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Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 820-824, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124860


The pterion is a topographic point on the lateral aspect of the skull where frontal, sphenoid, parietal and temporal bones form the H or K shaped suture. This is an important surgical point for the lesions in anterior and middle cranial fossa. This study was performed on 50 dry skulls from Serbian adult individuals from Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. The type of the pterion on both sides of each skull was determined and they are calcified in four types (sphenoparietal, frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric). The distance between the center of the pterion and defined anthropological landmarks were measured using the ImageJ software. Sphenoparietal type is predominant with 86 % in right side and 88 % in left side. In male skulls, the distance from the right pterion to the frontozygomatic suture is 39.89±3.85 mm and 39.67±4.61 mm from the left pterion to the frontozygomatic suture. In female skulls the distance is 37.38±6.38 mm on the right and 35.94±6.46 mm on the left. The shape and the localization of the pterion are important because it is an anatomical landmark and should be used in neurosurgery, traumatology and ophthalmology.

El pterion es un punto topográfico en la cara lateral del cráneo donde los huesos frontales, esfenoides, parietales y temporales forman la sutura en forma de H o K. Este es un punto quirúrgico importante para las lesiones en la fosa craneal anterior y media. Este estudio se realizó en 50 cráneos secos de adultos serbios del Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina de Novi Sad. Se determinó el tipo de pterión en ambos lados de cada cráneo y se calcifican en cuatro tipos (esfenoparietal, frontotemporal, estrellado y epipterico). La distancia entre el centro del pterion y los puntos de referencia antropológicos definidos se midió utilizando el software ImageJ. El tipo esfenoparietal es predominante con 86 % en el lado derecho y 88 % en el lado izquierdo. En los cráneos masculinos, la distancia desde el pterion derecho hasta la sutura frontocigomática es 39,89 ± 3,85 mm y 39,67 ± 4,61 mm desde el pterion izquierdo hasta la sutura frontocigomática. En los cráneos femeninos, la distancia es 37,38 ± 6,38 mm a la derecha y 35,94 ± 6,46 mm a la izquierda. La forma y la localización del pterion son importantes debido a que es un indicador anatómico y debe usarse en neurocirugía, traumatología y oftalmología.

Humans , Male , Female , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Zygoma/anatomy & histology , Serbia
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 537-545, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004286


RESUMEN Se presentó un caso de una paciente de 70 años de edad, con antecedentes patológicos personales de hipertensión arterial controlada, además de un síndrome demencial instaurado hace 5 años aproximadamente. Con un diagnóstico presuntivo de una demencia tipo Alzheimer y sin estudios desde el punto de vista imagenológico. Se le realizaron diversos estudios que arrojaron una lesión extraaxial interpretada como un meningioma del tercio medio del ala del esfenoides. Se le aplicó una resección tumoral de la totalidad de la lesión, su evolución postquirúrgica fue satisfactoria.

ABSTRACT The case presented is the one of a female patient aged 70 years, with personal pathological antecedents of controlled arterial hypertension besides dementia syndrome for around five years, presumptively diagnosed as Alzheimer-kind dementia without imaging studies. She underwent several studies showing an extra axial lesion that was interpreted as meningioma of the medial third of the sphenoid wing. The tumor resection of the entire lesion was carried out; the post-surgery evaluation was satisfactory.

Humans , Female , Aged , Sphenoid Bone , Skull Base Neoplasms , Meningioma/surgery , Meningioma/diagnosis , Meningioma/diagnostic imaging , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(1): 82-90, feb. 28, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145295


The Pterygospinous Ligament (PSL) extends from the Pterygospinous process of the lateral Pterygoid plate to the spine of the sphenoid bone. Sometimes, it may be ossified forming a bar of bone bounding the pterygospinous foramen to which mandibular nerve and its branches are variably related. Mandibular and chorda tympani nerves may get compressed depicting various clinical symptoms, which in turn depend upon dimensions of the foramen and grades of compression. Therefore, knowledge of the position and extent of ossification of PSL and its relation to the important structures in the deep infratemporal fossa is important for radiologists, neurologists, maxillofacial surgeons, dental surgeons and anesthesiologists during various anesthetic and surgical procedures.

El ligamento Pterigoespinoso (LP) se extiende desde el proceso Pterigoespinoso de la placa Pterigoideo lateral a la espina etmoidal del hueso esfenoides. A veces, se puede osificar formando un puente de hueso que une el foramen espinoso con el cual el nervio mandibular y sus ramas están relacionados de manera variable. Los nervios mandibulares y el cordón timpánico se pueden comprimir resultando en diversos síntomas clínicos, que a su vez dependen de las dimensiones del foramen y los grados de compresión. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento de la posición y el grado de osificación del ligamento pterigoespinoso y su relación con las estructuras importantes en la fosa infratemporal profunda es importante para radiólogos, neurólogos, cirujanos maxilofaciales, cirujanos dentales y anestesistas durante diversos procedimientos anestésicos y quirúrgicos.

