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Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(2): e501, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1251503


Abstract Introduction Neuropathic pain is present in up to 40 % of all cancer patients. A considerable number of patients fail to achieve enough pain relief with conventional treatment, which is why therapeutic alternatives such as spinal cord stimulation should be considered. Case description and results This is the case of a female patient with chronic neuropathic pain secondary to a partial femoral nerve injury sustained during resection and lymph node dissection surgery with curative intent for a large stage II cell squamous cell carcinoma T2N0M0, localized in the right popliteal fossa. The patient presented with difficult to manage chronic neuropathic pain, despite receiving multiple oral analgesics and nerve blocks. A medullary neurostimulator was implanted that relieved the patient's pain intensity in up to 80%, in addition to improved function and quality of life. Conclusions Spinal cord stimulation is considered an effective neuromodulatory intervention which has shown satisfactory results in the treatment of various types of refractory chronic pain in cancer patients, including neuropathic pain.

Resumen Introducción El dolor neuropático está presente hasta en el 40 % de los pacientes con cáncer. Un número considerable de pacientes no logran un alivio suficiente del dolor con el tratamiento convencional, por lo cual deben considerarse alternativas terapéuticas como la estimulación de la médula espinal. Descripción del caso y resultados Caso de una paciente con dolor neuropático crónico secundario a lesión parcial de nervio femoral durante cirugía de resección y vaciamiento ganglionar con objetivos curativos de carcinoma escamocelular de célula grande T2N0M0 estadio II, localizado en la fosa poplítea derecha, quien cursó con dolor neuropático crónico de difícil manejo a pesar de recibir múltiples analgésicos orales y bloqueos nerviosos. Se implantó un neuroestimulador medular con lo cual se logró un alivio hasta del 80 % en intensidad de dolor de la paciente, además de una mejoría de su funcionalidad y calidad de vida. Conclusiones La estimulación de la médula espinal se considera una intervención neuromoduladora eficaz, que ha demostrado resultados satisfactorios para tratar diversas formas de dolor crónico refractario en los pacientes con cáncer, incluido el dolor neuropático.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chronic Pain , Pain Management , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasms , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Cells , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Nerve Block , Neuralgia
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879270


Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain is usually implanted as an open loop system using unchanged parameters. To avoid the under and over stimulation caused by lead migration, evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) is used as feedback signal to change the stimulating parameters. This study established a simulation model of ECAP recording to investigate the relationship between ECAP component and dorsal column (DC) fiber recruitment. Finite element model of SCS and multi-compartment model of sensory fiber were coupled to calculate the single fiber action potential (SFAP) caused by single fiber in different spinal cord regions. The synthetized ECAP, superimposition of SFAP, could be considered as an index of DC fiber excitation degree, because the position of crests and amplitude of ECAP corresponds to different fiber diameters. When 10% or less DC fibers were excited, the crests corresponded to fibers with large diameters. When 20% or more DC fibers were excited, ECAP showed a slow conduction crest, which corresponded to fibers with small diameters. The amplitude of this slow conduction crest increased as the stimulating intensity increased while the amplitude of the fast conduction crest almost remained unchanged. Therefore, the simulated ECAP signal in this paper could be used to evaluate the degree of excitation of DC fibers. This SCS-ECAP model may provide theoretical basis for future clinical application of close loop SCS base on ECAP.

Action Potentials , Computer Simulation , Electric Stimulation , Evoked Potentials , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 527-539, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775442


In addition to restoration of bladder, bowel, and motor functions, alleviating the accompanying debilitating pain is equally important for improving the quality of life of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently, however, the treatment of chronic pain after SCI remains a largely unmet need. Electrical spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to manage a variety of chronic pain conditions that are refractory to pharmacotherapy. Yet, its efficacy, benefit profiles, and mechanisms of action in SCI pain remain elusive, due to limited research, methodological weaknesses in previous clinical studies, and a lack of mechanistic exploration of SCS for SCI pain control. We aim to review recent studies and outline the therapeutic potential of different SCS paradigms for traumatic SCI pain. We begin with an overview of its manifestations, classification, potential underlying etiology, and current challenges for its treatment. The clinical evidence for using SCS in SCI pain is then reviewed. Finally, future perspectives of pre-clinical research and clinical study of SCS for SCI pain treatment are discussed.

