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Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 584-589, Jul.-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394872


Abstract Objective To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of shoulders from patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to correlate these findings with age, duration of SCI and neurological level. Method The study sample included patients with thoracic SCI over 18 years of age, who were active wheelchair users and had undergone an MRI of the shoulder from January 2004 to December 2015. Results We studied 41 shoulders (37 patients), including 27 men (65.9%) and 14 women (34.1%). At the time of MRI, the mean age was 41.9 years and the mean duration of SCI was 9.4 years. The analysis of the relationship between the duration of trauma and severity of the rotator cuff lesion (RCL), as well as between age and the severity of the shoulder injury showed a statistically significant difference (p< 0.001), with a positive association in both cases. No statistically significant difference (p= 0.095) was observed between the neurological level of the SCI and RCL. Conclusion In this study, a progressive increase in the severity of the shoulder lesions can be noted with advancing age and a longer duration of SCI. However, level of the SCI does not seem to interfere with RCL. Level of Evidence Level IV, case series.

Resumo Objetivo Descrever as características de ressonância magnética (RM) dos ombros de pacientes com lesão medular (LM) e correlacionar esses achados com idade, duração da LM e nível neurológico. Método A amostra do presente estudo incluiu pacientes maiores de 18 anos com LM torácica, que eram cadeirantes ativos e haviam sido submetidos a uma ressonância magnética do ombro de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2015. Resultados Foram estudados 41 ombros (37 pacientes), incluindo 27 de pacientes do sexo masculino (65,9%) e 14 de pacientes do sexo feminino (34,1%). Na época da ressonância magnética, a média de idade era de 41,9 anos e a duração média da LM era de 9,4 anos. A análise da relação entre a duração do trauma e a gravidade da lesão do manguito rotador (LMR), bem como entre a idade e a gravidade da lesão do ombro mostrou diferença estatisticamente significativa (p< 0,001), com associação positiva em ambos os casos. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa (p= 0,095) entre o nível neurológico da LM e da LMR. Conclusão Neste estudo, pode-se notar um aumento progressivo da gravidade das lesões do ombro com o avanço da idade e uma maior duração da LM. No entanto, o nível da LM não parece interferir com a LMR. Nível de Evidência Nível IV, série de casos.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Wheelchairs , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder Injuries/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 39(4): 294-299, 15/12/2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362338


Introduction Spinal cord injury (SCI) is common in polytrauma patients. The standard exam for the initial evaluation is computed tomography (CT), due to its higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with plain radiographs. However, CT is insufficient for themanagement of some cases, especially to evaluate ligamentous and spinal cord injuries. The objective of the present study is to describe clinical scenarios in which the CT scan was insufficient to guide the treatment of SCIs. Methods We present the cases of four polytrauma patients with normal CT scans at admission and with unstable or surgically-treated lesions. Discussion The cases reported evidence the need for ongoing neurological surveillance with serial physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cases of neurological injury not explained by CT or occult instability. Conclusion Computed tomography is not always sufficient to determine the management of SCIs. A comprehensive evaluation of the clinical data, CT findings and, occasionally, MRI findings is crucial in order to choose the best conduct.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Multiple Trauma/complications , Neurologic Manifestations
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(5/6): 423-429, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224133


La complejidad del traumatismo raquimedular (TRM) y su impacto en la vida futura de los pacientes hace necesario actualizar constantemente los protocolos de su manejo. La fisiopatología del TRM hace que la atención prehospitalaria y hospitalaria influyan en su evolución y por lo tanto, también en el pronóstico a largo plazo. Existe amplio consenso en relación al manejo prehospitalario, pero aún existe bastante controversia en respecto al manejo hospitalario y al mejor momento para operar a estos pacientes. La tendencia en los estudios más recientes sugiere que la mejor alternativa es operarlos tan pronto su estado general lo permita.

Traumatic lesions of the spinal cord are complex injuries that can deeply affect patients lives, so their management protocols must be kept up to date. Due to their particular physiopathology, this injuries are sensitive to both pre-hospital and hospital care, which will impact in long term results. Today, widespread consensus exists regarding pre-hospital care. On the contrary, there are still controversies in hospital care topics, such as timing of surgery. Recent studies suggest that the best time to operate is as soon as the patient general condition allows to.

