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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 15-20, Ene-Jun 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147873

ABSTRACT

Se desarrollan los principales elementos históricos en el estudio y la lucha contra la poliomielitis, su aislamiento por Karl Landsteiner en 1909, la primera vacuna con virus muerto (Jonas Salk, 1955), la segunda vacuna con virus vivo atenuado (Albert Sabin, 1961) y la reducción paulatina de la polio en todo el mundo, hasta llegar a menos de 200 casos al año (virus salvaje)(AU)


The main historical events in the study and fight against polio are shown, its isolation by Karl Landsteiner in 1909, the development of the first vaccine with dead virus (Jonas Salk, 1955), the second vaccine with live attenuated virus (Albert Sabin, 1961) and the gradual reduction of polio worldwide, reaching less than 200 cases a year (wild virus)(AU)


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis/mortality , Poliomyelitis/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Poliovirus , Spinal Cord/virology , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate expression of Semaphorin 3A in rats after spinal cord injury and explore possible mechanism of inhibiting of axonal regeneration after SCI.@*METHODS@#Forty healthy female SD rats, 8 weeks old, weighing (210.00±9.88) g, were randomly divided into control group(20 rats in group A) and model group(20 rats in group B). In control group, removal of T@*RESULTS@#After a simple spinal cord transection injury, hemorrhagic necrosis, localized edema, neurodegeneration, necrosis, and cyst formation occurred in the injured area, and glial scar formation occurred in glial cells. Semaphorin 3A expression levels in control group was low in the gray matter area. There was no expression of Semaphorin 3A in the injured area of spinal cord injury in model group 3 days after operation. On the 14th day, the expression of Semaphorin 3A in the injured area of spinal cord injury increased significantly and was at a high level. On the 28th day, the expression of Semaphorin 3A was moderate. On the 42th day, the positive expression of Semaphorin 3A returned to normal level.@*CONCLUSION@#The increased expression of Semaphorin 3A after spinal cord injury may be one of the mechanisms that inhibit axonal regeneration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Semaphorin-3A/genetics , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries/genetics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879412

ABSTRACT

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) is a complex network composed of highly condensed extracellular matrix molecules surrounding neurons. It plays an important role in maintaining the performance of neurons and protecting them from harmful substances. However, after spinal cord injury, PNNs forms a physical barrier that surrounds the neuron and limits neuroplasticity, impedes axonal regeneration and myelin formation, and promotes local neuroinflammatory uptake. This paper mainly describes the composition and function of PNNs of neurons and its regulatory effects on axonal regeneration, myelin formation and neuroinflammation after spinal cord injury.


Subject(s)
Axons , Extracellular Matrix , Humans , Nerve Regeneration , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879270

ABSTRACT

Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for pain is usually implanted as an open loop system using unchanged parameters. To avoid the under and over stimulation caused by lead migration, evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) is used as feedback signal to change the stimulating parameters. This study established a simulation model of ECAP recording to investigate the relationship between ECAP component and dorsal column (DC) fiber recruitment. Finite element model of SCS and multi-compartment model of sensory fiber were coupled to calculate the single fiber action potential (SFAP) caused by single fiber in different spinal cord regions. The synthetized ECAP, superimposition of SFAP, could be considered as an index of DC fiber excitation degree, because the position of crests and amplitude of ECAP corresponds to different fiber diameters. When 10% or less DC fibers were excited, the crests corresponded to fibers with large diameters. When 20% or more DC fibers were excited, ECAP showed a slow conduction crest, which corresponded to fibers with small diameters. The amplitude of this slow conduction crest increased as the stimulating intensity increased while the amplitude of the fast conduction crest almost remained unchanged. Therefore, the simulated ECAP signal in this paper could be used to evaluate the degree of excitation of DC fibers. This SCS-ECAP model may provide theoretical basis for future clinical application of close loop SCS base on ECAP.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Computer Simulation , Electric Stimulation , Evoked Potentials , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Stimulation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877610

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in the rats with acute spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore the potential effect mechanism of EA in treatment of acute SCI.@*METHODS@#A total of 80 SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, i.e. a sham-operation group, a model group, an AMPA antagonist (DNQX) group, an EA group and a DNQX+EA group, 16 rats in each group. The modified Allen's impacting method was adopted to prepare the rat model of acute SCI at T@*RESULTS@#Compared to the sham-operation group in 6 h, 24 h and 48 h after modeling, the BBB scores were all significantly decreased in the model group (@*CONCLUSION@#The intervention with EA at "Dazhui" and "Mingmen" promotes the repair of the injured nerve in the spinal anterior horn probably through inhibiting GluR1 expression in the spinal injured area in the rats with acute SCI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, AMPA/genetics , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Huantiao" (GB 30) on the expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the sciatic nerve trunk and ventral horn of spinal cord (L@*METHODS@#A total of 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham operation group, a model group and a moxibustion group, 12 rats in each group. The rat model of primary sciatic pain was established by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in the model group and the moxibustion group. On the 8th day of the experiment, moxibustion was adopted at "Huantiao" (GB 30) in the moxibustion group for 5-10 min, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Sciatic nerve function index (SFI) was measured and compared in each group at day 1, 7, 14 and 21. On the 21st day of the experiment, HE staining was used to observe the morphology of ventral horn of rat spinal cord and sciatic nerve trunk. Immunohistochemical method and real-time PCR were used to detect mRNA and protein expressions of GAP-43 in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve trunk of rats.@*RESULTS@#On day 7, 14 and 21, there was no statistical difference in SFI between the sham operation group and the normal group (@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion at "Huantiao" (GB 30) could improve the sciatic nerve function in rats with primary sciatica and its mechanism may be related to improving the expression of GAP-43 and enhancing the self-repair ability of the sciatic nerve after injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Electroacupuncture , GAP-43 Protein/genetics , Male , Moxibustion , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve , Sciatica/therapy , Spinal Cord
7.
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 49(1): 53-56, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1152170

