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An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1543-1553, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886741


ABSTRACT A list of spider species is presented for the Belém Area of Endemism, the most threatened region in the Amazon Basin, comprising portions of eastern State of Pará and western State of Maranhão, Brazil. The data are based both on records from the taxonomic and biodiversity survey literature and on scientific collection databases. A total of 319 identified species were recorded, with 318 occurring in Pará and only 22 in Maranhão. About 80% of species are recorded at the vicinities of the city of Belém, indicating that sampling effort have been strongly biased. To identify potentially high-diversity areas, discounting the effect of variations in sampling effort, the residues of a linear regression between the number of records and number of species mapped in each 0.25°grid cells were analyzed. One grid, representing the Alto Turiaçu Indigenous land, had the highest deviation from the expected from the linear regression, indicating high expected species richness. Several other grid cells showed intermediate values of the regression residuals, indicating species richness moderately above to the expected from the model.

Animals , Spiders/classification , Biodiversity , Brazil , Population Density , Geography
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 875-883, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843320


AbstractFaunistic studies, with a taxonomically complete inventory of species, provide an important source of quantitative compiled information for several and specific regions. This information can be used in diversity analysis and has great potential in setting conservation priorities. In this study, I used the relatively well known salticid spider fauna of Misiones to generate Clarke & Warwick taxonomic diversity indices. For this, information of three ecoregional salticid diversities was obtained and analyzed between Upper Parana Atlantic Forest (UPAF), Araucaria Moist Forest (AMF), and Southern Cone Mesopotamian Savanna (SCMS). Results showed differences between the three ecoregions of the province, mainly Southern savannas regarding the forests of Northern Misiones. Most species were registered in UPAF followed by AMF, however the α-taxonomic diversity of salticids was higher in SCMS than in UPAF and AMF. The β-taxonomic diversity showed that the proportions of shared species between SCMS and UPAF (or and AMF) were the lowest. The high taxonomic dissimilarity among ecoregions is an indication that the three assemblages are distant, showing a variation in their vegetation habitat and/or bioclimatic characteristics as a possible reason. The need to expand with new samples in subsampled or underexplored areas of Misiones remains essential, however this study contributes to information about biodiversity levels of salticid fauna in three ecoregions of Northeast Argentina, and will provide reference data for future studies for management plans. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 875-883. Epub 2016 June 01.

ResumenLos estudios faunísticos, con un inventario de especies taxonómicamente completo, proveen una fuente importante de información compilada cuantitativa acerca de varias regiones. Esta información puede ser utilizada en análisis de diversidad y tiene gran potencial en el establecimiento de prioridades de conservación. En este estudio, yo utilicé la relativamente bien conocida fauna de arañas saltícidas de Misiones para generar índices de diversidad taxonómica de Clarke y Warwick. Para ello, la información de tres diversidades ecorregionales de saltícidos fue obtenida y analizada entre la Selva Atlántica del Alto Paraná (UPAF), el Bosque Húmedo de Araucaria (AMF), y la Sabana Mesopotámica del Cono Sur (SCMS). Fueron encontradas diferencias entre las tres ecorregiones de la provincia, principalmente en las sabanas del sur con respecto a las selvas del norte de Misiones. La mayoría de las especies fueron registradas en UPAF seguida por AMF, sin embargo la diversidad α-taxonómica de saltícidos fue mayor en SCMS que en UPAF y AMF. La diversidad β-taxonómica mostró que las proporciones de especies compartidas entre SCMS y UPAF (o AMF) fueron las más bajas. La alta disimilitud taxonómica entre ecorregiones es un indicador de que los tres ensamblajes son distantes, mostrando una variación en la vegetación de su hábitat y/o características bioclimáticas como una posible razón. Sigue siendo esencial la necesidad de ampliar con nuevas muestras en áreas no- o sub-muestreadas de Misiones, sin embargo este estudio contribuye a la información acerca de los niveles de biodiversidad de la fauna de saltícidos en tres ecorregiones del nordeste de Argentina, y proporcionará datos de referencia para futuros planes de gestión.

Animals , Spiders/classification , Biodiversity , Argentina , Forests
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2016; 46 (1): 167-178
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-180172


Spider bites are uncommon medical events, since there are limited number of spiders worldwide with fangs strong enough to pierce human skin, and most spiders bite humans only as a final defense when being crushed between skin and another object. Thus, most lesions attributed to spider bites are caused by some other etiology. The spiders that can cause medically significant bites include widow and false widow spiders [worldwide], recluse spiders [mostly North and South America], Australian funnel web spiders [eastern coastal Australia] and Phoneutria spiders [Brazil]. Acute spider bites most commonly result in a solitary papule, pustule, or wheal. Systemic symptoms can accompany envenomation of widow; funnel web, and Phoneutria spiders, and less often, those of recluse spiders

