapto-6-hydroxypurine is a negative modulator of reproductive system as it suppressed the plasma testosterone level and proliferation of different testicular cell types in adult male rats

Male , Animals, Laboratory , Reproduction/drug effects , Testosterone , Spermatogenesis/drug effects , Testis/drug effects , Sertoli Cells/drug effects , Leydig Cells/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects