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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928753


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of a family with hereditary spherocytosis (HS), to clarify the cause of the disease, and to provide the basis for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of proband and his parents were collected, and HS-related pathogenic genovariation of the proband was detected by high throughput sequencing. Suspected pathogenic mutation sites were verified by PCR-Sanger sequencing, and the fetus were conceived by a proband mother underwent prenatal diagnosis.@*RESULTS@#Clinical manifestations of the proband showed moderate anemia, mild splenomegaly, and jaundice (an indirect increase of bilirubin). The gene detection showed that the proband showed compound heterozygous mutations of SPTB gene c. 6095T > C (p.Leu2032Pro) and c. 6224A > G (p.Glu2075Gly), which was inherited from the asymptomatic mother and father, respectively. Both mutations were detected rarely in the common population. Prenatal diagnosis revealed that the fetus inherited a mutant gene of the mother.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous mutations of SPTB genes c.6095T>C (p.Leu2032Pro) and c.6224A>G (p.Glu2075Gly) were the causes of the family disease, which provides a basis for family genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. This report is the first one found in the HGMD,1000G and EXAC database, which provides an addition to the mutation profile of the SPTB gene.

Female , Genetic Testing , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Pedigree , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Spectrin/genetics , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/genetics
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e539, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093131


Introducción: La esferocitosis hereditaria (ESH) es una anemia hemolítica de observación frecuente, en la cual existen defectos cualitativos o cuantitativos de algunas proteínas de la membrana eritrocitaria que llevan a la formación de hematíes de forma esférica, osmóticamente frágiles, que son atrapados de formas selectiva y destruidos en el bazo, con incidencia variable y más frecuente en pacientes con descendencia europea. Objetivo: Describir la conducta clínica y anestesiológica de un paciente pediátrico con diagnóstico de micro esferocitosis hereditaria programado de forma electiva para procedimiento quirúrgico. Desarrollo: Se presenta un caso clínico de un paciente escolar con diagnóstico de micro esferocitosis hereditaria al cual se le realizó esplenectomía total electiva convencional. Con principal signo dolor a la palpación en hipocondrio izquierdo. Se condujo con anestesia total intravenosa con buenos resultados clínicos quirúrgicos, utilizando propofol a razón de 3 mcg/mL y ketamina a 0,2 mg/mL. La estrategia estuvo basada en cinco aspectos claves: evitar la hipoxia, la hipotermia, la acidosis, reducir la pérdida de sangre, así como un correcto control del dolor postoperatorio. Asociado a lo anterior es indispensable una estrecha vigilancia ya que estos pacientes pueden manifestar crisis hemolítica y aplásica. Conclusiones: El manejo perioperatorio del paciente con esferocitosis hereditaria depende de la severidad del cuadro clínico, de la anemia y su repercusión y del grado de hemólisis. La anestesia total intravenosa es una técnica segura para el tratamiento de pacientes con esferocitosis hereditaria(AU)

Introduction: Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a hemolytic anemia of frequent occurrence, in which there are qualitative or quantitative defects of some erythrocyte membrane proteins that lead to the formation of sphere-shaped red blood cells, which are osmotically fragile, and that are selectively trapped and destroyed in the spleen, with variable and more frequent incidence in patients with European descent. Objective: To describe the clinical and anesthesiological behavior of a pediatric patient with a diagnosis of hereditary microspherocytosis electively programmed for a surgical procedure. Development: A clinical case of a school-age patient with a diagnosis of hereditary microspherocytosis was presented. The patient underwent conventional elective total splenectomy. Pain was as the main sign on palpation to the left hypochondrium. The case was conducted with total intravenous anesthesia, with good surgical clinical results, using propofol at a rate of 3 mcg/mL and ketamine at 0.2 mg/mL. The strategy was based on five key aspects: avoid hypoxia, hypothermia, acidosis, reduce blood loss, as well as proper control of postoperative pain. Associated with the above-mentioned, close monitoring is essential, as these patients may manifest hemolytic and aplastic crisis. Conclusions: The perioperative management of the patient with hereditary spherocytosis depends on the severity of the clinical status, the anemia and its repercussion, and the degree of hemolysis. Total intravenous anesthesia is a safe technique for the treatment of patients with hereditary spherocytosis(AU)

Humans , Male , Child , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/surgery , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/diagnosis , Splenectomy/methods , Anesthesia, Intravenous/methods
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781304


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a pedigree affected with hereditary spherocytosis.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples were collected from 17 members of the pedigree. Genomic DNA of the proband was subjected to next generation sequencing. Candidate variant was validated by co-segregation analysis. pCAS2(c.5798+1G) and pCAS2(c.5798+1A) plasmids were constructed by homologous recombination and transfected into 293T cells. Reverse transcription PCR, TA cloning and Sanger sequencing were used to analyze the effect of candidate variant on splicing. Meanwhile, peripheral blood RNAs were extracted to analyze the effect of candidate variant on splicing in vivo.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to carry a c.5798+1G>A variant of the SPTB gene. The variant has co-segregated with the phenotype in the pedigree. In vitro and in vivo splicing experiments confirmed that the mutation has significantly affected the splicing, resulting in shift of reading frame and produced a premature termination codon.@*CONCLUSION@#The novel c.5798+1G>A variant of the SPTB gene probably underlies the pathogenesis of hereditary spherocytosis in this pedigree.

Codon, Nonsense , Genetics , Genetic Variation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mutation , Genetics , Pedigree , Plasmids , RNA Splicing , Spectrin , Genetics , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Genetics , Transfection
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776758


OBJECTIVE@#To detect the disease-causing mutation in a family with hereditary spherocytosis type Ⅰ.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his relatives. Next-generation sequencing was used to detect the mutations of relevant genes. Suspected pathogenic mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a novel frameshifting mutation in the coding region of ANK1 gene, which has resulted in abnormal structure or function of the protein. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing, with both his father and brother found to have carried the same mutation.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.247delG mutation of proband hereditary spherocytosis typeⅠin this family due to mutation of the ANK1 gene..

Ankyrins , Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Mutation , Open Reading Frames , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776658


Four children (two boys and two girls), aged from 3 years and 7 months to 5 years, had mild or moderate anemia, mild hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice (mainly an increase in indirect bilirubin), an increase in the percentages of reticulocytes and spherical erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear and an increase in erythrocyte osmotic brittleness. High-throughput sequencing found two novel mutations in the SLC4A1 gene, c.37G>A and c.340T>C, in case 1 and case 2 respectively, and these two mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by Mutation Taster. The Polyphen2 scores of these two mutations were 0.87 and 0.83 respectively, which suggested that these mutations were probably damaging. The SIFT scores of these two mutations were 0.008 and 0.09 respectively, suggesting that these mutations were probably damaging. No abnormality in this gene was found in their parents. Two reported heterozygous mutations in the ANK1 gene, c.830A>G and c.985G>C, were found in case 3 and case 4 respectively. Gene detection was not performed for the parents of case 3. The mother of case 4 was diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis and had a heterozygous mutation of c.985G>C in the ANK1 gene. All four children were diagnosed with hereditary spherocytosis. Case 3 had a hemoglobin level of 105 g/L. Hereditary spherocytosis is a hereditary hemolytic disease caused by abnormality in erythrocyte membrane protein, and gene detection helps to make a confirmed diagnosis.

Ankyrins , Child , Child, Preschool , Erythrocytes , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Mutation , Spherocytosis, Hereditary
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 98(3): 234-237, maio-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009762


A anemia é muito prevalente em idosos; todavia, a eliptocitose hereditária, uma anemia hereditária caracterizada pela presença de eritrócitos em forma elíptica no sangue periférico; raramente causa anemia sintomática em pacientes idosos. A eliptocitose esferocítica é uma anemia hereditária com caráter autossômico dominante. A associação entre essas duas eritroenzimopatias hereditárias é rara e seu curso varia com alterações da forma eritrocitária, observando-se a presença simultânea de eliptocitose e esferocitose no sangue periférico. A hemólise pode variar de média a moderada intensidade. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente adulta idosa com eliptocitose esferocítica revelada após 26 anos, sendo realizada a esplenectomia para resolução do quadro de hemólise.

