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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1606-1613, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134486

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Disturbances of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in the spinal cord as well as degenerated myelin sheaths are observed in diabetic patients and animal models. Indeed, oligodendrocytes (OLs), which are important neuroglial cells, generate myelin in the central nervous system. Spinal enlargement, including cervical and lumbar enlargements, innervates all limbs. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine and compare the ultrastructural alterations of OLs in spinal enlargements of streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats and controls. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with STZ in citrate buffer and six control rats were injected with the same buffer solution. All rats were sacrificed after inductions at four (short-term DM) and twenty-four weeks (long-term DM). The selected spinal enlargements were processed for transmission electron microscopy. The OL alterations in both the cervical and lumbar enlargements were apparently the same. In short-term DM, the nuclei of OLs became swelled with chromatin clumping. Cytoplasmic organelles were moderately damaged. In long-term DM, OLs contained shrinkage nuclei with thick heterochromatin clumping. Severely degenerated mitochondria with disrupted cristae and broken membranes were observed. Moreover, distended and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum were observed, and large clear areas were present in the cytoplasm. Additionally, the loosening, splitting, and destruction of myelin lamellae were found. This study can provide important preliminary information about the alteration of OLs in the spinal cords of diabetic patients, which might be involve in the impairments of sensory and motor conduction velocities in these individuals.


RESUMEN: En pacientes diabéticos y modelos animales se observan alteraciones de la velocidad de conducción nerviosa sensorial y motora en la médula espinal, así como vainas de mielina degeneradas. De hecho, los oligodendrocitos (OL), que son importantes células neurogliales, generan mielina en el sistema nervioso central. La intumescencia espinal, a nivel cervical y lumbar, inerva los miembros. Por lo tanto, los propósitos de este estudio fueron examinar y comparar las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los OL en la intumescencia espinal de ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina (STZ) y controles. Se indujeron trece ratas macho Sprague-Dawley con STZ en tampón citrato y se inyectaron seis ratas de control con la misma solución tampón. Todas las ratas se sacrificaron después de la inducción a las cuatro (DM a corto plazo) y a las veinticuatro semanas (DM a largo plazo). Las ampliaciones de la columna seleccionadas se procesaron para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Las alteraciones de OL en las intumescencias cervical y lumbar eran aparentemente las mismas. En la DM a corto plazo, los núcleos de los OL se hincharon con la acumulación de cromatina. Los orgánulos citoplasmáticos sufrieron daños moderados. En la DM a largo plazo, los OL contenían núcleos de contracción con aglutinación de heterocromatina gruesa. Se observaron mitocondrias severamente degeneradas con crestas y membranas rotas. Además, se observó un retículo endoplásmico rugoso distendido y fragmentado, y estaban presentes grandes áreas claras en el citoplasma. Además, se encontraron el aflojamiento, la división y la destrucción de las laminillas de mielina. Este estudio puede proporcionar información preliminar importante sobre la alteración de los OL en la médula espinal de los pacientes diabéticos, que podría estar involucrada en las alteraciones de las velocidades de conducción sensorial y motora en estos individuos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/pathology , Oligodendroglia/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Spinal Cord/ultrastructure , Central Nervous System , Oligodendroglia/ultrastructure , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Myelin Sheath
2.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 324-328, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879646

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Gunshot wounds are the second leading cause of spinal cord injuries. Surgical intervention for gunshot injury to the spine carries a high rate of complications. There is a scarcity of data on civilian gunshot injuries to the spine in Pakistan. Approximately 60 cases over the last 10 years have been recoded, with unusual presentation and neurological recovery. Thus it is imperative to fill this gap in data, by reviewing cases of civilian gunshot injuries to spine presenting at a tertiary care hospital (Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi).@*METHODS@#This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients of all ages who presented to the emergency department of Aga Khan University Hospital, with gunshot injuries to spine between January 2005 and December 2016 were included in the study. Data were collected on neurological status (American Spinal Injury Association score was used for the initial and follow-up neurological assessment), extent of cord transection, motor and sensory deficits. The patients were further grouped into those with cord transection, and those with fractures of the bony spine but an intact spinal cord. These patients were then followed and the outcomes were recorded.@*RESULTS@#A total of 40 patients were identified. The mean ± SD of patients age was (30.9 ± 9.5) years. Of the 40 patients with gunshot wounds, 31 had the medical imaging performed at the facility, and hence they were included in this categorization. The remaining 9 patients were excluded from this additional grouping. Thirteen patients were managed surgically and 27 patients underwent the conservative management. The mean ± SD of follow-up was (8.7 ± 7.2) months. In our study, the thoracic spine was the most commonly injured region in gunshot injuries. Of the 31 patients with medical imaging performed at our institute, 17 (54.8%) had cord transection, of whom 8 (47%) ultimately developed paraplegia.@*CONCLUSION@#The prognosis of gunshot injuries to the spine can be varied depending on whether the spinal cord is intact or transected. This will help healthcare providers to plan the further management of the patient and counsel them accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Motor Disorders/etiology , Pakistan , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sensation Disorders/etiology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery , Wounds, Gunshot/surgery , Young Adult
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 867-871, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012367