Humans , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1221-1230, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131493


Traumatic events such as a motor vehicle accident or falling from heights are very common in veterinary medicine and often lead to vertebral fracture-luxation with concomitant spinal cord injuries, mostly in the thoracolumbar spine. The purpose of this cadaveric biomechanical study was to determine the feasibility of the three-column concept in canine thoracolumbar segments with induced fractures. Eighteen Functional Spinal Units (FSU) of the thoracolumbar segments (T12-L2) were collected from 18 medium-sized adult dog cadavers and were subjected to flexion-extension and lateral bending tests so that range of motion (ROM) was recorded with a goniometer. Fractures were induced by compressive loads applied by a universal testing machine (EMIC®). After this, specimens were screened using computed tomography (CT) and the fractures were graded as affecting one, two or three columns, and divided into groups A, B, and C, respectively. Post-fracture range of motion (ROM) was compared with the previous results. Groups B and C (with fractures in two or three columns) had instability in the two axes evaluated (P<0.05). The outcomes of this study support the applicability of the three-column theory to thoracolumbar spines of dogs, as the FSUs that suffered fractures in two or more columns showed axial instability.(AU)

Eventos traumáticos, como acidentes automobilísticos ou quedas, são muito comuns na medicina veterinária e, frequentemente, levam a fraturas ou luxações vertebrais, associadas a lesões medulares concomitantes, mais frequentemente na coluna toracolombar. O propósito deste estudo biomecânico em cadáveres foi determinar a viabilidade da teoria dos três compartimentos em fraturas induzidas em segmentos toracolombares de cães. Dezoito unidades espinhais funcionais (UEF) de segmentos toracolombares (T12-L2) foram coletadas de 18 cadáveres de cães adultos de médio porte e submetidas a testes de flexão-extensão e curvamento lateral, de modo que a amplitude de movimento (ADM) foi registrada com um goniômetro. Fraturas foram induzidas por meio de cargas compressivas aplicadas por uma máquina universal de ensaios (EMIC®). As amostras foram submetidas à tomografia computadorizada (TC), e as fraturas foram classificadas como afetando um, dois ou três compartimentos e divididas nos grupos A, B e C, respectivamente. A ADM pós-fratura foi comparada com os resultados prévios. Os grupos B e C (com fraturas em dois ou três compartimentos) apresentaram instabilidade nos dois eixos avaliados (P<0,05). Os resultados deste estudo corroboram a aplicabilidade da teoria dos três compartimentos para segmentos de coluna toracolombar em cães, uma vez que as UEF que sofreram as fraturas em dois ou mais compartimentos apresentaram instabilidade axial.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Cadaver , Fractures, Bone/diagnostic imaging , Biomechanical Phenomena , Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/veterinary
In. Verga, Federico; Burghi, Gastón. Encares de paciente crítico. Montevideo, Oficina del Libro FEFMUR, 2020. p.41-57, tab, ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1342636
IJCN-Iranian Journal of Child Neurology. 2009; 3 (1): 49-56
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-91159


Major differences exist in the anatomy and biomechanics of the growing spine that causes failure patterns different from those in adults. Spinal injury in the pediatric patient is a main concern because timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent further neurologic damage and deformity and potentiate recovery. We conducted a retrospective clinical study of 137 cases [93 boys, 44 girls] of pediatric cervical spine injuries, managed over fifteen years, to present data from a large series of pediatric patients with cervical spine injuries from a single regional trauma center. The aim was to assess and analyze complications, etiology, pathogenesis, site of injuries and age difference of cervical spine and spinal cord injury in a pediatric age group and compare the findings with current literature. One hundred and thirty seven children with cervical spine injuries, seen over twelve years, were divided into two age groups: 54 patients were in group one [0-9 years] and 83 patients were in group two [10-17 years]. We managed them according to status at presentation and type of injury. Forty seven patients were managed surgically and ninety nonsurgically [52 wore a halo brace and 38 wore different hard collars and braces]. T-test and Chi squares were used to analyze differences between groups. The most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accidents [MVA]. Our younger patients [Group 1] had sustained more neurological injuries than the older ones [Group 2], 77% vs. 48%; upper cervical spine was the most common site involved in 76%, while 43% suffered head injuries. In group two, 88% of children two sustained fractures or fracture/ subluxations; also in this group, subluxation, and fracture/ subluxation was present in 10 and 25% of children respectively. The most common radiological findings were vertebral fracutes [38%]. Solid fusions were demonstrated in all patients at late follow-up review [mean 6 years]. None of the children developed neurological deterioration; however 18% mortality was documented. Various fusion techniques were used and neurological and fusion outcomes improved as compared with the previous reports. Outcomes of cervical spine injuries in children are more positive than in adults, particularly in patients with incomplete injuries. The prognosis for children with complete spinal cord injuries, however, is still discouraging. Upper cervical spine injuries are more common between birth and 9 years of age; however fractures and fracture/subluxation are rare in this group. Surgical intervention with appropriate instrumentation and fusion are very effective in children with cervical spine instability