Anemia is very prevalent in the elderly; however, hereditary elliptocytosis, an inherited anemia characterized by the presence of elliptical erythrocytes in the peripheral blood; rarely causes symptomatic anemia in elderly patients. Spherocytic elliptocytosis is an inherited anemia with an autosomal dominant character. The association between these two hereditary erythroenzyopathies is rare and its course varies with alterations of the erythrocyte form, observing the simultaneous presence of elliptocytosis and spherocytosis in the peripheral blood. Hemolysis can range from medium to moderate intensity. We report the case of a patient with spherocytic elliptocytosis revealed after 26 years, and splenectomy was performed to resolve the hemolysis.

Humans , Female , Aged , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Elliptocytosis, Hereditary , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic/diagnosis , Aged
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774069


This study analyzed the clinical features of 5 children with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and the characteristics of ANK1 and SPTB gene mutations. All 5 children were confirmed with HS by peripheral blood genetic detection. Anemia, jaundice and splenomegaly were observed in all 5 children. Three children had an increase in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. All 5 children had negative results of the Coombs test, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase test, sucrose hemolysis test, acidified-serum hemolysis test and thalassemia gene test. Peripheral blood smear showed an increase in spherocyte count in one child. High-throughput sequencing revealed ANK1 gene mutations in patients 1 to 3, namely c.3398(exon29)delA, c.4306C>T and c.957(exon9)_c.961(exon9)delAATCT, among which c.3398(exon29)delA had not been reported before. Patient 4 had c.318delGExon3 mutation in the SPTB gene. Patient 5 had mutations in the SPTB and SLC4A1 genes, among which c.3484delC in the SPTB gene was a spontaneous mutation; the mutation site of the SLCA4A1 gene was inherited from the father and was a non-pathogenic gene. This study suggests that anemia, jaundice and splenomegaly are major clinical manifestations of HS children. Most children with HS do not have the typical spherocytic changes. Genetic detection may help with the accurate diagnosis of HS.

Ankyrins , Genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Spectrin , Genetics , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Genetics
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1826-1830, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774378


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the feasibility and clinical significance of high resolution melting(HRM) curve analysis to detect SLC4A1 gene D38A and K56E mutations in the patients with hereditary spherocytosis(HS).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood was collected from 23 cases of HS for routine tests and their genomic DNA was extracted by routine technique. Specific primers of mutation sites D38A and K56E of SLC4A1 gene were designed. The HRM method was used to analyze all the samples, and then the results of HRM were verified with DNA sequencing technology.@*RESULTS@#Among 23 specimens of HS patients, 6 cases of heterozygous mutant gene were detected by HRM technology, including 3 cases of D38A mutation and 3 cases of K56E mutation, which were confirmed by DNA sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#The HRM technology can correctly detect 2 common mutation sites including D38A and K56E in SLC4A1 gene in an efficient, fast, and reliable way, which not only can be used for clinical diagnosis, but also expected to be a new method for clinical researchers to define gene mutation spectrum in HS patients.

Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte , Genetics , Base Sequence , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA Primers , Heterozygote , Humans , Mutation , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Genetics
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 51(3): 307-318, set. 2017. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886125


Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: a) Analizar las características demográficas y clínicas de nuestra población al diagnóstico; b) Evaluar si las pruebas más recientes presentan ventajas sobre las tradicionales; c) Confirmar la frecuencia de las distintas deficiencias de proteínas de membrana; d) Establecer la relación entre severidad y resultado de las pruebas o tipo de deficiencia. Se analizaron 359 individuos estudiados desde 2007, cuando se incorporaron criohemólisis hipertónica (CH), citometría de flujo con eosina-5'- maleimida (5'EMA-CF), FOE por citometría de flujo (FOE-CF) y electroforesis de proteínas de membrana (SDS-PAGE) al estudio de laboratorio clásico, fragilidad osmótica eritrocitaria (FOE) y autohemólisis (AH). Criterios diagnósticos para Esferocitosis Hereditaria (ESH): esferocitos en frotis y dos pruebas positivas. Se identificaron 174 pacientes con ESH y 22 portadores sanos. El 74,9% eran menores de 12 años. La transmisión fue dominante en el 83,1% de los casos. Tuvieron manifestaciones neonatales 89,1%. Las pruebas con mayor sensibilidad fueron CH (92,0%), FOE diferida (91,1%) y 5'EMA-CF (88,5%). En los 125 pacientes en quienes se realizaron CH, 5'EMA-CF y FOE-CF se observó que todos tenían al menos una prueba positiva; 122 (97,6%) tuvieron dos o tres positivas. Las deficiencias más frecuentes fueron ankirina y espectrina. No hubo diferencia en el resultado de las pruebas entre los subgrupos de severidad. Se concluye que las deficiencias más frecuentes en Argentina son ankirina y espectrina, coincidiendo con otras poblaciones latinoamericanas. El uso simultáneo de CH, 5'EMA-CF y FOE-CF permite diagnosticar más del 97% de los casos. La incidencia de manifestaciones neonatales es elevada.