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el absceso epidural posterolateral y la compresión radicular es una rara complicación del absceso retrofaríngeo (ARF). Se realizó el reporte de un caso con esta complicación extremadamente rara. Método: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura (estudios radiológicos, historia y hallazgos clínicos). Se firmó consentimiento del paciente para la publicación. Resultados: paciente de 33 años remitido a nivel terciario de atención con un cuadro clínico de cervicalgia, odinofagia y fiebre. La tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) mostraron una colección retrofaríngea con compromiso epidural en el espacio medular cervical; en el examen físico se encontró odinofagia, cervicalgia, fiebre y pérdida de la fuerza muscular en el miembro superior derecho. El paciente fue llevado a manejo quirúrgico por otorrinolaringología y ortopedia para el drenaje de la colección; además, se le administró antibioticoterapia con cefepime y clindamicina por 21 días con buenos resultados; se consideró que el origen del absceso era idiopático. Conclusiones: el absceso epidural y la compresión radicular secundarias a un ARF es una rara y potencialmente mortal complicación de esta patología, con secuelas importantes en el paciente que la padece, que requiere un manejo médico-quirúrgico. En nuestro caso el manejo fue interdisciplinario, ya que integró otorrinolaringología, ortopedia, infectología y fisioterapia, lo que resultó en una evolución satisfactoria del paciente.


Introduction: posterolateral epidural abscess and radicular compression is a rare complication of retropharyngeal abscess (RFA), a case report with this extremely rare complication was made. Method: case report and review of the literature (radiological studies, clinical history, clinical findings) patient's consent was signed for the publication. Results: a 33-year-old patient referred at the tertiary care level with a clinical picture of cervicalgia, odynophagia and fever; CT and MRI showed retropharyngeal collection with epidural involvement in the cord cervical space, physical examination, odynophagia, cervicalgia, fever and loss of muscle strength in the right upper limb. Led to surgical management by ENT and orthopedics column for drainage of the collection; antibiotic therapy with cefepime, clindamycin for 21 days with good results; It was considered of idiopathic origin. Conclusions: epidural abscess and root compression secondary to an RFA is a rare and potentially fatal complication of this pathology with important sequelae in the patient, which requires medical-surgical management, in our case the management was integrated interdisciplinary otolaryngology, orthopedics, infectology, physiotherapy , with satisfactory evolution in the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Spinal Cord , Staphylococcal Infections/complications , Retropharyngeal Abscess/complications , Epidural Abscess/etiology , Nerve Compression Syndromes/etiology , Staphylococcal Infections/therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Retropharyngeal Abscess/therapy , Retropharyngeal Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Epidural Abscess/therapy , Epidural Abscess/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Compression Syndromes/therapy , Nerve Compression Syndromes/diagnostic imaging
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11355, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285647

ABSTRACT

The etiology of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord is closely associated with vitamin B12 (VitB12) deficiency. The clinical manifestations of SCD are complex and vary substantially. Due to some SCD patients with atypical manifestations and concomitant autoimmune disorders, the probability of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis is still relatively high in the early stage. We report the cases of two patients who were missed or misdiagnosed at another hospital because of the normal initial VitB12 level and partial overlap of clinical manifestations, finally diagnosed as SCD with atypical manifestations and concomitant autoimmune disorders, pharyngeal-cervical-brachial Guillain-Barre syndrome in Case 1 and SCD with autoimmune thyroiditis in Case 2. After undergoing corresponding treatment, death was reported in Case 1 and improvement in Case 2. Analysis of the clinical manifestations and investigation of the underlying pathogenesis in such patients could help improve the rate of early diagnosis and allow timely treatment of SCD, thereby preventing disease progression and poor clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Subacute Combined Degeneration/complications , Subacute Combined Degeneration/diagnosis , Subacute Combined Degeneration/pathology , Spinal Cord , Vitamin B 12 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(10): e11207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285643