Animals , Humans , Spider Venoms , Spiders/classification , Nursing Staff/education , Phobic Disorders
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(4): 467-471, ago. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762647


In Chile, loxoscelism is caused by the bite of the Loxosceles laeta spider. The clinical presentation has two different forms: cutaneous loxoscelism (CL) and vicero-cutaneous loxoscelism, which is less frequent. Cutaneous loxoscelism includes an uncommon clinical variation (4%), called CL with edematous predominance (CLEP). We present a 5-year-old patient with sudden pain and edema on his right eyelid associated with fever, which progressed rapidly involving the right hemifacial area, frontal region, and left eyelid. Angioedema and pre-orbital cellulitis were discarded and CLEP was suspect. Cutaneous loxoscelism with an edematous predominance is self-limited, benign and with little or no necrotic injury due to the edema, which dilutes the toxin-induced enzymatic process causing necrosis. As in the reported cases it usually responds well to medical treatment and does not cause visceral involvement.

El loxoscelismo en Chile es un cuadro producido por la mordedura de la araña Loxosceles laeta. Las formas de presentación son: loxoscelismo cutáneo (LC) y loxoscelismo cutáneo-visceral (LCV), el último menos frecuente. Dentro del LC existe una variante poco común (4%) conocida como loxoscelismo cutáneo predominantemente edematoso (LCPE). Nuestro caso es un paciente de 5 años que consultó por cuadro de inicio súbito de dolor y edema palpebral derecho, asociado a fiebre el cual evolucionó con rápida progresión extendiéndose en la hemicara derecha, región frontal y párpado izquierdo. Se descartó un angioedema y una celulitis periorbitaria, sospechándose un LCPE. Se manejó con hidrocortisona y clorfenamina. El LCPE es un cuadro benigno, autolimitado, en que no está presente la lesión necrótica o ésta es insignificante. Predomina el edema, el cual abortaría la necrosis al diluir el proceso enzimático producido por el veneno. Tiene buena respuesta al tratamiento médico, con ausencia de compromiso visceral.

Animals , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Edema/etiology , Eyelid Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases/etiology , Spider Bites/complications , Chile , Spider Venoms/poisoning , Spiders/classification
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(5): 555-562, oct. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730272


Background: Despite the abundant eco-epidemiological knowledge of the Chilean reclusive spider, Loxosceles laeta, which causes all forms of loxoscelism in Chile, the main characteristics of this species its stages of development remains poorly known especially in the medical area. Objective: In this study we address these issues with the goal of providing clear images of the development of this species and for the first time on population projections as well as the relationship between mature and immature instars, useful data for the control and prevention of accidental bites. Results: We found that L. laeta is an r-selected species, with R0 = 2.1, a generation time of G = 2.1 years, with a concentration of the reproductive value of females between the first and second year of life. We determined the average sizes and development times of all instars. The first vary between 2.3 mm at birth and about 13 mm at adulthood. The total development time was about 1 year. Discussion: The population projection by Leslie matrix suggested great capacity for growth and dispersal with clear seasonal population fluctuations associated with reproduction. It also showed that the proportion of immature varied seasonally between 80 and 90 %, which means that a house with three or four visible adult spiders actually has a population between 20 and 40 spiders in total.

Introducción: A pesar del abundante conocimiento eco-epidemiológico de la araña del rincón, Loxosceles laeta, causante de todos los cuadros de loxoscelismo en Chile, sigue siendo una especie poco conocida en el ambiente médico, especialmente las características y tiempos de sus estados de desarrollo. Objetivo: En este estudio abordamos estos aspectos con el objetivo de aportar imágenes claras del desarrollo de esta especie y por primera vez de sus características y proyecciones poblacionales y de la relación entre estados maduros e inmaduros, datos útiles para el control y prevención de los accidentes por mordedura. Resultados: Loxosceles laeta es una especie r-estratega, con un R0 = 2,1, un tiempo generacional G = 2,1 años y con concentración del valor reproductivo de las hembras entre el primer y segundo año de vida. Determinamos los tamaños promedio y los tiempos de desarrollo de todos los estados. Los primeros varían entre los 2,3 mm al nacer y alrededor de 13 mm al estado adulto. Los tiempos totales de desarrollo son de aproximadamente un año. Discusión: La proyección de la población con matriz de Leslie sugiere una gran capacidad de crecimiento y dispersión, pero con claras fluctuaciones poblacionales estacionales asociadas a la reproducción. Además se muestra que la proporción de estados inmaduros fluctúa estacionalmente entre 80 y 90%, lo que implica que una casa con tres o cuatro arañas adultas visibles, en realidad tiene una población entre 20 y 40 arañas en total.