The aims of this study were (a) to assess demographic and clinical aspects of our population at diagnosis; (b) to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of hypertonic cryohemolysis (HC), eosin-5'-maleimide flow cytometry (EMA-FC) and flow cytometric osmotic fragility (OF-FC) in relation to standard screening tests osmotic fragility (OF) and autohemolysis (AH); (c) to confirm the previously reported prevalence of membrane proteins defects; and (d) to assess the relationship between severity of anemia and results of confirmatory tests. Since 2007, the following tests were available in our laboratory: OF, AH, HC, EMA-FC, OF-FC and SDS-PAGE of membrane proteins. Diagnostic criteria for hereditary spherocytosis were spherocytes in blood smear plus ≥2 positive tests. Data from 359 individuals were analyzed: 174 HS patients and 22 silent carriers were detected; 74.9% of patients were less than 12 years old; 83.1% of them showed a dominant inheritance pattern; antecedent of neonatal jaundice/anemia was registered in 89.1%. Tests with higher sensitivity were: HC (92.0%), incubated OF (91.1%), and EMA-FC (88.5%). HC, EMA-FC and OF-FC were simultaneously performed on 125 patients: each of them had at least 1 positive test; 122 (97.6%) had 2 or 3 positive tests. Ankyrin and spectrin were the most frequently found protein deficiencies. Comparison of test results in relation to severity of anemia showed no difference between groups. It can be concluded that compared toother Latin American countries, ankyrin and spectrin were the most frequent protein deficiencies. Simultaneous performing of HC, EMA-FC and OF-FC enabled diagnosing HS in more than 97% of patients. A high incidence of neonatal jaundice/anemia was observed.

Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: a) analisar as características demográficas e clínicas de nossa população ao diagnóstico; b) Avaliar se as provas mais recentes apresentam vantagens sobre as tradicionais; c) Confirmar a frequência das diversas deficiências de proteínas de membrana; d) Establecer a relação entre severidade e resultado das provas ou tipo de deficiência. Foram analisados 359 indivíduos estudados desde 2007, quando se incorporaram crio-hemólise hipertônica (CH), citometria de fluxo com eosina-5'-maleimida (5'EMA-CF), FOE por citometria de fluxo (FOE-CF) e eletroforese de proteínas de membrana (SDS-PAGE) ao estudo de laboratório clássico - fragilidade osmótica eritrocitária (FOE) e auto-hemólise (AH). Critérios diagnósticos para ESH: esferócitos em esfregaço e duas provas positivas. Foram identificados 174 pacientes com ESH e 22 portadores sadios. 74,9% eram menores de 12 anos. A transmissão foi dominante em 83,1%. Tiveram manifestações neonatais 89,1%. As provas com maior sensibilidade foram CH (92,0%), FOE diferida (91,1%) e 5'EMA-CF (88,5%). Nos 125 pacientes aos quais lhes realizaram CH, 5'EMA-CF e FOE-CF se observou que todos tinham no mínimo uma prova positiva; 122 (97,6%) tiveram duas ou três positivas. As deficiências mais frequentes foram anquirina e espectrina. Não houve diferença no resultado das provas entre os subgrupos de severidade. Conclui-se que as deficiências mais frequentes na Argentina são anquirina e espectrina, as quais coincidem com outras populações latinoamericanas. O uso simultâneo de CH, 5'EMA-CF e FOE-CF permite diagnosticar mais de 97% dos casos. A incidência de manifestações neonatais é elevada.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Erythrocytes , Anemia, Hemolytic , Argentina , Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-247739