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in neuropathic pain, a complicated condition after nerve tissue lesion. Vitamin D appears to improve symptoms of pain and exhibits antioxidant properties. We investigated the effects of oral administration of vitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D, on nociception, the sciatic functional index (SFI), and spinal cord pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, a model of neuropathic pain. Vitamin D3 (500 IU/kg per day) attenuated the CCI-induced decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency (indicators of antinociception) and SFI. The vitamin prevented increased lipid hydroperoxide levels in injured sciatic nerve without change to total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Vitamin D3 prevented increased lipid hydroperoxide, superoxide anion generation (SAG), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the spinal cord, which were found in rats without treatment at 7 and 28 days post-CCI. A significant negative correlation was found between mechanical threshold and SAG and between mechanical threshold and H2O2 at day 7. Vitamin D3 also prevented decreased spinal cord total thiols content. There was an increase in TAC in the spinal cord of vitamin-treated CCI rats, compared to CCI rats without treatment only at 28 days. No significant changes were found in body weight and blood parameters of hepatic and renal function. These findings demonstrated, for first time, that vitamin D modulated pro-oxidant and antioxidant markers in the spinal cord. Since antinociception occurred in parallel with oxidative changes in the spinal cord, the oxidative changes may have contributed to vitamin D-induced antinociception.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Sciatic Nerve , Spinal Cord , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Reactive Oxygen Species , Rats, Wistar , Nociception , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy
10.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 568-574, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1179477

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever a distribuição da produção científica dos cuidados de enfermagem ao paciente com traumatismo da medula espinhal e verificar quais as temáticas mais abordadas. Método: Análise bibliométrica através da Lei de Bradford, Lei de Zipf e estatística textual realizada com publicações em português, inglês e espanhol, no período de 1978 a 2018. Resultados: Amostra composta por 33 artigos distribuídos em 13 periódicos, sendo a maioria originais e de abordagem quantitativa. O Brasil publicou o maior número de artigos, apresentando a terceira colocação dos periódicos no núcleo de Bradford. Foi identificado um valor médio do multiplicador de Bradford (XmB) = 2,1. Os termos com maior semântica foram: lesão medular, paciente, enfermagem, enfermeiro e cuidado. Conclusão: Os indicadores bibliométricos demonstraram uma produção científica com pouca produtividade, porém com tendência a crescimento nas últimas décadas. Novos estudos acerca da temática são necessários para aprimorar o cuidado ofertado ao paciente com lesão medular


Objective: To describe the distribution of scientific production of nursing care to patients with spinal cord trauma and to verify which themes are most addressed. Method: Bibliometric analysis through the Bradford Law, Zipf Law and textual statistics made with publications in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1978 to 2018. Results: Sample composed of 33 articles distributed in 13 journals, most of them original and of quantitative approach. Brazil has published the largest number of articles, presenting the third position of the journals in the Bradford nucleus. An average Bradford multiplier value (XmB) = 2.1 was identified. The terms with the highest semantics were: spinal cord injury, patient, nursing, nurse and care. Conclusion: The bibliometric indicators showed a scientific production with low productivity, but with a tendency to growth in the last decades. Further studies on the subject are needed to improve the care offered to patients with spinal cord injury


Objetivo: Describir la distribución de la producción científica de cuidados de enfermería a pacientes con trauma de la médula espinal y verificar qué temas se abordan más. Método: Análisis bibliométrico a través de la Ley Bradford, la Ley Zipf y estadísticas textuales realizadas con publicaciones en portugués, inglés y español, de 1978 a 2018. Resultados: Muestra compuesta por 33 artículos distribuidos en 13 revistas, la mayoría originales y de enfoque cuantitativo. Brasil ha publicado la mayor cantidad de artículos, presentando la tercera posición de las revistas en el núcleo de Bradford. Se identificó un valor multiplicador promedio de Bradford (XmB) = 2.1. Los términos con la semántica más alta fueron: lesión de la médula espinal, paciente, enfermería, enfermera y atención. Conclusión: Los indicadores bibliométricos mostraron una producción científica con baja productividad, pero con tendencia al crecimiento en las últimas décadas. Se necesitan más estudios sobre el tema para mejorar la atención ofrecida a los pacientes con lesión de la médula espinal


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Periodicals as Topic , Spinal Cord Injuries/nursing , Bibliometrics , Bibliometric Indicators , Nursing Care , Spinal Cord , Bone Marrow/injuries , Patient Care/methods
11.
Clinics ; 76: e2740, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The intrathecal route has not yet been thoroughly standardized and evaluated in an experimental model of spinal cord injury (SCI) in Wistar rats. The objective of this study was to standardize and evaluate the effect of intradural injection in this animal model. METHOD: The animals were divided into 6 groups: 1) laminectomy and intradural catheter; 2) laminectomy, intradural catheter and infusion; 3) only SCI; 4) SCI and intradural catheter; 5) SCI, intradural catheter and infusion; and 6) control (laminectomy only). Motor evaluations were performed using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale and the horizontal ladder test; motor evoked potentials were measured for functional evaluation, and histological evaluation was performed as well. All experimental data underwent statistical analysis. RESULTS: Regarding motor evoked potentials, the groups with experimental SCI had worse results than those without, but neither dural puncture nor the injection of intrathecal solution aggravated the effects of isolated SCI. Regarding histology, adverse tissue effects were observed in animals with SCI. On average, the BBB scores had the same statistical behaviour as the horizontal ladder results, and at every evaluated timepoint, the groups without SCI presented scored significantly better than those with SCI (p<0.05). The difference in performance on motor tests between rats with and without experimental SCI persisted from the first to the last test. CONCLUSIONS: The present work standardizes the model of intradural injection in experimental SCI in rats. Intrathecal puncture and injection did not independently cause significant functional or histological changes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Spinal Cord Injuries , Reference Standards , Spinal Cord , Rats, Wistar , Evoked Potentials, Motor , Recovery of Function , Disease Models, Animal
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1606-1613, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134486