Humans , Male , Female , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Injuries/etiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Cervical Vertebrae/injuries , Age Factors , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Child , Retrospective Studies
Neurol India ; 2003 Dec; 51(4): 507-11
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120788


Between 1995 and 2000, 22 cases with low velocity missile injuries of the spine and spinal cord were treated in three service hospitals. All were adult males, with a mean age of 30.7 years. The wounds were caused by splinters in 18 (82%) and bullets in 4 (18%). Twelve patients received more than one splinter. The cervical and thoracic spines were most frequently involved. In 7 cases, there were injuries to other organs. There was extensive initial deficit (quadriplegia, paraplegia) in 18 (82%) cases, while 4 (18%) had partial deficits. The patients were evaluated by spine radiographs. Myelography was done in 4, CT myelography in 11 and MRI in 4 patients. Two patients had intramedullary hematoma without any skeletal injury, and were treated conservatively. Seventeen patients were treated operatively, and associated injuries of other organs received priority management. Surgery was in the form of debridement, exploration of the spinal cord, hemostasis, decompression and dural repair. Steroids and antibiotics were given routinely. Three patients (2 with cervical and 1 with thoracic spine injury) died preoperatively, and 1 (with dorsolumbar injury) died in the postoperative period due to multi-organ injury. Patients with complete injury remained completely paralyzed, while those with an incomplete injury showed improvement in their neurological grades. The initial neurological grade is the best prognostic indicator, and these injuries are often accompanied by multi-organ injuries. There was no instance of postoperative meningitis or CSF leak. These injuries should be explored for debridement and dural repair.

Adult , Humans , Male , Military Medicine , Prognosis , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Wounds, Gunshot/diagnostic imaging
Neurol India ; 2000 Sep; 48(3): 243-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120260


Spinal cord injury occurring without concomitant radiologically demonstrable trauma to the skeletal elements of the spinal canal rim, or compromise of the spinal canal rim without fracture, is a rare event. Though documented in children, the injury is not very well reported in adults. We present seventeen adult patients with spinal cord injury without accompanying fracture of the spinal canal rim, or vertebral dislocation, seen over seven years. None had preexisting spinal canal stenosis or cervical spondylosis. Following trauma, these patients had weakness of all four limbs. They were evaluated by MRI (CT scan in one patient), which showed hypo / isointense lesion in the cord on T1 weighted images, and hyperintensity on T2 weighted images, suggesting cord contusion or oedema. MRI was normal in two patients. With conservative management, fifteen patients showed neurological improvement, one remained quadriplegic and one died. With increasing use of MRI in the evaluation of traumatic myelopathy, such injuries will be diagnosed more often. The mechanism of injury is probably acute stretching of the cord as in flexion and torsional strain. Management is essentially conservative and prognosis is better than that seen in patients with fracture or dislocation of cervical spine.

Adolescent , Adult , Cervical Vertebrae , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prognosis , Quadriplegia/diagnostic imaging , Recovery of Function , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome
Scientific Journal of Al-Azhar Medical Faculty [Girls] [The]. 2000; 21 (Supp. 1): 1741-1750
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-55720


This study was conducted on 56 patients represented with spinal trauma [44 with acute trauma and 12 with old trauma]. All patients were examined by 1.5 Tesla MRI unit. Sagittal and axial planes in T and fast spin echo Ta sequences were obtained in most of the cases. Proton density sequence was added in chronic cases. Bony, disc and ligamentous injuries as well as para-spinal soft tissue injuries were clearly detected by MRI examinations. Good and satisfactory information about the state of the spinal cord was obtained by MRI examination

Humans , Male , Female , Spinal Cord Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Accidents, Traffic , Spinal Fractures , Intervertebral Disc Displacement