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1.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(4): 697-701, Jul.-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394871

ABSTRACT

Abstract A 26-year-old previously healthy patient who, at the age of 18 years, began progressive loss of distal strength, rest tremor, and muscle atrophy in the left upper limb. Upon examination, the patient presented moderate distal atrophy, degree 4 in muscular strength, and minipolymioclonus. Electromyoneurography revealed (EMNG) chronic preganglionic bilateral involvement of bilateral C7/C8/T1, worse on the left, with signs of active C8/T1 denervation. A cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed spondylodiscal degenerative changes with central protrusions in C4-C5, C6-C7, and right central in C5-C6, which touched the dural sac. The anteroposterior diameter of the medulla in neutral position, in the C5-C6 plane, was of 5.1 mm. There was a reduction of the spinal cord caliber to 4.0 mm after the dynamic maneuver of forced flexion of the spine, as well as signal increase in the anterior horns. The clinical findings and those of the complementary tests were compatible with Hirayama disease (HD), a rare benign motor neuron disease that affects cervical spinal segments and is most prevalent in men, with onset in the early 20s. Unilateral and slowly progressive weakness is typical, but self-limited. Sensory disturbances, and autonomic and upper motor neuron signals are rare. Management is usually conservative, with the use of a soft cervical collar. Although rare, HD should be considered in young patients with focal asymmetric atrophy in the upper limbs. The early diagnosis of HD depends on the degree of suspicion, as well as on the cooperation and communication among the various specialties involved in the investigation.


Resumo Paciente de 26 anos, previamente hígido, que, aos 18 anos, iniciou perda progressiva de força distal, tremor de repouso, e atrofia muscular no membro superior esquerdo. Ao exame, apresentou atrofia moderada, distal, força muscular de grau 4, e minipolimioclonus. A eletroneuromiografia (ENMG) revelou comprometimento pré-ganglionar crônico de C7/C8/T1 bilateral pior à esquerda, com sinais de desnervação ativa em C8/T1. A ressonância magnética (RM) de coluna cervical mostrou alterações degenerativas espondilodiscais com protrusões centrais em C4-C5, C6-C7, e central direita em C5-C6, que tocavam o saco dural. O diâmetro anteroposterior da medula na posição neutra, no plano de C5-C6, era de 5,1 mm. Houve redução do calibre da medula para 4,0 mm após a manobra dinâmica de flexão forçada da coluna, e aumento de sinal nos cornos anteriores. Os achados clínicos e os dos exames complementares eram compatíveis com doença de Hirayama (DH), uma doença benigna rara dos neurônios motores, que afeta os segmentos espinhais cervicais e é mais prevalente em homens e de início próximo aos 20 anos. É típica a fraqueza unilateral e lentamente progressiva, porém autolimitada. Perturbações sensoriais, sinais autonômicos e do neurônio motor superior são raras. O manejo geralmente é conservador, com uso de colar cervical macio. Apesar de rara, a DH deve ser considerada em pacientes jovens que apresentam atrofias assimétricas focais de membros superiores. O diagnóstico precoce de DH depende do grau de suspeição, e da cooperação e comunicação entre as diversas especialidades envolvidas na investigação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Spinal Cord/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscular Atrophy/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood/diagnostic imaging
2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 57(3): 521-523, May-June 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388024

ABSTRACT

Abstract Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is rare cause of neurological symptoms with myelopathy due to spinal cord compression. We report a case of pachymeningitis, which was manifested primarily by tetraparesis after low-energy trauma and recurrence the myelopathy symptoms after 5 years of surgery. The patient, a 19-year-old woman, was subjected to extensive investigation without evidence of any underlying disease. A meningeal biopsy was performed and showed an unspecific inflammatory process with extensive fibrosis of the dura mater. These findings, associated with the exclusion of other causes, suggest idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis.