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Disturbances of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in the spinal cord as well as degenerated myelin sheaths are observed in diabetic patients and animal models. Indeed, oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are important neuroglial cells, generate myelin in the central nervous system. Spinal enlargement, including cervical and lumbar enlargements, innervates all limbs. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine and compare the ultrastructural alterations of OLs in spinal enlargements of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats and controls. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with STZ in citrate buffer and six control rats were injected with the same buffer solution. All rats were sacrificed after inductions at four (short-term DM) and twenty-four weeks (long-term DM). The selected spinal enlargements were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The OL alterations in both the cervical and lumbar enlargements were apparently the same. In short-term DM, the nuclei of OLs became swelled with chromatin clumping. Cytoplasmic organelles were moderately damaged. In long-term DM, OLs contained shrinkage nuclei with thick heterochromatin clumping. Severely degenerated mitochondria with disrupted cristae and broken membranes were observed. Moreover, distended and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed, and large clear areas were present in the cytoplasm. Additionally, the loosening, splitting, and destruction of myelin lamellae were found. This study can provide important preliminary information about the alteration of OLs in the spinal cords of diabetic patients, which might be involve in the impairments of sensory and motor conduction velocities in these individuals.


RESUMEN: En pacientes diabéticos y modelos animales se observan alteraciones de la velocidad de conducción nerviosa sensorial y motora en la médula espinal, así como vainas de mielina degeneradas. De hecho, los oligodendrocitos (OL), que son importantes células neurogliales, generan mielina en el sistema nervioso central. La intumescencia espinal, a nivel cervical y lumbar, inerva los miembros. Por lo tanto, los propósitos de este estudio fueron examinar y comparar las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los OL en la intumescencia espinal de ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ) y controles. Se indujeron trece ratas macho Sprague-Dawley con STZ en tampón citrato y se inyectaron seis ratas de control con la misma solución tampón. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron después de la inducción a las cuatro (DM a corto plazo) y a las veinticuatro semanas (DM a largo plazo). Las ampliaciones de la columna seleccionadas se procesaron para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Las alteraciones de OL en las intumescencias cervical y lumbar eran aparentemente las mismas. En la DM a corto plazo, los núcleos de los OL se hincharon con la acumulación de cromatina. Los orgánulos citoplasmáticos sufrieron daños moderados. En la DM a largo plazo, los OL contenían núcleos de contracción con aglutinación de heterocromatina gruesa. Se observaron mitocondrias severamente degeneradas con crestas y membranas rotas. Además, se observó un retículo endoplásmico rugoso distendido y fragmentado, y estaban presentes grandes áreas claras en el citoplasma. Además, se encontraron el aflojamiento, la división y la destrucción de las laminillas de mielina. Este estudio puede proporcionar información preliminar importante sobre la alteración de los OL en la médula espinal de los pacientes diabéticos, que podría estar involucrada en las alteraciones de las velocidades de conducción sensorial y motora en estos individuos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/pathology , Oligodendroglia/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Spinal Cord/ultrastructure , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Myelin Sheath
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e407, abr.-jun. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138995

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los linfomas no Hodgkin (LNH) forman un grupo heterogéneo de neoplasias linfoides. Actualmente se reporta un aumento global de su incidencia. Estos se originan generalmente en los ganglios linfáticos, aunque pueden aparecer fuera de este, entre los que se describe el linfoma primario del sistema nervioso central, que puede afectar la médula espinal, entre otros. Objetivo: Presentar un paciente con diagnóstico de linfoma no Hodgkin con invasión mielorradicular, condición reportada con muy poca frecuencia. Caso clínico: Paciente de 47 años de edad con historia anterior de salud que comienza con neuralgia intercostal, progresivamente aparecen otros síntomas y signos neurológicos con deterioro de la función motora, se diagnostica linfoma no Hodgkin primario del Sistema Nervioso Central, se le realiza tratamiento y obtiene mejoría de los síntomas y control de la enfermedad. Conclusiones: Con el diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz de las lesiones compresivas del Sistema Nervioso Central, entre estas el LNH se puede lograr el control de la enfermedad y garantizar una adecuada calidad de vida con mejor pronóstico(AU)