ABSTRACT

Anatomical orientation of the termination level of Conus Medullaris (CM) has imperative role clinically for anesthetists and neurosurgeons which is considered as an objective guide to perform spinal anesthesia and spinal punctures circumspectly with less chance to have serious injuries. The current retrospective study was carried on to determine the location of the CM and how its termination level can be influenced by age, sex, height and lumber stenosis spine disease. The study included 462 participants that consisted of 199 men and 263 women range from 21 to 80 years of age and height range between 150-190 cm. Also, it included 150 lumber stenosis patients. The location of the CM was imaged using a series of magnetic resonance images (MRI) for the lumbosacral spine at different levels including, T12, T12-L1, L1, L1-L2, and L2. The measurements revealed inconsiderable differences in the CM termination level in relation to age, sex and height in a healthy study population. Moreover, the results showed insignificant differences in the CM termination level between men and women whether they are healthy or having lumbar spinal stenosis. In conclusion, the most common level of CM termination is at L1 followed by L1-L2. It is safe to perform a lumbar neuraxial procedures at the level of L3-L4.


La orientación anatómica del nivel de terminación del Conus medullaris (CM) tiene un importante papel clínico para los anestesistas y neurocirujanos, que se considera una guía objetiva para realizar la anestesia espinal y las punciones de la columna circunspectivamente con menos posibilidades de provocar lesiones graves. Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo para determinar la ubicación del CM y cómo su nivel de terminación puede verse afectado por la edad, el sexo, la altura y una patología de la columna vertebral, la estenosis lumbar. El estudio incluyó 462 participantes que consistían en 199 hombres y 263 mujeres de 21 a 80 años de edad y una altura de entre 150-190 cm. Además, se incluyeron 150 pacientes con estenosis lumbar. La ubicación del CM se determinó mediante una serie de imágenes de resonancia magnética (RM) de la columna lumbosacra a diferentes niveles, incluidos T12, T12-L1, L1, L1-L2 y L2. Las mediciones revelaron diferencias considerables en el nivel de terminación de CM en relación con la edad, el sexo o la altura en una población de estudio saludable. Además, los resultados mostraron diferencias poco significativas en el nivel de terminación de CM entre hombres y mujeres, sanos o con estenosis espinal lumbar. En conclusión, se encontró que el nivel más común de terminación del CM es L1 seguido de L1-L2, considerándose seguro realizar procedimientos neuroaxiales lumbares a nivel de L3-L4.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Stenosis/pathology , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1101-1106, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012403

ABSTRACT

We have surveyed the motor changes in rats subjected to sciatic nerve axotomy. The rats were divided into two groups, each one consisting of ten animals, which underwent the following intervention: The first group (control): healthy rats without any injuries and experimental group: rats with injured sciatic nerve without treatment. at 12 weeks, the L4 and L5 spinal cord segments were removed. We evaluated nerve function using muscle electromyography (EMG) activity and sciatic function index (SFI) simultaneously with histological spinal cord analyses by stereological methods at 12 week. After nerve injury presented gross locomotor deficits at week 12. We also found that the volume of the anterior horn of spinal cord and total number of motor neurons were decreased after nerve axotomy (p<0.05). In conjunction, these results indicate that peripheral nerve injuries have more severe consequences on hind limb motor output.