Humans , Sphenoid Bone , Ligaments/anatomy & histology , Mandibular Nerve , Bridges , Foramen Ovale , Infratemporal Fossa
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762751


Frontotemporal dermoid cysts with a cutaneous sinus tract in the sphenoid bone are rarely found, and furthermore, the spreading of these cysts across the frontal branch of the facial nerve has not been reported. Herein, we present a 5-year-old case of a dermoid cyst successfully resected with preservation of this nerve using a combined extracranial and intracranial approach. This approach is recommended for a safe and radical resection of the lesion and for securing an aesthetic outcome.

Child, Preschool , Dermoid Cyst , Facial Nerve , Humans , Skull , Sphenoid Bone
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741590


BACKGROUND: The infratemporal fossa (ITF) is an anatomical lateral skull base space composed by the zygoma, temporal, and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Due to its difficult approach, surgical intervention at the ITF has remained a heavy burden to surgeons. The aim of this article is to review basic skull base approaches and ITF structures and to avoid severe complications based on the accurate surgical knowledge. METHODS: A search of the recent literature using MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and other online tools was executed using the following keyword combinations: infratemporal fossa, subtemporal fossa, transzygomatic approach, orbitozygomatic approach, transmaxillary approach, facial translocation approach, midface degloving, zygomatico-transmandibular approach, and lateral skull base. Aside from our Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) trial, there have been very few randomized controlled trials. The search data for this review are summarized based on the authors’ diverse clinical experiences. RESULTS: We divided our results based on representative skull base approaches and the anatomy of the ITF. Basic approaches to the ITF include endoscopic endonasal, transzygomatic, orbitozygomatic, zygomatico-transmandibular, transmaxillary, facial translocation, and the midfacial degloving approach. The borders and inner structures of the ITF (with basic lateral skull base dissection schemes) are summarized, and the modified zygomatico-transmandibular approach (ZTMA) is described in detail. CONCLUSIONS: An anatomical basic knowledge would be required for the appropriate management of the ITF pathology for diverse specialized doctors, including maxillofacial, plastic, and vascular surgeons. The ITF approach, in conjunction with the application of microsurgical techniques and improved perioperative care, has permitted significant advances and successful curative outcomes for patients having malignancy in ITF.

Humans , Pathology , Perioperative Care , Plastics , Skull Base , Sphenoid Bone , Surgeons , Zygoma
Int. j. morphol ; 36(3): 1057-1061, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954230


The sphenoidal tubercle is a bone elevation located in the anterior edge of the infratemporal crest of the sphenoid greater wing, where the temporal and lateral pterygoid muscles have their origin. This bone accident presents varied morphology so its description and denomination are a topic of discussion. 60 dry skulls obtained from the morphology laboratory of the Biomedical Basic Sciences Department of the University of Talca were used for a morphological and morphometric analysis of the sphenoidal tubercle including its morphology, diameters (anteroposterior, transverse and vertical) and the distance to the grooves for the maxillary artery and maxillary nerve. Sphenoidal tubercle had a prevalence of 98.4 % of all dry skulls analyzed with a bilateral presentation in the 76.6 % of the cases. According to its different forms of presentation established by Cáceres et al., (2016) the pyramidal form was the most frequent with a 25.7 %. The average diameters were of 4.12 mm anteroposterior, 5.50 mm transverse and 3.89 mm vertical. The average distance to the grooves of the maxillary artery and maxillary nerve were 9.04 mm and 7.6 mm, respectively. Sphenoidal tubercle is a constant bone accident with a variated morphology and measures. Due to its anatomical relations with important neurovascular elements such as the maxillary artery and the maxillary nerve, it may be used as a reference point for surgical access to the infratemporal fossa. From this analysis we establish that the denomination of "infratemporal process" is more accurate, because the development of this bone accident is from muscular traction performed by the lateral pterygoid muscle and the deep portion of the temporal muscle causing great variations in its morphology, probably due to external and functional parameters or even influenced by the biotype.