Introduction: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas form a heterogeneous group of lymphoid neoplasms; a global increase in its incidence is currently reported. These usually originate in the lymph nodes, although they may appear outside the lymph node, among which primary lymphoma of the central nervous system, which can affect the spinal cord, is described, among others. Objective: To present a patient with a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with myelodradicular invasion, a condition reported very infrequently. Clinical case: A 47-year-old patient with a previous history of health that begins with intercostal neuralgia, other neurological symptoms and signs with impaired motor function appear progressively, primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the Central Nervous System is diagnosed, treatment is performed and Obtain improvement of symptoms and disease control. Conclusions: With the diagnosis and early treatment of the compressive lesions of the Central Nervous System, among these the NHL can control the disease and guarantee an adequate quality of life with a better prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spinal Cord , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Diagnosis , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Neoplasms , Neuralgia
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 259-264, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056432

ABSTRACT

The family of paired box (Pax) genes encodes the transcription factors that have been emphasized for the particular importance to embryonic development of the CNS, with the evidence obtained from various animal models. Human embryos have rarely been available for the detection of the expression of Pax family members. In this study 32 human embryos of Carnegie (CS) stages 10-20 were investigated to find the differences in the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 proteins in different regions of the neural tube and the caudal spinal cord. The expression of Pax6 and Pax7, as determined by immunohistochemistry, showed a tendency to increase in the later stages of the development both in the spinal cord and the brain. Significantly weaker expression of Pax6 and Pax7 was observed at CS 10 as compared to the later stages. At CS 10-12 weak expression of Pax6 was noticed in both dorsal and ventral parts of the developing spinal cord, while the expression of Pax7 was restricted to the cells in the roof plate and the dorsal part of the spinal cord. At CS 14-20 in the developing spinal cord Pax6 and Pax7 were detected mostly in the neuroepithelial cells of the ventricular layer, while only weak expression characterized the mantle and the marginal layers. At the same stages in the developing brain Pax6 and Pax7 were expressed in the different regions of the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain suggesting for their involvement in the differentiation of neurons in specific parts of the developing brain.


La familia de genes Pax del inglés (Paired box) codifica los factores de transcripción debido a la particular importancia en el desarrollo embrionario del SNC, con la evidencia obtenida de varios modelos animales. Rara vez han estado disponibles embriones humanos para la detección de la expresión de genes de la familia Pax. En este estudio, se investigaron 32 embriones humanos de Carnegie (CS) etapas 10-20 para encontrar las diferencias en la expresión de las proteínas Pax6 y Pax7 en diferentes regiones del tubo neural y la médula espinal caudal. La expresión de Pax6 y Pax7, según la inmunohistoquímica, se observó una tendencia a aumentar en las etapas posteriores del desarrollo, tanto en la médula espinal como en el cerebro. Se observó una expresión significativamente más débil de Pax6 y Pax7 en CS 10 en comparación con las etapas posteriores. En CS 10-12 se notó una expresión débil de Pax6 en las partes dorsal y ventral de la médula espinal en desarrollo, mientras que la expresión de Pax7 se limitó a células en la placa del techo y dorsal de la médula espinal. En CS 14-20 en la médula espinal en desarrollo, Pax6 y Pax7 se observó principalmente en las células neuroepiteliales de la capa ventricular, mientras que expresión débil se caracterizó en las capas marginales. En las mismas etapas en el cerebro en desarrollo, Pax6 y Pax7 se expresaron en las diferentes áreas del prosencéfalo, el mesencéfalo y el mesencéfalo, lo que sugiere su participación en la diferenciación de las neuronas en partes específicas del cerebro en desarrollo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Brain/growth & development , Embryonic Development , PAX7 Transcription Factor/metabolism , PAX6 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Spinal Cord/embryology , Brain/embryology , Immunohistochemistry
15.
Coluna/Columna ; 19(1): 8-12, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089646

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the sacrum in the human fetus at the beginning of the 2nd quarter. However, the medullary cone is located at or above the level of the second lumbar vertebra at birth. The objective is to determine the difference between the rates of longitudinal growth of the spinal cord and the spine in human fetuses from the 13th to the 22nd week of gestation (WoG) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Descriptive observational cross-sectional study of 24 stillbirths (13 ♂, 11 ♀), between the 13th and 22nd WoG, using spinal MRI. We recorded spine and spinal cord lengths in millimeters from the foramen magnum to the coccyx for the former and to the medullary cone for the latter. We identified the position of the medullary cone according to vertebral level and its correlation with the gestational age and the literature. Results The spinal cord increased in length from 50 to 93 mm, the spine from 57 to 137 mm, and the medullary cone rose from S1 to L2. The rate of growth was 1.2 mm/day for the spine and 0.6 mm/day for the spinal cord. Conclusions Discordance in the rate of normal longitudinal growth of the spine and spinal cord caused the medullary cone to rise from S1 level to L2 in the second trimester of pregnancy. These results allow an understanding of normal development and certain congenital malformations. Level of evidence IV; Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo A medula espinhal (ME) estende-se desde o forame magno até o sacro no feto humano no início do 2º trimestre. No entanto, ao nascimento, o cone medular localiza-se no nível da segunda vértebra lombar ou acima. O objetivo é determinar as diferenças na taxa de crescimento longitudinal da ME e da coluna vertebral (CV) em fetos humanos da 13a à 22a semana de gestação (SG) por meio de ressonância magnética (RM). Métodos Estudo observacional transversal descritivo em 24 natimortos (13 ♂, 11 ♀), com idades entre 13ª e 22ª SG, por RM da CV. O comprimento da CV e da ME foi registrado em milímetros, desde o forame magno até o cóccix na CV e até o cone na ME. Identificou-se a posição do cone de acordo com o nível vertebral, sua correlação com a idade gestacional e com literatura. Resultados O comprimento da ME aumentou de 50 para 93 mm, a CV de 57 para 137 mm e o cone medular subiu de S1 para L2. O ritmo de crescimento foi de 1,2 mm/dia para a CV e de 0,6 mm/dia para a ME. Conclusões A discordância no ritmo do crescimento longitudinal normal da CV e da ME fez com que o cone medular subisse do nível de S1 até L2 no segundo trimestre de gravidez. Os resultados permitem compreender o desenvolvimento normal e certas malformações congênitas. Nível de evidência IV; Série de casos.