Animals , Female , Spiders/growth & development , Chile , Life Tables , Reproduction , Seasons , Spiders/classification , Time Factors
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 111-117, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715418


The “Ernesto Tornquist” Provincial Park (ETPP) is located inside the Ventania system (Argentina) and was created to protect one of the last relicts of pampean grasslands. Even though many studies have looked at the vertebrate faunal diversity, biology, and conservation in this Park, few studies have been dedicated to arthropods. Among these, spiders have been used as ecological indicators to evaluate nature conservation status, nevertheless, basic information on their distribution and ecology is necessary for their use as indicator taxa in this region. Thus the goal of this study was to present the phenology and demography of the spider Odo bruchi, a cursorial spider present in the ETPP. For this, spiders were sampled bimonthly using pitfall traps between September 2009-2010 (first year), and March 2011-2012 (second year). A total of 10 traps were placed every 10m along a transect of 100m parallel to the longest axis of a grassland slope with native vegetation. Traps were filled with 1 500mL of ethylene glycol, that were examined and refilled every 60 day period. We collected a total of 799 specimens in two years. Juveniles were the most abundant reaching 47.8% of the total, while males corresponded to 27.8% and females 24.4%. We found significant differences in the mean abundance of O. bruchi: the abundance during spring-summer (Nov-Dec-Jan-Feb) was significantly higher than the other periods of the two years period. Moreover, we found an even abundance distribution throughout the year in the entire study. This work represents one of the first contributions to the ecology of this spider family in the area. Also, our results comprise relevant information to encourage future studies on this spider species as a bio-indicator of the conservation status of pampean grasslands.

El Parque Provincial “Ernesto Tornquist” (PPET) se encuentra dentro del sistema de Ventania (Argentina) y fue creado para proteger uno de los últimos relictos de pastizal pampeano. Aunque se han realizado varios estudios sobre la diversidad, ecología y conservación de la fauna en este Parque, la mayoría se enfocaron en vertebrados, y solo unos pocos estudios se dedicaron a los artrópodos. Las arañas son utilizadas como indicadores ecológicos para evaluar el estado de conservación de los ecosistemas. Cuando se utilizan especies individuales es necesario contar con excelente información básica sobre su distribución y ecología para la elección del taxón indicado. Es por esto que el objetivo de este estudio es presentar la fenología y demografía de Odo bruchi Mello-Leitão 1938 (Zoridae), una araña cursorial que se encuentra en el PPET. Las arañas se capturaron bimestralmente utilizando trampas de caída entre Septiembre 2009-2010 (primer año) y Marzo 2011-2012 (segundo año). Las trampas se colocaron cada de 10m en un transecto de 100m paralelo al el eje más largo de la pendiente del pastizal. Cargamos las trampas con 1 500mL de etilenglicol y las examinamos y recargamos cada 60 días. Recolectamos 799 individuos en dos años. Los jóvenes fueron los más abundantes con un 47.8% del total, mientras que los machos correspondieron al 27.8% y las hembras al 24.4%. Encontramos diferencias significativas en la abundancia media de O. bruchi: la abundancia en primavera-verano (nov-dic-ene-feb) fue significativamente mayor que el resto de los períodos en los dos años estudiados. A su vez, encontramos una distribución similar de la abundancia a lo largo del año en todo el estudio. Este trabajo representa una de las primeras contribuciones a la ecología de esta familia de arañas. Además, los resultados obtenidos comprenden información relevante para fomentar estudios futuros sobre esta especie de araña como un posible bio-indicador del estado de conservación de los pastizales pampeanos.

Animals , Female , Male , Ecosystem , Poaceae , Spiders/classification , Argentina , Seasons , Spiders/physiology
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1243-1260, sep. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-688473


Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. In spite that the presence of spider assemblages has been described in different crop plants, no reports have been done for Citrus species in Argentina. We studied the spider community associated with cultures of Citrus sinensis in the province of Corrientes, Argentina, in two plots (AM1 irrigated and AM2 unirrigated) of 0.82 hectares each. Spiders were collected monthly by using pitfall traps, hand capture, agitation of foliage and sieving of soil litter. A total of 7 174 specimens were collected (33 families, 44 genera and 200 species/morphospecies). The AM1 recorded 3 811 individuals (33 families, 179 species/morphospecies) and AM2 3 363 individuals (31 families, 174 spe- cies/morphospecies). November, December and January showed the highest abundance in both plots. A total of 70% of collected spiders were juveniles. Eight families were the most abundant and represented 75% of spiders collected in both plots, the largest being Lycosidae. We identified eight guilds in both plots, for which the ground runners resulted the most abundant (AM1 n=1341, s=39, n=999 AM2, s=33), followed by orb weavers (AM1 n=637, s=36; AM2 n=552, s=33), the stalkers (AM1 n=471, s=43, AM2 n=453, s=47) and the space web- builders (AM1 n=446, s=23; AM2 n=342, s=25). The analysis of alpha diversity in both plots (AM1H’=4.161, J’=0.802; AM2 H’=4.184, J’=0.811) showed no significant differences (t=1.083 p=0.279). The linear dependences model was the one with the best fit results, where the species observed were more than estimated. Clench model estimated 90.9% of the spiders observed in the unit with irrigation and 90.6% in the unit without irrigation.