El tubérculo esfenoidal es una elevación ósea ubicada en el extremo anterior de la cresta infratemporal del ala mayor del hueso esfenoides, donde presta inserción al músculo temporal y pterigoideo lateral. Presenta morfología variada, por lo que su descripción y denominación resultan motivo de discusión. 60 cráneos secos obtenidos del Laboratorio de Morfología del Departamento de Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas de la Universidad de Talca, fueron utilizados para realizar un análisis morfológico y morfométrico del tubérculo esfenoidal evaluando forma, diámetros (anteroposterior, laterolateral y vertical) y distancia con el surco de la arteria y nervio maxilar. El tubérculo esfenoidal tuvo una prevalencia del 98,4 % del total de cráneos analizados, presentándose bilateralmente en el 76,6 % de los casos. De acuerdo a las diferentes formas de presentación establecidas por Cáceres et al (2016) la forma piramidal fue la más frecuente con un 25,7 %. Los diámetros promedio fueron de 4,12 mm anteroposterior, 5,50 mm laterolateral y 3,89 mm vertical. Las distancias promedio con el surco de la arteria y nervio maxilar fueron de 9,04 mm y 7,6mm, respectivamente. El tubérculo esfenoidal es un accidente óseo constante de morfología y dimensiones variadas. Debido a sus relaciones con elementos vasculares de importancia, tales como la arteria y nervio maxilar, podría ser utilizado como elemento de referencia para el acceso quirúrgico a la fosa infratemporal. A partir de su análisis planteamos que su denominación como "proceso infratemporal" sería más apropiado, debido a que se desarrollaría a partir de la tracción muscular ejercida por el musculo pterigoideo lateral y la porción profunda del músculo temporal, ocasionando variaciones notables en su morfología, probablemente debido a factores externos y funcionales o incluso influenciada por el biotipo.

Humans , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Muscle/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Artery/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Nerve/anatomy & histology , Cross-Sectional Studies
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1239-1242, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893121


SUMMARY: The pterion, a landmark for neurosurgery, is the weakest part of the skull owing to relatively thin bone. Variant patterns of pterion can confuse the clinicians during diagnosis of the lateral skull fractures in emergency situations. Thedifferent pterion types of many races have been reported but not of Thais. In this study; therefore, we investigated the incidence of sutural pterion patterns on of Thai skulls. The infratemporal fossa of 110 sides from 55 dried skulls identified as Thais were observed and classified for individual pterion types. The results showed that the pterion patterns can be classified into 4 types; spheno-parietal (87.27 %), fronto-temporal (4.55 %), uni-epipteric (6.36 %), and multi-epipteric (1.82 %) types. It was found that the spheno-parietal type was dominant in males (61.81 %) than in females (25.45 %). The majority of the skulls showed bilateral symmetry (85.45 %) in all types and the unilateral ones were far less (14.55 %). In bilateral pterion incidence, the spheno-parietal type was approximately 93.61 % while the uni-epipteric type was not found. Moreover, the bilateral multi-epipteric type was found only in one female skull (2.13 %). These findings will be useful for the radiologists and the neurosurgeons concerning lateral skull fractures in emergency diagnosis.

RESUMEN: El pterion es un punto de referencia para la neurocirugía, y es la parte más débil del cráneo debido a estar conformado por hueso relativamente delgado. Los diversos patrones de pterion pueden confundir a los clínicos durante el diagnóstico de fracturas laterales de cráneo en situaciones de emergencia. Con excepción de los tailandeses, diferentes tipos de pterion se han reportado en muchas razas. hemos investigado la incidencia de diversos patrones de pterion en cráneos de Tailandia. Analizamos 110 fosas infratemporales, correspondientes a 55 cráneos secos del Noreste de Tailandia y se clasificaron de acuerdo al tipo de pterion. Los resultados mostraron que el pterion puede clasificarse en 4 tipos: esfeno-parietal (87,27 %), fronto-temporal (4,55 %), epiptérico (3,63 %) y multi-epiptérico (1,81 %). Se encontró que el tipo esfeno-parietal tuvo mayor incidencia en hombres (61,81 %) que en mujeres (25,45 %). Además, la incidencia de simetría bilateral (85,45 %) fue mayor que la unilateral (14,55 %). A nivel bilateral, el tipo esfeno-parietal fue de 93,61 %, mientras que el tipo epiptérico no se observó. Por otra parte, el tipo multiepiptérico fue encontrado bilateralmente en un solo cráneo femenino (2,13 %). Esta incidencia puede ser utilizada como un conocimiento básico para los radiólogos tailandeses sobre las fracturas laterales del cráneo en un diagnóstico de emergencia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frontal Bone/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Thailand
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(4): 381-387, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889280


Abstract Introduction: The sphenoid sinus is an important structure in ventral skull base surgeries that is surrounded by several vital anatomical structures including the internal carotid arteries, optic nerve and cranial nerves inside the cavernous sinus. In addition, the foramen rotundum is a small canal deeply situated in the base of the skull, which represents the way for exit of the maxillary nerve. Understanding of the sphenoid bone anatomical relationships is central to the expanded endonasal approaches to the skull base. Objective: To record and analyze the measurement indexes of the sphenoid sinus and foramen rotundum in the coronal plane of normal computer tomography scans. Methods: Patients underwent paranasal sinuses computer tomography scan from June 2014 to November 2015 were retrospectively entered this cross-sectional study. We obtained several morphometric measurements from both the right and left sides using computer software. We also classified foramen rotundum and vidian canal types and determined position of the foramen rotundum regarding to base of lateral pterygoid plate. Results: One-hundred patients with the mean age of 38.56 ± 18.51 years entered this study. Mean bilateral FR distances were 38.48 ± 3.87 mm. Average right and left FRs distances to midline were 19.00 ± 2.07 and 19.34 ± 2.17 mm, respectively (p = 0.03). Twenty-eight cases (28%) had type I vidian canal, 48% and 24% had type II and III vidian canals, respectively. Four patients (4%) had type I rotundum foramen, 28% and 44% had type IIa and IIb, respectively and 24% had type III rotundum foramen. The position of foramen rotundums regarding to the base of lateral pterygoid plate was online in 50% of cases, medially placed in 47% and laterally placed in 3% of cases. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used to provide a better anatomical understanding of the area, which is necessary for endoscopic skull base surgeons.