Resumo A paquimeningite hipertrófica idiopática é uma causa rara de sintomas neurológicos apresentando mielopatia por compressão da medula espinhal. Relatamos um caso de paquimeningite com manifestação primária de tetraparesia após trauma de baixa energia e recorrência dos sintomas de mielopatia 5 anos após a cirurgia. A paciente, uma mulher de 19 anos, foi submetida a extensa investigação sem evidências de qualquer doença de base. Uma biópsia da meninge revelou processo inflamatório inespecífico com extensa fibrose da dura máter, também visualizado no período perioperatório. Esses achados, associados à exclusão de outras causas, sugerem o diagnóstico de paquimeningite hipertrófica idiopática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Compression , Hypertrophy , Meningitis/physiopathology
3.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 90-93, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362095

ABSTRACT

Intramedullary schwanommas are rare, and most cases are reported in cervical region. Less than 20 dorsal intramedullary schwanommas have been reported till date in literature. This is due to their cell of origin, the Schwann cell, which is not normally found within the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord; therefore it is not surprising that these lesions are rare. We report a rare solitary dorsal intramedullary schwanomma in a young adult patient who presented with paraplegia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Spinal Cord Neoplasms/surgery , Neurilemmoma/surgery , Neurilemmoma/pathology , Spinal Cord/surgery , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Laminectomy/methods , Neurilemmoma/diagnostic imaging
5.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1358110

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los ensayos de hipotermia sistémica en murinos son costosos, debido a la complejidad de los sistemas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si el modelo de hipotermia sistémica exógena utilizado en nuestro laboratorio para la hipotermia ocular es útil para reducir significativamente la temperatura de la médula espinal en ratas adultas. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron 36 ratas Sprague-Dawley albinas macho de 60 días, distribuidas en dos grupos: grupo normotermia a 24 °C (n = 18) y grupo hipotermia (n = 18) en cámara fría a 8 °C durante 180 minutos. Resultados: La temperatura rectal promedio fue de 37,71 ± 0,572 °C en el grupo normotermia y 34,03 ± 0,250 °C en el grupo hipotermia (p <0,0001). La temperatura medular promedio fue de 38,8 ± 0,468 °C en el grupo normotermia y de 36,4 ± 0,290 °C en el grupo hipotermia (p <0,0001). Conclusiones: El uso de hipotermia sistémica en ratas de laboratorio parece ser un método prometedor para evaluar los mecanismos fisiológicos y patológicos que se desencadenan en la médula espinal. La exposición al frío en cámara genera hipotermia medular significativa en ratas adultas. Los resultados sugieren que podría ser un modelo adecuado de hipotermia medular de bajo costo. Nivel de Evidencia: III


Given the complexity of hypothermal trial systems in murines, they are expensive. Our objective was to evaluate if the exogenous hypothermal model used in our laboratory for ocular hypothermia was useful for a significant reduction in medullar spine temperature in adult murines. Materials and methods: 36 60-day-old adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. They were separated into two groups: a normal temperature group at 24 °C (n=18) and a hypothermia group in a cold chamber at 8 °C for 180 minutes (n=18). Results: The mean rectal temperature was 37.71 °C ± 0.572 in the normothermia group and 34.03°C ± 0.250 in the hypothermia group (p <0.0001). The mean medullar temperature was 38.8 ± 0.468 °C in the normothermia group and 36.4 ± 0.290 °C in the hypothermia group (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Using systematic hypothermia in lab rats seems to be promising to evaluate physiologic and pathological mechanisms triggered in the medullar spine. Exposure to cold in the external chamber produces significant medullar hypothermia in adult rats. Results suggest this might be an adequate and inexpensive medullar hypothermal model. Level of Evidence: III


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord , Disease Models, Animal , Hypothermia
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e191070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394044

ABSTRACT

We conducted this study to determine whether cornuside could improve the neurological deficit symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats, as well as determine the potential involvement of CD4+ T lymphocytes, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Altogether, 32 Lewis rats were randomly divided into control, EAE, EAE/prednisolone, and EAE/cornuside, wherein their neurological function was assessed every day. CD4+ T lymphocyte recruitment into the spinal cord (SC) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the SC were determined by real-time quantitative PCR, and the VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 proteins were determined by western blotting. Compared to the control group, the EAE group rats with neurological deficits had enhanced CD4+ T lymphocyte infiltration and higher expression levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and TNF-α in the SC. Meanwhile, compared with the EAE group, the EAE/cornuside and EAE/prednisolone groups had lower neurological scores, less CD4+ T lymphocyte infiltrations, and lower expression levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and TNF-α in the SC. Thus, cornuside ameliorated EAE, which could be owed to the inhibition of CD4+ T lymphocyte recruitment and VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and TNF-α expressions in the SC