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the disease-causing mutation in a newborn with hereditary spherocytosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patient and her parents. Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze the related genes. Suspected pathogenic mutation was verified with polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>An insertional mutation g.834_833insC was identified in the coding region of ankyrin-1 (ANK1) gene, which has caused a frame shift, resulting premature termination of protein translation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The hereditary spherocytosis in the neonate was probably due to the g.834_833insC mutation of the ANK1 gene.</p>

Amino Acid Sequence , Ankyrins , Genetics , Base Sequence , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Diagnosis , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Diagnosis , Genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272473


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a new method for detection of red blood cell osmotic fragility by using flow cytometry.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The hypotension salt solution of different concentrations (0.70 ml normal saline+0.3 ml deionized water, 0.60 ml normal saline+0.40 ml deionized water and 0.55 ml normal saline+0.45 ml deionized water) were prepared with normal saline and deionized water, in which the red blood cells were suspended, and the residual red blood cells were detected by flow cytometer.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There was no significant difference in percentage of residual red blood cells between different time points detected by flow cytometer in 3 different hypotonic salt solutions. The percentage of residual red blood cells in B+C+D+E+F+G detected time region was different among 3 NaCl dilution groups. The percentage of residual red blood cells in normal control was lower than that in hemoglobinopathy group. The percentage of residual red blood cells in hereditary spherocytosis (HS) group was obviously lower than that in hemoglobinopathy and normal control groups. The comparison of 3 different dilution concentrations found that the second concentration (0.60 ml normal saline+0.40 ml deionized water) is more suitable to screen HS by FC500 flow cytometer.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The detection of red cell osmotic fragility by using flow cytometry is a simple, rapid, objective and economic way that can be an effective screening method for diagnose the HS.</p>

Erythrocytes , Cell Biology , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Osmotic Fragility , Spherocytosis, Hereditary
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 598-601, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281974


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA)assay for the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS), and to verify the stability of reagent and samples.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>EMA flow cytometry test, NaCl-osmotic fragility test and acidified glycerol lysis test were performed using peripheral blood samples from 80 patients with HS and 44 patients with other blood diseases, the sensitivity and specificity of the three methods were compared, and the feasibility of EMA binding test was estimated. The stability of EMA reagent and HS samples stored at different temperatures were tested.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the 124 tested samples, the sensitivity and specificity of EMA binding test was 0.925 and 0.954, that of NaCl-osmotic fragility test was 0.950 and 0.455, and that of acidified glycerol lysis test was 1.000 and 0.318, respectively. Although the sensitivity of NaCl-osmotic fragility test and acidified glycerol lysis test was a little higher than that of EMA binding test, the specificity of the former two methods was poor, they couldn't clearly distinguish whether spherocytosis is hereditary spherocytosis. The experiment results showed that EMA was sensitive to the temperature and should not be stored in a small aliquots at -80 ℃ over a period of 6 months. The stability of the HS sample was better, 6 days storage at 4 ℃ and 3 days storage at room temperature had no influence on the results.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>EMA binding test by flow cytometry showed good sensitivity and specificity for HS diagnosis. EMA reagent should be stored at-80 ℃ and the HS samples should be tested within 6 days storage at 4 ℃ and 3 days at room temperature.</p>

Ankyrins , Blood , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Flow Cytometry , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Blood , Diagnosis
Prensa méd. argent ; 99(2): 130-133, abr. 2013. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-699429


En diversas patologías con alteraciones en la producción de los elementos formes de la sangre pueden desarrollarse focos de hematopoyesis extramedular en diferentes sitios. Los más frecuentes son: bazo, hígado, ganglios linfáticos, y más raramente otros órganos como: glándulas adrenales, hillios renales, cartílagos, ligamentos, tejido adiposo, timo, pulmón, mediastino y duramadre de cráneo y columna. Generalmente el proceso es difuso pero pueden formarse grandes tumores de tejido hematopoyético. Las condiciones patológicas de la médula ósea más frecuentemente asociadas a hematopoyesis extramedular son: esferocitosis hereditaria, talasemia, síndromes mieloproliferativos con fibrosis medular, ocupación medular por patologías neoplásicas. presentamos un paciente de 45 años con esferocitosis hereditaria con masas de tejido hematopoyético extramedular paravertebral mediastinal que respondieron favorablemente a la esplenectomía.