Las arañas son ideales como indicadores de cambios ecológicos por su diversidad y abundancia. En la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, se estudiaron arañas de Citrus sinensis en parcelas de 0.82 hectáreas, con riego (AM1) y sin riego (AM2). Mediante pitfall, agitación de follaje, captura manual y tamizado de hojarasca se recolectaron 7 174 ejemplares (33 familias, 44 géneros y 200 especies/morfoespecies), el 70% fueron juveniles. AM1 registró 3 811 individuos (33 familias, 179 especies/morfoespecies) y AM2 3 363 (31 familias, 174 especies/morfoespecies). Durante el verano se observó la mayor abundancia. En ambas parcelas, ocho familias representaron el 75% del total, Lycosidae fue la más numerosa y se identificaron ocho gremios; las vagabundas de suelo fueron las más abundantes (AM1 n=1341, s=39; AM2 n=999, s=33) seguida por las constructoras de telas orbiculares (AM1 n=637, s=36; AM2 n=552, s=33), las cazadoras al acecho (AM1 n=471, s=43; AM2 n=453, s=47) y las de telas espaciales (AM1 n=446, s=23; AM2 n=342, s=25. La diversidad alfa en ambas parcelas (AM1 H’=4.161, J’=0.802; AM2 H’=4.184, J’=0.811) no mostró diferencias significativas (t=1.083, p=0.279). El modelo de dependencia lineal fue el que mejor ajustó los resultados. El modelo de Clench estimó el 90.9% de las observadas en AM1 y el 90.6% en la AM2.

Animals , Biodiversity , Citrus sinensis/parasitology , Spiders/classification , Argentina , Population Density
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1259-1270, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659586


Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (courtship, mating and post-mating) of A. veniliae. The spiders were collected in transgenic soybean crops located in Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W), Buenos Aires, Argentina, and reared under laboratory conditions. Based on observations of 20 couples (with virgin females), behavioral units of male and female in terms of postures and movements, including details on duration and frequency, were described at all stages of sexual activity (courtship, mating and post-mating). Courtship exhibited the greatest number and duration of behavioral units in both sexes. Male and female had a sequence of 16 and nine units, respectively, being the frequency of repetitions of the units significantly higher in the male. Mating was brief and males used a single palp to fill only one of the female spermathecae, after which the female became unreceptive. Mating had two behavioral units in the male and only one in the female. During post-mating males had three and females two behavioral units. The average duration of the whole sexual behavior was 541.90±123.1 seconds for the male and 338.20±74.1 seconds for the female. Alpaida veniliae females rarely accept a second mating with the same or another male (remating), indicating a strict monogamy. In 46% of observed mating, the female cannibalized the male after it. Females became unattractive after mating, since stop producing sex pheromones, causing a reduction of the male vibratory courtship. The high cost of courtship, including the risk of cannibalism, would reinforce the selectivity of males towards receptive virgin females.

Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula) de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W), (Buenos Aires, Argentina) y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes), se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.

Animals , Female , Male , Courtship , Sexual Behavior, Animal/physiology , Spiders/physiology , Cannibalism , Mating Preference, Animal , Sex Factors , Spiders/classification , Time Factors
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(2): 611-623, June 2012. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657806


Arachnofauna (Araneae: Araneae) in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypiumhirsutum) in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina. Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1 255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1 053, 83.91%), “Orb weavers” (n=85, 6.77%) and “Stalkers” (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider’s community in cotton crops. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 611-623. Epub 2012 June 01.

Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina) se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt), algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC) y con control químico (ALCCC). Semanalmente, se capturaron arañas, con una red entomológica de arrastre, paño vertical de 1m y trampas de caída. Asimismo se recolectaron 1 255 ejemplares (16 familias y 32 especies). Siete familias se presentaron en los tres tratamientos, donde predomino Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04%) y Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). El gremio cazadoras por emboscada (n=1 053, 83.91%), “Tejedoras de telas orbiculares” (n=85, 6.77%) y “Cazadoras al acecho” (n=53, 4.22%) fueron las más abundantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en los índices de diversidad entre tratamientos. Las arañas se presentaron durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, con picos en las semanas de floración y madurez de las capsulas, además la mayor abundancia la encontramos en el ALBt. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro sobre la comunidad de arañas en cultivos de algodón para Argentina.