RESUMEN Objetivo La médula espinal (ME) se extiende desde el foramen magnum hasta el sacro en el feto humano al inicio del 2º trimestre. Sin embargo, el cono medular se ubica a nivel de la segunda vertebral lumbar o por encima en el momento del nacimiento. El objetivo es determinar las diferencias en el ritmo de crecimiento longitudinal de la ME y columna vertebral (CV) en fetos humanos desde la 13ª hasta la 22ª semana de gestación (SG) mediante resonancia magnética (RM). Métodos Estudio descriptivo observacional transversal en 24 mortinatos (13 ♂, 11 ♀), con edades entre la 13ª y 22ª SG, mediante RM de CV. Se registró la longitud de CV y ME, en milímetros, desde el foramen mágnum al coxis en la primera y hasta el cono en la segunda. Se identificó la posición del cono según el nivel vertebral y su correlación con edad gestacional y literatura. Resultados La ME incrementó su longitud de 50 a 93 mm, la CV de 57 a 137 mm y el cono medular ascendió desde S1 hasta L2. El ritmo de crecimiento fue de 1.2 mm/día para la CV y de 0.6 mm/día para la ME. Conclusiones La discordancia en el ritmo de crecimiento longitudinal normal de la CV y ME determinó que el cono medular ascienda desde el nivel S1 hasta L2 en el segundo trimestre de gestación. Los resultados permiten comprender el desarrollo normal y ciertas malformaciones congénitas. Nivel de evidencia IV, serie de casos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Cord , Spine , Fetal Development
16.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(1): 70-74, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092675

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The aim of the present study is to evaluate the artery of Adamkiewicz by multidetector computed tomography angiography (MCTA) in a Brazilian population. Methods Two independent observers evaluated 86 coronary MCTA examinations. The variables studied included the identification of the artery of Adamkiewicz at its origin level, and its entry side in the spine. Results The artery of Adamkiewicz was detected in 71 (82.5%) examinations. The origin level was identified between the 9th and 11th thoracic vertebrae (T9 and T11) in 56 (79.2%) patients. In 65 (91.5%) patients, the artery was on the left side. The identification of the artery of Adamkiewicz using MCTA showed high reproducibility. Conclusions Our results were consistent with the literature regarding the identification of the artery of Adamkiewicz using MCTA, suggesting that this technique should be considered as an option to recognize this structure. In addition, we found that the distribution of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the Brazilian population is similar to that of other populations, that is, its most common origin is at the left side, between the 8th and 12th thoracic vertebrae (T8-T12).


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a artéria de Adamkiewicz por angiotomografia computadorizada por multidetectores (ATCM) em uma população brasileira. Métodos Dois observadores independentes avaliaram 86 exames de ACTM. As variáveis estudadas incluíram a identificação da artéria de Adamkiewicz no nível de origem e o lado de entrada da artéria na coluna vertebral. Resultados A artéria de Adamkiewicz foi identificada em 71 (82,5%) exames. O nível de origem foi identificado entre a 9a e a 11a vértebras torácicas (T9 e T11) em 56 (79,2%) pacientes. Em 65 (91,5%) pacientes, a artéria foi identificada no lado esquerdo. A identificação da artéria de Adamkiewicz usando ACTM mostrou elevada reprodutibilidade. Conclusões Obtivemos resultados consistentes com os da literatura prévia quanto à identificação da artéria de Adamkiewicz utilizando angiotomografia computadorizada por multidetectores. Nossos resultados sugerem que a ATCM pode ser considerada como uma opção para identificar a artéria de Adamkiewicz. Além disso, encontramos uma distribuição da artéria de Adamkiewicz na população brasileira semelhante à de outras populações, com a artéria de Adamkiewicz originando-se mais comumente no lado esquerdo, entre a 8a e a 12a vértebras torácicas (T8-T12).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paraplegia , Arteries/pathology , Spinal Cord , Angiography/methods , Multidetector Computed Tomography
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 21-27, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) as a signaling molecule exists in various types of organisms from early multicellular to animal cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated that ABA has an antinociceptive effect in rodents. The present study was designed to assess the possible role of PKA and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) on the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.t.) ABA in male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were cannulated intrathecally and divided into different experimental groups (n=6‒7): Control (no surgery), vehicle (received ABA vehicle), ABA-treated groups (received ABA in doses of 10 or 20 µg/rat), ABA plus H.89 (PKA inhibitor)-treated group which received the inhibitor 15 min prior to the ABA injection. Tail-flick and hot-plate tests were used as acute nociceptive stimulators to assess ABA analgesic effects. p-ERK was evaluated in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord using immunoblotting. Results: Data showed that a microinjection of ABA (10 and 20 µg/rat, i.t.) significantly increased the nociceptive threshold in tail flick and hot plate tests. The application of PKA inhibitor (H.89, 100 nM/rat) significantly inhibited ABA-induced analgesic effects. Expression of p-ERK was significantly decreased in ABA-injected animals, which were not observed in the ABA+H.89-treated group. Conclusions: Overall, i.t. administration of ABA (10 µg/rat) induced analgesia and p-ERK down-expression likely by involving the PKA-dependent mechanism.