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a relatively common inherited hemolytic disorder in northern Europe and in the US. The reported prevalence of HS in Western countries is 1:5000. We describe a patient 45 years old, with hereditary spherocytosis with masses of mediastinal paravertebral extramedullary hematopoietic tissue, with a favorable response to splenectomy. The medical lieterature refers some cases of extramedullary hematopoiesis as a clinical expression of hereditary spherocytosis, mainly as thoracic masses with usually paravertebral localization. HS should be distinguished from other spherocytic hermolytic anemias. Diagnosis is usually made uring infancy or in young adults, but it can be at any moment of their life, until the seventh decade of life. Ocasionally, the diagnosis is first made in old age. The clinical expression of HS is highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic condition to a severe life-threatening hemolytic anemia. Laboratory features include spherocytosis, osmotic fragility, manifestations of hemolytic disease, elevated unconjugated bilirubin and reticulocytosis. The principal diagnostic test, RBC osmotic fragility, measures the surface/volume Ratio of the cells. The treatment of choice of HS in patients with inherited spherocytosis is splenectomy, which corrects hemolytic anemia. According to he literature, cases of failure following splenectomy have been reported.

Humans , Male , Adult , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/pathology , Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary , Hepatomegaly/pathology , Bone Marrow/injuries , Bone Marrow/pathology , Bone Marrow , Osmotic Fragility , Splenectomy
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13789


Thoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare disease entity that is usually associated with hematologic disorders, such as myelodysplastic or hemolytic disease. Because thoracic EMH is usually encountered as a mass during radiologic examinations, it should be differentiated from posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors. Here, the authors report a case of EMH associated with hereditary spherocytosis. The patient underwent a complete excision by thoracoscopic surgery to differentiate it from other mediastinal tumors.

Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary , Humans , Mediastinal Neoplasms , Mediastinum , Rare Diseases , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Thoracoscopy
Blood Research ; : 211-216, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172215


BACKGROUND: The number of patients diagnosed with hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) has increased since the advent of novel diagnostic techniques that accurately identify this disorder. Here, we report data from a survey on the prevalence and characteristics of patients diagnosed with HHA in Korea from 2007 to 2011. METHODS: Information on patients diagnosed with HHA in Korea and their clinical and laboratory results were collected using a survey questionnaire. Globin gene and red blood cell (RBC) enzyme analyses were performed. In addition, we analyzed data collected by pediatricians. RESULTS: In total, 195 cases of HHA were identified. Etiologies identified for HHA were RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and RBC enzymopathies, which accounted for 127 (64%), 39 (19.9%), and 26 (13.3%) cases, respectively. Of the 39 patients with hemoglobinopathies, 26 were confirmed by globin gene analysis, including 20 patients with beta-thalassemia minor, 5 patients with alpha-thalassemia minor, and 1 patient with unstable hemoglobin disease. CONCLUSION: The number of patients diagnosed with hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies has increased considerably since the previous survey on HHA in Korea, dated from 1997 to 2006. This is likely the result of improved diagnostic techniques. Nevertheless, there is still a need for more sensitive diagnostic tests utilizing flow cytometry and for better standardization of test results to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of RBC membranopathies in Korea. Additionally, more accurate assays for the identification of RBC enzymopathies are warranted.

alpha-Thalassemia , Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital , beta-Thalassemia , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Erythrocytes , Flow Cytometry , Globins , Hematology , Hemoglobinopathies , Hemoglobins , Humans , Korea , Prevalence , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Thalassemia , Surveys and Questionnaires
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152218


We recently encountered a case of hereditary spherocytosis coexisting with Gilbert's syndrome. Patient was initially diagnosed with Gilbert's syndrome and observed, but other findings suggestive of concurrent hemolysis, such as splenomegaly and gallstones were noted during the follow-up period. Therefore, further evaluations, including a peripheral blood smear, osmotic fragility test, autohemolysis test, and red blood cell membrane protein test were performed, and coexisting hereditary spherocytosis was diagnosed. Genotyping of the conjugation enzyme uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase was used to confirm Gilbert's syndrome. Because of the high prevalence rates and similar symptoms of these 2 diseases, hereditary spherocytosis can be masked in patients with Gilbert's syndrome. In review of a case and other article, the possibility of the coexistence of these 2 diseases should be considered, especially in patients with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia who also have splenomegaly and gallstones.