Animals , Biodiversity , Gossypium/parasitology , Plants, Genetically Modified/parasitology , Spiders/classification , Agriculture , Argentina , Gossypium/genetics , Population Density , Random Allocation
Rev. biol. trop ; 59(3): 1173-1182, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-638151


Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.

Hay pocos estudios detallados sobre las interacciones intraespecíficas de arañas migalomorfas. Por lo tanto, se describe el comportamiento de individuos conspecíficos de Grammostola schulzei durante interacciones nosexuales en condiciones de laboratorio. Se confrontaron y observaron pares de individuos involucrando machos adultos, hembras adultas y juveniles en condiciones de locatarios y visitantes, totalizando 115 encuentros. Cuando dos hembras adultas se enfrentaron, retrocedieron o lucharon adoptando elevaciones anteriores e intentos de mordeduras que usualmente resultaron en arañas visitantes heridas. Cuando se enfrentaron hembras con juveniles, frecuentemente se observó canibalismo sobre los juveniles. Los juveniles expuestos a otros juveniles o hembras retrocedieron o realizaron golpes con patas delanteras y tamborileos de palpos, los cuales constituyen unidades de comportamiento comunes durante el cortejo de los machos. Los machos adultos cortejaron y trabaron a algunos juveniles, mientras que los juveniles los evitaron o rechazaron el enganche. Los comportamientos observados durante las interacciones intraespecíficas podrían jugar un papel importante en la distribución espacial y podrían generar adaptaciones al territorialismo.

Animals , Female , Male , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Spiders/physiology , Laboratories , Species Specificity , Spiders/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 71(3): 747-754, Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597184


We examined the post-embryonic development of the male and female genital apparatus of the brown spider, Loxosceles intermedia. The development of the genital apparatus for both sexes begins with the appearance of inner structures. In the male genital apparatus, formation of the testes occurs first, followed by differentiation of the duct, ampulla and vas deferens, and finally the formation of the genital opening and differentiation of the copulatory organ (secondary sexual characteristic). Similarly, the development of the female genital apparatus begins with the formation of the ovaries, followed by the appearance of oocytes in vitellogenesis, then the development of oviducts and uterus internus and, finally, the spermatheca. These data may be very important in further comparative studies on the development of the reproductive system of spiders.

Examinamos o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do aparelho genital masculino e feminino da aranha-marrom Loxosceles intermedia. O desenvolvimento do aparelho genital de ambos os sexos começa com o aparecimento de estruturas internas. No aparelho genital masculino a formação dos testículos ocorre primeiro, seguida pela diferenciação do ducto, ampola e vas deferens e, finalmente, a formação da abertura genital e diferenciação do órgão copulador (característica sexual secundária). Da mesma forma, o desenvolvimento do aparelho genital feminino começa com a formação dos ovários, seguida pelo aparecimento de oócitos em vitelogênese, o desenvolvimento dos ovidutos e uterus internus e, finalmente, a espermateca. Esses dados podem ser muito importantes em estudos comparativos sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema reprodutivo de aranhas.

Animals , Female , Male , Genitalia, Female/growth & development , Genitalia, Male/growth & development , Sexual Maturation , Spiders/growth & development , Spiders/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 71(2): 359-364, maio 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592570


Although crab spiders are common in flowering plants, their relations with plant species and its floral traits have been poorly known in the Neotropics. Observations regarding plant habits, floral visitors and also floral characteristics such as anthesis, odour, shape, colour and floral resources were recorded in flowering plant species of an area of "Cerrado" on a 2 km long trail. Misumenops argenteus and Misumenops pallens accounted for 62.86 percent of the spiders captured on 22 flowering plant species. The plants Senna rugosa (Fabaceae), Styrax ferrugineus (Styracaceae) and Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae), hosted, each one, about 10 to 17 percent of the total spiders collected and these plants had diurnal anthesis, bee-attractive flower colours such as yellow (S. rugosa), white (S. ferrugineus), and pink (B. campestris), poricidal anthers as well as being visited by bees which evidenced bee-pollination syndrome. This study is the first survey regarding crab spiders and their associations with plant species of the "Cerrado".

Ainda que aranhas Thomisidae sejam comumente encontradas em flores, as associações desses aracnídeos a espécies de plantas e às suas características florais foram pouco registradas na região neotropical. Observações do hábito das plantas, visitantes florais, e também das características florais, tais como antese, odor, forma, cor e recursos da flor, foram assinaladas para espécies floridas de uma área de cerrado presentes em uma trilha de 2 km de extensão. Misumenops argenteus e Misumenops pallens representaram 62,86 por cento das aranhas habitantes de 22 espécies de plantas floridas. As plantas Senna rugosa (Fabaceae), Styrax ferrugineus (Styracaceae) e Banisteriopsis campestris (Malpighiaceae) abrigaram, individualmente, cerca de 10 a 17 por cento do total das aranhas e, nestas plantas, a antese diurna; flores de coloração atrativa a abelhas, como amarela (S. rugosa), branca (S. ferrugineus) e rosa (B. campestris) e as anteras poricidas, bem como a visita das flores por abelhas reforçou a evidência de síndrome de polinização para melitofilia. Este é o primeiro levantamento de espécies de aranhas Thomisidae associadas a plantas do cerrado brasileiro.