Resumo Objetivo: O ácido fito-hormônio abscísico (ABA) existe como molécula sinalizadora em vários tipos de organismos, de multicelulares a células e tecidos animais. Foi demonstrado que o ABA tem efeito antinociceptivo em roedores. O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar o possível papel da PKA e da ERK fosforilada (p-ERK) nos efeitos antinociceptivos do ABA intratecal (i.t.) em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: Os animais foram canulados por via i.t. e divididos em diferentes grupos experimentais (n=6‒7): controle (sem cirurgia), veículo (veículo ABA recebido), grupos tratados com ABA (recebeu ABA em doses de 10 ou 20 µg/rato), grupo tratado com ABA mais H.89 (inibidor de PKA) que recebeu o inibidor 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Os testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente foram utilizados como estimuladores nociceptivos agudos para avaliar os efeitos analgésicos da ABA. A p-ERK foi avaliada na porção dorsal da medula espinhal por imunotransferência. Resultados: A microinjeção de ABA (10 e 20 µg/rato, i.t.) aumentou significativamente o limiar nociceptivo nos testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente. A aplicação de inibidor de PKA (H.89, 100 nM/rato) inibiu significativamente os efeitos analgésicos induzidos por ABA. A expressão de p-ERK diminuiu significativamente em animais injetados com ABA que não foram observados no grupo tratado com ABA+H.89. Conclusões: No geral, a administração i.t. de ABA (10 µg/rato) induziu a analgesia e expressão negativa de p-ERK provavelmente envolvendo mecanismo dependente de PKA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Reference Values , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/analysis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology
18.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 324-328, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879646