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/drug therapy , Blotting, Western/instrumentation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1378016

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La lesión traumática de la médula espinal es la principal causa de discapacidad motora en el mundo, y representa una prioridad para la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se estudió, a nivel estructural y bioquímico, el efecto de la hipotermia sobre la expresión de la CIRBP (proteína activada por frío) en el asta anterior de la médula de ratas Sprague-Dawley albinas macho de 60 días, planteándola como terapéutica posible. Materiales y Métodos:Se dividió a 24 ratas en dos grupos: normotermia a 24 °C (n = 6) e hipotermia a 8 °C (n = 18), durante 180 min, sacrificadas a las 12, 24 y 48 h después del tratamiento. Se utilizó Western blot e inmunohistoquímica para la CIRBP. Resultados:Se observó un aumento progresivo de la expresión de la CIRBP de 12 a 48 h en las motoneuronas del asta anterior. Los valores fueron estadísticamente significativos entre los grupos de 24 h y 48 h comparados con los de los controles. Conclusiones: Este modelo experimental resultó eficaz, accesible y económico para generar hipotermia sistémica y abre un abanico de estrategias terapéuticas. El aumento en la expresión de las proteínas inducibles por frío en la médula espinal de ratas permite, por primera vez, estudiar el beneficio que aporta la hipotermia a nivel molecular, lo que resulta de suma importancia para estudios de terapéuticas en las lesiones medulares. Nivel de Evidencia: I


Introduction: Traumatic spinal cord injury is the main cause of motor disability in developed and underdeveloped countries, being a priority interest to the WHO. The effect of hypothermia on the expression of CIRBP (cold-activated protein) in the anterior grey column of 60-day-old male albino Sprague-Dawley rats was studied at the structural and biochemical levels and proposed as a possible therapeutic approach. Materials and Methods: 24 rats were randomly divided into two groups; normothermia (n = 6), at 24° C, and hypothermia, (n = 18) at 8° C for 180 minutes and euthanized at 12, 24, and 48 h post-treatment. Western blot and immunohistochemistry for CIRBP were used. Results: A progressive increase in the expression of CIRBP was observed from 12 to 48 hours, with statistically significant values after 24 and 48 hours compared to controls. Conclusion: This experimental model demonstrated efficacy, accessibility, and economy to generate systemic hypothermia, which provides a novel range of therapeutic strategies. The increase in the expression of cold-inducible proteins in the rats' spinal cords allows us to study the benefit of hypothermia at the molecular level for the first time, being of utmost importance for therapeutic studies in spinal cord injuries. Level of Evidence: I


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins , Hypothermia
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 403-416, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929123

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS)-induced analgesia was characterized, and its underlying mechanisms were examined in a spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in rats. The analgesic effect of SCS with moderate mechanical hypersensitivity was increased with increasing stimulation intensity between the 20% and 80% motor thresholds. Various frequencies (2, 15, 50, 100, 10000 Hz, and 2/100 Hz dense-dispersed) of SCS were similarly effective. SCS-induced analgesia was maintained without tolerance within 24 h of continuous stimulation. SCS at 2 Hz significantly increased methionine enkephalin content in the cerebrospinal fluid. The analgesic effect of 2 Hz was abolished by μ or κ opioid receptor antagonist. The effect of 100 Hz was prevented by a κ antagonist, and that of 10 kHz was blocked by any of the μ, δ, or κ receptor antagonists, suggesting that the analgesic effect of SCS at different frequencies is mediated by different endorphins and opioid receptors.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Animals , Narcotic Antagonists/pharmacology , Neuralgia/therapy , Opioid Peptides , Rats , Receptors, Opioid/physiology , Receptors, Opioid, kappa , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 440-452, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929115

ABSTRACT

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with, or resembling that associated with, actual or potential tissue damage. The processing of pain involves complicated modulation at the levels of the periphery, spinal cord, and brain. The pathogenesis of chronic pain is still not fully understood, which makes the clinical treatment challenging. Optogenetics, which combines optical and genetic technologies, can precisely intervene in the activity of specific groups of neurons and elements of the related circuits. Taking advantage of optogenetics, researchers have achieved a body of new findings that shed light on the cellular and circuit mechanisms of pain transmission, pain modulation, and chronic pain both in the periphery and the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent findings in pain research using optogenetic approaches and discuss their significance in understanding the pathogenesis of chronic pain.