Animals , Female , Male , Ecosystem , Flowers/classification , Flowers/parasitology , Spiders/classification , Biodiversity , Brazil , Population Density , Spiders/physiology
Braz. j. biol ; 70(3): 529-536, Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-555264


The purpose of our research was to document and discuss the temporal patterns of prey use shown by the trap-nesting wasp Trypoxylon opacum in two different habitats in Southern Brazil. It was carried out from December 2001 to December 2004. Twenty nine species belonging to five families of spiders were captured by T. opacum. Araneidae was the most captured family and has been strongly represented by the genus Eustala. Through Bray-Curtis´s coefficient and the unweighted pair group method average (UPGMA), the spiders can be divided into three groups: the smaller group includes the most abundant species (Alpaida sp2, Bertrana rufostriata, Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Eustala sp3 and Eustala sp4), the second group includes species with intermediate abundance (Alpaida, Alpaida gracia and Mangora sp2), and the third and largest group includes the less abundant species, (Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida argenata, Alpaida sp1, Araneus blumenau, Araneus sicki, Crysometa boraceia, Crysometa sp3, Eustala sp8, Eustala sp11, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1, Ocrepeira aff gnomo, Sanogasta sp., Sanogasta sp2, Sanogasta sp3, Salticidae sp2, Theridion sp1, Theridion sp2, Wagneriana eupalaestris, Wagneriana iguape). Of 1,053 identified spiders, 362 were captured in the grassland areas and 691 in the swamp, since T. opacum built nests only in these two habitats. The diversity, richness and evenness of spiders in T. opacum nests were higher in grassland than in the swamp.

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi documentar e discutir o padrão temporal de uso de presas por Trypoxylon opacum em dois ambientes diferentes no Sul do Brasil. Ela foi realizada de dezembro de 2001 a dezembro de 2004. Vinte e nove espécies de aranhas pertencentes a cinco famílias foram capturadas por Trypoxylon opacum. Araneidae foi a família mais capturada e foi fortemente representada pelo gênero Eustala. Pelo coeficiente de Bray-Curtis e pela análise de agrupamento, (UPGMA) as aranhas foram divididas em três grupos: o menor deles, incluindo as aranhas mais abundantes na dieta de T. opacum (Alpaida sp2, Bertrana rufostriata, Eustala sp1, Eustala sp2, Eustala sp3 and Eustala sp4); o segundo com as espécies cujas abundâncias foram intermediárias (Alpaida, Alpaida gracia and Mangora sp2); e o terceiro e maior grupo com as espécies pouco abundantes (Acacesia villalobosi, Alpaida argenata, Alpaida sp1, Araneus blumenau, Araneus sicki, Crysometa boraceia, Crysometa sp3, Eustala sp8, Eustala sp11, Larinia t-notata, Mangora sp1, Ocrepeira aff gnomo, Sanogasta sp., Sanogasta sp2, Sanogasta sp3, Salticidae sp2, Theridion sp1, Theridion sp2, Wagneriana eupalaestris, Wagneriana iguape). Das 1.053 aranhas identificadas, 362 foram capturadas em área de campos naturais e 691 em área de várzea, visto que T. opacum fundou ninhos apenas nestes ambientes. A diversidade, a riqueza e a equitabilidade de aranhas nos ninhos de T. opacum foram maiores nas áreas de campos do que naquelas de várzeas.

Animals , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Spiders/classification , Wasps/physiology , Brazil , Ecosystem , Seasons
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(2): 757-767, jun. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638038


Spider community (Arachnida, Araneae) of alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Over the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural enemies to control pest insects, including spiders. We studied a spider community in Argentina by sampling every two weeks during 2004-2006 in one-hectare lots. Soil stratum spiders were collected using nets and pitfall traps. A total of 6229 specimens were collected (15 families and 50 species). Seven families were found in the herbal stratum, the most abundant were Thomisidae (n=2012, 32.30%), Araneidae (n=1516, 24.33%) and Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%). The soil had 14 families, mainly: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10%) and Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%). Hunting spiders predominated: ambushers (32.99 %); stalkers (11.77%) and ground-runners (10.84%) were less common. The most abundant web building spiders were the orb weavers (27.56%). The diversity indexes were: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 and J=0.79, evidencing a moderately diverse spider community with predominance of Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. The spiders were present throughout the phenological development of the crop with abundance peaks in spring and summer. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 757-767. Epub 2010 June 02.