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Gunshot wounds are the second leading cause of spinal cord injuries. Surgical intervention for gunshot injury to the spine carries a high rate of complications. There is a scarcity of data on civilian gunshot injuries to the spine in Pakistan. Approximately 60 cases over the last 10 years have been recoded, with unusual presentation and neurological recovery. Thus it is imperative to fill this gap in data, by reviewing cases of civilian gunshot injuries to spine presenting at a tertiary care hospital (Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi).@*METHODS@#This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients of all ages who presented to the emergency department of Aga Khan University Hospital, with gunshot injuries to spine between January 2005 and December 2016 were included in the study. Data were collected on neurological status (American Spinal Injury Association score was used for the initial and follow-up neurological assessment), extent of cord transection, motor and sensory deficits. The patients were further grouped into those with cord transection, and those with fractures of the bony spine but an intact spinal cord. These patients were then followed and the outcomes were recorded.@*RESULTS@#A total of 40 patients were identified. The mean ± SD of patients age was (30.9 ± 9.5) years. Of the 40 patients with gunshot wounds, 31 had the medical imaging performed at the facility, and hence they were included in this categorization. The remaining 9 patients were excluded from this additional grouping. Thirteen patients were managed surgically and 27 patients underwent the conservative management. The mean ± SD of follow-up was (8.7 ± 7.2) months. In our study, the thoracic spine was the most commonly injured region in gunshot injuries. Of the 31 patients with medical imaging performed at our institute, 17 (54.8%) had cord transection, of whom 8 (47%) ultimately developed paraplegia.@*CONCLUSION@#The prognosis of gunshot injuries to the spine can be varied depending on whether the spinal cord is intact or transected. This will help healthcare providers to plan the further management of the patient and counsel them accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Motor Disorders/etiology , Pakistan , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Young Adult
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Jiaji" (EX-B 2) points on the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in rats with acute incomplete spinal cord injury, and to explore the mechanism of EA on improving motor function of spinal cord injury.@*METHODS@#A total of 72 male SPF SD rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group, an EA group and a medication group, 18 rats in each group. Each group was further divided into 1-day subgroup, 7-day subgroup and 14-day subgroup, 6 rats in each subgroup. The T acute incomplete spinal cord injury model was established by modified Allen's method in the model group, EA group and medication group. The rats in each group received intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, 50 mg/kg), once a day, and each subgroup received continuous injection for 1, 7, 14 times for cell proliferation labeling. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at "Jiaji" (EX-B 2) points 3-4 mm next the spinous process of the upper and lower segments of the injured spinal cord (T, T) with a frequency of 2 Hz/100 Hz and intensity of 1-2 mA. The muscle twitch at the treatment site was taken as the degree. The treatment was given 20 min each time, once a day. In the medication group, monosialogangliosides (GM1) was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg), once a day. The subgroups of EA group and medication group were treated for 1, 7, 14 times. The score of Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) was used to evaluate the motor function of hind limbs. The co-expression of BrdU/NG2 positive cells was detected by immunofluorescence, and the expression of Olig2 and Sox10 was detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham operation group, the BBB score was decreased 1 day, 7 days and 14 days after operation in the model group (<0.05), the expression of Olig2 and Sox10 was increased (<0.05), and the co-expression of BrdU/NG2 positive cells was increased 7 days and 14 days after operation (<0.05). Seven days and 14 days after operation, the BBB score in the EA group and medication group was higher than that in the model group (<0.05), and the co-expression of BrdU/NG2 in the medication group was higher than that in the model group (<0.05). Fourteen days after operation, the co-expression of BrdU/NG2 in the EA group was higher than that in the model group (<0.05); 1 day, 7 days and 14 days after operation, the expression of Olig2 and Sox10 in the EA group and medication group was higher than that in the model group (<0.05). Compared with the medication group, the co-expression of BrdU/NG2 positive cells in the EA group 14 days after operation was decreased (<0.05); 1 day, 7 days and 14 days after operation, the expression of Olig2 and Sox10 in the EA group was decreased (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA at "Jiaji" (EX-B 2) points could promote the expression of Olig2 and Sox10 after spinal cord injury, which has similar effects with GM1. It could promote the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into oligodendrocytes, so as to promote the recovery of motor function of rats.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Electroacupuncture , Humans , Male , Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells , Cell Biology , Oligodendrocyte Transcription Factor 2 , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SOXE Transcription Factors , Metabolism , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries , Therapeutics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826359

ABSTRACT

To observe the cell origin of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid(NMDA)receptor expression in skin after chronic ischemic pain modeling in rats and explore the role of NMDA receptor in type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome. Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups:sham operation group(=12),chronic post ischemia pain(CPIP)group(=12),CPIP+normal saline(NS)group(=6),CPIP+NMDA group(=6),and CPIP+MK801 group(=6).Six rats in the sham operation group and CPIP group were sacrificed under deep anesthesia one day after modeling.The plantar skin and L3-L5 spinal cord tissue were used for NR1(NMDA receptor)subunit immunofluorescence detection and for Western blotting of NR1,interleukin(IL)-1β,and tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α.For the remaining rats,the mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)values on the 2nd,6th,10th and 14th day after ischemia were recorded,and the corresponding drugs were injected subcutaneously from the 6th day after ischemia.The skin and L3-L5 spinal cords were collected on the 14th day,and the same detection methods were applied. Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly higher expressions of NR1(1.708±0.064;=12.120, <0.001),IL-1β(2.575±0.305;=5.158, =0.003),and TNF-α(2.691±0.217;=7.786, <0.001)in the skin on the first day after modeling.After intervention with NMDA and MK801,the MWT value was [(20.37±0.95)g] in the CPIP+NS group,which was significantly higher than that in CPIP+NMDA group [(15.85±1.09)g;=10.920, <0.001] but significantly lower than that in CPIP+MK801 group[(22.95±0.96)g;=6.421, <0.001] 10 days after modeling.On the 14th day,compared with the MWT of the CPIP+NS group [(21.57±0.96)g],the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly decreased MWT value [(16.53±1.63)g;=12.190, <0.001],and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly increased MWT value [(23.27±1.28)g;=4.094, =0.025].Compared with the sham operation group,the CPIP group had significantly increased NR1 expression(1.708±0.064;=10.910, <0.001)and the CPIP+NS group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(2.518±0.147;=11.010, <0.001)and TNF-α(1.949±0.184;=10.870, <0.001).Compared with the CPIP+NS group,the CPIP+NMDA group had significantly increased expressions of IL-1β(4.816±0.607;=16.670, =0.003)and TNF-α(2.629±0.349;=7.790, <0.001)and the CPIP+MK801 group had significantly decreased expressions of IL-1β(1.048±0.257;=10.660, =0.003)and TNF-α(0.790±0.165;=13.280, <0.001). NMDA receptor activation in skin keratinocytes after chronic ischemia in rats hinders the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α,which may be involved in central sensitization and pain conduction of type Ⅰ complex regional pain syndrome.


Subject(s)
Animals , Interleukin-1beta , Keratinocytes , Male , Pain , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate , Spinal Cord , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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