Subject(s)
Brain , Chronic Pain , Humans , Neurons , Optogenetics , Spinal Cord
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#There are clinical reports of nerve injury caused by ropivacaine. The mechanism for nerve injury induced by ropivacaine has not been fully clarified. This study aims to investigate the changes of pain threshold and L3 spinal cord genomics at 6 h and 24 h after intrathecal injection of 0.5% and 1.0% ropivacaine, and to explore the underlying mechanisms for nerve injury caused by ropivacaine.@*METHODS@#A total of 30 male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 220-260 g were successfully implanted with microspinal catheter. The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (each n=6): a control group (given saline), a ropivacaine group 1 and a ropivacaine group 2 (both given 1% ropivacaine), a ropivacaine group 3 and a ropivacaine group 4 (both given 0.5% ropivacaine). The rats received continuous intrathecal injection of corresponding drugs at 8.3 μL/h for 24 h via an implanted intrathecal catheter followed by 24 h-pause of injection for the ropivacaine group 2, the ropivacaine group 4 and the control group, 6 h-pause of injection for the ropivacaine group 1 and the ropivacaine group 3. For each group, the observation of behavioral change and the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) was conducted immediately after the injection and again after the pause of injection. After the PWMT observation, the rats were dissected to acquire L3 spinal cords. Illumina sequencing was applied to construct gene libraries. Then the statistical methods were used to find out differentially expressed genes between the groups. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway analysis were conducted for those genes. Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine different expressions of some of those genes.@*RESULTS@#Compared with control group, the PWMT got higher in the ropivacaine group 1-4 and was positively correlated with concentration, negatively correlated with discontinuation duration. Compared with control group, the ropivacaine group 1 had 488 differentially expressed genes, of which 456 were up-regulated and 32 were down-regulated; the ropivacaine group 2 had 1 194 differentially expressed genes, of which 1 092 were up-regulated and 102 were down-regulated; the ropivacaine group 3 had 518 differentially expressed genes, of which 384 were up-regulated and 134 were down-regulated; and the ropivacaine group 4 had 68 differentially expressed genes, of which 46 were up-regulated and 22 were down-regulated. GO enrichment analysis and KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that most of these differentially expressed genes were related to signaling pathways of inflammatory response.@*CONCLUSIONS@#After intrathecal injection of 0.5% ropivacaine and 1.0% ropivacaine for 24 h, the differentially expressed genes in L3 spinal cord of rats are mainly related to signaling pathways of inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Genomics , Injections, Spinal , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ropivacaine , Spinal Cord/metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928293

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord injury is a severe central nervous system disease, which will cause a series of complex pathophysiological changes and activate a variety of signaling pathways including Notch signaling. Studies have evidenced that activation of the Notch signaling pathway is not conducive to nerve repair and symptom improvement after spinal cord injury. Its mechanisms include inhibiting neuronal differentiation and axon regeneration, promoting reactive astrocyte proliferation, promoting M1 macrophage polarization and the release of proinflammatory factors, and inhibiting angiogenesis. Therefore, it has become a promising therapeutic strategy to inhibit Notch signal as a target in the treatment of spinal cord injury. In recent years, some researchers have used drugs, cell transplantation or genetic modification to regulate Notch signaling, which can promote the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury, thereby providing new treatment strategies for the treatment of spinal cord injury. This article will summarize the mechanism of Notch signaling pathway in spinal cord injury, and at the same time review the research progress in the treatment of spinal cord injury by modulating Notch signaling pathway in recent years, so as to provide new research ideas for further exploring new strategies for spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons/metabolism , Cell Transplantation , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928194