Animals , Chronic Pain , Humans , Pain , Pain Management , Methods , Quality of Life , Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742207


BACKGROUND: It is uncommon for patients who have received a permanent implant to remove the spinal cord stimulator (SCS) after discontinuation of medication in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) due to their completely painless state. This study evaluated CRPS patients who successfully removed their SCSs. METHODS: This 10-year retrospective study was performed on patients who had received the permanent implantation of an SCS and had removed it 6 months after discontinuation of stimulation, while halting all medications for neuropathic pain. Age, sex, duration of implantation, site and type of CRPS, and their return to work were compared between the removal and non-removal groups. RESULTS: Five (12.5%, M/F = 4/1) of 40 patients (M/F = 33/7) successfully removed the permanent implant. The mean age was younger in the removal group (27.2 ± 6.4 vs. 43.5 ± 10.7 years, P < 0.01). The mean duration of implantation in the removal group was 34.4 ± 18.2 months. Two of 15 patients (13.3%) and 3 of 25 patients (12%) who had upper and lower extremity pain, respectively, had removed the implant. The implants could be removed in 5 of 27 patients (18.5%) with CRPS type 1 (P < 0.01). All 5 patients (100%) who removed their SCS returned to work, while only 5 of 35 (14.3%) in the non-removal group did (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Even though this study had limited data, younger patients with CRPS type 1 could remove their SCSs within a 5-year period and return to work with complete pain relief.

Age Factors , Device Removal , Extremities , Humans , Lower Extremity , Neuralgia , Retrospective Studies , Return to Work , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Spinal Cord
Coluna/Columna ; 17(3): 212-215, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952935


ABSTRACT Objective: Fail back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a common cause of pain following spine surgery, and is associated with persistent or recurrent pain despite anatomically correct intervention. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is regarded as one of the most effective methods of treatment for fail back surgery syndrome. Methods: We studied 34 patients who underwent test stimulation and chronic SCS for FBSS. Results: Six months postoperatively, mean improvement by the visual analog scale (VAS) of average and maximum daily pain, and the painDETECT score, were 54.4%, 50.7% and 57.3%, respectively. This meets the criteria for effectiveness of the method, according to the literature. Most of patients reported significant improvements in life quality and less need for analgesics. Complications were seen in nine patients (26.4%) and included: intraoperative dura injury (one patient, 2.9%), wound infection (one patient, 2.9%), and electrode displacement (seven patients, 20.5%). No cases of postoperative neurological deterioration were seen. Conclusions: SCS is safe and effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by FBSS. Level of Evidence IV; Case series.

RESUMO Objetivos: A síndrome da cirurgia de falência reversa (SAF) é uma causa comum de dor após cirurgia de coluna e associada a dor persistente ou recorrente, apesar da intervenção anatomicamente correta. Estimulação da medula espinhal (SCS) é considerado como um dos métodos mais eficazes de tratamento para a síndrome de cirurgia de retorno. Métodos: Foram estudados 34 pacientes submetidos a estimulação de teste e SCS crônica para FBSS. Resultados: 6 meses de pós-operatório melhora a média de dor diária média e máxima diária na escala análoga visual (VAS), bem como a pontuação do PainDetect foram de 54,4%, 50,7% e 57,3%, respectivamente. Ele atende aos critérios de eficácia do método, de acordo com a literatura. A maioria dos pacientes relatou melhora significativa da qualidade de vida e menor necessidade de analgésicos. As complicações foram observadas em nove pacientes (26,4%) e incluíram: lesão da dura-máter intraoperatória (um paciente, 2,9%), infecção da ferida (um paciente, 2,9%), deslocamento do eletrodo (sete pacientes, 20,5%). Não houve casos de deterioração neurológica no pós-operatório. Conclusões: A SCS é segura e eficaz para o tratamento da dor neuropática causada pela FBSS. Nível de Evidência IV; Séries de casos.

RESUMEN Objetivo: El síndrome de cirugía de espalda fallida (FBSS) es una razón común para el dolor después de la cirugía de la columna vertebral y se asocia con dolor persistente o recurrente a pesar de la intervención anatómicamente correcta. La estimulación de la médula espinal (SCS) se considera uno de los métodos de tratamiento más eficaces para el síndrome de cirugía de espalda fallida. Métodos: Se estudiaron 34 pacientes que se sometieron a estimulación de prueba y SCS crónica para FBSS. Resultados: A los seis meses la mejora promedio postoperatoria por la escala visual análoga (EVA) del dolor diario promedio y máximo diario, así como el puntaje de painDETECT fueron 54,4%, 50,7% y 57,3%, respectivamente. Esto cumple con los criterios de efectividad del método, según la literatura. La mayoría de los pacientes informaron una mejoría significativa de la calidad de vida y una menor necesidad de analgésicos. Las complicaciones se observaron en nueve pacientes (26,4%) e incluyeron: lesión duramadre intraoperatoria (uno paciente, 2,9%), infección de la herida (uno paciente, 2,9%), desplazamiento del electrodo (siete pacientes, 20,5%). No se observaron casos de deterioro neurológico postoperatorio. Conclusiones: SCS es seguro y efectivo para el tratamiento del dolor neuropático causado por FBSS. Nivel de Evidencia IV; Series de casos.