En este estudio se examinaron los cambios motores en ratas sometidas a axotomía del nervio ciático. Las ratas se dividieron en dos grupos diez animales. El primer grupo (control) eran ratas sanas sin lesiones, y el grupo experimental consistió en ratas con nervio ciático lesionado sin tratamiento. A las 12 semanas, los segmentos de la médula espinal L4 y L5 fueron removidos. Se evaluó la función nerviosa mediante electromiografía muscular (EMG) y el índice de función ciática (IFC), simultáneamente con análisis histológicos de la médula espinal mediante métodos estereológicos. A las 12 semanas de la lesión nerviosa presentó déficit locomotor grueso. Además, se observó que el volumen del asta anterior y el número total de neuronas motoras disminuyeron después de la axotomía nerviosa (P <0,05). En conjunto, estos resultados indican que las lesiones de los nervios periféricos determinan graves consecuencias de la función motora de los miembros posteriores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord/physiopathology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Sciatic Nerve/physiology , Sciatic Nerve/injuries , Rats, Wistar , Axotomy , Electromyography , Anterior Horn Cells
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 428-437, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002239

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress and inflammation are the key players in the development of motor dysfunction post-spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (SC-IRI). This study investigated the protective effect of concomitant pre-administration of melatonin and alpha-tocopherol on the early complications (after 48 hours) of spinal cord IRI injury in rats. Melatonin or α-tocopherol were preadministered either individually or in combination for 2 weeks, then rats were exposed SC-IRI. Neurological examinations of the hind limbs and various biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the SC tissue were assessed. Solely pre-administration of either melanin or α-tocopherol significantly but partially improved motor and sensory function of the hind limbs mediated by partial decreases in SC levels of MDA, AOPP and PGE2 levels and activities of SOD, partial significant decreases in plasma levels of total nitrate/nitrite and significant increases in AC activity of GSH-Px. However, combination therapy of both drugs resulted in the maximum improvements in all neurological assessments tested and biochemical endpoints. In conclusion, by their synergistic antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions, the combination therapy of melatonin and α-tocopherol alleviates SC-IRI induced paraplegia.


El estrés oxidativo y la inflamación son claves en el desarrollo de la disfunción motora posterior a lesión isquémica de la médula espinal (SC-IRI). Este estudio investigó acerca del efecto protector de la administración previa concomitante de la melatonina y alfa-tocoferol en las complicaciones tempranas (después de 48 horas) de la lesión de IRI de la médula espinal en ratas. La melatonina o el α-tocoferol se administraron individualmente o en combinación durante 2 semanas, luego las ratas fueron expuestas a SC-IRI. Se evaluaron los exámenes neurológicos de las miembros pélvicos y diversos marcadores bioquímicos de estrés oxidativo e inflamación en el tejido subcutáneo. Solo la administración previa de melatonina o α-tocoferol mejoró parcial y significativamente la función motora y sensorial de los miembros pélvicos mediadas por disminuciones parciales en los niveles de SC de los niveles de MDA, AOPP y PGE2 y las actividades de la SOD, disminuciones significativas parciales en los niveles plasmáticos del total nitrato / nitrito y aumentos significativos en la actividad de AC de GSH-Px. Sin embargo, se observaron los mejores resultados durante la combinación de ambos fármacos en todas las evaluaciones neurológicas y en los puntos finales bioquímicos. En conclusión, debido a sus acciones antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias sinérgicas, la terapia de melatonina y α-tocoferol alivia la paraplejía inducida por SC-IRI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Ischemia/drug therapy , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Paraplegia , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology , Dinoprostone/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Tocopherols/pharmacology , Melatonin/pharmacology , Nitrites/blood , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(9): 1793-1799, set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976513