Resumo Introdução: O seio esfenoidal (SE) é uma estrutura importante em cirurgias da base do crânio, que está cercada por várias estruturas anatômicas vitais, como as artérias carótidas internas, o nervo óptico e os nervos cranianos no interior do seio cavernoso. Além disso, o forame redondo (FR) é um pequeno canal profundamente situado na base do crânio, que representa a forma de saída do nervo maxilar. Compreender as relações anatômicas do osso esfenoidal é fundamental para as abordagens endonasais expandidas da base do crânio. Objetivo: Registrar e analisar os índices de medição do SE e FR no plano coronal de exames normais de tomografia computadorizada (TC). Método: Os pacientes que foram submetidos a TC dos seios paranasais (SPN) de junho de 2014 a novembro 2015 foram retrospectivamente incluídos neste estudo transversal. Obtivemos várias medidas morfométricas de ambos os lados, direito e esquerdo, com o uso do software de computador. Também classificamos os tipos de FR e canal pterigoideo (CP) e determinamos a posição do FR em relação à base da placa pterigoide lateral. Resultados: Cem pacientes com a média de 38,56 ± 18,51 anos foram incluídos neste estudo. As distâncias médias bilaterais de FR foram de 38,48 ± 3,87 mm. As distâncias médias direita e esquerda dos FR até a linha média foram de 19,00 ± 2,07 e 19,34 ± 2,17 mm, respectivamente (p = 0,03). Vinte e oito casos (28%) tinham canal pterigoideo do tipo I, 48% e 24% canais pterigoideos de tipo II e III, respectivamente. Quatro pacientes (4%) tinham forame redondo do tipo I, 28% e 44% do tipo II-a e II-b, respectivamente, e 24% forame redondo do tipo III. A posição dos FR em relação à base da placa pterigoide lateral era em linha em 50% dos casos, medialmente posicionados em 47% e lateralmente posicionados em 3% dos casos. Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo podem ser usados para promover uma melhor compreensão anatômica da área, necessária para cirurgias endoscópicas da base do crânio.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/diagnostic imaging , Sphenoid Sinus/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-633544


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Skeletal metastasis is one of the major clinical problems in managing cases of NPCA. Beginning osseous metastasis in the form of sphenoid bone extension is commonly seen in NPCA.Imaging modalities mainly used in detecting sphenoid bone extension are bone scintigraphy with SPECT and MRI. In this paper, the ability of bone scintigraphy with SPECT and MRI in detecting sphenoid bone extension was compared.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were studied by bone scintigraphy with SPECT and MRI. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of each modality against the gold standard, which is sphenoid bone biopsy, were computed. Statistical analysis was done using the McNemar's Test.RESULTS: The overall performances of bone scintigraphy with SPECT versus MRI were the following: sensitivity 89% vs 78%, specificity 33% vs 67%, positive predictive value 80% vs 88% and negative predictive value 50% vs 50%. There was no significant difference between the two modalities using McNemar's test (p>0.05).CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy with SPECT and MRI were both equally effective and were complementary with each other in detecting sphenoid bone extension in patients with NPCA.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Bone Neoplasms , Sphenoid Bone
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27488


PURPOSE: To report the treatment results of a frontotemporal dermoid cyst with a cutaneous fistula and sinus tract that caused recurrent periorbital cellulitis in a child. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-year-old girl who presented with left orbital swelling and tenderness visited our hospital. She had a cutaneous fistula with a small amount of purulent discharge at the left frontotemporal area. Orbital computed tomography scans showed a well-defined low density lesion in the fronto-zygomatic suture, and there was a bony defect in the left greater wing of the sphenoid bone of the orbit. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a cutaneous fistula and sinus tract that extended into the middle cranial fossa. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics until the inflammation was resolved. Surgery was performed to remove the dermoid cyst with sinus tract. After surgery, there was no evidence of recurrence, and complications included neurologic and ophthalmic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Orbitofacial lesions, particularly frontotemporal cutaneous fistulas that present with recurrent discharge, should be regarded with suspicion in cases of deep extended dermoid cysts with sinus tract. Additionally, imaging tests should be carefully conducted before surgery.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cellulitis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cranial Fossa, Middle , Cutaneous Fistula , Dermoid Cyst , Female , Fistula , Humans , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Orbit , Recurrence , Sphenoid Bone , Sutures
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1187-1190, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840864