Adult , Erythrocytes/physiology , Gallstones/etiology , Genotype , Gilbert Disease/complications , Glucuronosyltransferase/genetics , Hemolysis , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia/etiology , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/complications , Splenomegaly/etiology
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 28(4): 310-326, oct.-dic. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-663857


La esferocitosis hereditaria es la anemia hemolítica congénita más frecuente en la población caucásica. Tiene una amplia variabilidad clínica y desde el punto de vista hematológico se caracteriza por anemia y presencia de esferocitos en la lámina periférica. Su base fisiopatológica está determinada por el defecto de algunas de las proteínas que conforman la membrana eritrocitaria, por el efecto del bazo sobre los hematíes anómalos y otros factores. A la luz de los conocimientos actuales, la interpretación dinámica del proceso requiere adentrarse en los estadios iniciales de la hematopoyesis, pues desde etapas tan tempranas como la enucleación del eritroblasto en la formación del reticulocito, hasta posibles procesos inflamatorios tardíos, pudieran modular la expresión de la enfermedad. Se hace una revisión de las características estructurales y funcionales de la membrana eritrocitaria, así como algunos aspectos generales de las propiedades del hematíe para facilitar la comprensión de los eventos que tienen lugar a partir del compromiso molecular de las proteínas que conforman la membrana

Hereditary spherocytosis is the most common congenital hemolytic anemia among Caucasian population. It has wide clinical variety and from the haematological point of view, it is characterized by the presence of spherocytes anemia in peripheral lamina. Its pathophysiological defect is determined by some of the proteins that make up the red cell membrane due to the effect on erythrocytes of abnormal spleen, and other factors. In view of current knowledge, the dynamic interpretation of this process requires delving into the early stages of hematopoiesis, since the expression of this disease could modulate from early stages of erythroblast enucleation in reticulocyte formation until late potential inflammatory processes. A review was made on the structural and functional characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane, as well as some general aspects of the properties of the red cell to facilitate understanding of events which take place through proteins molecular involvement forming the membrane

Humans , Male , Female , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/epidemiology , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/physiopathology , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/genetics , Membrane Proteins/therapeutic use
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 46(4): 645-653, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-671972


Las anemias hereditarias más frecuentes en Tucumán (Argentina) son el rasgo beta talasémico (RBT), las hemoglobinopatías estructurales (HBP) y la esferocitosis hereditaria (EH). La resistencia osmótica eritrocitaria inmediata y 24 horas post-incubación constituye el método diagnóstico de la EH, y como tubo único (ROETU) es usada para cribado de RBT. El propósito del trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de ROETU (4,0 y 5,5 g/L de NaCl) en el diagnóstico de anemias hereditarias. Se estudiaron 125 pacientes: 34 normales (GN), 59 con RBT (GRBT), 21 con HBP (GHBP) y 11 con EH (GEH), que fueron agrupados en niños (≤12 años), mujeres y hombres (>12 años). Se realizaron hemograma (Coulter AcT10 y Sysmex KX-21N), índices de Mentzer y de Shine&Lal, ROETU, hierro, transferrina y saturación de transferrina (Wiener Lab), reticulocitos (azul brillante de cresilo), prueba de falciformación y electroforesis de hemoglobina a pH alcalino y ácido. GRBT presentó anemia microcítica hipocrómica, y GEH y GHBP, anemia normocítica normocrómica. El hierro fue normal. GRBT y GHBP fueron resistentes en ROETU 4,0 g/L, aunque GRBT mostró mayor resistencia (p<0,05). GEH fue menos resistente que GN en ROETU 5,5 g/L (p<0,05). ROETU 4,0 y 5,5 g/L serían recomendables en el diagnóstico presuntivo de RBT y EH, respectivamente.