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to verify the presence of protrusion of the intervertebral disc (IVD) causing compression of the spinal cord and/or roots of cauda equina in 30 dogs above seven years of age with no evidence of previous neurological abnormalities. After the occurrence of death or euthanasia, a laminectomy was performed from C2 to the sacral vertebra to verify the presence of IVD protrusions. The protruded IVD were macroscopically graded according to the Thompson scale, and the corresponding spinal cord segment was histologically analyzed for nervous tissue compression. Of the 30 dogs, twelve (40%) presented disc protrusion, and of these 12 dogs, seven (58%) presented more than one protruded disc. Disc protrusion was observed in 3.2% (25/780) of all IVD evaluated. Of the six chondrodystrophic dogs, five (83%) presented disc protrusion. Of the 24 nonchondrodystrophic dogs, seven (29%) presented IVD protrusion. The site that showed the highest frequency of protrusion was L4-L5 (6/25) followed by the L6-L7 region (3/25) and C6-C7 (3/25). Only two of the medullary segments evaluated showed histological changes, with presence of focal lymphocytic infiltration and multifocal mild hemorrhage in the gray matter. Under the conditions of this study, 40% of dogs older than seven years old showed IVD protrusions without showing neurological signs, with no abnormality of the nervous tissue in 92% of the evaluated segments. Thus, the protrusion of the IVD in some dogs, can only be a finding of no clinical relevance.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a presença de protrusão do disco intervertebral (DIV) causando compressão da medula espinhal e/ou raízes da cauda equina em cadáveres de cães, sem histórico de alterações neurológicas. Para isso, após a ocorrência de óbito ou realização de eutanásia em 30 cães com mais de sete anos de idade, sem histórico de alterações neurológicas, foi realizada a laminectomia entre C2 até a vértebra sacral para verificar a presença de protrusões do DIV. Os DIV protrusos foram graduados macroscopicamente quanto à degeneração segundo a escala de Thompson, e o segmentos medular correspondente à localização da compressão foi analisado microscopicamente em busca de lesões compressivas ao tecido nervoso. Quarenta por cento dos cães (12/30) apresentaram protrusão do DIV, e destes, 58% (7/12) apresentavam mais de um DIV protruso. A protrusão estava presente em 3,2% (25/780) de todos os DIV avaliados. Cães de raças condrodistróficas apresentaram protrusões em 83% dos casos (5/6) e raças não condrodistróficas em 29% (7/24). O local que apresentou maior frequência de protrusão foi L4-L5 (6/25), seguido da região L6-L7 (3/25) e C6-C7 (3/25). Apenas dois segmentos medulares avaliados na histopatologia apresentaram alterações, com presença de infiltrado linfoplasmocitário focal e hemorragia discreta multifocal na substância cinzenta. Nas condições do presente estudo, 40% dos cães com mais de sete anos de idade apresentaram protrusões do DIV sem que houvesse sinais neurológicos, com normalidade do tecido nervoso em 92% dos segmentos avaliados. Assim, a protrusão do DIV, em alguns cães, pode ser apenas um achado sem relevância clínica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Spinal Cord/pathology , Autopsy/veterinary , Dogs/abnormalities , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/pathology
7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 63(7): 564-565, July 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896370

ABSTRACT

Summary Subacute necrotizing myelopathy (SNM) or Foix-Alajouanine syndrome is a rare disease characterized by progressive neurological dysfunction caused by a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Radiological diagnosis is usually suspected when there is intramedullary nonspecific enhancement and perimedullary flow voids. Ring-enhancement is rarely reported in the scope of AVF, which poses a diagnostic challenge and raises the suspicion of a spinal cord tumor. In such situations, biopsy can be required and delay proper diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with SNM, who underwent biopsy on the assumption of it being a spinal cord tumor.


Resumo Mielopatia necrotizante subaguda (MNS) ou síndrome de Foix-Alajouanine é uma doença rara que se caracteriza por disfunção neurológica progressiva causada por uma fístula arteriovenosa espinal dural. O diagnóstico radiológico é comumente suspeitado quando aparece captação não específica de contraste e de artefatos de fluxo (flow voids) perimedulares. Raramente, a captação de contraste exibe o aspecto em anel, constituindo um grande desafio diagnóstico. Nesses casos, o principal diagnóstico diferencial é um tumor intramedular, e os pacientes são encaminhados para biópsia da lesão, atrasando o diagnóstico definitivo. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com MNS, a qual foi submetida à biópsia da lesão em virtude de suspeita de tumor intramedular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Spinal Cord Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/surgery , Spinal Cord Diseases/pathology , Spinal Cord Neoplasms/pathology , Syndrome , Biopsy , Angiography , Arteriovenous Fistula/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(2): 732-741, June 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-787062

ABSTRACT

El ácido valproico (VPA) es el principal anticonvulsivante utilizado contra la epilepsia durante la gestación. Sin embargo, en etapas iniciales del embarazo actúa como teratógeno y ocasiona malformaciones como fisura labio-palatina, alteraciones en el desarrollo genital y espina bífida, siendo esta última la más frecuente. Esto se produce debido al aumento de especies reactivas de oxígeno, pudiendo contrarrestarse administrando vitamina E. El objetivo fue determinar si la vitamina E disminuye el daño en tubo neural y médula espinal de embriones y fetos de ratonas expuestas a VPA. Se conformaron 8 grupos de animales. A los 8 días post-fecundación se les administró a los grupos 1 y 5 suero fisiológico 0,3 mL; grupos 2 y 6 VPA 600 mg/Kg; grupos 3 y 7 VPA 600 mg/Kg y vitamina E 200 UI/Kg; grupos 4 y 8 vitamina E 200 UI/kg. A los 12 días post-fecundación, se sacrificaron los grupos 1, 2, 3 y 4, y a los 17 días los restantes grupos. Los embriones fueron procesados y teñidos con cresil violeta, observándose cortes histológicos a nivel cervical, torácico y lumbar. Los grupos tratados con vitamina E presentaron menor cantidad de neuroblastos y motoneuronas, pero de tamaño mayor en comparación al grupo tratado con VPA (p<0,05), siendo similares a los grupos controles. Al comparar el tubo neural y médula espinal en los distintos niveles (cervical, torácico y lumbar), no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La administración prenatal de vitamina E disminuye los defectos en tubo neural y médula espinal de embriones de 12 y 17 días de gestación sometidos a VPA.