Anatomical variations in the shape and dimension of the dorsum sellae and posterior clinoid process are common. Most textbooks describe its shape as a median rectangular plate, a square plate, or a transverse ledge on a slope behind the sella turcica (hypophyseal fossa). This work aims to study the dorsum sellae of human skull. One hundred and twenty five dried adult human skulls, irrespective of age, were used for the study. Detailed features of the dorsum sellae were noted and classified into five types: crest like, thin plate, frail quadrilateral plate, heavy square plate, thick elongated plate. Fusion of the posterior and middle clinoid processes in one (unilateral) and all the clinoid processes (anterior, middle, and posterior) in three skulls (unilateral in one, bilateral in two) were also noticed. Findings are discussed in the light of the literature.

Son frecuentes las variaciones anatómicas de la forma y dimensión de dorsum sellae y de los procesos clinoides posteriores. La mayoría de los textos describen su forma como una placa rectangular mediana, una placa cuadrada, o un plano transversal en una pendiente detrás de la sella turcica (fosa hipofisaria). Este trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar el dorsum sellae en cráneo humano. Para el estudio se utilizaron 125 cráneos humanos adultos secos, de diferentes edades. Se observaron características detalladas de dorsum sellae y se clasificaron en cinco tipos: cresta, al igual que la placa delgada, lámina cuadrilátera, placa cuadrada gruesa, placa alargada gruesa. En tres cráneos se observó fusión de la parte posterior y los procesos clinoides intermedios (unilateral) y los procesos clinoides (anterior, medio y posterior) (unilateral en uno de ellos, bilateral en dos). Los resultados se discuten en consideracion de la literatura.

Humans , Anatomic Variation , Sella Turcica/abnormalities , Sella Turcica/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry , Sphenoid Bone/abnormalities , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1328-1332, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840888


The foramen venosum (FV) is an anatomical structure situated at the base of the skull, generally posteromedial to the foramen rotundum and anteromedial to the foramen ovale. Its prevalence and patency may be related to the shape of the skull. The objective of this study was to verify the prevalence and patency of the FV and its association with the different skull types. Overall, 143 dry skulls were screened. Of these, 84 were considered to be in an adequate state of conservation and were included in the analysis, which was conducted through a cross-sectional view of the skullcap. The transverse (T) and anteroposterior (AP) diameters of the skull were evaluated by pachymetry and the skull type was classified according to the cephalic index (CI) (CI = T/AP x 100). The presence and patency of the FV were evaluated. Overall, 25 % of the skulls were dolichocephalic, 21.4 % sub-dolichocephalic, 26.2 % mesaticephalic, 16.7 % sub-brachycephalic and 10.7 % brachycephalic. Overall, the FV was found in 41.6 % of the skulls (n=35), with this prevalence being greater in the mesaticephalic skulls (50 %; n=11). Patency was 25 % (n=21). A positive correlation was found between the CI and the presence of the FV in dolichocephalic skulls (on the right-hand side only) and in sub-brachycephalic skulls (bilaterally). In conclusion, the prevalence of the FV was considerable in the sample analyzed and was directly associated with the CI in dolichocephalic and sub-brachycephalic skulls.

El foramen venoso (FV) es una estructura anatómica situada en la base del cráneo, en general, posteromedial al foramen redondo y anteromedial al foramen oval. Su prevalencia y permeabilidad pueden estar relacionados con la forma del cráneo. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar la prevalencia y permeabilidad del FV y su asociación con los diferentes tipos de cráneo. Se estudiaron 143 cráneos secos. De éstos, 84 fueron considerados en estado adecuado de conservación y se incluyeron en el análisis, realizado mediante la visualización de una sección transversal del cráneo. Los diámetros transversal (T) y anteroposterior (AP) del cráneo se evaluaron mediante paquimetría y el tipo de cráneo se clasificó de acuerdo con el índice cefálico (IC) (IC = T/AP x 100). Se evaluó también la presencia y permeabilidad del FV. El análisis mostró que 25 % de los cráneos eran dolicocefálicos, 21,4 % subdolicocéfalicos, 26,2 % mesaticéfalos, 16,7 % sub-braquicéfalos y 10,7 % de braquicéfalos. El FV se encontró en 41,6 % de los cráneos (n=35), con prevalencia mayor en los cráneos mesaticéfalos (50 %, n=11). La permeabilidad fue del 25 % (n=21). Se encontró una correlación positiva entre el IC y la presencia del FV en cráneos dolicocéfalicos (sólo en el lado derecho) y en sub-braquicéfalos (bilateral). En conclusión, la prevalencia del FV fue considerable en la muestra analizada y se asocia directamente con el IC en cráneos dolicocéfalicos y sub-braquicéfalos.