Beta thalassaemia trait (BTT), structural hemoglobinopathies (SHB) and hereditary spherocytosis (HS) are the most frequent hereditary anaemias in Tucumán (Argentina). Immediately and 24 hours post-incubation red cell osmotic resistance is the diagnosis method of HS, and as a single tube (RORST), it is used for clínicamenBTT screening. The purpose of this study was to determine the RORST (NaCl 4.0 and 5.5 g/L) behaviour in the diagnosis of hereditary anemia. The study encompassed 125 patients : 34 normal patients (NG), 59 with BTT (BTTG), 21 with SHB (SHBG) and 11 with HS (HSG), who were divided into children (≤12 years), women and men (> 12 years). Blood count (Coulter AcT10 and Sysmex KX-21N), Mentzer and Shine&Lal indexes, RORST, iron, transferrin and transferrin saturation (Wiener Lab), reticulocytes (brilliant cresyl blue), sickling and hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline and acid pH were performed. BTTG showed hypochromic microcytic anemia, and SHBG and HSG, normochromic normocytic anemia. Iron was normal. BTTG and SHBG were resistant in RORST 4.0 g/L, but BTTG showed more resistance (p<0.05). SHG was less resistant than NG at RORST 5.5 g/L (p<0.05). RORST at values of 4.0 and 5.5 g/L would be recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of BTT and SH, respectively.

As anemias hereditárias mais comuns em Tucumán (Argentina) são o traço beta talassemia minor (BTM), as hemoglobinopatias estruturais (HBP) e esferocitose hereditária (EH). A resistência osmótica dos eritrócitos imediata e 24 horas pós-incubação é o método de diagnóstico da EH, e como um único tubo (ROETU) é usado para a detecção de BTM. O objectivo deste estudo foi determinar o comportamento de ROETU (4,0 e 5,5 g/L de NaCl) para o diagnóstico de anemias hereditárias. Foram estudados 125 pacientes: 34 normais (GN), 59 com BTM (GBTM), 21 com HBP (GHBP) e 11 com EH (GEH), que foram reunidos em crianças (≤12 anos), mulheres e homens (>12 anos). Foi realizado hemograma (Coulter AcT10 e Sysmex KX-21N), índices de Mentzer e Shine&Lal, ROETU, ferro, transferrina e saturação de transferrina (Wiener Lab), reticulócitos (azul de cresil brilhante), teste de falcização e eletroforese de hemoglobina em pH alcalino e ácido. GBTM mostrou anemia microcítica hipocrômica, e GEH e GHBP, anemia normocítica normocrômica. O ferro foi normal. GRBT e GHBP foram resistentes em ROETU 4,0 g/L, mas GBTM mostrou maior resistência (p<0,05). GEH foi menos resistente que GN em ROETU 5,5 g/L (p<0,05). ROETU 4,0 e 5,5 g/L seria recomendado para o diagnóstico presuntivo da BTM e EH, respectivamente.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Anemia, Hemolytic, Congenital/diagnosis , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/blood , Spherocytosis, Hereditary/diagnosis , Argentina , beta-Thalassemia , Hemoglobinopathies , Osmotic Fragility
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788476


Hereditary spherocytosis is a hemolytic anemia caused by erythrocyte membrane deficiencies that lead to membrane destabilization and vesiculation. Abnormal spherocytes are trapped and destroyed in the spleen. Mutations in several genes, SPTA1, SPTB, ANK1, SLCA1 and EPB42 cause alpha-spectrin, beta-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3 or protein 4.2 protein deficiencies, respectively. The clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic to severe hemolytic anemia requiring erythrocyte transfusion. Common complications are cholelithiasis, hemolytic episodes and aplastic crises. Till now, splenectomy is considered as only curative method in this genetic disorder. However, in the future, molecular analysis will make elucidate the genotype-phenotype interactions and can innovate to modify treatment strategies.

Anemia, Hemolytic , Ankyrins , Cholelithiasis , Erythrocyte Membrane , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Erythrocytes , Membranes , Protein Deficiency , Spectrin , Spherocytes , Spherocytosis, Hereditary , Spleen , Splenectomy