En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies). Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%), Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33%) y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%). El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10%) y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%). Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%), al acecho (11.77%), corredoras de suelo (10.84%) y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%). Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.

Animals , Biodiversity , Medicago sativa , Spiders/classification , Argentina , Population Density , Seasons
Acta amaz ; 40(2): 357-372, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-555559


A preliminary survey of the spider fauna in natural and artificial forest gap formations at "Porto Urucu", a petroleum/natural gas production facility in the Urucu river basin, Coari, Amazonas, Brazil is presented. Sampling was conducted both occasionally and using a protocol composed of a suite of techniques: beating trays (32 samples), nocturnal manual samplings (48), sweeping nets (16), Winkler extractors (24), and pitfall traps (120). A total of 4201 spiders, belonging to 43 families and 393 morphospecies, were collected during the dry season, in July, 2003. Excluding the occasional samples, the observed richness was 357 species. In a performance test of seven species richness estimators, the Incidence Based Coverage Estimator (ICE) was the best fit estimator, with 639 estimated species. To evaluate differences in species richness associated with natural and artificial gaps, samples from between the center of the gaps up to 300 meters inside the adjacent forest matrix were compared through the inspection of the confidence intervals of individual-based rarefaction curves for each treatment. The observed species richness was significantly higher in natural gaps combined with adjacent forest than in the artificial gaps combined with adjacent forest. Moreover, a community similarity analysis between the fauna collected under both treatments demonstrated that there were considerable differences in species composition. The significantly higher abundance of Lycosidae in artificial gap forest is explained by the presence of herbaceous vegetation in the gaps themselves. Ctenidae was significantly more abundant in the natural gap forest, probable due to the increase of shelter availability provided by the fallen trees in the gaps themselves. Both families are identified as potential indicators of environmental change related to the establishment or recovery of artificial gaps in the study area.

Apresenta-se um inventário preliminar da fauna de aranhas em clareiras naturais e artificiais em "Porto Urucu", uma instalação produtora de petróleo e gás natural na bacia do Rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, Brasil. As amostras foram realizadas de modo ocasional e com um protocolo estruturado composto por um conjunto de técnicas de amostragem: guarda-chuvas entomológicos (32 amostras), amostras manuais noturnas (48), rede de varredura (16), extratores de Winkler (24) e armadilhas de queda (120). Um total de 4201 aranhas pertencentes a 43 famílias e 393 morfoespécies foi coletado durante a estação seca em julho de 2003. Excluindo as amostras ocasionais, a riqueza observada foi de 357 espécies. No teste de desempenho de sete estimadores, ICE (Incidence Based Coverage Estimator) gerou o melhor resultado, com 639 espécies estimadas. Para avaliar diferenças na riqueza de espécies associadas a clareiras naturais e artificiais, conjuntos de amostras do centro da clareira a até 300 m adentro da floresta adjacente foram comparados através da inspeção dos intervalos de confiança de curvas de rarefação baseadas no número de indivíduos de cada tratamento. A riqueza observada foi significantemente maior nas clareiras naturais combinadas com as florestas adjacentes do que nas clareiras artificiais combinadas com as matas do entorno. Além disso, uma análise de similaridade entre as faunas coletadas em ambos os tratamentos mostrou que existe diferenças consideráveis na composição de espécies. A abundância significativamente mais alta de Lycosidae nas florestas de clareiras artificiais é explicada pela presença de vegetação herbácea nas clareiras propriamente ditas. Ctenidae foi significantemente mais abundante nas florestas de clareiras naturais, provavelmente devido ao aumento da disponibilidade de abrigos causado pela queda de árvores nas clareiras propriamente ditas. Ambas estas famílias são identificadas como potenciais indicadores de mudanças ambientais relacionadas com o estabelecimento ou recuperação de clareiras artificiais na área de estudo.

Spiders/classification , 16128 , Brazil , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biodiversity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 723-726, Dec. 2009. ilus, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539525


Loxosceles laeta é a espécie de aranha-marrom de maior importância médica, causando acidentes de maior gravidade, além de apresentar hábito sinantrópico. No presente trabalho, é apresentado o primeiro registro sinantrópico de Loxosceles laeta no Município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, a partir de encontro e coleta ocasional de espécimes, no período de agosto de 2005 a junho de 2009. A espécie foi registrada em um prédio do Museu Nacional/UFRJ, localizado no parque da Quinta da Boa Vista, área urbana na Zona Norte da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O foco foi considerado localizado e restrito. Loxosceles laeta é adaptável às condições climáticas da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, o que torna possível o estabelecimento de novos focos da espécie e a ocorrência de loxoscelismo na região.