ABSTRACT

Electric field stimulation (EFS) can effectively inhibit local Ca 2+ influx and secondary injury after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, after the EFS, the Ca 2+ in the injured spinal cord restarts and subsequent biochemical reactions are stimulated, which affect the long-term effect of EFS. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a hydrophilic polymer material that can promote cell membrane fusion and repair damaged cell membranes. This article aims to study the combined effects of EFS and PEG on the treatment of SCI. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to SCI and then divided into control group (no treatment, n = 10), EFS group (EFS for 30 min, n = 10), PEG group (covered with 50% PEG gelatin sponge for 5 min, n = 10) and combination group (combined treatment of EFS and PEG, n = 10). The measurement of motor evoked potential (MEP), the motor behavior score and spinal cord section fast blue staining were performed at different times after SCI. Eight weeks after the operation, the results showed that the latency difference of MEP, the amplitude difference of MEP and the ratio of cavity area of spinal cords in the combination group were significantly lower than those of the control group, EFS group and PEG group. The motor function score and the ratio of residual nerve tissue area in the spinal cords of the combination group were significantly higher than those in the control group, EFS group and PEG group. The results suggest that the combined treatment can reduce the pathological damage and promote the recovery of motor function in rats after SCI, and the therapeutic effects are significantly better than those of EFS and PEG alone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electric Stimulation , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Recovery of Function/physiology , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928133

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications of diabetes. Tetrahydropalmatine(THP) is a main active component of Corydalis Rhizoma with excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-alleviating properties. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of THP on diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP) and the underlying mechanism. High-fat and high-sugar diet(4 weeks) and streptozotocin(STZ, 35 mg·kg~(-1), single intraperitoneal injection) were employed to induce type-2 DNP in rats. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce the activation of BV2 microglia in vitro to establish an inflammatory cellular model. Fasting blood glucose(FBG) was measured by a blood glucose meter. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments, and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) with hot plate apparatus. The protein expression levels of OX42, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), CD206, p38, and p-p38 were determined by Western blot, the fluorescence expression levels of OX42 and p-p38 in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord by immunofluorescence, the mRNA content of p38 and OX42 in rat spinal cord tissue by qRT-PCR, and levels of nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-10(IL-10), and serum fasting insulin(FINS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). RESULTS:: showed that the mo-del group demonstrated significant decrease in MWT and TWL, with pain symptoms. THP significantly improved the MWT and TWL of DNP rats, inhibited the activation of microglia and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rat spinal cord, and ameliorated its inflammatory response. Meanwhile, THP promoted the change of LPS-induced BV2 microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, suppressed the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and increased the expression level of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The findings suggested that THP can significantly ameliorate the pain symptoms of DNP rats possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by M1 polarization of microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Berberine Alkaloids , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Streptozocin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927904