Valproic Acid (VPA) is the main anticonvulsant used for epilepsy throughout the gestation period. However, when used at early stages of pregnancy, it acts as a tetarogenic agent, causing congenital malformations such as cleft-lip and/or cleft palate, abnormal genital development and spina bifida, being the latter the most frequent. This is the result of the increase of reactive oxygen species, which can be countered with the supplementation of vitamin E. The aim was determine if vitamin E minimizes the damage to the neural tube and spinal cord of mice embryos and fetuses previously exposed to VPA. Eight groups of mice were constituted. Eight days post fertilization, groups 1 and 5 were administered 0,3 ml of saline solution; groups 2 and 6 600mg/Kg of VPA, groups 3 and 7 600mg/Kg of VPA and 200UI/Kg of Vitamin E; groups 4 and 8 200 UI/Kg of Vitamin E. 12 days after fertilization, groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were euthanized, whereas in the case of the remaining groups, the same process was performed 17 days after fertilization. The embryos were stained with cresyl violet, thus enabling the observation of histological sections at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels. Groups supplied with vitamin E presented a lower amount of neuroblasts and motoneurons. However, these elements were bigger in size compared to the group treated with VPA (p<0,05), being these results similar to those obtained with the control groups. When comparing the neural tube and spinal cord at different levels (cervical, thoracic and lumbar), no statistically significant differences were found. It was determined that prenatal administration of vitamin E lessens the damage to the neural tube and spinal cord of mice embryos of 12 and 17 days of gestation previously exposed to VPA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Neural Tube/drug effects , Neural Tube/pathology , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Neural Tube Defects/chemically induced , Neural Tube Defects/embryology , Spinal Cord Diseases/chemically induced , Spinal Cord Diseases/embryology , Valproic Acid/toxicity
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 57(1): 4-13, ene.-feb. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736456

ABSTRACT

Objective. To describe food expenditure and consumption of foods prepared away from home among Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Data were from 45 241 adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006, a nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey of Mexican households. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between location of residence, educational attainment, socioeconomic status and the following: 1) expenditure on all food and at restaurants, and 2) frequency of consumption of comida corrida or restaurant food and street food. Results. Food expenditure and consumption of food prepared away from home were positively associated with socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and urban vs. rural residence (p<0.001 for all relationships in bivariate analyses). Conclusions. Consumption of food prepared outside home may be an important part of the diet among urban Mexican adults and those with high socioeconomic status and educational attainment.


Objetivo. Describir los gastos en alimentos y el consumo de alimentos preparados fuera de casa en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Los datos fueron de 45 241 adultos mexicanos en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de 2006, representativa al nivel nacional. Se utilizaron estadísticas descriptivas y regresión linear y logística para estimar la relación entre el lugar de residencia, el nivel educativo y el nivel socioeconómico, con el gasto en todos los alimentos y en restaurantes, y con la frecuencia de consumo de comida corrida, en restaurantes y de la calle. Resultados. El gasto en alimentos y el consumo de alimentos preparados se asociaron positivamente con el nivel socioeconómico, el nivel educativo y la residencia rural (p<0,001 para todas las relaciones). Conclusiones. El consumo de alimentos preparados puede ser una parte importante de la dieta de los adultos urbanos y de aquéllos con altos niveles socioeconómicos y educativos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/chemistry , Neurodegenerative Diseases/pathology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Tyrosine/chemistry , Anisomycin/chemistry , Antibodies/chemistry , Behavior , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , CHO Cells , DNA , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrophysiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels/physiology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Heart Atria/metabolism , Heart Ventricles/cytology , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Muscle Cells/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Plasmids/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Sciatic Nerve/metabolism , Spinal Cord/pathology , Xenopus laevis
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(1): 120-123, ene. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742561