Loxosceles laeta is the species of brown spider of greatest medical importance. It causes accidents of great severity and presents synanthropic habits. In this paper, the first synanthropic record of Loxosceles laeta in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, is presented. This came from occasional encounters and sampling of specimens between August 2005 and June 2009. The species was recorded in a building of the Museu Nacional/UFRJ, located in the Quinta da Boa Vista park, in the urban area of the northern zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The focus was considered to be localized and restricted. Loxosceles laeta is adaptable to the climatic conditions of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, which makes possible for new foci of the species to become established, with occurrences of loxoscelism in the region.

Animals , Female , Male , Spiders/classification , Brazil , Spiders/anatomy & histology
Rev. biol. trop ; 57(1/2): 339-351, March-June 2009. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-637722


Composition of the Araneae (Arachnida) fauna of the provincial Iberá Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina. A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rincón (iberá province Reserve). Pit fall traps, leaf litter sifting, foliage beating, hand collecting and sweep nets were used. Shannon’s diversity index, evenness, Berger-Parker’s dominance index, ß and diversity were calculated, and a checklist of spider fauna was compiled. Species richness was estimated by Chao 1, Chao 2, first and second order Jack-knife. A total of 4 138 spiders grouped into 150 species from 33 families of Araneomorphae and two species from two families of Mygalomorphae were collected. Five species are new records for Argentina and eleven for Corrientes province. Araneidae was the most abundant family (39.8%), followed by Salticidae (10.9%), Anyphaenidae (7.9%), Tetragnathidae (7.4%), and Lycosidae (5.5%). The other families represented less than 5% of the total catch. The web-builder guild had the highest number of specimens and the highest richness index. The abundance, observed richness, Shannon diversity and evenness indexes were highest in Colonia Pellegrini woodland and Paraje Galarza grassland. Alpha diversity represented 89% of the gamma; the remaining 11% corresponded to ß diversity. According to the indexes, between 67% and 97% of the existing spider fauna was represented in the collected specimens from iberá. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 339-351. Epub 2009 June 30.

Se estudió la composición y diversidad de la comunidad de arañas de la Reserva provincial iberá, Corrientes, Argentina. Se realizaron capturas en bosque y pastizal en Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza y Estancia Rincón por medio de las técnicas de muestreo: trampas "pit-fall", tamizado, golpeteo de follaje, observación directa y red de arrastre. Las arañas se agruparon en gremios y se compiló un inventario. La similitud entre localidades y unidades ambientales se midió con el índice de Jaccard, y se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon, equitabilidad, dominancia de Berger-Parker, y la diversidad beta y gamma. Para estimar la riqueza de especies se utilizó Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 y 2. En total se recolectaron 4 138 arañas, se identificaron 33 familias y 150 especies de Araneomorphae, y dos familias y dos especies de Mygalomorphae. Cinco especies son nuevos registros para Argentina y 11 para la provincia de Corrientes. Araneidae fue la familia más abundante (39.8%), seguida por Salticidae (10.9%), Anyphaenidae (7.9%), Tetragnathidae (7.4%), Lycosidae (5.5%), y las restantes familias representaron menos del 5% de la captura total. El gremio de arañas tejedoras de telas orbiculares fue el de mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies. Entre las unidades ambientales, la mayor abundancia, riqueza y diversidad se verificó en el bosque de Colonia Pellegrini y en el pastizal de Paraje Galarza. La diversidad a fue alta, representó el 89% de la diversidad gamma, y la diversidad ß constituyó el 11% restante. Según los diferentes índices se capturó entre el 67% y el 97% de las especies que están presentes en la Reserva.

Animals , Biodiversity , Spiders/classification , Argentina , Population Density
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 107(2): 152-159, abr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-516048


Loxosceles es una araña de distribución mundial con características sinantrópicas. Su picadura se caracteriza por necrosis cutánea que, en un bajo porcentaje de casos, se acompaña de manifestaciones sistémicas. En los cuadros sistémicos lamortalidad puede ser elevada. No existen métodos de laboratorio para el diagnóstico asistencial, que se realiza por los signos clínicos y la identificaciónde los ejemplares. El tratamiento específico es la aplicación del antiveneno. El objetivo de esta presentación es brindar una actualización sobre las características de este envenenamiento, su diagnóstico y tratamiento dirigidos hacia el paciente pediátrico.

Loxosceles is a global distribution spider with synanthropic characteristics. It is responsible for skin necrosis that in a low percentage is accompanied by systemic manifestations. Mortality can be high when systemic manifestationsare present. There is no laboratory methods available for diagnostic. Clinical signs and identification of individuals lead to it. The applicationof antivenom is the specific treatment.The objetive of this presentation is to update on the characteristics of this poisoning, its diagnosis and treatment directed toward the pediatric patient.

Spider Bites/diagnosis , Spider Bites/epidemiology , Spider Bites/physiopathology , Spider Bites/pathology , Spider Bites/therapy , Spiders/classification , Spiders/pathogenicity