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish an improved method of separating microglia from aged rats and to observe the biological characteristics of spinal microglia of aged rats. Methods: Young SD rats (2 months) were used as control group. Single cell suspension of rat microglia were prepared by trypsin, trypsin substitutes or mechanical net rubbing method. Then, by assessing the purity and survival rate of cells, and observing the morphological characteristics and analyzing the inflammatory functional characteristics, we optimized the isolation and purification method of microglia from aged rats (20 months old) , and observed the functional characteristics of spinal microglia in aged rats. Results: The survival rate of cells digested by pancreatic enzyme was low(young rats 83%, aged rats 60%). Although the survival rate of mechanical net rubbing method was higher than that of pancreatic enzyme digest methods (95%), the cell acquisition rate was lower(young rats(0.207±0.020)×106, aged rats(0.243±0.023)×106). Trypsin substitute dissociation combining density gradient centrifugation method was the best way to get abundant, active and higher survival microglia, and the purity reached more than 85%. We used this method to separate microglia from spinal cord of rats. Compared with the young rats, the spinal cord tissue of old rats was larger, the digestive fluid volume was higher, but the digestion time was shorter. Compared with the young rats, the aged rat spinal microglia had larger and rounder cell body, fewer and shorter protrusions, it tended to be activated morphologically, the level of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β of microglia in aged rats was lower, and the level of antiinflammatory factor IL-10 was higher. Conclusion: The method of trypsin substitute dissociation combined with density gradient centrifugation was successfully established to isolate and purify microglia from spinal cord of rats, the spinal microglia of old rats showed anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytokines , Microglia , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Trypsin
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) on the expressions of Beclin-1 and GRP78 in spinal dorsal horn in rats with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR), and to explore the possible analgesic mechanism of wheat-grain moxibustion for CSR.@*METHODS@#A total of 48 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, a wheat-grain moxibustion group and a wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, 12 rats in each group. The CSR model was prepared by spinal cord insertion method. Three days after modeling, the rats in the model group were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion group were treated with wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time) on the basis of the model group; the rats in the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group were intraperitoneally injected with 3-MA solution and wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14, 6 cones per time). The three groups were intervened for 7 days, once a day. The gait score and mechanical pain threshold were observed before treatment and 7 days into treatment; after the treatment, the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 in spinal dorsal horn were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry; the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot method; the autophagosomes and ultrastructure in spinal dorsal horn neurons were observed by electron microscope.@*RESULTS@#After the treatment, compared with the sham operation group, in the model group, the gait score was increased and the mechanical pain threshold was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group and the wheat-grain moxibustion+3-MA group, in the wheat-grain moxibustion group, the gait score was decreased and mechanical pain threshold was increased (P<0.01), and the expression of GRP78 protein in spinal dorsal horn was decreased, and the expressions of mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 were increased (P<0.01). Under electron microscope, the ultrastructure of spinal dorsal horn neurons in the wheat-grain moxibustion group was not significantly damaged, and its structure was basically close to normal, and the number of autophagosomes was more than the other three groups.@*CONCLUSION@#Wheat-grain moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) has analgesic effect on CSR rats. The mechanism may be related to moderately up-regulate the expression of Beclin-1, enhance autophagy and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beclin-1/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger , Radiculopathy/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn , Spondylosis , Triticum/genetics
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion at oppositely-located points "Mingmen" (GV 4) and "Shenque" (CV 8) on the motor function of the hind limbs and bladder function in rats with neurogenic bladder after suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI), so as to explore the effect of this therapy on bladder tissue apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.@*METHODS@#Twenty-eight female Wistar rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group (8 rats) and a model establishment group (20 rats). Using the modified Allen's method, the spinal cord of T10 segment was injured to establish a neurogenic bladder model in the model establishment group. Sixteen rats were modeled successfully and then divided into a model group (8 rats) and a moxibustion group (8 rats). In the moxibustion group, 2 h after consciousness regaining from modeling anesthesia, moxibustion was exerted at "Shenque" (CV 8) and "Mingmen" (GV 4), 2 cones at each acupoint in one intervention. The intervention was administered once every two days and 5-time intervention was required totally. After intervention, Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB) score for the motor function of the hind limbs, and the urodynamics indexes (maximum bladder capacity, urine leakage pressure and bladder compliance) were compared among groups. HE staining method was adopted to observe the morphological changes of bladder tissue. With Western blot method and real-time PCR assay, the protein and mRNA expressions of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes (glucose- regulated protein 78 [GRP78], activating transcription factor 4 [ATF4] and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-12 [Caspase-12]) were determined.@*RESULTS@#The transitional epithelial cells were arranged irregularly, the bladder wall was getting thinner, and the cellular vacuolar degeneration and neutrophil infiltration were found in the model group. Whereas, compared with the model group, in the moxibustion group, the arrangement of transitional epithelial cells was clear and continuous in layers, the cellular vacuolar degeneration was mild and the infiltration presented in a small amount of neutrophil granulocytes. Compared with the sham-operation group, in the model group, the BBB score was reduced (P<0.01), the maximum bladder capacity and bladder compliance were increased (P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of GRP78, ATF4 and Caspase-12, as well as mRNA expressions were all increased (P<0.01). In comparison with the model group, in the moxibustion group, BBB score was increased (P<0.01), the maximum bladder capacity and bladder compliance were decreased (P<0.01), and the protein and mRNA expression levels of GRP78, ATF4 and Caspase-12 were all decreased (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion at the "oppositely-located points" improves the urination function, alleviate urine retention in neurogenic bladder rats after spinal cord injury. The underlying mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of the expressions of GRP78, ATF4 and Caspase-12 in the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway of the bladder tissues, and thus to alleviate the apoptosis of bladder tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 12/genetics , Electroacupuncture , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Female , Moxibustion , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/therapy
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the occurrence time of neuralgia and the expression of purinergic ligand-gated ion channel 7 receptor (P2X7R) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in diabetic rats, and to explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and pretreatment of EA on the heat pain threshold and expression of P2X7R in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), and to explore the possible mechanism of EA for DNP.@*METHODS@#PartⅠ: Thirty male SD rats were randomly selected from 64 male SD rats as the control group; the remaining rats were given intraperitoneal injection of STZ (10 mg/mL) at a dose of 65 mg/kg to establish the diabetes model, and 30 rats were successfully modeled as the model group. The control group and the model group were divided into three subgroups respectively at 7, 14 and 21 days, with 10 rats in each subgroup. Body mass, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and thermal pain threshold were recorded at 7, 14 and 21 days after injection; the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot. PartⅡ: Eight SD rats were randomly selected from 35 male SD rats as the blank group, and the remaining 27 rats were given intraperitoneal injection of STZ (10 mg/mL) at a dose of 65 mg/kg to establish the diabetes model. The 24 rats with successful diabetes model were randomly divided into a DNP group, an EA group and a pre-EA group, 8 rats in each group. Fifteen to 21 days after STZ injection, the EA group received EA at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Kunlun" (BL 60), continuous wave, frequency of 2 Hz, 30 min each time, once a day; the intervention method in the pre-EA group was the same as that in the EA group. The intervention time was 8 to 14 days after STZ injection. The body mass, FBG and thermal pain threshold were recorded before STZ injection and 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection; the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was detected by Western blot 21 days after injection.@*RESULTS@#PartⅠ: Compared with the control group, in the model group, the body mass was decreased and FBG was increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01), and the thermal pain threshold was decreased 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05), and the expression of P2X7R in spinal dorsal horn was increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05, P<0.01). PartⅡ: Compared with the blank group, in the DNP group, the body mass was decreased and fasting blood glucose were increased 7, 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01). Compared with the DNP group, in the pre-EA group, the heat pain threshold was increased 14 and 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.05), while in the EA group, the heat pain threshold was increased 21 days after STZ injection (P<0.01), and the expression of P2X7R in the dorsal horn in the EA group and the pre-EA group was decreased (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The diabetic neuropathic pain is observed 14 days after STZ injection. EA could not only treat but also prevent the occurrence of DNP, and its mechanism may be related to down-regulation of P2X7R expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Male , Neuralgia/therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn
18.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(3): 229-237, 15/09/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362115