ABSTRACT

We report a 37 years old male with a dermatomyositis treated with oral cyclophosphamide. He was admitted to the hospital due to a zone of skin necrosis with purulent exudate, located in the second left toe. A complete blood count showed a leukocyte count of 2,600 cells/mm³. A Chest CAT scan showed a pneumomediastinum with emphysema of adjacent soft tissue. Cyclophosphamide was discontinued and leukocyte count improved. The affected toe was amputated and a chest CAT scan showed a partial resolution of the pneumomediastinum. We discuss and review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of pneumomediastinum and cutaneous necrosis in association with dermatomyositis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/agonists , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Neurons/drug effects , Oligodendroglia/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/metabolism , Caspase 9/metabolism , /metabolism , Cell Count/methods , Central Nervous System/pathology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/complications , Macrophages/drug effects , Neurologic Examination , Nerve Degeneration/etiology , Nerve Degeneration/prevention & control , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Time Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52650

ABSTRACT

A 50-year-old male presented with acutely progressed paraplegia. His magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated two well-demarcated components with opposite signals in one cystic lesion between the T1- and T2-weighted images at the T1 spine level. The patient showed immediately improved neurological symptoms after surgical intervention and the histopathological exam was compatible with a neurenteric cyst. On operation, two different viscous drainages from the cyst were confirmed. A unique similarity of image findings was found from a review of the pertinent literature. The common findings of spinal neurenteric cyst include an isointense or mildly hyperintense signal relative to cerebrospinal fluid for both T1- and T2-weighted images. However, albeit rarer, the signals of some part of the cyst could change into brightly hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hypointensity on T2-weighted images due to the differing sedimentation of the more viscous contents in the cyst.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Tube Defects/diagnosis , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord Diseases/diagnosis
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(12): 1607-1611, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734868

ABSTRACT

The Meningitis-Retention Syndrome associates aseptic meningitis and neurogenic bladder, with a vesical dysfunction that outlasts meningitis widely. Urodynamic assessment shows a detrusor palsy with normal function of the external sphincter. We report a 24-year-old male admitted for headache, fever, myalgias and acute urinary retention, which was diagnosed as a urinary tract infection. Worsening of symptoms and slight meningeal signs prompted for a lumbar puncture that yielded a cerebrospinal fluid with 94 lymphocytes, in which etiological evaluation was inconclusive. Meningeal syndrome and myalgia subsided by the fifth day, while urinary retention persisted. A magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord done at the fifth day, showed high intensity signals in basal ganglia and central spinal cord, not altered by contrast. These images disappeared in the imaging control performed two months later. Bladder dysfunction lasted at least until the second month of follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Meningitis, Aseptic/complications , Urinary Retention/etiology , Brain/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningitis, Aseptic/diagnosis , Syndrome , Spinal Cord/pathology , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/etiology
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(9A): 580-583, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687269

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aims to evaluate “in vivo” the integrity of the normal-appearing spinal cord (NASC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to controls, using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Methods We studied 32 patients with MS and 17 without any neurologic disorder. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated within regions of interest at C2 and C7 levels in the four columns of the spinal cord. Results At C2, FA value was decreased in MS patients. Besides, RD value was higher in MS than in controls. At C7, MD values were increased in MS. Conclusion The NASC in the right column of the cervical spinal cord showed abnormal FA, RD and MD values, which is possibly related to demyelination, since the FA abnormality was related to the RD and not to the AD. .


Objetivo Este estudo avalia “in vivo” a integridade da medula espinhal cervical aparentemente normal (MEAN) em pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM) comparados aos controles, usando a imagem por tensor de difusão. Métodos Foram selecionados 32 pacientes com EM e 17 controles. Foram calculadas fração anisotrópica (FA), difusão axial (DA), difusão radial (DR) e difusibilidade média (DM) dentro das regiões de interesse nos níveis C2 e C7 nas quatro colunas da medula espinhal. Resultados Em C2, o valor de FA foi reduzido em pacientes com EM. Além disso, o valor da DR se mostrou mais elevado na EM do que nos controles. Em C7, os valores de MD foram maiores na EM. Conclusão A MEAN na coluna direita da medula cervical mostrou valores alterados de FA, RD e MD, possivelmente relacionados à desmielinização, uma vez que a alteração de FA está relacionada à DR e não à DA. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(1): 144-148, jan.-fev. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-666126