Humans , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Spine/surgery , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Neuralgia
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(4): 299-306, Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956449


The Guidelines Project, an initiative of the Brazilian Medical Association, aims to combine information from the medical field in order to standardize producers to assist the reasoning and decision-making of doctors. The information provided through this project must be assessed and criticized by the physician responsible for the conduct that will be adopted, depending on the conditions and the clinical status of each patient.

Humans , Chronic Pain/therapy , Spinal Cord Stimulation/methods , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Brazil , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714054


Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pump implantation can be used to control dystonia and severe pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with or without a spinal cord stimulator (SCS). A 45-year-old female patient had gotten an SCS to control the pain of CRPS. However, she suffered from chronic intractable pain in her left ankle and foot despite paresthesia in the entire painful area because the effectiveness of the SCS gradually diminished over time. In a trial of intrathecal drug administration, baclofen was superior to morphine for pain relief, had fewer side effects, and was superior in terms of patient satisfaction. To achieve the greatest degree of pain relief from the ITB pump, the tip of the intrathecal catheter was carefully placed in relation to the SCS. Over a one-year follow-up period, the patient experienced mild pain without any adverse effects.

Ankle , Baclofen , Catheters , Dystonia , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Foot , Humans , Middle Aged , Morphine , Pain, Intractable , Paresthesia , Patient Satisfaction , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Spinal Cord
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 659-667, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775506


Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a promising technique for treating disorders of consciousness (DOCs). However, differences in the spatio-temporal responsiveness of the brain under varied SCS parameters remain unclear. In this pilot study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the hemodynamic responses of 10 DOC patients to different SCS frequencies (5 Hz, 10 Hz, 50 Hz, 70 Hz, and 100 Hz). In the prefrontal cortex, a key area in consciousness circuits, we found significantly increased hemodynamic responses at 70 Hz and 100 Hz, and significantly different hemodynamic responses between 50 Hz and 70 Hz/100 Hz. In addition, the functional connectivity between prefrontal and occipital areas was significantly improved with SCS at 70 Hz. These results demonstrated that SCS modulates the hemodynamic responses and long-range connectivity in a frequency-specific manner (with 70 Hz apparently better), perhaps by improving the cerebral blood volume and information transmission through the reticular formation-thalamus-cortex pathway.

Adolescent , Adult , Brain , Consciousness , Physiology , Consciousness Disorders , Therapeutics , Female , Hemodynamics , Physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Spinal Cord , General Surgery , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Methods , Young Adult
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717885


Failed back surgery syndrome was recently renamed, as chronic pain after spinal surgery (CPSS) by international classification of disease-11. CPSS is a challenging clinical condition. It has a variety of causes associated with preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods. Also, psychosocial factors should be considered. Diagnostic tools must be used differently, for each patient. Imaging and interventional nerve block for diagnosis, should be used properly. Strategy of management requires a multidisciplinary approach. The effect of conservative management (medication, interventional management) and invasive procedure (spinal cord stimulator, intrathecal drug delivery system) has been studied by many researchers. However, an evidence-based guide on management of CPSS, remains necessary, and further research is needed. This review focuses on understanding and clinical approaches for CPSS.

Chronic Pain , Classification , Diagnosis , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Humans , Nerve Block , Pain Management , Postoperative Period , Psychology , Spinal Cord Stimulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717431


Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a common therapeutic technique for treating medically refractory neuropathic back and other limb pain syndromes. SCS has historically been performed using a sedative anesthetic technique where the patient is awakened at various times during a surgical procedure to evaluate the location of the stimulator lead. This technique has potential complications, and thus other methods that allow the use of a general anesthetic have been developed. There are two primary methods for placing leads under general anesthesia, based on 1) compound muscle action potentials and 2) collisions between somatosensory evoked potentials. Both techniques are discussed, and the literature on SCS lead placement under general anesthesia using intraoperative neurophysiological mapping is comprehensively reviewed.