ABSTRACT

Introduction Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) leasioning (DREZ-otomy) is considered an effective treatment for chronic pain due to spinal cord injuries, brachial and lumbosacral plexus injuries, postherpetic neuralgia, spasticity, and other conditions. The objective of the technique is to cause a selective destruction of the afferent pain fibers located in the dorsal region of the spinal cord. Objective To identify and review the effectiveness and the main aspects related to DREZ-otomy, as well as the etiologies that can be treated with it. Methods The PubMed, MEDLINE and LILACS databases were used as bases for this systematic review, having the impact factor as the selection criteria. The 23 selected publications, totalizing 1,099 patients, were organized in a table for systematic analysis. Results Satisfactory pain control was observed in 70.1% of the cases, with the best results being found in patients with brachial/lumbosacral plexus injury (70.8%) and the worst, in patients with trigeminal pain (40% to 67%). Discussion Most of the published articles observed excellent results in the control of chronic pain, especially in cases of plexus injuries. Complications are rare, and can be minimized with the use of new technologies for intraoperative monitoring and imaging. Conclusion DREZ-otomy can be considered a great alternative for the treatment of chronic pain, especially in patients who do not tolerate the side effects of the medications used in the clinical management or have refractory pain.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Injuries , Spinal Nerve Roots/surgery , Spinal Nerve Roots/injuries , Chronic Pain/prevention & control , Spinal Cord/surgery , Spinal Nerve Roots/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Lumbosacral Plexus/surgery
19.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(9): 1342-1348, Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351459