Humans , Cephalometry , Skull/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1333-1338, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840889


The anterior clinoid process (ACP) is proximal to vital structures, such as the optic nerve, internal carotid artery and ophthalmic artery; therefore, study of its anatomy is important in guiding and defining surgery. We studied the anatomical structure of the ACP, including the angle formed by the apex of the ACP triangle, and its orientation, to provide information for easier and safer surgery. The measurement was performed on the axial planes of 242 cranial computerized tomography (CT) scans and 27 adult Turkish skulls of both sexes. The length of the ACP, width of the ACP at its base, the angle formed by the apical angle of the ACP triangle and the orientation of the ACP defined according to the sagittal midline were examined. In the Turkish skulls, the length and width of the ACP were similar to previous studies. Our study was the first to measure the angle and orientation of the ACP. The mean angle was 39.67±12.64 (16.6-89.5) and 135 posterior (55 %) and 107 medial (45 %) orientations. Surgical complications can be avoided by pre-operative radiological planning using axial CT scans and by determining whether the morphology is Type 2 (long, narrow, acute-angled), which requires total resection.

El proceso clinoide anterior (PCA) está próximo a estructuras vitales, como el nervio óptico, la arteria carótida interna y la arteria oftálmica, por tanto el estudio de su anatomía es importante en la orientación y la definición de la cirugía de base de cráneo. Se estudió la estructura anatómica de la PCA, incluyendo el ángulo formado por el vértice del triángulo PCA, y su orientación, para proporcionar información para una cirugía más fácil y más segura. La medición se realizó en los planos axiales de 242 exploraciones craneales de tomografía computarizada (TC) y 27 cráneos de individuos adultos turcos de ambos sexos. Se examinó la longitud del PCA, el ancho del PCA en su base, el ángulo formado por el ángulo apical del triángulo PCA y la orientación del PCA definido de acuerdo con la línea mediana sagital. En cráneos turcos, la longitud y el ancho del PCA fueron similares a estudios anteriores. Nuestro estudio fue el primero en medir el ángulo y la orientación del PCA. El ángulo promedio fue de 39,67 ± 12,64 (16,6 a 89,5) y, la orientación fue posterior en 135 cráneos (55 %) y medial en 107 cráneos (45 %). Las complicaciones quirúrgicas pueden evitarse mediante la planificación radiológica preoperatoria através de cortes axiales de tomografía computarizada y determinando si la morfología del PCA es de tipo 2 (larga, estrecha y aguda en ángulo recto), lo que requiere la resección total.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Skull Base/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 34(4): 1414-1418, Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840902


The infratemporal spine, or sphenoidal tubercle, is a bony structure described in both classical anatomical literature and contemporary literature. However, the available literature does not mention the specific anatomical characteristics or the distribution of this bony element in the population. The aim of this study was to define this structure, identify its presence, and identify its morphology in a sample of Chilean human skulls. Fifty-seven dry skulls, obtained from the morphology unit at Universidad de los Andes, were used. The great wings of the sphenoid bone on both sides of the skull were evaluated in search of the infratemporal spine. These spines were classified according to their morphological characteristics of either laminar, pyramidal, or truncated pyramidal, as they related to the infratemporal crest and as they related to the pterygoid process. The presence of the infratemporal spine was found in 100 % of the studied skulls, unilaterally or bilaterally. The most common morphology was found to be laminar (40 %), followed by pyramidal (35 %), and, finally, truncated pyramidal (24 %). The majority (73 %) of these infratemporal spines was closely associated with the pterigoyd process with a complete or partial relation, with fewer (34 %) being associated with the infratemporal crest.

La espina infratemporal o tubérculo esfenoidal es un reparo óseo mencionado tanto en la literatura anatómica clásica como en los artículos más actuales. Las publicaciones disponibles no mencionan las características anatómicas ni la distribución en la población de este elemento óseo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue definir, identificar la presencia y describir la morfología de la espina infratemporal en una muestra de población chilena. Se utilizaron 57 cráneos secos de la unidad de anatomía de la Universidad de los Andes. Se evaluaron las alas mayores del hueso esfenoides tanto derechas como izquierdas en búsqueda de la espina infratemporal. Se clasificaron según sus características morfológicas, siendo piramidal, piramidal truncada o laminar, según su relación con la cresta infratemporal y según su relación con el proceso pterigoideo. Se encontró la presencia de la espina infratemporal en un 100 % de los cráneos estudiados, ya sea de manera uni o bilateral. La morfología más común correspondió a laminar con un 40 %, seguido de piramidal con un 35 % y finalmente un 24 % de morfología piramidal truncada. Se relacionaron más bien con el proceso pterigoideo ya sea de manera completa o media (73 %) y en menor medida con la cresta infratemporal (34 %).