Action Potentials , Anesthesia, General , Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory , Extremities , Humans , Neurophysiology , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Spinal Cord
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 235-243, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742202


Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most troublesome side effect of Herpes Zoster (HZ), which mainly affects the elderly and immunocompromised populations. Despite the current advancement of treatments, PHN persists in many individuals influencing their daily activities and reducing their quality of life. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical therapies including lidocaine and capsaicin, and opioids, are the most widely used therapies for the treatment of PHN. These medications come with their adverse effects, so they should be used carefully with the elderly or with patients with significant comorbidities. Other measures like botulinum toxin, nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, and radiofrequency have also contributed significantly to the management of PHN. However, the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these invasive methods need to be carefully monitored when administering them. Early diagnosis and early initiation of treatment can reduce the burden associated with PHN. The zoster vaccine has effectively reduced the incidence of HZ and PHN. In this article, we discuss the treatment options available for the management of PHN, mainly focusing on the efficacy and safety of different therapeutic modalities.

Aged , Analgesics, Opioid , Anticonvulsants , Antidepressive Agents , Botulinum Toxins , Capsaicin , Comorbidity , Early Diagnosis , Herpes Zoster , Herpes Zoster Vaccine , Humans , Incidence , Lidocaine , Nerve Block , Neuralgia, Postherpetic , Quality of Life , Spinal Cord Stimulation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687778


Fatal arrhythmias, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death after myocardial ischemia/infarction are serious threats to human health. In recent years, studies have shown that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can balance autonomic activity, inhibit myocardial structural remodeling, improve blood flow to ischemic myocardium, effectively reduce the incidence of arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death after myocardial ischemia/infarction, but its specific mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated. The effect of SCS on cardiac function may be achieved by inhibiting neural remodeling, or by ameliorating structural remodeling and electrical remodeling. This article reviews the progress on the role and mechanism of SCS in myocardial ischemia/infarction.

Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Humans , Myocardial Infarction , Therapeutics , Myocardial Ischemia , Myocardium , Spinal Cord Stimulation
Asian Spine Journal ; : 372-379, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739248


Postsurgical spine syndrome is becoming an increasingly common challenge for clinicians who deal with spinal disorders owing to the expanding indications for spinal surgery and the aging world population. A multidisciplinary approach is most appropriate for patients who are unlikely to benefit from further formal surgical intervention. Anticonvulsant medications are effective in managing neuropathic pain after surgery, whereas opioids are rarely beneficial. Neuromodulation via a surgically implanted dorsal column neurostimulator is gaining popularity owing to its substantial superiority over conventional medical management and/or further surgical intervention. However, considering that prevention is always better than cure, spinal surgeons need to be well aware of the many poor prognostic indicators for spinal surgery, particularly psychosocial overlay.

Aging , Analgesics, Opioid , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Humans , Neuralgia , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Spine , Surgeons
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 36(3): 200-202, 08/09/2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911215


Introduction Refractory occipital neuralgia is a difficult medical condition, especially when the patient has already been submitted to occipital nerve neurectomy and radiofrequency rhizotomy. There is no case report of spinal cord stimulation in the C1- C4 cervical segments for this condition. Objective To evaluate if C1-C4 dorsal spinal cord stimulation is effective in a patient with refractory occipital neuralgia who was already submitted to neurectomy and rhizotomy. Methods After obtaining the approval from the Ethics Committee of one of our institutions, a unilateral laminectomy was performed between C3 and C4, and a neurostimulator lead was conducted until the posterior portion of the C1 arc was in full view. Then we performed an intraoperative test to evaluate the correspondence between pain location and stimulation-induced paresthesias. We could not put the subcutaneous lead for such condition because of the scar tissue of the area and the previous neurectomy. Results After one year of follow up, we noticed a dramatic improvement in pain control, as well as medication withdrawal. The score of the visual analogue scale was 9 before the surgery, and it dropped to 2 after 1 year of follow-up. Conclusion Spinal cord stimulation between the C1 and C4 cervical segments can be an option for selected cases of refractory occipital neuralgia, including those patients who have already been submitted to neurectomy or rhizotomy.