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os potenciais efeitos neurotóxicos em nível ultraestrutural desulfato de magnésio administrado por via intratecal em dose única ou múltipla. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado com 24 ratos Sprague-Dawley, peso médio entre 250 e 300 g. Apósjejum de 4 horas, os ratos receberam 10 mg.kg-1 de cloreto de xilazina por via intraperitoneale, em seguida, foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. Grupo I (n = 8) recebeu 0,9% desoro fisiológico normal, Grupo II (n = 8) recebeu uma injeção de 0,02 mL de sulfato de magnésioa 15% por via intratecal e Grupo III (n = 8) recebeu 0,02 mL de sulfato de magnésio a 15% umavez por dia durante sete dias. As injeções foram aplicadas dentro de 0,40x50 milímetros daárea lombar. Após sete dias, os animais foram sacrificados sob anestesia com uma injeção deformaldeído a 10% na aorta e os tecidos foram fixados. A medula espinal foi, então, examinadae histopatologicamente avaliada sob microscópio eletrônico. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi usadopara avaliação estatística. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. RESULTADOS: Neurodegeneração significativa foi detectada nos ratos que receberam uma únicainjeção ou injeções repetidas de sulfato de magnésio, em comparação com o grupo controle. O escore na avaliação histopatológica desse grupo também foi alto. CONCLUSÃO: Com base no exame de microscopia eletrônica, descobrimos que a administraçãointratecal de sulfato de magnésio induziu neurodegeneração.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential neurotoxic effects at the ultrastructural level of magnesium sulfate administered intrathecally as a single or multi-dose. METHODS: Our study was conducted with 24 Sprague-Dawley rats that weighed 250-300 g. After a 4-hour fast, the rats were given 10 mg.kg-1 xylazine chloride intraperitoneal and then randomly allocated into three groups. Group I (n = 8) received 0.9% normal saline, Group II (n = 8) was given one intrathecal injection of 0.02 mL of 15% magnesium sulphate, and Group III (n = 8) was given 0.02 mL of 15% magnesium sulphate once a day for seven days. The injections were given within 0.40x50 mm from the lumbar area. After seven days, the animals were sacrificed under anesthesia with an aortic injection of 10% formaldehyde and their tissues were fixed. The medulla spinalis was then examined and histopathologically evaluated under an electron microscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical evaluation. A value of p < .05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Significant neurodegeneration was detected in rats given single or repeated magnesium sulphate injections compared to the control group. The histopathological evaluation score of this group was also high. CONCLUSIONS: Based on electron microscopic examination, we found that intrathecal magnesium sulphate administration induced neurodegeneration.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Evaluar los potenciales efectos neurotóxicos en nivel ultraestructural de sulfuro de magnesio administrado por vía intratecal en dosis única o múltiple. MÉTODOS: Estudio realizado con 24 ratones Spraque-Dawley, con un peso promedio entre los 250 y los 300 g. Después del ayuno de 4 horas, los ratones recibieron 10 mg.kg-1 de cloruro de xilazina por vía intraperitoneal y enseguida fueron divididos aleatoriamente en tres grupos. El grupo I (n = 8) recibió 0,9% de suero fisiológico normal, Grupo II (n = 8) recibió una inyección de 0,02 mL de sulfuro de magnesio al 15% por vía intratecal y Grupo III (n = 8) recibió 0,02 mL de sulfuro de magnesio al 15% una vez por día durante siete días. Las inyecciones fueron aplicadas dentro de 0,40x50 milímetros del área lumbar. Después de siete días, los animales fueron sacrificados con anestesia con una inyección de formaldehido al 10% en la aorta y los tejidos fueron pegados. La médula espinal se examinó y fue histopatológicamente evaluada bajo microscopio electrónico. El test de Kruskal-Wallis fue usado para la evaluación estadística. Un valor de p < 0,05 fue considerado estadísticamente significativo. RESULTADOS: La neurodegeneración significativa fue detectada en los ratones que recibieron una sola inyección o inyecciones repetidas de sulfuro de magnesio, en comparación con el grupo control. El puntaje en la evaluación histopatológica de ese grupo también fue alto. CONCLUSIONES: Basándonos en el examen de microscopía electrónica, descubrimos que la administración intratecal de sulfuro de magnesio indujo a la neurodegeneración.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Anesthetics/adverse effects , Magnesium Sulfate/adverse effects , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord/ultrastructure , Anesthetics/administration & dosage , Injections, Spinal , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Coluna/Columna ; 12(1): 64-69, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673294

ABSTRACT

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance technique capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of water molecule diffusion in various tissues. The use of DTI is being expanded to evaluate a variety of spinal cord disorders both for prognostication and to guide therapy. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on spinal cord DTI in both animal models and humans in different neurosurgical conditions. DTI of the spinal cord shows promise in traumatic spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and intramedullary tumors. However, scanning protocols and image processing need to be refined and standardized.