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds seeded with human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery after acute complete spinal cord injury. METHODS: The fibroin and collagen were mixed (mass ratio, 3:7), and the composite scaffolds were produced. Forty rats were randomly divided into the Sham group (without spinal cord injury), spinal cord injury group (spinal cord transection without any implantation), collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds group (spinal cord transection with implantation of the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds), and collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds + human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells group (spinal cord transection with the implantation of the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds co-cultured with human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells). Motor evoked potential, Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scale, modified Bielschowsky's silver staining, and immunofluorescence staining were performed. RESULTS: The BBB scores in the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds + human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells group were significantly higher than those in the spinal cord injury and collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds groups (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The amplitude and latency were markedly improved in the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds + human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells group compared with the spinal cord injury and collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds groups (p<0.05 or p<0.01). Meanwhile, compared to the spinal cord injury and collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds groups, more neurofilament positive nerve fiber ensheathed by myelin basic protein positive structure at the injury site were observed in the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds + human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells group (p<0.01, p<0.05). The results of Bielschowsky's silver staining indicated more nerve fibers was observed at the lesion site in the collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds + human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells group compared with the spinal cord injury and collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds groups (p<0.01, p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that the transplantation of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells on a collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds could promote nerve regeneration, and recovery of neurological function after acute spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Fibroins , Spinal Cord , Umbilical Cord , Collagen , Recovery of Function , Tissue Scaffolds
20.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 35(2): 155-159, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398677

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los ependimomas son tumores cerebrales que surgen de células ependimarias, células de soporte en el cerebro y la médula espinal. Representan entre el 2 y el 3% de todos los tumores cerebrales primarios. Son el cuarto tumor cerebral más común en los niños, donde el 90% de los mismos se localizan en la fosa posterior. En adultos, el 60% de estos tumores se encuentran en la médula espinal pudiendo presentarse a cualquier nivel de ésta; el caso a continuación reporta un ependimoma cervical. Objetivo: reportar un caso de ependimoma medular de ubicación poco frecuente, con resección total, sin recidiva porterior a 2 años de seguimiento.Descripción del caso: se reporta el caso de un paciente adulto, 44 años, masculino, con un síndrome medular cervical completo, progresivo, provocado por un ependimoma cervical. Intervención: se realizó laminectomía de dos espacios [C7 a T1], apertura dural, mielotomía posterior logrando exéresis total de la lesión con durorrafia a sello de agua y posterior cierre por planos sin complicaciones, con seguimiento de 2 años de sobrevida. Conclusiones: la resección total macroscópica de este tipo de tumores es muy importante para poder evitar residiva. El ependimoma cervical puede recidivar, sobre todo cuando existen residuales de la lesión. El manejo oportuno depende de gran manera de que los pacientes acudan tempranamente a valoración especializada; la resección guiada con monitorización neurofisiológica transoperatoria provee mayor oportunidad a los pacientes a no presentar secuelas permanentes y permite asimismo, mejores resultados de la rehabilitación neurológica postoperatoria


Introduction: ependymomas are brain tumors that arise from ependymal cells, supporting cells in the brain and spinal cord. They represent between 2 and 3% of all primary brain tumors. They are the fourth most common brain tumor in children, where 90% of them are located in the posterior fossa. In adults, 60% of these tumors are found in the spinal cord and can occur at any level of the spinal cord; the case below reports a cervical ependymoma. Objective: to report a case of medullary ependymoma of rare location, with total resection, without recurrence after 2 years of follow-up. Case description: a 44-year-old male adult patient with a progressive, complete cervical spinal cord syndrome, caused by a cervical ependymoma, is reported.Intervention: two-space laminectomy [C7 to T1], dural opening and posterior myelotomy were performed, achieving total excision of the lesion with water-seal durorrhaphy and subsequent closure by planes without complications, with a 2-year survival follow-up. Conclusions: macroscopic total resection of this type of tumor is very important to avoid residual. Cervical ependymoma can recur, especially when there is residual lesion. Timely management depends to a great extent on the patients attending early for a specialized evaluation; guided resection with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring provides a greater opportunity for patients to not present permanent sequelae and also allows better results of postoperative neurological rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Male , Ependymoma , Spinal Cord , Brain Neoplasms , Cerebrum , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Neurophysiological Monitoring , Cervical Cord , Neurological Rehabilitation
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