Neuralgia occipital refratária é uma condição médica difícil, especialmente em pacientes submetidos previamente a neurectomia nos nervos occipitais e rizotomia por radiofrequência. Não há na literatura relato de estimulação da medula espinhal entre os níveis C1 e C4 para essa condição. Objetivos Avaliar se a estimulação da coluna dorsal da medula nos níveis C1 a C4 é eficaz no controle da dor em paciente com neuralgia occipital refratária já submetido a neurectomia e rizotomia. Métodos Após aprovação do Conselho de Ética de uma de nossas instituições, foi realizada laminectomia unilateral de C3 e C4, com posterior introdução do conjunto de eletrodos em placa, que foi posicionado até que a porção anterior do arco de C1 estivesse sob visão direta. Posteriormente, foi realizado um teste intraoperatório para avaliar a correspondência entre a área dolorosa e a parestesia induzida pela estimulação. Não possível optar pelo uso de eletrodo subcutâneo devido ao extenso tecido cicatricial secundário às cirurgias prévias. Resultados Melhora significativa da dor ocorreu ao longo de um ano de acompanhamento, com redução progressiva da dose da medicação. O valor da escala visual analógica no pré-operatório era 9, e após 1 ano de acompanhamento, reduziu para 2. Conclusão Estimulação da coluna dorsal da medula espinhal entre os seguimentos C1 e C4 pode, em casos selecionados, ser uma opção terapêutica na neuralgia occipital refratária, incluindo pacientes que já foram submetidos a neurectomia e rizotomia.

Humans , Female , Adult , Implantable Neurostimulators , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Neuralgia , Occipital Bone
Asian Spine Journal ; : 642-652, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79453


Neuropathic pain after spinal surgery, the so-called failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), is a frequently observed troublesome disease entity. Although medications may be effective to some degree, many patients continue experiencing intolerable pain and functional disability. Only gabapentin has been proven effective in patients with FBSS. No relevant studies regarding manipulation or physiotherapy for FBSS have been published. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been widely investigated as a treatment option for chronic neuropathic pain, including FBSS. SCS was generally accepted to improve chronic back and leg pain, physical function, and sleep quality. Although the cost effectiveness of SCS has been proved in many studies, its routine application is limited considering that it is invasive and is associated with safety issues. Percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis has also shown good clinical outcomes; however, its effects persisted for only a short period. Because none of the current methods provide absolute superiority in terms of clinical outcomes, a multidisciplinary approach is required to manage this complex disease. Further studies concerning the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and cost effectiveness of FBSS are warranted to deepen our understanding of this condition.

Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diagnosis , Failed Back Surgery Syndrome , Humans , Leg , Neuralgia , Spinal Cord Stimulation
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 42(3): 31-39, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017246


La estimulación de la Médula Espinal (EME) es una técnica de neuromodulación que ha mostrado ser efectiva en el manejo de los trastornos motores propios de enfermedades tan devastadoras como la Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) y las lesiones de la médula espinal. Considerando que ambas patologías cuentan con opciones terapéuticas limitadas, la EME se podría posicionar como una técnica prometedora. Los mecanismos por los cuales operaría la estimulación difieren en ambos casos, generando cambios en la circuitería espinal local en el caso de las lesiones medulares, y cambios supraespinales, en el caso de la EP. En esta revisión se busca analizar los efectos de la EME en ambas enfermedades, tanto en modelos animales como en pacientes, hacer una breve descripción de los mecanismos y aludir a los desafíos futuros propuestos para ambos casos. (AU)

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a neurophysiological technique that has shown to be effective in modulating motor dysfunction associated with devastating diseases such as: Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinal cord injuries. Considering that both pathologies have limited treatment options, SCS could be considered as a potential useful technique. The mechanism by which stimulation operates differs in both cases, generating changes in local circuits in the case of spinal cord injuries and supraspinal changes in PD. This review aims to analyze the effects of EES on both diseases, focusing in the results observed in animal models and patients, give a brief description of the mechanisms behind and postulate the future challenges proposed for SCS in both pathologies.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Parkinson Disease , Spinal Cord Diseases , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-227113


A 56-year-old man complained of continuous pain in the right foot that began 6 months after undergoing surgery on the right calcaneus bone. The patient was diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I and was treated with medication, lumbar sympathetic ganglion blocks, epidural nerve blocks, and spinal cord stimulation. However, all treatments were halted because they were ineffective or complications developed. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) was planned after confirming the analgesic effects of a sciatic nerve block, and the patient received PNS via minimally invasive ultrasound-guided electrode placement. PNS reduced the pain intensity and the incidence of paroxysmal pain. Other than discomfort at the battery insertion site (resolved with re-implantation), the patient developed no complications. These results suggest that ultrasound-guided minimally invasive PNS is a safe and effective treatment for patients with CRPS in the lower extremities.

Calcaneus , Complex Regional Pain Syndromes , Electrodes , Foot , Ganglia, Sympathetic , Humans , Implantable Neurostimulators , Incidence , Lower Extremity , Middle Aged , Nerve Block , Neuralgia , Pain Management , Peripheral Nerves , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord Stimulation , Ultrasonography