Humans , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Temporal Bone/anatomy & histology , Chile , Skull/anatomy & histology
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 35(3): 257-269, 20/09/2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-910740


Objective The objective of this study is to introduce and describe a surgical technique called Osteoplastic Orbitozygomatic-Mastoid-Transattical Craniotomy (Osteoplastic OZ-MT) and to show the possibility of accomplishing osteoplastic craniotomies for other classical lateral transcranial approaches. Technique The Osteoplastic OZ-MT combines many lateral transcranial approaches. The surgical approach involves structures of lateral and basal portions of the skull, from the frontal bone, superolateral-inferolateral-posterolateral walls of the orbit, zygoma, zygomatic process, sphenoid greater and lesser wings, temporal fossa, mandibular fossa, zygomatic process of the temporal bone, petrous pyramid, mastoid, up to the parietal and occipital regions. The temporal muscle is totally preserved and attached to the one-piece-only bone flap. Results We have developed and used routinely the technique, including its variants and combinations, for about twenty years in children and adults to treat and/or remove mainly mesial, basal, intra, and/or extra-cranium lesions, from the anterior fossa, passing through the middle fossa and going up to the regions of the clivus, basilar artery, and cerebellumpontine angle, with greater surgical degree of freedom and consequent reduction of morbidity and mortality. So far, we have not had any complications nor important sequels, and the aesthetic and functional results are quite favorable. Conclusion The Osteoplastic OZ-MT is a very systematic, anatomical, feasible, and safe craniotomy. The synthesis is easy to do and can be reopened quickly if necessary. Variants and combinations allow us to opt for a more appropriate approach according to each case.

Objetivo Apresentar e descrever uma técnica cirúrgica denominada de Craniotomia Orbitozigomática- Mastóideo-Transatical Osteoplástica (OZ-MT Osteoplástica) e mostrar a possibilidade de realizar craniotomias osteoplásticas para os outros acessos transcranianos laterais clássicos. Técnica A OZ-MT Osteoplástica combina vários acessos transcranianos laterais. O acesso cirúrgico envolve estruturas das porções lateral e basal do crânio, do osso frontal, paredes súperolateral-ínferolateral-pósterolateral da órbita, zigoma, processo zigomático, asas maior e menor do esfenoide, fossa temporal, fossa mandibular, processo zigomático do osso temporal, pirâmide petrosa, mastoide, até as regiões parietal e occipital. O músculo temporal é totalmente preservado e aderido ao retalho ósseo de uma-peça-só. Resultado Temos desenvolvido e usado de rotina a técnica, incluindo suas variantes e combinações, por cerca de vinte anos, em crianças e adultos, para tratar e/ou remover principalmente aquelas lesões mesial, basal, intra e/ou extracranianas, desde a fossa anterior, passando pela fossa média e indo até às regiões do clivus, artéria basilar e ângulo ponto-cerebelar, com maior grau de liberdade cirúrgica e consequente redução da morbidade e mortalidade. Até agora, não tivemos nenhuma complicação e nem sequelas importantes e os resultados estético e funcional são bastantes favoráveis. Conclusões A OZ-MT Osteoplástica é uma craniotomia bastante sistematizada, anatômica, factível e segura. A síntese é fácil de ser feita e que pode ser reaberta rapidamente se necessário. Variantes e combinações nos permitem optar por um acesso mais apropriado conforme cada caso.

Craniotomy , Craniotomy/methods , Petrous Bone , Sphenoid Bone , Skull Base , Mastoid
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(7): 580-586, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787361


ABSTRACT Resection of the anterior clinoid process results in the creation of the clinoid space, an important surgical step in the exposure and clipping of clinoidal and supraclinoidal internal carotid artery aneurysms. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is an undesired and potentially serious complication. Conservative measures may be unsuccesful, and there is no consensus on the most appropriate surgical treatment. Two patients with persistent transclinoidal CSF rhinorrhea after aneurysm surgery were successfully treated with a combined endoscopic transnasal/transeptal binostril approach using a fat graft and ipsilateral mucosal nasal septal flap. Anatomical considerations and details of the surgical technique employed are discussed, and a management plan is proposed.

RESUMO A ressecção da clinóide anterior resulta na criação do espaço clinoideo, um passo cirúrgico importante na exposição e clipagem de aneurismas dos segmentos clinoideo e supraclinoideo da artéria carótida interna. Fístula liquórica é uma das complicaçoes mais indesejadas e é potencialmente grave. O manejo com medidas conservadoras pode ser bem sucedido, e não há consenso sobre o tratamento cirúrgico mais adequado. Dois pacientes com rinorréia persistente secundária a fistula liquórica transclinoidal após cirurgia de aneurisma foram tratados com sucesso por uma abordagem endoscópica combinada transnasal/transseptal binostril usando um enxerto de gordura e retalho de mucosa naso-septal ipsilateral. Considerações anatômicas e detalhes da técnica cirúrgica empregada são discutidos, e um plano de manejo destes tipo de fistula líquorica é proposto.