O exame por imagem de ressonância magnética utilizando a técnica de tensores de difusão (DTI, Diffusion tensor imaging) consegue medir a magnitude e direção da difusão de moléculas de água em vários tecidos. A DTI está começando a ser usada para avaliar uma série de patologias da medula espinal, tanto para prognósticos como para orientar o tratamento. O presente artigo revisa a literatura sobre DTI da medula espinhal, em modelos animais e humanos, em diferentes condições neurocirúrgicas. A DTI da medula espinal é promissora para lesões traumáticas da medula, mielopatia espondilótica cervical e tumores intramedulares. Contudo, os protocolos de escaneamento e processamento de imagens precisam ser refinados e padronizados.


La técnica de imagen por difusión tensora (DTI, Diffusion tensor imaging) es una técnica de resonancia magnética que mide la magnitud y dirección de la difusión de moléculas de agua en varios tejidos. El uso de DTI se ha expandido para evaluar una variedad de disturbios de la columna vertebral tanto para pronóstico como para orientación de la terapia. La finalidad de este artículo es revisar la literatura sobre DTI de la médula espinal tanto en modelos animales como en humanos en diferentes condiciones neuroquirúrgicas. La DTI de la médula espinal se muestra promisora en las lesiones traumáticas de la médula, en la mielopatía espondilótica cervical y en los tumores intramedulares. Sin embargo, los protocolos de barrido y el procesamiento de imágenes necesitan ser refinados y estandarizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Spinal Cord/pathology , Diagnostic Imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging
18.
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2013; 36 (2): 292-299
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170243

ABSTRACT

Axonal damage is responsible for the increasing disability seen in patients afflicted with multiple sclerosis [MS]. An animal model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis may help to develop better therapeutic and neuroprotective strategies. The aim of the study was to investigate the histological patterns of axonal injury and the mechanism of demyelination in autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the cerebral cortex and spinal cord of adult albino rabbits. Twenty male adult albino rabbits were divided into two groups: the control group - group I [10 animals] - and the experimental group - group II [10 animals]. Autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced by the injection of 0.3 ml/kg of 0.01% ethidium bromide solution. The animals were sacrificed and their cerebral cortex and spinal cord were processed for light microscopic examination, whereas electron microscopy was used to study the lumbar segment of spinal cord. Light microscopic examination of the cerebral cortex and spinal cord showed some cellular infiltration, together with degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells. Electron microscopic examination of the white matter of the spinal cord showed areas of destruction of nerve fibers, together with defective myelination. The extent of motor neuron inflammation and demyelination, axonal damage, and white matter pathology are reflective of the severity of experimental MS. Our results delineate the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model as a valuable tool for MS research


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Spinal Cord/pathology , Histology , Rabbits
20.
Clinics ; 67(7): 799-804, July 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, experimental study with rats aimed to investigate the influence of general treatment strategies on the motor recovery of Wistar rats with moderate contusive spinal cord injury. METHODS: A total of 51 Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: control, maze, ramp, runway, and sham (laminectomy only). The rats underwent spinal cord injury at the T9-T10 levels using the NYU-Impactor. Each group was trained for 12 minutes twice a week for two weeks before and five weeks after the spinal cord injury, except for the control group. Functional motor recovery was assessed with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan Scale on the first postoperative day and then once a week for five weeks. The animals were euthanized, and the spinal cords were collected for histological analysis. RESULTS: Ramp and maze groups showed an earlier and greater functional improvement effect than the control and runway groups. However, over time, unexpectedly, all of the groups showed similar effects as the control group, with spontaneous recovery. There were no histological differences in the injured area between the trained and control groups. CONCLUSION: Short-term benefits can be associated with a specific training regime; however, the same training was ineffective at maintaining superior long-term recovery. These results might support new considerations before hospital discharge of patients with spinal cord injuries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Recovery of Function , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Spinal Cord/pathology , Contusions/pathology , Contusions/rehabilitation , Disease Models, Animal , Motor Activity , Prospective Studies , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord Injuries/pathology , Thoracic Vertebrae
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