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/surgery , Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea/etiology , Craniotomy/adverse effects , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery/methods , Aneurysm/surgery , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Sphenoid Bone/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Bone/surgery , Surgical Flaps , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Aneurysm/complications , Nasal Septum/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88850


OBJECTIVE: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is used to expand the maxilla and increase arch perimeter; yet, there are few reports on its effects on the sphenoid bone. With cone-beam computed topography (CBCT), it is possible to visualize sphenoid bone changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate sphenoid bone changes observed in conjunction with RME treatments, using CBCT. METHODS: Sixty patients (34 women and 26 men, aged 11–17 years) underwent RME as part of their orthodontic treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a tooth-anchored group, a bone-anchored group, or a control group. Initial CBCT scans were performed preceding the RME treatment (T₁) and again directly after the completion of expansion (T₂). Statistical analysis included ANOVA, descriptive statistics, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: The reliability of the landmark location was at least 0.783, and the largest ICC mean measurement error was 2.32 mm. With regard to distances, the largest change was 0.78 mm, which was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Statistical significance was established in patient groups of the same sex and treatment type for the following distance measurements: right anterior lateral pterygoid plate to the right edge of the hypophyseal fossa (d₂), anterior distance between the medial pterygoid plates (d₄), and anterior distance between the left medial and lateral plates (d₈). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, there were no clinically significant changes in the sphenoid bone due to RME treatments regardless of sex or treatment type.

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Female , Humans , Male , Maxilla , Palatal Expansion Technique , Sphenoid Bone
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 3(1): 767-769, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-790604


El edentulismo parcial en el sector posterior del hueso maxilar, es producido principalmente por la pérdida de molares debido a caries, enfermedad periodontal y al exceso de fuerza soportado por losdientes de este sector. Implantes dentales mayores a 10 mm, raramente son colocados en estas zona debido auna mayor probabilidad de fracasos por el escaso volumen óseo y deficiente calidad del hueso. En el cráneo, en relación posterior a la maxila encontramos un arbotante pterigomaxilar. Este permite, en algunas situaciones, la rehabilitación de maxilares atróficos mediante la colocación de implantes con una angulación parasinusal, evitando técnicas quirúrgicas o procedimiento más complejos. El implante pterigoideo es un posible tratamiento para rehabilitar el sector posterior del maxilar atrófico, anclado en hueso cortical del proceso pterigoides. Se reporta un caso de utilización de implantes pterigoídeos en una mujer de 58 años de edad con gran neumatización en ambos senos maxilares, con un remanente de hueso alveolar de 1-2 mm.

The partially edentulous in the posterior maxilla bone is produced mainly by the loss of molars due to caries, periodontal disease and excessive force supported by the teeth of this sector. Dental implants greater than 10 mm, are rarely placed in this area due to a higher probability of failure for the low bone volume and bone quality poor. In the skull, in the post jawbone relationship, we find a pterygomaxillary buttress. This allows, in some situations, the rehabilitation of atrophic jaws by placing implants with a parasinusal angulation, avoiding surgical techniques or more complex procedure. The pterygoid implant is a possible treatment to rehabilitate the atrophic posterior maxilla, anchored in cortical bone of the pterygoid process. A case of placement of pterygoid implants in a woman 58 years old with a large pneumatization in both maxillary sinuses, with a remaining alveolar bone 1-2 mm is reported.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Jaw, Edentulous, Partially/surgery , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Maxilla/surgery , Periodontal Atrophy/surgery , Sphenoid Bone
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169364


We report a case of retiform hemangioendothelioma (RH) located in the infratemporal fossa and buccal area in a 13-year-old Korean boy. The tumor originated from the sphenoid bone of the infratemporal fossa area and spread into the cavernous sinus, orbital apex, and retro-nasal area with bone destruction of the pterygoid process. Tumor resection was conducted via Le Fort I osteotomy and partial maxillectomy to approach the infratemporal fossa and retro-nasal area. The diagnosis of RH was confirmed after surgery. In the presented patient, surgical excision was incomplete, and close follow-up was performed. There was no evidence of expansion or metastasis of the residual tumor in the 8 years after surgery. In cases of residual RH with low likelihood of expansion and metastasis, even though RH is an intermediate malignancy, close follow-up can be the appropriate treatment choice over additional aggressive therapy. To date, 29 papers and 48 RH cases have been reported, including this case. This case is the second reported RH case presenting as primary bone tumor and the first case originating in the oromaxillofacial area.

Adolescent , Cavernous Sinus , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemangioendothelioma , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm, Residual , Orbit , Osteotomy , Osteotomy, Le Fort , Sphenoid Bone